Publications

Found 5242 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Asc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is K  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J [K] L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
K
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Maize yield reduction due to erosion in a high potential area of Central Kenya highlands. African Crop Sc. Journal, Vol. 6. No. 1, pp 29-37.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Kabira, J.N. and Imungi, J.K. 1991. Possibility of incorporating potato flour into three traditional Kenya foods. African Study Monographs 12:211.". In: Presented at the Seminar of Post harvest Management of Food Crops. Nairobi, 29 - 30 January 1992. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1991. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRKARUUSIMONP. "Detrimental effects of Chloride, Fluoride, Sulphate and Phosphate ions in contact with concrete made with ordinary Portland cement". International Journal of Biochemiphysics.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2004. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "John B. Githiori and Peter K Gathumbi (2010 ) Ethnoveterinary plants used in East Africa, In: Ethnobotanical Medicines of Animals Health Taylor & Francis Group LLC Boca Raton, USA (In Press).". In: J Ethnopharmacol. 128: 424-432. University of nairobi; 2010. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1988. Possibility of extraction of Leaf Protein Concentrate from Kale Leaves.Presented at the First Symposium of the National Council of Zimbabwe, Harare, and 3 - 7 January 1988.". In: Presented at the First Symposium of the National Council of Zimbabwe, Harare, and 3 - 7 January 1988. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1988. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Gathumbi, J.K. and Bebora, L.C. (2000). The occurrence of aflatoxin in poultry tissues collected in Nairobi, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 48: 61-62.". In: A paper presented at the 2nd Kenya Livestock Technicians Association Scientific Conference held in KARI on 10-12th September, 2002. University of nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kariuki J.N., C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga, G.K. Gitau, J. Van Bruchen and J.M.K. Muia. 1999. Effect of supplementing napier grass with desmodium and lucerne on DM, CP and NDF intake and weight gains of growing heifers. Livestock Production Science. 60:81-8.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "HIV/AIDS Orphanhood A situational Analysis of its impact on HIV/AIDS Orphaned Children and their caregivers in Kisumu, Kenya B.A. (Hons) Sociology dissertation.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Integrated pest management options to improve maize forage yield and quality for small-scale dairy farmers in Central Kenya. Aspects of Applied Biology 70, 2003. Crop Quality: Its role in sustainable livestock production. U.K.". In: Paper presented in the the British Crop Protection Council international congress held on 10 to 12th November at Glasgow, Scotland, Pp. 993-998. UK. ISBN 1 901396 63 0. University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri, C.K., E.J. DePeters and R.A. Zinn. 1992. Effects of feeding supplemental fat (yellow grease) to lactating cows on milk composition and diet digestibility. J. Dairy Sci. 75:171.". In: Technical report presented at the 3rd Biannual SRNET conference, 5th-9th Dec 1994, Kampala, Uganda. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1992. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Okumu, A. M. Das, P. K. and Nganga, J. K., 1987: Some aspects of Somali current. @pp. 22- 126.". In: Some aspects of Somali current. @pp. 22- 126. SMA; 1987. Abstract
n/a
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kidula NA, Kamau RK, Ojwang SBO, et al. A survey of knowledge, attitude and practice of induced abortion among nurses in Kisii District, Kenya. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 10-12.". In: J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 10-12. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Cecilia M. Onyango1 and Jasper K. Imungi. 2008. Post harvest handling and characteristics of fresh-cut traditional vegetables sold in Nairobi .". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2008. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "M. J. Njenga, J. K. Wabacha, D. Lamba P. K. Gathuru. An analysis of community health risk to zoonoses in a slum setting in Nairobi.". In: Presented in International workshop on improving the well-being of resource poor communities-the contribution of small livestock. Everglades Hotel, Howick, South Africa 12-15 September 2005. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2005. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID, MUTHURE PROFMACHARIAISAAC, PETER DRMUGWE. "Macfadyen C, Gamble C, Garner P, Macharia I, Mackenzie I, Mugwe P, Oburra H, Otwombe K, Taylor S, Williamson P.Topical quinolone vs. antiseptic for treating chronic suppurative otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Feb;10(2.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Feb;10(2):190-7. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare a topical quinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) with a cheaper topical antiseptic (boric acid) for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 children with chronic suppurative otitis media enrolled from 141 schools following screening of 39 841 schoolchildren in Kenya. Intervention Topical ciprofloxacin (n = 216) or boric acid in alcohol (n = 211); child-to-child treatment twice daily for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution of discharge (at 2 weeks for primary outcome), healing of the tympanic membrane, and change in hearing threshold from baseline, all at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: At 2 weeks, discharge was resolved in 123 of 207 (59%) children given ciprofloxacin, and in 65 of 204 (32%) given boric acid (relative risk 1.86; 95% CI 1.48-2.35; P < 0.0001). This effect was also significant at 4 weeks, and ciprofloxacin was associated with better hearing at both visits. No difference with respect to tympanic membrane healing was detected. There were significantly fewer adverse events of ear pain, irritation, and bleeding on mopping with ciprofloxacin than boric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin performed better than boric acid and alcohol for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children in Kenya.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Ngatia, E. M., Nyanga, P. M., Imungi, J. K., Muita, J. W. and Ogard, B. 2001b. Association between breast/bottle feeding and sucking habits among 3-5 year olds in Nairobi. AJOHS 2(2): 44.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C.M. Mulei, T.A. Ngatia and J.K. Wabacha (2001). Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological findings of Oedema disease of Swine in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 22: 79-81.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2001. Abstract
A study was conducted in fourty randomly selected herds in a peri-urban area in the Central Kenyan highlands to obtain prevalence estimates of sarcoptic mange in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. A total of 476 pigs of various age-group categories were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was based on physical examination for clinical signs indicative of mange infestation and on direct detection of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Ninety per cent of the herds had clinical signs suggestive of sarcoptic mange and in 70% of the herds Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was positively identified. The results also indicated that 273 (57.3%) of the 476 pigs had clinical signs indicative of sarcoptic mange and 90 (18.9%) of the 476 pigs were positive for Sarcoptes scabiei var suis. The hypersensitive form of mange was more common than the chronic form. The direct examination technique to detect Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was more effective in weaners than in the other age categories of pigs. The results indicate that sarcoptic mange is a common problem in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "2003 Grain Maize Yield Improvement using Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia Biomass at Maseno, Kenya. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, Vol. 2: 1-11.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK, Rogo KO. Chronic ectopic pregnancy with perforation of posterior fornix: Case report. East Afr Med J 1988; 65: 57-9.". In: East Afr Med J 1988; 65: 57-9. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK, Njoroge DK, Munenge RW.Interaction between nifedipine and digoxin in rats. East Afr Med J. 1995 Jan;72(1):75-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Jan;72(1):75-6. African Crop Science Society; 1995. Abstract
Possible nifedipine-digoxin interaction was investigated in rats by comparing lethal doses of intravenously infused digoxin in control and experimental rats. In the experimental rats, nifedipine was administered intraperitoneally, 30 minutes prior to infusing digoxin at a constant rate of 40mcg per minute. Results indicate that nifedipine administered within the dosage range 0.5-2.0mg per kg rat body weight, lowered the lethal dose of intravenously infused digoxin by 26-38% compared with control rats, thus indicating a synergistic effect between the two drugs. There was very little dose dependence of this effect. It is concluded that concomitant administration of nifedipine and digoxin in humans may lead to drug interactions.
K AH, Dehayem-kamadjeu A, R. L. Wabwile, J. Okonda, Irungu. JG. Chemometrics and Machine Learning Assisted Spectral Diagnostics of Cancer.. Trieste (ICTP), Italy, 16-19 September 2013. ; 2013.poster_triestre_bon1.pptx
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, L.C. Bebora, C.O. Bwanga, Z.M. Wamuri and P.M.F. Mbithi. Occurence of dermatomycosis (ringworm) due to Trichophyton Verrucosum in dairy calves and its spread to animal attendants.". In: Kenya Veterinary Assciation Annual Scientific Conference, 22nd - 24th April, 1998), Embu, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1998. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Mati, J.K.G. and Kahuho, S.K.: .". In: J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1974 Jan;81(1):57-60. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1974. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "The effect of grass strips on terrace development and crop yield. Special Issue of E.A.A.F. Journal, Vol. 65 No. 1, 79 .". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1993. Storage and ripening of Kenyan mangoes. In: Post harvest Handling of Tropical Fruits. Eds. Champ BIR. Highley E. and Johnson, G.I. ACIAR Proceedings No. 50. Pp. ISBN 186320 1017.". In: Post harvest Handling of Tropical Fruits. Eds. Champ BIR. Highley E. and Johnson, G.I. ACIAR Proceedings No. 50. Pp. ISBN 186320 1017. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Flower abscission in three Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars under irrigation gradient.". In: Proceedings of the 1st conference of the Crop Science Society of Kenya. Vol. 1:62- 77. Taylor & Francis; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK.Bioavailability of drugs. East Afr Med J. 1982 Aug;59(8):503-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Aug;59(8):503-4. African Crop Science Society; 1982. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Otieno CF, Vaghela V, Mwendwa FW, Kayima JK, Ogola EN.Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Kenya: levels of control attained at the Outpatient Diabetic Clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005.". In: Cardiovasc J. Afr. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of specific cardiovascular risk factors in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes and the levels of control achieved in them. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study over a six month period. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and eleven patients with type 2 diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic attributes, duration of diabetes, levels of glycaemia, body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and modes of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients were enrolled, 57.3% were females. The mean (SD) age for women was 54.45 (9.44) and that of men was 55.8 (9.02) years. About 77% of the study population were on oral glucose-lowering agents with or without insulin but less than 30% achieved HbA1c < 7%; 15% were active cigarette smokers; about 50% were hypertensive with female predominance but 65% of them did not achieve desired blood pressure level inspite of treatment. Just over 50% had raised LDL-cholesterol and over 75% had raised total cholesterol but only three men were on statins without achieving desired targets. Body mass index above 30 kg/m2 as a measure obesity was found in 32% of females and 16% males. Most of the study patients admitted use of Aspirin at certain times in the course of their diabetes. CONCLUSION: The study showed that specific cardiovascular risk factors of hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity were prevalent although not adequately controlled to targets. Statin use was extremely low in people who already needed them. Regular Aspirin use was infrequent because many patients did not quite understand its role in their diabetes treatment. It is recommended that a more pro-active approach in multifactorial address of cardiovascular risk factors be used in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes to forestall future cardiovascular events.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Properties, management and classification of vertisols in Kenya. In: FAO World Soil Resources Report No. 56 FAO, Rome, 22-30.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1986. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Gathumbi J.K. (2002). Immunological determination of mycotoxins in animal feeds: principles and application.". In: A paper presented at the 2nd Kenya Livestock Technicians Association Scientific Conference held in KARI on 10-12th September, 2002. University of nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Kayima J.K. Strategies aimed at retarding the progression of renal failure. Medicus, 12:306-309, 1993.". In: Medicus, 12:306-309, 1993. East African Medical Journal.71(4): 253-5; 1994.; 1993. Abstract
Interest in renal disease and practice in East Africa started as far back as the first quarter of this century. Work in this colonial era concentrated on establishing the existence of renal diseases and identifying the nature and incidence of these diseases. This was achieved by case identification and reporting as well as retrospective studies on post mortem and medical notes. The post independence period has not only identified the existence of even more renal diseases but also concentrated on getting a deeper understanding of the aetiology, nature, pattern, regional variations, complications and outcome of these diseases as seen in our environment. Apart from the better understanding of the prevalent renal diseases, emphasis has also been put on the expansion and delivery of renal services. Investigative and treatment facilities have been improved and a lot has been put into the training of the required local team of experts to man these services. This article reviews what has gone on in the last 70 years from the pure case-report and postmortem reports era to the era of locally available modern facilities including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation.
K DRGITAUSAMSON. "Christian Environmentalism in Kenya in Bron R.Taylor(Ed.),The Encyclopeadia of Religion and Nature(BRISTOL,Thoemmes Continnum).". In: Ph.D Colloquium) Proceedings of the 1st Annual (International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 244-256. 2003; 2005. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kariuki J.N., G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga, K.R.G. Irungu and J.M.K. Muia. 1999. Effect of maturity on the mineral composition of napier grass. Trop. Sci. 39:56- 61.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFNGANGAJOHN, FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Simulation of the influence of surface heterogeneity on air flow and convection over Nairobi area: Implication on airquality in the city.". In: Journal of the African Meteorological Society, Vol. 6 No.1 pp. 25-35. SMA; 2005.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI. "Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertiliser on growth and yield of ironweed (Vernonia galamesis) East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 69:109-118.". In: Proceedings of 19th Soil Science Society of East AfricaConference,2-7 2001, Moshi, Tanzania. Pp 1-13. University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Okeyo, A.M., B.A.O. Inyangala, N.E. Maingi, S.M. Githigia, S.J.M. Munyua, M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri, R.N. Kinuthia, M. Okomo and K. Osolo. 1994. Genetic studies of Galla and Small East African goats and their correlated growth and reproduction performa.". In: Technical report presented at the 3rd Biannual SRNET conference, 5th-9th Dec 1994, Kampala, Uganda. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1994. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "Cash management, communication and conflict resolution.". In: (IFRA) Nairobi. uon press; 1994. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
K MRSMARIKAMOGIKOYONANCY-, PROF. OCHANDA HORACE. "Impact of ICT on education.". In: International Journal of BioChemPhysics. Elsevier; 2012. Abstract
test
K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Nganga, J.K., 1990: Air pollution problem in African cities. African Urban Quarterly. Vol 5: No. 1, pp. 30-33.". In: African Urban Quarterly. Vol 5: No. 1, pp. 30-33. SMA; 1990. Abstract
n/a
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kaihura DM, Koigi-Kamau R, Ndavi PM. A survey of knowledge, attitude and use of emergency contraception among undergraduate female students in two Kenyan universities. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1999; 15: 36-44.". In: East Cent Afr 1999; 15: 36-44. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, N.P. Gitonga, M.J. Njenga, A.G.Thaiyah and C.M. Mulei (2006). An outbreak of acute bovine dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 54:144-147.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 6th . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2006. Abstract
This case report describes an outbreak of acute dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd and highlights that the disease in Kenya could occur in outbreak proportions and in clinically severe form as has been reported in other countries in West and central Africa.We believe that this is the 1st documented outbreak of a severe form of bovine cutaneous dermatophilosis in exotic dairy animals in Kenya.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Dietary patterns and dental carries in nursery school children in Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "Wabacha J.K., J.M. Maribei, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K.H. Zessin and W.Oluoch-Kosura. Piglet morbidity and mortality in smallholder herds in a peri-urban area in Kenya.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2002. Abstract
A study was conducted in fourty randomly selected herds in a peri-urban area in the Central Kenyan highlands to obtain prevalence estimates of sarcoptic mange in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. A total of 476 pigs of various age-group categories were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was based on physical examination for clinical signs indicative of mange infestation and on direct detection of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Ninety per cent of the herds had clinical signs suggestive of sarcoptic mange and in 70% of the herds Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was positively identified. The results also indicated that 273 (57.3%) of the 476 pigs had clinical signs indicative of sarcoptic mange and 90 (18.9%) of the 476 pigs were positive for Sarcoptes scabiei var suis. The hypersensitive form of mange was more common than the chronic form. The direct examination technique to detect Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was more effective in weaners than in the other age categories of pigs. The results indicate that sarcoptic mange is a common problem in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Negussie Adefus and Musuva, J.K. "Thermal Shock Resistance of some Ceramic Materials for Domestic Stove Linings" - Proceedings of 5th Disciplinary Area Seminar, Mechanical/Production Engineers Sub-Network for ANSTI, Harare, Zimbabwe February, 1987.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1987. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
K MJ, E.N.M N, Lerna KN. Effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on Mammalian host glucose metabolism. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.munyua_files_2.png
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Effects of soil management practices and tillage systems on surface soil water conservation on a sandy loam in semi-arid Kenya. Soil & Tillage Research 75, 173-184.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK, Karanja JG, Kigondu CS, et al. Barriers to contraceptive use in two areas of Kenya: rural and urban. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi and Family Health International, USA, 1993.". In: Health International, USA, 1993. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.M. Maribei, J.K. Wabacha, E.M. Njoroge (1999). Streptococcal meningitis in a five months old lamb. Journal of South African Veterinary Association 70 (1): 2.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennnial Scientific Conference 30th -1st September 2000. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1999. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Kahuho, S.K. .". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Jul;57(7):490-4. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1980. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Academia .". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vo. 19 No. 2 pp 30-34. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Soil moisture extraction by different cover crops. In (eds J.G. Mureithi, C.W. Mwendia, F.N. Muyeko, M.A. Onyango and S.N. Maobe) Participatory Technology Development for Soil Management by Smallholders in Kenya. Special Publication of Soil Management and.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2000. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Onyango, C.A., Keya, E.L. and Imungi, J.K. 1993. Aspects of cassava-cereal composite flour quality and appropriate use in some Kenyan food products. Discovery and Innovation 15:241.". In: Proc. 5th Symp. ISTRCAB. pp 332-335. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of Mucuna Planting Density and Time on Water and Light Use in Maize .". In: African Crop Science Proceedings 6: 536-540. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
K OE, V.O M, A A’oD, A O. "Assessment of the Level of Organochlorine Pesticides Contamination in Kales, Water and Soil from Naivasha, Kenya. ." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology . 2017;3(5):205-213.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai C.K. Ogeto J and Juma F. A compasative study of 7 brands of Frusemide Product E.A. Med. J. Vol 61, 1984.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol 61, 1984. African Crop Science Society; 1984. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Maritim M. C., Joshi M. D., Kayima J. K., Amayo A. and Jowi J. O. Prevalence of Peripheral arterial disease among chronic kidney disease patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. (Abstract) Cardiovasc J. Afr (Abstract) 2007; 18 (2): 112.". In: Cardiovasc J. Afr. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the status of environmental and occupational lead exposure in selected areas in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Kariobangi North, Babadogo, Waithaka and Pumwani for assessment of environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and Ziwani Jua Kali works for assessment of occupational lead exposure. Olkalou in Nyandarua District was the covariate study area. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and eight children and adults participated. RESULTS: Blood lead levels (BLLs) obtained for the entire sample (n = 308) ranged from 0.4 to 65 microg/dl of blood. One hundred and sixty nine (55%) of the total sample had levels equal to or below 4.9 microg/dl, while 62 (20%) of the sample had levels ranging from 5.0 to 9.9 microg/dl. Blood lead levels above 10 microg/dl were recorded in 77 (25%) of the total sample. Within Nairobi, 32 (15.3%) of the study subjects in areas meant for assessment of environmental lead exposure had levels above the WHO/CDC action levels of 10 microg/dl of blood. The mean BLL for the occupationally exposed (Ziwani Jua kali) was 22.6 +/- 13.4 microg/dl. Among the workers, 89% had BLLs above 10 microg/dl. In general, 15% of the entire sample (for both environmental and occupational groups) in Nairobi had BLLs above 15 microg/dl. The covariate group at Olkalou had a mean BLL of 1.3 +/- 0.9 microg/dl. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of environmental lead exposure to the general public is high in Nairobi compared to Olkalou where non exposure was reported. Occupational lead exposure has been identified to be at alarming levels and urgent intervention measures are recommended.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1989. Contribution of indigenous vegetables to nutrition in Kenya. Presented at the KENGO Symposium on Green Vegetation, Nairobi 20 - 23 September 1989.". In: Presented at the KENGO Symposium on Green Vegetation, Nairobi 20 - 23 September 1989. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1989. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Salah, A.M., Gathumbi, J., Vierling W. and Wagner, H. (2002). Estrogenic and cholinergic properties of methanol extract of Ruellia praetermissa Sceinf.ex.Lindau (Acanthaceae) in female rats. Phytomedicine 9: 52-55.". In: 6th Biennial Conference of the African Crop Science Society held in on October 12-17th, 2003. University of nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Mcligeyo SO, Kayima JK, Oliech JS, Monda SM.Chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in a patient with end-stage renal disease following radiotherapy and surgery for transitional cell carcinoma. Nephron. 1996;74(2):495-6. No abstract available.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences V ol. 3(3):84-90, 1996. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1996. Abstract
Renal transplantation is not readily available in the majority of countries in Africa. It is expensive and difficult to sustain on the meagre funds allocated to health. We report our short experience with fifteen living donor recipients followed in our unit for at least 24 months, range 26 - 48 (mean 35 months) post-transplantation. The donors and recipients were mostly young adults with mean ages of 36.7 years and 32.6 years respectively. The majority of the donors and recipients were males. The donors in most cases were siblings. Within this time, one graft has been lost at one year and the patient restarted on haemodialysis. Three patients died, two within the first year, the third at 23 months after transplantation, all with functioning grafts. The one year graft and patient survival rates were 93% and 86.6% respectively. The second year graft survival rates remained at 93% and the patients survival rate 80%. The nature and frequency of complications seen in these patients is comparable to those in other centres. Of all medical complications, bacterial infections contributed 69.4% of all infections. Cardiovascular complications comprised 31.25% of the complications. Hypertension seen in 85.5% of the patients accounted for 65% of the cardiovascular complications. Acute rejections were common and occurred in seven patients. Transplantation is a viable mode of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in our environment. The practice should be supported to make it more readily available to the many young end stage renal failure (ESRF) patients.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Gachuiri, C.K. and R.G. Wahome. 2001. Total mixed rations versus traditional feeding in dairy. Which way to go? The Kenya Veterinarian 21:12-15.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2001. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Response of green grams (Vigna radiata) to fertilizer nitrogen application. In: JJT Msaky, GP Musumali and FBR Rwehubiza. Soil Science Research and Technologies: Foundations for sustainable food security.". In: Proceedings of 19th Soil Science Society of East AfricaConference,2-7 2001, Moshi, Tanzania. Pp 1-13. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Mbuthia E.M., C.K. Gachuiri, F. Klobasa and A.A. Abate. 1997. Effect of treatment with formaldehyde and formic acid on immunoglobulin content of stored bovine colostrum. Anim. Feed Sci Tech. 67:4 291-298.". In: Proceedings, 6th KARI Scientific conference, November, 1998. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "The political career of electoral process in Kenya: From the colonial period to the present: A framework for analysis, IED.". In: A framework for analysis, IED 1996. uon press; 1996. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
K, wa Gachigi. "• Effects of Farm Pesticides on water quality in Lake Naivasha, Kenya." American Journal of Plant Physiology. 2013;8 ( 1557-4539):105-113.kaoga_e_tal_water.pdf
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Koigi-Kamau R, Letting PK, Kiarie JN. Perceptions and practices of vaginal delivery after cesarean among privately practicing obstetricians in Kenya. East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46.". In: East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, J.M. Maribei, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K. H. Zessin, W. OLuoch-Kosura (2006). Evaluation of alternative health interventions against sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal nematodes in smallholder pig herds in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Af.". In: Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2006. Abstract
A study to evaluate alternative health interventions for the control of sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal nematodes in smallholder pig herds was carried out in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya. A total of 40 herds were randomly allocated, by a simple random strategy, to 3 treatment groups and 1 control group. Each group comprised of 10 herds. Herds in group 1 (control) were treated with a placebo, physiological saline. In group 2, control of nematodes and mange was attempted through the use of ivermectin, while in group 3, nematodes and mange were treated through the use of an anthelmintic (piperazine hydrochloride) and an acaricide (amitraz), respectively. In group 4, nematodes and mange were treated by using an anthelmintic (levamisole hydrochloride) and an acaricide (amitraz), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of ivermectin was not different (p>0.05) from that of levamisole. The proportion of pigs positive for mites was not different (p>0.05) between the ivermectin and the amitraz treatment groups. The overall costs for the treatments were US$0.50 for the ivermectin treatment, US$0.31 for the piperazine/amitraz combination treatment and US$0.26 for the levamisole/amitraz combination treatment. Amitraz/levamisole drug combination was the most cost-effective against sarcoptic mange and gastro-intestinal nematodes of pigs in the studied smallholder herds.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kamau RK. Birth Interval and Family Planning. Manual of Clinical Family Planning Practice, Ch. 14, pp 155-66. Kenya Medical Association, 1988.". In: Manual of Clinical Family Planning Practice, Ch. 14, pp 155-66. Kenya Medical Association, 1988. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Kihurani, A. W. , S. Shibairo, J. K. Imungi, R. D. Narla, and E.E. Cartey, 2003. Susceptability of sweet potato germplasm to Rhizopus soft rot caused by Rhizopus Stolonifer and Rhizopus Oryzae in Kenya. MUARIK Bulletin 6: 30 .". In: MUARIK Bulletin 6: 30 . Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2003. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "S.J.M. Munyua and J.K. Wabacha. Community based animal Health in Kenya: Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2003. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Musuva, J.K." Present and Future Railways Transport in Africa; The Example of Kenya Railways", Presented to the International Symposium on Transport and Communications in Africa, Brussels, Belgium held on 27th - 29th November, 1991, Published by Royal Aca.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1991. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID, K DRKARIUKIDAVID. "Synergistic Effects of Alpha-cypermethrin and Dimethoate against Insect Pests.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ISSN 1026-552X. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare a topical quinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) with a cheaper topical antiseptic (boric acid) for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 children with chronic suppurative otitis media enrolled from 141 schools following screening of 39 841 schoolchildren in Kenya. Intervention Topical ciprofloxacin (n = 216) or boric acid in alcohol (n = 211); child-to-child treatment twice daily for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution of discharge (at 2 weeks for primary outcome), healing of the tympanic membrane, and change in hearing threshold from baseline, all at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: At 2 weeks, discharge was resolved in 123 of 207 (59%) children given ciprofloxacin, and in 65 of 204 (32%) given boric acid (relative risk 1.86; 95% CI 1.48-2.35; P < 0.0001). This effect was also significant at 4 weeks, and ciprofloxacin was associated with better hearing at both visits. No difference with respect to tympanic membrane healing was detected. There were significantly fewer adverse events of ear pain, irritation, and bleeding on mopping with ciprofloxacin than boric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin performed better than boric acid and alcohol for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children in Kenya.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Participatory evaluation of residue management effects of green manure legumes on maize yield in the central Kenya highlands. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Vol. 25(4), 49-68.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Muroki, N.M., Maritim, G.K., Karuri, E.G., Tolong, H.K., Imungi, J.K., Kogi- Makau, W., Mamman, S., Carter, E. and Maretzki, A.N. 1997. Women in the development of nutritionally improved weaning foods. A Nutribusiness strategy. J. Nutrition Education 29: .". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1997. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kidula NA, Kamau RK, Ojwang SBO, et al. A survey of knowledge, attitude and practice of induced abortion among nurses in Kisii District, Kenya. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 10-12.". In: J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 10-12. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, J.M. Maribei and P.M.F. Mbithi. An outbreak of Atrophic rhinitis in a medium scale pig farm in Kiambu.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 26th - 28th April, 2000), Mombasa, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Dissociation of the Urinary Excretion of N-acetylglucosaminidase (AG) and B2 .". In: M.Journal of applied Toxicology Vol. 1 No. 4 1981, 44-45. University of Nairobi Press; 1981. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Gachene, C.K.K., J.P. Mbuvi, H, Linner and N, Jarvis, 2000. Crop response to soil water content under fertilized and non-fertilized conditions. Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) ISBN No. 9966-879-27-7, p 161-169.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2000. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Mathooko, F.M. and Imungi, J.K. 1994. Ascorbic acid changes in indigenous Kenyan leafy vegetables during traditional cooking. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 32: 239.". In: 2nd International Crop Science Congress, November 17 - 24, New Delhi, India. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1994. Abstract

The ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contents in three fresh green leafy vegetables commonly consumed in Kenya namely, Amaranthus hybridus, Gynandropsis gynandra and Solanum nigrum L. and the changes during traditional cooking were measured. In the fresh leaves, the ascorbic acid varied from 123.8 mg/100 g fresh weight in A. hybridus to 189.2 mg/100 g fresh weight in G. gynandra. Cooking for 20 min in boiling water led to losses of between 75 and 89%. Smaller losses in ascorbic acid were observed when the leafy vegetables were cooked in two and four volumes of water. The loss in ascorbic acid as a function of cooking time was highest in S. nigrum while its loss as a function of volume of cooking water was highest in A. hybridus. Using loss in ascorbic acid as an index, it is proposed that controlling the time and amount of water used in cooking without sacrificing palatability could help, at least in part, in preventing loss in other essential nutrients during traditional cooking of the vegetables.

K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Weed management options for resource poor maize-dairy farmers in central Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the the British Crop Protection Council international congress held on 10 to 12th November at Glasgow, Scotland, Pp. 993-998. UK. ISBN 1 901396 63 0. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai C.K. Tropical Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Kenya P. 63 .". In: Proc. symposium commonwealth science council, Harare, Zimbabwe, June 3 . African Crop Science Society; 1985. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Properties, management and classification of vertisols in Kenya. In: FAO World Soil Resources Report No. 56 FAO, Rome, 22-30.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1996. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. and Wabule, M.N. 1990. Some chemical characteristics and availability of vitamin A and vitamin C from Kenyan varieties of papayas. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 24:115.". In: KARI/CIP Technical Workshop, Nairobi, 5th - 7th September 1990. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1990. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K DRKARUUSIMONP. "Ph.D. Thesis: "The Study of the effects of some Kenyan soils on the corrosion.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2000. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Evaluation and mapping of soil erosion susceptibility: an example from Kenya. Soil Use and Management Vol. II, 1-4.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1995. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K'AKUMU OA. "Reforming the statistical system of Kenya: policy implications for the development of building construction statistics.". In: Habitat International, 33(1):120-124. Elsevier; 2009. Abstract

Kenya is in the process of reforming its national statistical system that has been catering to the various sectors of the economy including the building construction sub-sector. This paper evaluates opportunities that the reforms may bring for the improvement of building construction statistics. It starts by a conceptual review of the pertinent issues that generally constitute a challenge to statistical frameworks for construction. These issues are to do with:scope and coverage, institutional governance, comprehensive information system and the informal sector. The reforms to the statistical system in Kenya through the enactment of a new Statistics Act are then considered against their potential for tackling the pertinent issues in building construction statistics as listed above. The paper concludes that the reforms augur well for the improvement of building construction statistics in Kenya but more need to be done to translate the legislative provisions into actionable policy framework. Keywords: Building construction statistics; Statistical system reform; Statistics policy; Kenya

K'AKUMU OA. "Construction statistics review for Kenya.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Construction is a strategic industry in developing economies like Kenya. In order for construction to ably perform this role, there is a need to provide information on its various economic aspects including raw materials, products, processes, finance and labour. Construction statistics of Kenya have been evaluated in order to ascertain their adequacy in terms of scope, portrait, reliability and responsiveness in their coverage of the construction industry. Official statistics published in the annual Statistical Abstract were reviewed according to these adequacy criteria. The findings are that: the scope of construction statistics is narrowly defined making the statistical portrait of the sector incomplete; the statistics are also unreliable in terms of quality and unresponsive to economical challenges of inflation, structural adjustment policies and the decline of the public sector's role in the construction industry. A participatory statistical governance framework is recommended in order to improve the scope of statistics and alleviate the attendant problems, such as the incomplete portrait, that come with the narrow scope.

K'AKUMU OA, · AMA. "Inter-agency collaboration for fire disaster management in Nairobi City." Journal of Urban Management. 2016;2016.
K'AKUMU OA. "Asserting the nature of man as zoon politikon.". In: City. Taylor and Francis; 2010. Abstract

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

K'AKUMU OA. "Mapping stakeholder positions in the Kenyan land reform process." International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development . 2016;15(1):15-36.Mapping stakeholder positions in the Kenyan land reform process
K'AKUMU OA, JONES B, BLYTH A. "The market environment for artisanal dimension stone in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Habitat International, 34(1): 96-104. Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

This paper reports on a study involving the market environment for artisanal dimension stone in Nairobi, Kenya. Taking the point of view of exchange relationships within a market systems framework it maps out economic interactions involving actors in this market such as suppliers of raw materials, producers, marketers and users of artisanal dimension stone. This strategy enabled the study to understand the enabling environment for the production and use of artisanal dimension stone that is characterized by the following factors: a rising population that sustains the demand for the built environment products, a vibrant construction market, building regulations that favour the use of stone, availability of cheap and abundant unskilled labour and low standards of stone finish involved, availability of natural rock, a regulatory system that can compromise, lack of support by government institutions and an informal system of transaction that is non-compliant with conventional requirements such as labour and environmental laws but ensures ease of entry into the market environment. Such understanding brings potential for rectifying the negative perceptions about this market environment through policy development and change. Keywords: Artisans; Dimension stone; Exchange relationships; Market environment; Micro-enterprise; Nairobi; Kenya; Artisanal and small scale mining

K'AKUMU OA, Mwangi W. "Involuntary resettlement policy and praxis in Kenya: conforming with the national land reforms." Journal of Basic and Applied Research International. 2016;16(4):278-291.
K'Kakumu D. "Urban migration policy and its implications for housing in Nairobi.". In: The First Conference on Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration in Sub- Saharan Africa. Nairobi,Kenya; 2012.
K'Kakumu D. "Subordinationist Typology of Urban Development: Its origins and Manifestation in Nairobi.". In: Conference of the African Studies Association in Germany (VAD) on Embattled Spaces. Cologne,Germany; 2012.
K'Obonyo P, Busienei JR, Ogutu M. "Effect of Universalistic Perspective of Human Resource Strategic Orientation On Performance Of Large Private Manufacturing Firms in Kenya.". In: AIBUMA Conference. NAIROBI; 2013. Abstract

The study was set to investigate the effect of universalistic perspective of human resource strategic orientation on performance of large private manufacturing firms in Kenya. The target population was all large private manufacturing firms in Kenya that were registered members of Kenya Association of Manufacturers. The research adopted descriptive research design which utilized both descriptive and inferential statistics for effective generation of the required output. Using probability sampling, a sample of 108 firms was chosen. Data was collected using questionnaires developed by other researchers and that these were modified by the researcher. The respondents
were human resource managers, finance managers, corporate planning managers or any other senior manager. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version seventeen (17) was used to analyze the data. The results of this study showed that there was high positive correlation between universalistic human resource strategic orientation and firm performance. These results to a great extent show that all forms of universalistic human resource strategic orientation enhance performance of manufacturing firms and most particularly those registered with the Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM). These findings can also be generalized
to cover all other manufacturing firms in the country. As of the direction for further study, the researcher recommends that future research in universalistic human resource strategic orientation focus on public manufacturing firms and for the sake of knowledge, consider the use of longitudinal research design as opposed to the survey research designed which was central to this study. Further still, researchers should consider moderating or intervening variables. The main contribution of this paper lies in highlighting the fact that, proper configuration of universalistic human resource strategic orientation in manufacturing firms, will enable them enhance performance.

K'Obonyo PP, PhD VOO, Ogutu PM. "Implications of Firm Ownership Identity and Managerial Discretion on Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence from Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2011;Vol.1(Special Issue):187-195. Abstract

Research on the implications of ownership identity and managerial discretion on firm performance has been yielded mixed results. Further, there is scanty literature, if any, on studies combining these variables in a single research. yet there is near-convergence in literature that ownership identity impacts managerial discretion in decision making processes. this paper presents results of a study that shows the intrrelationships between ownership identity and mangerial discretion and their impact on financial performance as measured by ROA, ROE and DY. State ownership of firms is particularly indicated for poor stewardship, whereas foreign, insider, diverse and institutional ownership gave the best results. The results also show signigicant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively, these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreighn manager( insider) and instititional ownership forms, but significatly differ concerning the effects of diverse ownership on firm performance

K'Obonyo P, Omari S. "Human Resources Practices, the relationship between Locus of Control and Employee Outcomes." DBA Africa Management Review. 2013;Vol 3(Issue No. 1). Abstract

This paper explores the effect of human resource practices on the relationship between locus of control and employee outcomes. Personality is a stable characteristic that employees bring to the work place. It is presumed that locus of control will influence employee outcomes but the strength of its effect will be influenced by the implementation of human resource practices in the organization. Human resource practices were expected to moderate these relationships. Predicted relationships were drawn from prior theory that identified how human resource practices influence employee outcomes and on how locus of control affected employee outcomes. The individual’s locus of control was evaluated based on the external and internal continuum. Employee outcomes studied were job satisfaction, trust, employee commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour. Results obtained from 181 questionnaires from respondents in Kenyan public corporations indicated that human resources practices influenced the relationship between locus of control with job satisfaction, employee commitment, trust and organizational citizenship behaviours. Data were analyzed using multiple regression and the moderating effect was shown by the changes in r values. Implications for theory and managerial practice are given.
Keywords: Locus of control, Human resource Practices, employee outcomes

K'Obonyo PP, PhD VOO, Ogutu PM. "Implications of Firm Ownership Identity and Managerial Discretion on Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence from Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2011;Volume 1(Issue 13). Abstract

Research on the implications of ownership identity and managerial discretion on firm performance has been yielded mixed results. Further, there is scanty literature, if any, on studies combining these variables in a single research. Yet there is near-convergence in literature that ownership identity impacts managerial discretion in decision making processes. This paper presents results of a study that shows the interrelationships between ownership identity and managerial discretion, and their impact on financial performance as measured by ROA, ROE and DY. State ownership of firms is particularly indicted for poor stewardship, whereas foreign , insider, diverse and institutional ownership gave the best results. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively, these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider) and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of diverse ownership on firm performance.

K'Obonyo PP, Arasa DR. "The Relationship between Strategic Planning and Firm Performance." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2012;Vol. 2(Special Issue):201-213. Abstract

Organizations from both the private and public sector are increasingly embracing the practice of strategic planning in anticipation that this will translate to improved performance. Past studies have mainly focused on the direct relationship between strategic planning and performance and did not give attention to the specific steps that make up the strategic planning process. The manner and extent to which each of the steps is practiced could have implications on the expected strategic planning results. This study examined the relationship between strategic planning and firm performance giving attention to the strategic planning steps. Correlation analysis results indicate the existence of a strong relationship between strategic planning and firm performance. Further, all the strategic planning steps (defining firm’s corporate purpose, scanning of business environment, identification of firm’s strategic issues, strategy choice and setting up of implementation, evaluation and control systems) were found to be positively related to company performance.

K'Obonyo PO, Lucy OK, Ogutu M. "The Effect of Human Resource Strategic Orientation and Organizational Factors on Employee Job Performance in Tanzania State Corporations.". 2014. Abstract

This study examined the relationship among human resource strategic orientation, organizational factors and employee job performance in Tanzania State Corporations. A total of three hypotherses were established to test for the hypothesized relatinships. A cross sectional survey research design was adopted. Primary data was colleced through a properly disinged questionnaire while secondary data was obtained thrugh published information. Data on human resource strategic orientation and organizational factors variable was obtained from HR managers in 53 State Corporation in Tanzania. Furthermore, a double source ratings data on employee job performance variable was obtained from a sample of 284 employees and 80 supervisors. Correlations and hierarchical regression analysis were performed to examine the relationships. Results of this study provide support for the the central hypothesis of this study that human resource strategic orientatin has a positive and significant effect on employee job performance. Furthermore, culture and politics have a significant influence n the relationship between human resource strategic orientation and employee job performance. This study has contributed significantly to the conceptual and theoretical foundation in the strategic human resource management literature.

K'Obonyo P, Bulitia GM, Ojera PB. "Moderating Effect of Technology Innovation on the Human Resource Management Practices And Firm Performance: A Study of Manufacturing firms in Kenya." Researchjournali's journal of Human Resource. 2014;Volume 2(Issue No. 3):1-21. Abstract

Manufacturing in Kenya account for the greatest share of industrial production output characterized by relatively low value addition of 7.5% in 2010 to 2.3% in 2011 and a paltry 25% export volumes with 7% share
regional market and stagnant 10% to GDP sine 1960s.
However, no improvement from practicing managers. This study therefore sought to determine the moderating effect of technology innovation on the human resource management practices and performance of manufacturing firms. Used a census survey of the 68 medium and large manufacturing firms involved in production and marketing of edible oils, soaps and detergents, beverages or sugar registered in the Kenya Association of Manufacturers directory 2012. Data was collected through self administered questionnaires sent to the Production Manager, Brand Manager, Human Resource Manager, Marketing Manager, or the relevant manager dealing with innovations. The main findings of this study reveals that 82% of the respondents perceived that 41% and 80% of the firm‟s improvement was attributed to technological
innovation , 6% indicated that technological improvement had contributed over 80% towards firm
improvement while only 4 % felt that the technological improvement had contributed between 20% and 40% of firm performance.

K'Obonyo P, Mutuku C. "Top Management Team Diversity, Involvement Culture and Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2013;Vol 3(Issue No. 2). Abstract

The study of the effect of Top Management Team (TMT) diversity on organization performance produces mixed results. This study investigated the effect of involvement culture on the relationship between TMT diversity and organization performance. The target respondents were the Heads of Human Resources in all the commercial banks in Kenya and out of the 43 targeted banks, 33 responded. The questionnaire was the main
tool of data collection and the data was analyzed using regression analyses. Past studies have shown that the question as to whether diversity leads to organization performance depends of the performance measures used. Since past studies have shown mixed results on the effect of TMT diversity on organization performance, the study used
involvement culture as a moderating variable and found that it had a significant effect on the relationship between TMT diversity and organization performance. As a result, since most organizations have diversity at the TMT, they need to make deliberate efforts and invest in good management practices which enhance organization performance. Future studies can find out which other moderating variables have a
positive effect on the relationship between TMT diversity and organization
performance.

K'Obonyo P, et al. "Effects of Selected Corporate Governance Characteristics on Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from Kenya." International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues . 2011;Volume 1(Issue 3):pp. 99-122. Abstract

This paper examines the interrelations among ownership, board and manager characteristics and firm performance in a sample of 54 firms listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE). These governance characteristics, designed to minimize agency problems between principals and agents are operationalized in terms of ownership concentration, ownership identity, board effectiveness and managerial discretion. The typical ownership identities at the NSE are government, foreign, institutional, manager and diverse ownership forms. Firm performance is measured using Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Dividend Yield (DY). Using PPMC, Logistic Regression and Stepwise Regression, the paper presents evidence of significant positive relationship between foreign, insider, institutional and diverse ownership forms, and firm performance. However, the relationship between ownership concentration and government, and firm performance was significantly negative. The role of boards was found to be of very little value, mainly due to lack of adherence to board member selection criteria. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively, these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider) and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of ownership concentration and diverse ownership on firm performance.

K'Obonyo PP, Dimba B. "Influence of Culture on Strategic Human Resource Management(SHRM) Practices in Multinational Companies(MNC) in Kenya: A Critical Literature Review.". 2007. Abstract

Extant theories of strategic human resource management(SHRM) practices and cultures have generally adopted on the one hand the assumption that organizations develop a culture of thier own that is distinct from the national and industry contexts in which the organization is embedded, thus ignoring the potential impact of external environmental factors on organizational culture. on the other hand, some researchers and scholars have questioned the validity and reliability of national cutlure- SHRM pactices research.
The current paper explores the employee cultural values in the Kenyan multinational companies(MNCs) and the influence of culture on SHRM practices. Hofestede's cultural dimensions of collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and feminity are applied. These value dimensions reflect human thinking and feelings of people which pose baic problems that any society has to cope with but for which solutions differ.

K'Obonyo PP, Bolo AZ, Lorika J. "Effects of the value Chain Strategy in Selected Producer-owned Dairy Groups in Kenya." Business Administration and Management. 2011;Volume 1(Issue 3):pp. 93-100. Abstract

Dairy is a major component of many rural households at least in the High and Medium Potential Lands (HMPL) in Kenya. The Kenyan dairy industry is based mostly on smallholder milk production. The history of cooperative development in Kenya is tied closely to the aims of the Government’s rural development policy. Soon after Independence in 1963, Government was given wide-ranging powers in organizing farmer cooperatives to deliver the necessary services. The government’s aim was to use cooperatives as a tool to facilitate commercialization of Kenya’s smallholder farm sector. Currently, most of the running cooperatives are characterized by weak management capacities, inadequate capital base, and low economies of scale. This exploratory research reveals the effectiveness of the value chain strategy as a planning tool, on the performance of the selected producer-owned dairy groups. The paper identifies the value activities within the milk value chain and the cost drivers within the chain that contribute to competitive advantage. An in-depth analysis of how the value chain strategy has been used in the selected dairy groups, the impact on their performance, challenges faced and the specific areas that supporting partners are able to focus on within the dairy value chain are discussed. As a result of this research, a positive change in the livelihoods of the farmers was realized, as a result of maximizing the core value activities within the dairy chain. The core activities were the activities within the ‘’inbound stage’’ of the dairy value chain and which include; Provision of farm inputs, selection of good cattle breeds, provision of animal feeds and drugs and proper milk handling practices, this means training the dairy farmers on clean milk production, at the farm level. The study established the lack of knowledge by the farmers on how to handle milk especially at the milking stage, and poor hygiene of the milk jars used during the milking process. This affected the quality of milk as a result of bacteria that contaminates the milk, causing rejects at the collection points. With such improved business services to small farmers, it was established that small farmers’ transaction costs that are usually large relative to the size of their output, was greatly reduced, resulting to improved quality of milk and efficiency of the producer-owned groups. It was also established that in order for Michael Porter’s value chain model to be effective in the producer-owned dairy groups, there is need to include external support activities that are outside the milk value chain. The study indicates that managers performing value-chain analysis need to take into account newly important business drivers. Expanding the value chain ensures that no potential strategic activity is forgotten and no opportunity for enhancing value are over-looked. The added-value chain proposes adding an expanded set of activities to the original value-chain concept; specifically activities that can help improve the livelihoods of the dairy farmers. The study reveals the following set of external activities that help improve the livelihoods of the farmers; Credit Facilities, provision of basic necessities like soap, sugar, bonuses/advances and school fees loans.

K'Obonyo PO, Sagwa VE, Ogutu M. "Human Resource Management Practices and Performance of Firms Listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange." DBA Africa Management Review. 2015. Abstract

Most research demonstrating the link between (HRMP) and firm performance has focused on the private sector, yet understanding this relationship in publicly listed firms, in the Developing World setting is equally important. The role of HRMP on firm performance of the NSE listed firms has not been established using the selected set of variables, yet theory has demonstrates that these HRMP can have an effect on firm performance. This study was motivated by the desire to fill this gap in knowledge. The study objective was to establish the relationship between HRMP and firm performance. The research design was cross sectional descriptive survey. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, from a population of 60 NSE listed firms. The response rate was 60%. Simple linear regression was used to analyze the data. The results of the study show a statistically significant relationship between HRMP and performance of firms listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange. This study contributes to understanding of the link between HRMP and firm performance, while at the same time confirms the findings of previous studies that have found a significant link between HRMP and firm performance. It was recommended that firms have to ensure that the HRMP that they adopt assist them to attain and sustain a superior competitive advantage in their operations.

K'Obonyo PO. "Severity of consequences for the leader and subordinates work history as determinants of leader attribution .". 1986. AbstractWebsite

The effects of the level of seriousness of consequences of a subordinates performance and the nature of a subordinate's work history on leader attribution and response were investigated in a 2 x 3 factorial design with a sample of 46 male and 38 female junior and middle-level managers. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of six experimental conditions. Two variables, "consequences" of subordinate's performance and subordinate's "work history" were manipulated in a laboratory setting. As expected, (1) the level of internal attribution and response directed at the subordinate increased with the increase in the seriousness of consequences; (2) Internal attribution and the level of response directed at the subordinate were greater in the "poor work history" situation than in the "good work history" situation. Contrary to expectation, however, there was no significant difference between the two levels of serious consequences, i.e., "serious" and "serious with consequences" for the manager.

K'Obonyo P, Okeyo W, Gathungu J. "The Effect of Business Development Services on Performance of Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises in Kenya." Internal Journal of Business and Social Research and. 2014;Volume 4(Issue No. 6). Abstract

Small and Medium Enterprises have been regarded to play significant roles of job creation, poverty alleviation and economic development of many countries worldwide. These enterprises are however affected by many different factors. How these factors manifest singly or jointly is therefore a key concern for these organizations. Vital among these factors are business development services that affect how organizations produce and sell their finished goods. There is however a dearth of studies focusing on effects of aspects of business development services on organizational performance in Kenya. This study aimed at establishing how market access, procurement services and infrastructure facilities affect performance of small and medium manufacturing enterprises in Kenya. The study adopted a cross sectional survey design and examined primary data collected from 150 enterprises in Nairobi. Inferential statistics were used to interrogate relationships between independent variables and performance while descriptive statistics were used to determine distribution, central tendency and dispersion and hence establish conformity to linear regression requirements. Contrary to expectation, market access did not show any relationship but procurement services and infrastructure facilities each had a positive and significant influence on performance of the enterprises. The study also determined that the joint effect of the three variables on performance is greater than their individual effect. This study therefore concludes that since procurement services and infrastructure facilities showed a positive influence on performance of small and medium manufacturing enterprises in Kenya, the enterprise studied should adopt strategies that enhance procurement and improve infrastructure facilities to experience better performance.

K'Obonyo PP, Bolo AZ, W WR, Isaiah I. "Challenges facing the implementation of differentiation strategy at the mumias sugar company limited." Business Administration and Management. 2011;Volume 1(Issue 5):pp. 149-153. Abstract

Many organizations today are focusing on becoming more competitive, by launching competitive strategies that give them an edge over others. To do this, they need to craft differentiation strategies (Micheal, E. Porter 1985). However, most sugar firms have not been able to formulate these strategies required to gain competitive advantage. This calls for a strategic fit of an organization’s core competence levels, technology, leadership styles, markets, culture, people, and environmental influences, which is an emerging paradigm in the study of strategic management. This paper focuses on the challenges facing the implementation of differentiation strategies in the sugar industry in Kenya. To guide this study, two specific objectives were used: (1) To find out the differentiation strategies used by the sugar industry in Kenya, (2) To establish the challenges faced by the sugar industry in Kenya in implementing differentiation strategies. Two research questions were tested. A sample of Mumias Sugar Company limited was purposely selected, as the largest sugar manufacturing company in Kenya was used.

K'Obonyo PP, M'Nchebere DGK. "Market Strategy and Corporate Performance: The Contextual Application of PIMS Principles in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2011;Vol.1(Issue 1):Pp 1-24. Abstract

The influence of market strategy on corporate performance has been and still is a central issue in Strategic Management Discipline. In spite of immense academic curiosity in this area, exemplified by extensive empirical research, results still remain inconclusive. Some argue that performance differences across firms is as a result of strategic choice the firm makes regarding the market and its subsequent positioning while others argue that firm performance is influenced by the context within which it operates. Besides, empirical studies that forge these propositions in an African setting and specifically in Kenya using empirically grounded PIMS(Profit Impact of Market Strategy) principles, are scanty. This study examined the influence of PIMS principles on corporate performance in Kenya. Primary data were collected vide a structured close ended Likert type questionnaire administerd to all 56 CEOs of quoted companies in a census survey. Secondary data were collected on financial performance of the same companies for a period of five years between 2002 and 2006. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate techniques. Theory testing show that Kaplan and Norton's Balanced Score Card(BSC) conforms to Kenyan context and remains a viable measure of Corporate performance. Further, the study provides additional support for the linkages between PIMS principles and corporate performance, suggetsitn that PIMS principles are generalizable across a broad spectrum of contexts though the veracity of prediction varies across the principles and the model is also context specific. In Kenyan context, the PIMS model explains up to 53.9% of variation in corporate performance. These findings hold implications for corporate managers. They should pay special attention to market positioning strategies especially product quality and market share. These strategies should be specifically targeted to cash generating portfolios calibrated in such a manner as to avoid investment intensity that acts as a drag to profitability. Future studies should seek to replicate the findings of this study to Small and Micro Enterprises. Also open to further study is extension of this study results by employing optimization methodology procedures to address the limitation of spuriousness.

K'Obonyo PP, J.K T, Prof. Kibera FN. "Customer Relationship Management And Competitiveness of Commercial Banks In Kenya." Journal of Science Technology Education and Management. 2011;Vol 4(Issue 1):125-141. Abstract

Customer Relationship Management(CRM), is heralded by some marketing academics and practitioners as the new paradigm of marketing. However, despite the intense growth in the adoption of CRM practices by organizations all over the world and the widely accepted conceptual underpinnings of CRM strategy abound the marketing literature. To this effect, scholars have called for more rigorus studies to establish the usefulness of CRM as a strategic orientation. This study sought to establish the usefulness of CRM practices on competitiveness of comercial banks in Kenya. The study utilized a descriptive correlational research design. A survey methodology was employed for data collection. The results showed statistically significant positive linear relationships between CRM practices and organizational competitiveness. The study also established that the relationshipss between CRM practices and marketing productivity, marketing productivity and organizational competitiveness, organizational factors and marketing productivity and the moderation role of organizational factors on the relationship between CRM practices and marketing productivity were all significant. However, the relationship between organizational factors and organizational competitiveness was statistically insignificant. THe overall conclusion of the study was that organizational competitiveness is not significatly influenced by the mere existence of a range of organizational fctors within the firm such as age, size and ownership structure, type of customers served, corporate reputation and duration of CRM implementation or even technology level. Rather, organizational competitiveness is achieved through appropriate CRM practices and marketing productivity. Nonetheless, organizational factors positively inhance the relationship between CRM practises and marketing productivity thus indirectly influences organizational competitiveness. The findings of the study have significant managerila and theoretical implications.

K'Obonyo PP, Machuki VN. "Organizational strategic behaviour and performance of publicly quoted companies in Kenya." Business Administration and Management. 2011;Volume 1(Issue 7):pp. 212-232. Abstract

The study explores the relationship between strategy and performance of companies listed in the Nairobi Stock Exchange. Data on the firms’ strategic orientations, strategy types and performance indicators were obtained from 23 companies through structured questionnaires and interviews. The results reveal that the companies leaned more towards the strategic orientations of futurity, analysis, defensiveness, and proactiveness. These firms largely pursued market development, product development, and diversification strategy types. However, overall results are not statistically significant for the effect of strategic orientations and strategy types on corporate performance, except for their effect on total net assets. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the pertinent theories, previous research findings and strategic management.

K'Obonyo PP, M'Nchebere DMGK. "The Predictive Value of Contextual Factors on Corporate Performance in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management. 2012;Volume 2(Issue 10):709-725. Abstract

Corporate performance is of utmost importance because business organizations exist to optimize this functional objective. In spite of this importance, the findings of the studies on performance remain inconclusive (Ramanujan and Varadarajan, 1989). Various reasons have been advanced for the inconclusive findings including methodological flaws, ignoring organizational characteristics in performance relationships (Hill, 1994), and contextual application of models (Aosa, 1998). This has led to emergence of two complementing and at times conflicting schools of thought. One school led by Industrial Organizational Economists, contends that corporate performance is related to broader economic performance and differences in performances are a reflection of the context in which firms operate (Nelson, 1994). On the other hand, Evolutionary Theorists argue that performance arises from choices made by the firms and differences in performance arise from the interplay of firm capabilities in pursuit of earning rents. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the contextual factors on corporate performance in Kenya. Kaplan and Norton’s Balanced Score Card (BSC) model was used to measure corporate performance. Empirical literature review on studies across Africa was used to build a framework of contextual factors. These factors included Infrastructural, Distribution Systems, Political and Legal, Economic factors, Social- Cultural, Corruption and Security factors. A census survey of the 56 companies quoted on the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) was conducted. To achieve the objective both primary and secondary data were collected from the population of interest. Primary data was collected vide a structured close ended 5 point Likert type questionnaire administered to the CEO. Secondary data on financial measures were collected from NSE and Capital Markets Authority (CMA) for an average of five years from 2002 to 2006. Validity was computed using factor analysis while composite reliability of constructed indices was tested using cronbach alpha. Exploratory principal component factor analysis extracted four components from the twenty seven items used to assess contextual factors. The extracted factors were Security, Political Risk, Corruption and Economic factors in this order of importance indicated by factor loadings. Linear regression however, revealed weak and insignificant negative effect of extracted factors on corporate performance, only accounting up to 7 % variation in corporate performance ( R2 = 0.07, adj. R2 = -0.027, F = 0.720, P = 0.584) with predictive power completely lost when adjustment for sample size and degrees of freedom is effected. The study therefore, appears to lend credence to the evolutionary theory that postulates firm performance is largely influenced by strategic capabilities, by demonstrating the limited influence of contextual factors on corporate performance. Further studies should therefore seek to determine the effects of strategic capabilities and contextual factors in integrated models.

K'Obonyo PO, Ongore VO. "Effects of Selected Corporate Governance Characteristics on Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from Kenya." International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues. 2015;Vol 1(Iss No 3):pp 99-122. Abstract

This paper examines the interrelations among ownership, board and manager characteristics and firm performance in a sample of 54 firms listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange(NSE). These governance characteristics, designed to minimize agency problems between principals and agents are operationalized in terms of ownership concentration, ownership identity, board effectiveness and managerial discretion. The typical ownership identities at the NSE are government, foreigh, instituttional manager and diverse ownership forms. Firm performance is measured using Return on Assets(ROA), Return on Equity(ROE) and Divident Yield(DY). Using PPMC, Logistic Regression and Stepwise Regression, the paper presents evidence of significant positive relationship between foreign, insider, institutional and diverse ownership concentration and government and firm performance, was significantly negaive. the role of boards was found to be of very littele value, mainly due to lack of adherence to board member selection criteria. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider) and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of ownership concentration and diverse ownership on firm performance.

K'Obonyo PP, Kilika JM, Ogutu PM. "Human Resource Development Drivers for University-Industry Collaboration: Empirical Evidence from Universities in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Volume 1(Issue No. 4):81-98. Abstract

The study leans towards the human capital development nature of universities and applies the philosophy of human resource development to explain the phenomenon of University-Industry Collaboration (U-C-I) in Kenya. The study reports the findings of an empirical research investigating the patterns of U-I-C and the human resource develpment (HRD) driving factors for the identified patterns of collaboration in Kenya using data gathered from 16 universities both public and private. The findings of the study reveal a significant correlation between the Motivation to pursue Collaboration and the Level of U-I-C among key decision makers in universities in Kenya (n=16; r=492; p<0.05). While the findings provide an empirical explanation on the Motivation, Level and Types of collaboration prevailing in Kenya together with the managerial issues universities need to address in order to strengthen links with the productive sector, they strengthen the call for future research to focus on strategic HRD issues offering a viable pillar for supporting U-I-C.

K'Odhiambo AK. "ii) Argument for a historical foundation of African Philosophy of Education." A Journal of Philosophy (The Consolata Institute of Philosophy Journal). 2010;1:113-129.
K'Odhiambo AK. TIME AS A METAPHYSICAL DETERMINANT OF PEDAGOGY. Germany: VDM of Germany (2010); 2010.
K'Odhiambo AK. "i) The impact of interactions between verbal and mathematical languages in education." , Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya. 2010;2(2):79-99.
K'Oyugi BO. ICPD+10 Kenya’s Progress in Implementing the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action 1994-2004. Nairobi: National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development; 2004.
K'Oyugi BO. Mortality and Morbidity Situation in Siaya District. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1982.
K'Oyugi BO. Draft Population Policy for National Development. Hotel Intercontinental, Mombasa: National Council for Population and Development; 2011.
K'Oyugi BO. "A framework for Demographic and Health data collection in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas, in “Kenya’s Population Prospects Now and Beyond”.". In: Population Association of Kenya Occational Publication No.1, pp. 40-46.; 2000.
K'Oyugi BO, Kekevole J, Muia E. Kenya Country Population Assessment. Nairobi: UNFPA Kenya Country Office; 2003.
K'Oyugi BO. Adolescents Sexual and Reproductive Health and Future Challenges. Morocco: Partners in Population and Development; 2007.
K'Oyugi BO. Linkages between Population and Vision 2030. KPA , Mombasa: Ministry of Planning national Development and Vision 2030; 2009.
K'Oyugi BO. Kenya Population Policy and Its Effects on the MDGs. Serena Beach Hotel Mombasa: Ministry of Planning National Development and Vision 2030; 2012.
K'Oyugi BO. Kenya’s Rapid Population Growth and Its Implications on attainment of MDGs. Soi Safari Lodge Baringo: Ministry of Planning National Development and Vision 2030; 2012.
K'Oyugi BO. "Socio-economic Differentials in Infant and Child Mortality in Kenya: Application of a Hazards Model,pp. 89-98.". In: “Population, Health and Development in Africa: Anthropological Perspectives. Nairobi: Population Studies and Research Institute University; 2001.
K'Oyugi BO, Team CR. Socio-cultural Factors and HIV Transmission: A Case Study of Mwingi and Homa Bay Districts. Nairobi: UNDP Kenya Country Office; 2001.
K'Oyugi BO, Mati J, Maina N. Mid-Term Review of the 6th GOK/UNFPA Country Programme 2004-2008. Nairobi: UNFPA Kenya Country Office; 2007.
K'Oyugi BO. Climate Change and Environmental Degradation: Impact on Population. Kampala Uganda: Partners in Population and Development; 2008.
K'Oyugi BO. Overview of Population Trends and Policy in Kenya. KICC Nairobi,: National Council for Population and Development ; 2010.
K'Oyugi BO. Drivers That Will Influence National Development Beyond 2030 – Population and Resources Maximization Dynamics in Kenya. Kenya School of Monetary Studies Nairobi: National Economic and Social Council Secretariat; 2011.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Braddick MR, Ndinya-Achola JO, Mirza NB, Plummer FA, Irungu G, Sinei SK, Piot P. Towards developing a diagnostic algorithm for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae cervicitis in pregnancy.Genitourin Med. 1990 Apr;66(2):62-5.". In: Genitourin Med. 1990 Apr;66(2):62-5. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1990. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae are major causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. To identify characteristics predictive of cervical infection, we examined pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. C trachomatis was isolated from 14/178 (8%), and N gonorrhoeae from 17 (10%); cervical infection with either pathogen was present in 28 (16%). Two characteristics were independently predictive of cervical infection by logistic regression analysis; the presence of either endocervical mucopus or induced endocervical bleeding, relative risk 4.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2 to 8.0) and having more than one sexual partner during pregnancy, relative risk 3.3 (95% CI 1.4 to 7.6). A screening programme for cervical infection which tested women with one or both risk markers would have a sensitivity of 68% (95% CI 51 to 85%) and a positive predictive value of 0.35 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.47). In countries where resources are limited, diagnostic algorithms incorporating clinical signs and behavioural characteristics may be useful in identifying pregnant women at high risk of cervical infection. PIP: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea are major causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity in developing countries. 178 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, were therefore examined in the attempt to identify characteristics predictive of cervical infection. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 14 (8%) and Neisseria gonorrhoea from 17 (10%); cervical infection with either pathogen was present in 28 (16%). Logistic regression analysis found that the presence of either endocervical mucopus or induced endocervical bleeding and having more than 1 sex partner during pregnancy were independently predictive of cervical infection. A screening program for cervical infection which tested women with 1 or both risk markers wold have a sensitivity of 68% and a positive predictive value of 0.35. The authors conclude that countries with limited resources may use diagnostic algorithms and incorporate clinical signs and behavioral characteristics to help identify pregnant women at high risk of cervical infection.
K. AF, O. MW, F. OC. "“Transfusion haemosiderosis in spite of regular use of Desferrioxiamine-Case Report”." East. Afr. Med. J.. 2004;81:326-328.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "B Nganda, J Wang.". In: The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 7(9), 2003, pp 14 - 20. SITE; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Amayo EO, Jowi JO, Njeru EK.Headache associated disability in medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):519-23.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):519-23. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study headache associated disability in a group of medical students at the Kenyatta National Hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. RESULTS: Between October 1994 and January 1995 we conducted a survey on headache characteristics on medical students at both the Kenya Medical Training Centre and the Medical School of the University of Nairobi. Six hundred and twenty-five (87%) of the 711 students surveyed admitted having had at least one episode of headache in the last six months. Using the International headache society (IHS) case criteria 314 students (50%) had tension type headache, 240 (38%) migraine headache and 71(12%) unclassified headache. Eighty-six percent of the students with headache had their working ability disturbed to various degrees. Eighty-five percent of the students reported that their social activities were interfered with by headache. Migraine headaches had the greatest impact on both the working and social activities at a p-value of 0.0005 and 0.0004 respectively. One hundred and forty-one students (23.6%) had missed at least one day of work or school in the last one-year as a direct result of the headache. There was an association between headache severity with working ability and social effect. There was no association between the days students missed work or classes with the severity of the headache. No gender difference was found in the headache associated disability. CONCLUSION: Headache is a prevalent condition with disability both in working and social activities.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Wang'ombe JK, Mwabu GM.Agricultural Land Use Patterns and Malaria Conditions in Kenya, Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1993. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. DRNJOROGEPETER. "Audo MO, Ferguson A, Njoroge PK.Quality of health care and its effects in the utilisation of maternal and child health services in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):547-53.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):547-53. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of care provided by the Kisumu Municipal health facilities, with special reference to Maternal and Child health services (MCH). DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Kisumu Municipal Health facilities. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and eighty two mothers were interviewed in a household survey. RESULTS: A total of 482 mothers were interviewed in the household survey. Out of these, only 40.4%, 53.7% and 45.7% had respectively used Municipal facilities for antenatal services (ANC), immunisation and treatment of their children the last time they required such a service. This translates to by-pass rates for Municipal health facilities of 59.5%, 46.3% and 54.3% respectively for the three services. By-pass was higher for the more central urban catchment areas than the more peripheral ones, a finding that was associated with the socio-economic status of the respondents and the relative location of the municipal facilities vis-a-vis competing facilities, mainly the District and Provincial hospitals. The main reasons cited for by-pass were poor care (21%), lack of drugs and supplies (17%) and lack of/poor laboratory services (12%). From the facility audit, most of the clinics had a reasonable capacity to offer basic health care with only three scoring less than 50% in the scale used. The worst areas were in availability of drugs, equipment and management issues. There was a strong relationship between the perceived quality of care and utilisation of MCH services as well as by-pass. The capacity of the facilities to offer care was however not associated with utilisation of MCH services or by-pass. CONCLUSION: There is under-utilisation of Municipal health facilities for MCH services. This is related to the perceived poor quality of care in the facilities. Perception of quality is influenced by a person's socio-economic status especially education.

K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Pinner, R.W., Onyango, F., Perkins, B. A., Mirza, N.B., Ngacha, D.M., Reeves, M., DeWitt, W., Njeru, E., Agata, N.N., Broome, C.V. and the Kenya/CDC Meningitis study KNjeru cv 9 group. Epidemic Meningococcal Disease in Nairobi, Kenya, 1989. J. Infect. Dis.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 1992; 166:359-364. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
In a five year retrospective study of 360 patients with homozygous (SS) sickle cell disease, eighteen (5%) were found to have neurological complications. Their ages ranged from 7 months to 21 years with a mean of 11.1 +/- 6 years. Of those with neurological complications, twelve (67%) of the patients had cerebrovascular accident, six (33.3%) convulsions, three visual disturbance; one sensorineural deafness, one cerebellar degeneration and the last one confusion and hallucinations. Four of the patients had multiple neurological complications. There was only one patient with recurrence of neurological complications. Two patients were hypertransfused and up to the end of the study period none of them had any recurrence. The pattern of neurological complications are similar to that observed in other studies. However, in this study, there were fewer recurrences of neurological complications.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Design of Speech Database for Unit Selection in Kiswahili Text to Speech System.". In: E-Tech conference, Nairobi August 2004. FARA; 2004. Abstract
When developing a Concatenative Text to Speech System [1, 3, 4] (i.e. a form of synthesis where waveforms are created by concatenating parts of natural speech recorded from humans) it is necessary that all the acoustically and perceptually significant sound variations (allophones) in the language are recorded so that they are played back each time the system synthesises speech. Improvement on the system is made by assuming that co-articulation (mutual influence between adjoining sounds) does not extend beyond phone-phone boundary [1]. In this case all possible phone-phone combinations are read and recorded. Each unit of the two phone combination is referred to as the diphone. Synthesis is then based on concatenation of the diphones thus taking care of the overlap in the phone-phone boundary. An even better system can be realised when each diphone is captured within the context of several words and synthesis carried out by using the best selection from the recorded words. It is clear then that this procedure must use proper selection of the sentences from which the diphones are to be captured. In other words, such sentences must be phonetically balanced; implying that they must have the same phone distribution as used entirely in the language.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Wang'ombe JK, Mwabu GM. Economics of essential drug schemes : The perspectives of Developing countries, Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):625-30.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):625-30. SITE; 1987. Abstract
Essential drug schemes in the Third World countries face many problems. These include dependency on imported drugs in the face of chronic shortages of foreign exchange, inadequate manpower and technical capability for selection and procurement of drugs, competition between generic and brand drugs, weak local drug procurement and distribution systems and inability to commence local manufacturing even in situations where there may exist comparative advantage. Many of these problems relate to each other and are compounded by the domination of the pharmaceutical industry by multinational firms. Third World countries are in a very weak position in the international pharmaceutical industry. It is suggested that the essential drug situation would improve in Third World countries if certain strategies and policies were adopted. These include: intensification of personnel training in pharmaceuticals, deliberate use of generic drugs rather than brand name drugs, the involvement of the public sector in the procurement and distribution of drugs, buying drugs in bulk, changing drug prescription and consumption practices through continuous education, changing or instituting regulations to guard against unfavourable patents and commencing domestic production of essential drugs where this is not in conflict with the principle of comparative advantage.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Contributed Chapter three - .". In: South African Journal of Philosophy, 1998, 17(2): 152-159. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004.
K. MS, G. MM. "CHALLENGES FACED IN SUCCESSION PLANNING IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY IN KENYA." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2018;7(6):25-39.succession_planning_challenges.pdf
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. ""Into the new millennium in Kenya: Reconstructing civil society from below". A paper prepared with support from the Commonwealth and presented at a regional workshop on "Civil society in the New Millennium" organised by MWENGO and the National Council of .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "'The Politics of Development Space in Kenya: The state and NGOs in the Delivery of Basic Services in Kenya.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Temmerman M, Lopita MI, Sanghvi HC, Sinei SK, Plummer FA, Piot P. The role of maternal syphilis, gonorrhoea and HIV-1 infections in spontaneous abortion.Int J STD AIDS. 1992 Nov-Dec;3(6):418-22.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 1992 Nov-Dec;3(6):418-22. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1992. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The role of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) as risk factor for spontaneous abortion was investigated in a case-control study in Nairobi, Kenya. Cases (n = 195) were women admitted with clinical signs and symptoms of spontaneous abortion, before 20 weeks of gestation. Patients with induced or clinically septic abortion were excluded. Controls were unselected pregnant women in their second or third trimester (n = 195). Spontaneous abortion was independently associated with maternal HIV-1 antibody (14.4% versus 6.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.8), with maternal syphilis seroreactivity (6.8% vs 2.1%, adjusted odds ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-15.6), and with vaginal colonization with group B streptococci (15.6% vs 5.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-6.7). No significant association was found between maternal infections with gonococci and genital mycoplasmas, and spontaneous abortion.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Lee. K.Y.. Mangoli, M.K., Kirn, J.B., Kirn, J.B. , and Park. Y.M. "" An Operational Planning Tool for Real and Reactive Power Control"", IEE Proc., C.Cen., Trans. and Distrih. 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Rachel Gesami, Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe and Aloys Ayako, The Effects of Cost-Sharing on Health Services Utilization in Kenya: Evidence from Panel Data, in Improving Health Policy in Africa, Ed. Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang.". In: University of Nairobi Press, Chapter 8, pp 133-143, 2004. SITE; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Wang'ombe JK.Public Health Crises of Cities in Developing Countries, Soc. Sc. & Med. Vol. 41, No. 6, 1995, pp 857-862.". In: Soc. Sc. & Med. Vol. 41, No. 6, 1995, pp 857-862. SITE; 1995. Abstract
During the decade and a half after Alma Ata hundreds of projects were started in developing countries to implement the principles of PHC and start community based health care programs in the rural areas of developing countries. Until the past five years urban health was not seen as a special health problem. Population pressure in the rural areas has created shortages of land, food and employment opportunities. These forces have generated major population movements to the urban centres. The population movements have encouraged unprecedented expansion of urban centres. This sudden concentration of large populations in small geographical areas has resulted in the urban health crises of the developing world. The poor who live in the slum areas have no access to adequate health services, they experience frequent epidemics of communicable diseases like cholera, they live within a heavily polluted environment, and their children have very poor health because they are not immunized and are malnourished. The paper agrees with approaches which have been championed by development agencies to address the urban health crises. These approaches propose the reorientation of urban health systems to include adoption of PHC for urban health programs, intersectoral collaboration and extra budgetary support. The paper argues for further strengthening of the reorientation approach by adjusting the development planning model. It is proposed that the urban plan be integrated into the national development plan so that emerging urban health crises can receive special attention in resource allocation.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Moses S, Ngugi EN, Bradley JE, Njeru EK, Eldridge G, Muia E, Olenja J, Plummer FA.Health care-seeking behavior related to the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya.Am J Public Health. 1994 Dec;84(12):1947-51.". In: Am J Public Health. 1994 Dec;84(12):1947-51. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Kiswahili/English Voice Information Service for Banana growers in Kenya.". In: Workshop on Mobiles and Development: Contribution of Mobile Devices to Development, 16th may 2007, University of Manchester. FARA; 2007. Abstract
We describe the progress of the Local Language Speech Technology Initiative in Kenya, where since starting in 2003, technology and expertise have been successfully transferred to the Kenyan partners, culminating in the launch of the National Farmers Information Service (NAFIS) in April 2008. NAFIS is primarily a voice service accessed over the phone and offers a wide range of information in Kiswahili or Kenyan English, supplementing the existing agricultural extension services.
K. M, P.K. M. Women and property Rights in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenya Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA); 2002.

UoN Websites Search