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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Gakuu C.M., Libotton A., Omwenga E.I. (Feb. 2007). Towards enhancing readiness to adopt distance education and e-learning by University of Nairobi Lecturers.". In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference in Computer Science and ICT COSCIT 2007, 5-7th February 2007, Nairobi, pp29-37.; 2007. Abstract
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I M, A A, S M, C B, J W, E M, Onyango N, Nyagol J. Assessment of MNCH services provided by private health care providers in Kibra Sub-county of Nairobi County. . Nairobi: Kibra Private Health Care Providers Study Report; Ministry of Health Report, Kenya; 2017.
I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I (2000), "The concept of curses and oaths among the indigenous logooli".". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 2000. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Gakuu, C. M., Libotton, A., Omwenga, E. I., Kidombo, H. J. (2008). Factors that influence lecturers.". In: Journal of Educational Fountain, School of Education, University of Nairobi. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga S.I (1987), (Revised 1999), Semi za Kiswahili: Maana na matumi, Oxford University Press, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 1987. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "An infrastructure for a Web-based courseware Development System.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998.; 1998. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga S.I. (1997), "A study of Logooli moral values with particularreference to taboos, oaths and curses"; PhD Unpublished thesis, University of Nairobi, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 2000. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "An interactive Infrastructure for Facilitating Learner-Participation within a Web-enabled Courseware Delivery Environment.". In: Proceedings of the World Internet Society conference (INET. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH, M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Omwenga E.I., Waema T. M., Eisendrath G.E. (Nov. 2002). Modelling an E-learning Infrastructure with a Content Calibrator within a Resource-constrained Environment.". In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning and Instruction (Online-Educa-Berlin), Nov 27th .; 2002. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga, E., Waema, T., & Wagacha, P. A model for introducing and implementing e-learning for delivery of educational content within the African context.". In: African Journal of Sciences and Technology 5(1) 35-48. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH, M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Omwenga E.I., Waema T. M., Eisendrath G.E. (Nov. 2002). Modelling an E-learning Infrastructure with a Content Calibrator within a Resource-constrained Environment.". In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning and Instruction (Online-Educa-Berlin), Nov 27th . East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 2002. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH, KIPCHUMBA MRCHEPKENCHRISTOPHER, MOHAMED MRDUBLEBISHAR. "Omwenga, E. I., Chepken C.K., Bishar D. Complexity reduction in the formative evaluation process using the QuizIntegrator. In Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries.". In: Makerere University, Kampala, Elsevier Publishers pp 142-147.; 2005. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I (1993), Christianity in Africa, Lecture Series University of Nairobi, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 1993. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "A Novel Approach to e-Content Development Process: Complexity Reduction and Process Automation.". In: In: Kommers P, Richards G. (eds.), World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications. ED-MEDIA 2005. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Montreal, Canada, pp 3475-3480. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga E.I., Waema T. M. Towards Development of a Model Expressing a set of E-learning Variables. Reviewed.". In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning and Instruction (Online-Educa-Berlin), Nov 28th .; 2006. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I., "Ritual purification and reconciliation". Submitted to Trans African of History.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 2000. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Gakuu C.M., Libotton A., Omwenga E.I. (Feb. 2007). Towards enhancing readiness to adopt distance education and e-learning by University of Nairobi Lecturers.". In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference in Computer Science and ICT COSCIT 2007, 5-7th February 2007, Nairobi, pp29-37. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2007. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Oboko, R. O.,Wagacha,P. W., Omwenga, E. I.,Odotte Z. (2009). Non-Obtrusive Determination of Learning styles in Adaptive Web-Based Learning.". In: The East African Journal of Information Sciences (EAJIS) VOL 1 No.002 (2009).; 2009. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I (1996), "Some aspects of indigenous logooli moral values"in Trans African Journal of History, Vol. 25:146-153, Gideon Were Press, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 1996. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "An infrastructure for a Web-based courseware Development System.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga E. I., Waema T. M. An asynchronous framework for a flexible web-driven courseware development and learning environment.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Transformation of Higher Education Management Nov 12-15 2002, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya pp41-43.; 2001. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I (2000), "The concept of curses and oaths among the indigenous logooli".". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 2000. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH, M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Omwenga E.I., Waema T. M., Eisendrath G.E. (Nov. 2002). Modelling an E-learning Infrastructure with a Content Calibrator within a Resource-constrained Environment.". In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning and Instruction (Online-Educa-Berlin), Nov 27th . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga, E., Waema, T., & Eisendrath, G., Libotton A. (June 2005b). Development and Application of an Objectives-driven E-content Structuring and Deployment Model (ODC-SDM).". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST), Science and Engineering Series 6(1), pp 45-50.; 2005. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga S.I (1987), (Revised 1999), Semi za Kiswahili: Maana na matumi, Oxford University Press, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 1987. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH, KIPCHUMBA MRCHEPKENCHRISTOPHER, MOHAMED MRDUBLEBISHAR. "Omwenga, E. I., Chepken C.K., Bishar D. Complexity reduction in the formative evaluation process using the QuizIntegrator. In Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries.". In: Makerere University, Kampala, Elsevier Publishers pp 142-147. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga, E. I., Rodrigues A. J. Towards an Education Evaluation Framework: Synchronous and Asynchronous E-learning Cases.". In: Journal of the Research Centre for Educational Technology, Kent, www.rcetj.org.; 2006. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga S.I. (1997), "A study of Logooli moral values with particularreference to taboos, oaths and curses"; PhD Unpublished thesis, University of Nairobi, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 2000. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga E.I., Waema T. M. Towards Development of a Model Expressing a set of E-learning Variables. Reviewed.". In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning and Instruction (Online-Educa-Berlin), Nov 28th . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
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and I DKECM. "An Analysis of Internal Efficiency in Primary School Education in Western Equatoria State of South Sudan between 2009 and 2013." International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR). 2019;9(1).
I DROMWENGAELIJAH, KIPCHUMBA MRCHEPKENCHRISTOPHER, MOHAMED MRDUBLEBISHAR. "Omwenga, E. I., Chepken C.K., Bishar D. Complexity reduction in the formative evaluation process using the QuizIntegrator. In Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries.". In: Makerere University, Kampala, Elsevier Publishers pp 142-147. Nyenze E, Ilako D, Kimani K; 2005. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Gakuu, C. M., Libotton, A., Omwenga, E. I., Kidombo, H. J. (2008). Factors that influence lecturers.". In: Journal of Educational Fountain, School of Education, University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Oboko, R. O.,Wagacha,P. W., Omwenga, E. I.,Odotte Z. (2009). Non-Obtrusive Determination of Learning styles in Adaptive Web-Based Learning.". In: The East African Journal of Information Sciences (EAJIS) VOL 1 No.002 (2009). African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2009. Abstract
Cholelithiasis is a common clinical condition in patients with sickle cell disease and there are conflicting reports on laboratory indices useful in predicting those patients who are likely to have gallstones. There is however lack of similar studies from Kenya. We therefore studied the role of clinical (Body Mass Index), haematological (reticulocyte count, haemoglobin level), and biochemical (serum bilirubin: direct and indirect, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum transaminase) indices in predicting sickle cell anaemia patients likely to develop gallstones. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from October 1993 to December 1994 on consecutive male and female patients of all ages with homozygous sickle cell disease (HbSS) confirmed by cellulose acetate paper electrophoresis. A total of 64 patients aged between three and 37 years were recruited into the study. They were classified into two groups: stone formers and non-formers. The difference in the two groups with respect to clinical, haematological and biochemical indices were determined by Chi-square contingency test. Body mass index (BMI), reticulocyte count and alkaline phosphatase were found to have a significant positive association with increased likelihood of gallstone formation at p values of 0.004, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively. The rest of the study indices had no association. The cut-off points were reticulocyte counts above ten per cent and alkaline phosphatase levels above 13 K.A. units. Though sickle cell anaemia patients with BMI > 20 had significant increased likelihood of cholelithiasis, we could not determine its cut-off value.
I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I (1993), Christianity in Africa, Lecture Series University of Nairobi, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 1993. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "An interactive Infrastructure for Facilitating Learner-Participation within a Web-enabled Courseware Delivery Environment.". In: Proceedings of the World Internet Society conference (INET.; 1999. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I., "Ritual purification and reconciliation". Submitted to Trans African of History.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 2000. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga E. I., Waema T. M. An asynchronous framework for a flexible web-driven courseware development and learning environment.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Transformation of Higher Education Management Nov 12-15 2002, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya pp41-43. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH, KIPCHUMBA MRCHEPKENCHRISTOPHER, MOHAMED MRDUBLEBISHAR. "Omwenga, E. I., Chepken C.K., Bishar D. Complexity reduction in the formative evaluation process using the QuizIntegrator. In Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries.". In: Makerere University, Kampala, Elsevier Publishers pp 142-147. uon press; 2005. Abstract
Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Percutaneous transluminal baloon valvuloplasty is currently the treatment of choice for most cases of pulmonary valve stenosis. In the first series of cases performed at Kenyatta National Hospital, six patients aged 4 to 24 years with severe pulmonary valve stenosis and no other associated cardiac lesions were selected for the procedure. Immediately following baloon valvuloplasty, the pressure gradients across pulmonary valve measured by both echo-Doppler technique and cardiac catheterisation dropped very significantly (P < 0.001). Catheterisation peak systolic gradients (psg) dropped from 162.5 +/- 23.7 to 56.5 +/- 19.0 while echo-Doppler pressure gradients dropped from 112.0 +/- 11.9 to 42.8 +/- 16.0. No complications occurred during or after the procedure. This initial short-term experience in our set-up confirms the safety and effectiveness of this procedure. Furthermore, this procedure is much cheaper and technically easier to perform than cardiac surgery. PMID: 8062769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga, E., Waema, T., & Eisendrath, G., Libotton A. (June 2005b). Development and Application of an Objectives-driven E-content Structuring and Deployment Model (ODC-SDM).". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST), Science and Engineering Series 6(1), pp 45-50. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "A Novel Approach to e-Content Development Process: Complexity Reduction and Process Automation.". In: In: Kommers P, Richards G. (eds.), World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications. ED-MEDIA 2005. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Montreal, Canada, pp 3475-3480.; 2005. Abstract
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I DRAKARANGASTEPHEN. "Akaranga, S.I (1996), "Some aspects of indigenous logooli moral values"in Trans African Journal of History, Vol. 25:146-153, Gideon Were Press, Nairobi.". In: Submitted to Hekima Journal, Journal of the Faculty of Arts, ersity of Nairobi, 30.6.2000. and accepted for publication on 7th. Dec. 2000.; 1996. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga, E. I., Rodrigues A. J. Towards an Education Evaluation Framework: Synchronous and Asynchronous E-learning Cases.". In: Journal of the Research Centre for Educational Technology, Kent, www.rcetj.org. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
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I. NKANDO, J. PEREZ-CASAL, M. MWIRIGI, T. P, H. T, E.L. B, et al. "Recombinant Mycoplasma mycoides proteins elicit protective immune responses against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology . 2016;171:103-114 .
I. K, Orodho J. A, J.P M. Concise Statistics; An Illustrative Approach to Problem Solving. MASENO, NAIROBI, KENYA: KANEZJA; 2017.
I. O, E. O. "Towards > > the development of a citizen-centric framework for evaluating the impact > > of > > eGovernment: A case study of developing countries.". 2014;(14528816 ). AbstractTowards the development of a citizen-centric framework for evaluating the impact of eGovernment: A case study of developing coun

E-government has emerged as one of the innovative ways of providing information and delivering services to citizens. It is providing governments with new opportunities of bringing services closer to the citizen in cost-effective, efficient and transparent ways. In spite of the implementation of e-government, there is little research that has been conducted in the context of developing countries to benchmark and appraise the impact of e-government on the target groups. Assessment of impact is important to justify public fund expenditure and inform future projects. Most studies on assessment of e-government have been done in developed countries where the context is different from that of developing countries. Therefore, there is need to develop frameworks that are suitable in the context of developing countries.
Studies on assessing impact have been done at macro, meso and micro levels. These studies are largely based on supply-side and a few on demand-side with little focus on outcomes and impact. In this paper, we perform an analysis of various proposed e-government assessment frameworks with the aim of identifying and recommending the adoption of a framework that is suitable in the context of a developing country. We propose the adoption of a hybrid framework that amalgamates the frameworks developed by Bhatnagar and Singh and Verdegem et al due to their contextual suitability and citizen-centric approach. This is an exploratory study that lays foundation for further research in the development of an appropriate framework using the proposed approach.

I.Addae-Mensah, Achenback H, G.N.Thoithi, R.Waibei, Mwangi JW, G M. "Epoxichiromodine and other constituents of Croton Megalocarcus." Phytochemistry . 1992;31 (6 ):2055-2058 .
I.B.B Yonah, S.B.B. Oteng'i LCB. "Assessment of the growing Season over the Unimodal Rainfall Regime Region of Tanzania." Tanzania Meteorological Society. 2006;7(1).tjms_cb.pdf
I.M M, D.M K, J. W, S. M. "Microbial Quality and Safety of Traditional Fermented Camel Milk Product Suusac Sampled from Different Regions in North Eastern, Kenya." Asian Food Science Journal. 2019;v8i229986(DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2019/v8i229986).
I.M. M, PE EKWOM, G OYOO, E A. "Ekwom PE, Oyoo G, Amayo E and Muriithi IM. Prevalence and Characteristics of Articular Manifestations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. EAMJ. 2010;87:408-414.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. EAMJ; 2010. Abstract

Background: Articular manifestations have been reported in HIV infection with a prevalence ranging from 2.5 to 68%.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence, types and characteristics of articular manifestations in the anti-retroviral treatment naive HIV infected patients.

Design: Cross sectional descriptive study.

Setting: Comprehensive care clinic (HIV outpatient clinic) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) from October 2007 to March 2008.

Subjects: One hundread and ninety three patients; 135 females and 58 males, aged between 19 to 65 years with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who were naive to anti - retroviral drug therapy.

Main outcome measure: Presence of articular manifestations that included HIV associated arthritis, HIV associated spondyloarthropathies, HIV associated arthralgia, painful articular syndrome and avascular necrosis.

Results: Thirty three of these 193 patients had articular manifestation with a prevalence of 17.1 %. The type prevalence was; HIV associated arthralgia, 15.6%; undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, 1 % and HIV associated arthritis; 0.5%. Their mean age was 36± 9 years, range 23-63 years; majority were female, male to female ratio of 1: 2.3 and the majority were in World health organization (WHO) clinical staging of HIV infection, class II and III with a mean CD4 cell count of 330 cells/mm3. Seventeen (51.5%) of the
patients with articular disease had oligo - articular presentation, 10(30.3%) mono-articular while 6(18.2%) had poly - articular presentation. The mean duration of joint pains was 53.3 days (range of 2-365 days). Six (18.2%) of these 33 patients missed work, home making activities or school due to the articular disease.

Conclusion: Articular manifestations are common in HIV infection with a prevalence of 17.1 %. HIV associated arthralgia was the most common manifestation. Majority of these patients were female, male to female ratio of 1: 2.3. The mean age of these patients was 36 years with a mean CD4 cell count of 330 cells/mm3 with 18.2 % of them missing school or work.

I.O JUMBA, T.LIKIMANI. "Chemistry and its applications. ISBN 9966 846 247.". In: Nairobi University Press. 315 pp. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

PREFACE
To reap the full benefit of any product available in the market, consumers should know the types of raw materials in the products, the way in which the products perform their job, and the precautions that need to be taken when using the products. With some basic knowledge of chemistry, the small print on the label becomes important to the consumer and may lead to a better selection and use of the product purchased.
The first chapter of this book deals primarily with the chemical nature of both living and non-living things. Chapter Two places emphasis on the innate curiosity of man and his use of experimentation in the evolution of important chemical transformation processes that bring about changes in matter. These reaction processes are employed in the chemical industries discussed in the subsequent chapters; their inclusion therefore seeks to bring the study of chemistry into focus in the student's life.
The rest of the text material, which can be built on a very thoughtful analysis of chemical theory or a simple notion of atoms, molecules and a few molecular geometries and interactions, enlightens the student on the many ways in which chemical knowledge has been applied to solve practical problems. An innovative approach to the problem of teaching students something about the chemical processes which touch upon their daily lives is discussed under various chemical aspects including: isolation of metals from their ores and salts and their uses, nuclear processes and their applications, the manufacture of soaps and detergents, synthetic fibres and surface-coating products, beauty aids, perfumes and flavouring agents, foods, agrochemical and animal health products, fermentation reaction products and medicines, environmental chemical pollution, chemical poisons and their basis of toxicity, the role of chemistry in industrial and economic development (with a discussion on some critical industries) and, finally, safety precautions against chemical hazards.
Although some of the exercises provided at the end of each chapter are meant to test the reader's understanding of concepts, a few open-ended questions have been added to stimulate the bright student and to involve him or her in some of the inevitable controversies of chemical science. A few references have been provided to encourage the enthusiastic student to develop a taste for studying in depth a particular point of interest.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W. "Factors affecting the simultaneous determination of cooper, lead, cadmium and zinc concentrations in human head hair using different pulse anodic stripping voltametry method.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technol. (A) 3, 9-25. Association of Africa Universities; 1982. Abstract

Conditions of analyses of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc content in human hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) have been established. Sample digestion using the mixture HC1; H2O2:HNO3 in the ratio 2:1:40 by volume gave the best wet-ashing procedure. The peak currents and peak potentials of zinc, cadmium and lead, copper were maximum at pH 6-7 and 1-3 respectively, when excess H2O2 was eliminated with subsequent addition of hydroxyamine hydrochloride. Matrix concentration effects were minimized by digesting weights not exceeding 50 mg per sample. The effect of selenium (IV) was negligible and was ignored. The detection limit of 0.0036 ng/cm3 for Cd+2 was obtained while the values for zinc, lead and copper were 0.0230, 0.0287 and 0.0269 ng/cm3 respectively, at the 95% confidence limit. The observed DPASV conditions of analysis of these metals are useful for routine determination of the metals in human hair and should complement the conventional flame atomic absorption spectrophoto-metry methods

I.O JUMBA, N.F SUTTLE, E.A HUNTER, S.O W. "Botanical composition has a greater influence on mineral concentrations in dry season pastures in W. Kenya than either soil origin or composition.". In: Proceedings of "Environmental Geochemistry and Health in Developing Countries Conference", London, October 20-21. Book of Abstracts, 36-37. Association of Africa Universities; 1993. Abstracteffects_of_botanical_composition.doc

The prediction of mineral deficiencies in grazing livestock requires good correlations between convenient markers of mineral status and animal health or productivity. Correlations are likely to become weaker in moving from animal to pasture to soil in pursuit of a predictor because of the many factors which influence mineral uptake at each interface. However, soils are the easiest to characterize and correlations might be improved by removing the effects of known sources of variation. The influence of botanical (pasture species), geographical (altitude) and pedological (bedrock type, soil pH and extractable mineral concentration) factors on mineral concentrations in dry season pasture was therefore assessed. Samples of topsoil and herbage were gathered from 135 sites on 84 farms in the Mt Elgon region of W. Kenya between January and March, 1987. The underlying parent bedrock was determined from 1:125,000 Geological survey maps and altitude from topographical maps. Botanical composition of the pasture sample was recorded. Soil pH and total (Se) or extractable (not Se) mineral concentrations were determined by standard methods as were total mineral concentrations in unwashed herbage. Distribution of principle botanical species and all bedrock types amongst the sample sites are indicated in Tables 1 and 2 respectively, together with the analytical results. Statistical analysis used a residual maximum likelihood (REML) model for unbalanced data sets.
Pasture concentrations of Ca, P and Cu were generally below the requirement of ruminants, Zn and Se were marginal while Co, Fe and Mn were adequate. Soil bedrock had little influence on herbage composition. Of the four macro-elements, only S was affected by geology, low values being found above TV and MS bedrock. By contrast, only P was not affected by species, Ss being low and PC usually high in macro minerals. Of the seven trace elements analysed, geology influenced only one (Cu); low values were again found above TV and Mfi but Cu availability to grazing ruminants would be relatively high because of the associated low S values. By contrast, only Se was unaffected by species, PC being rich in all but Mn. Soil bedrock had a greater influence on soil composition but correlations between soil and herbage usually accounted for less than 10% of the variation in pasture composition (max r value 0.5 for P): correlations within species were equally poor. The influence of species on herbage Co disappeared if herbage Fe was used as a covariate, suggesting that contamination by soil Co varied between species: however, the correlation with soil Co remained weak. Soil pH was generally low and its use as a covariate did little to improve soil/plant relationships. Herbage Cu increased and Se decreased in curvilinear relationships with altitude.
Mineral deficiencies were therefore likely to occur in grazing livestock, risk being influenced by botanical and topographical but not pedological factors.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W, J.M NJOROGE. SENSITIVITY OF KENYAN ECOSYSTEMS TO ACIDIC DEPOSITION: VALIDATION OF THE 1996 SEI MAP. HARARE: Global Terrestrial Ecosystem sensitivity Mapping Africa Region; 1996. Abstract

SUMMARY
Kenya is a land of contrasts, having a variety of ecological and climatic zones, and many soil types of different characteristics and composition. In view of the adequate data available, the sensitivity of Kenyan ecosystems to acidic deposition needs to be reviewed and vulnerable areas properly delineated. The 1996 SEI map therefore needs to be re-assessed.
Where land use is the most important activity, consideration needs to be made of socio-economic and demographic factors when creating boundaries. Reduction in the already staggering soil fertility and an imbalance in soil mineral composition and organic matter could bring about negative changes in crop yields. Consequently insufficient food supply, poor incentives, unemployment, decreased foreign exchange earnings and a search for areas with richer soils will ensue. The overall effects will be population shifts and accelerated deforestation and soil degradation. We consider this to be the greatest problem that would be caused by acidic deposition in Kenya.
Geological influences on land use are important since soil type, soil pH and to some extent C.E.C. depend on the underlying parent rock. The present map might be altered if geology is considered as a factor.
Data needs to be analysed at regional level (or on a district basis) to aid validation of the map. This will further refine the boundaries of sensitivity classes, especially if emphasis is placed on soil type, soil buffering ability and base saturation.
Regular monitoring of possible sources of acidic gas emissions, if undertaken, should take into account wind speed, wind direction and wind strength in addition to rainfall regimes and average humidity in each study area. In Kenya, sulphur dioxide emissions by some industries might in the near future be a great threat to a variety of ecosystems.

I.O JUMBA, O WANDIGAS, W.G M, J.O L. "The Distribution, metabolism and toxicity of 14C-DDT in model aquarium tanks with fish and sediment simulating a tropical marine environment.". In: Toxicol and Environ. Chem. 84, 253-268 (Trailer & Francis Group). Association of Africa Universities; 2003. Abstract

Studies were conducted on the distribution, fate and metabolism of DDT in a model ecosystem simulating a tropical marine environment of fish, Gabions nudiceps, Leihrinuf haruk, Cohious keineiis, Gnhiota nebutosis and white shrimp iPanaeus seliferus), show that DDT concentration in the water decreases rapidly within the first 24 h. Rapid accurr. • ution of the pesticide in the biota also reaches a maximum level in 24 h before graJuiiiy declining The bioaccumulution factors calculated for the fish specie.! (G. keinesis) and white shrimp '(P. Stiiferu!) were 270 and 351, respectively, after 24 h There was a steady build up of DDT residues in the sediment during the first 24 h which continued to a maximum concentration of 6 66 ng g in the sea-water fish sediment ecosystem after 3 weeks and 5.27ngg in the seawater/shrimps/sediment ecosystem after 2.7 days The depuration of the accumulated pesticide was slow with only 54% lost in G. nudiceps within 3 days of exposure in fresh sea water. By contrast, depuration was fast in the while shrimp, which lost 97% of the accumulated pesticide under the same conditions. DDT was found to be toxic to two of the fish species, (G. nebulmis and /_. huruk) and to white shnmp, and the degree of toxicity was dependent on the particular species. The 24 h LCyj al room temperature lor the fish species G. nebulous and white shrimp was found to be 0.011 and O.I 16mg kg. respectively. These levels are comparable to the ones recorded for the temperate organisms. Degradation of DDT to its primary metabolites. DDE and DDD. uas found in all the compartments of the ecosystem with DDE being the major metabolite in the fish, shrimps and sediment, while in se.iwater. DDD dominated as the major metabolite.

I.O JUMBA, N.F SUTTLE, E.A HUNTER, S.O W. "Effects on botanical composition on mineral concentrations in dry pastures in "Western Kenya. In: Appleton, J.D., Fuge, R. and MaCall, G.J.H. (eds).". In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health with Special Reference to Developing Countries, British Geological Society Special Publication No. 113, 39-45. Association of Africa Universities; 1996. Abstract

Abstract: The influence of botanical (pasture species), geographical (altitude) and pedological (bedrock type, soil pH and extractable mineral concentration) factors on mineral concentrations in dry season pasture was studied in samples of topsoil and herbage from 135 sites on 84 farms in the Mt Elgon region of western Kenya. Of the four major elements measured in herbage, only S was affected by geology, low values being found above Tertiary volcanic (TV) and metamorphic gneiss (MG) bedrocks. By contrast, only P was not affected by species, Setaria being low and Kikuyu grass usually high in macro minerals. Of the seven trace elements analysed in herbage, geology influenced only one: Cu; low values were again found above TV and MG but Cu availability to grazing ruminants would be relatively high because of the associated low S values. By contrast, only Se was unaffected by species, Kikuyu grass being high in all but Mn. Soil bedrock had a greater influence on soil composition but correlations between extractable soil and herbage mineral concentrations were poor for all elements, even within botanical species after correction for soil pH and soil contamination. Concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, S, Cu and Zn were often less than tabulated requirements for grazing livestock. However, risks of deficiency could not be predicted from the pedological factors measured.

I.O JUMBA, Musungu F, Nyaoro J. The Energy Sector: A case study on Hydropower. In: Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation.. Association of Africa Universities; 1998. AbstractWebsite

Statement of the Problem
\
Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have been increasing rapidly (IPCC 1994). This increase has been attributed mainly to human activities. The composition of the atmosphere has thus changed considerably and will continue to do so in future. Such changes are capable of affecting the surface climate of the earth and can have possible consequences on both natural and man-made resources, thereby threatening both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Deleterious effects of these consequences will affect the well-being of man through impacts on important sectors such as health, agriculture, transport, industry, and water resources (IPCC 1990; 1995). To these sectors, energy is crucial for their development but energy itself is also vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Negative changes in energy production will therefore seriously affect global industrialization programs as well as national economies considering that global demands for energy have been rising at an annual rate of 2% (IPCC, 1995).
Kenya, like most developing countries relies on biomass (mostly woodfuel and charcoal^as the biggest source of energy, contributing about 73% of the total energy requirements. It is used by over 80% of the rural population, mostly for cooking and heating. In addition to biomass, the other two major sources of energy in Kenya are petroleum and electricity. The domestic sector is the largest consumer (59%), followed by industry (15%), transportation (11%), agriculture (10%), and commercial (5%) sectors (Kenya/Canada Energy Advisory Project, 1991).
When considered in terms of social-economic development, human settlement infrastructure, as well as manufacturing, electricity is the most important form of energy in Kenya Currently, it is generated from several sources including hydropower, gas turbines, geothermal power and diesel engines. Of the total amount generated, hydropower contributes over 76%.
Hydroelectricity generation depends on availability of water, which in turn depends on the prevailing climate. Fluctuations in rainfall and temperature can affect evapotranspiration rates which in turn can determine the channel flow and power generation rates. In this regard, the hydro-power source of electricity becomes the most vulnerable to climate change effects. This study therefore focuses on hydro-power development in Kenya in relation to the impacts of climate change that are anticipated in future.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W, KITUYI E, MARUFU L, ANDREAE MO, HELAS G. "Biofuel availability and domestic use patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 71-82. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

The annual domestic consumption levels and patterns of various common biofuels in Kenya were surveyed. The main fuelwood sources were farmland trees, indigenous forests, woodlands and timber off-cuts from plantations. In 1997, about 15.4 million tonnes of firewood (air-dried) were consumed and an equivalent of 17.1 million tonnes round wood wet weight (w/w) was converted to charcoal. In the same year, 1.4 million tonnes of a variety of crop residues were also consumed as domestic fuel. Biofuel availability was the major factor influencing the reported annual spatial species use and consumption patterns. Competing demand for the commonly-used tree species (mainly eucalyptus trees) for commercial and other purposes accounts, to a large extent, for the reported dwindling amounts. Communities in various regions have responded by gradually shifting to other available types including those in gazetted forests. Such a response strategy has implications on the long-term spatial and temporal biofuel use patterns. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W. "The concentrations of heavy metals, zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium concentrations in human head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technol (A) 3, 27-41. Association of Africa Universities; 1982. Abstract

SUMMARY
An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The per cent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly more sensitive than the AAS instrument used.
The recalculated body burden ratios of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairment symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.

I.O JUMBA, B.M MWASHOTE. "Quantitative aspects of inorganic nutrient fluxes in the Gazi Bay (Kenya): implications for coastal ecosystems.". In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44 (11): 1194-1205. Association of Africa Universities; 2002. Abstract

Fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients: NH+4, NO-2, N-3, PO34 and Si(OH)4 from near shore sediments of Gazi Bay were measured in situ within mangrove, sea grass and coral reef biotopes using benthic flux bell-jar chambers of cross-sectional area 0.066 m2 and volume 0.0132 m3. The objectives were: (1) to determine the influence of benthic fluxes, fluvial discharge and seasonal variations on the nutrient budget in the Bay waters; (2) to determine the effect of tidal and spatial variations on nutrient loads in the water column and (3) to establish the relative importance of the nutrient sources with regard to total community production of the Bay.
The directly measured fluxes ranged from -270 to +148 µmol NH+4-N/m2/h; -60 to +63 µmol NO-2-N/m2/h; -79 to +41 µmol N-3-N/m2/h; -79 to +75 µmol PO34-P/m2/h and +30 to +350 µmol Si(OH)4-Si/m2/h for and respectively. It was established that benthic fluxes are the major sources of dissolved inorganic NH+4, NO-2and Si(OH)4 while fluvial sources are important for N-3 and PO34into Gazi Bay waters. Seasonal variations had an appreciable effect on the PO3-4, fluxes, N:Si ratio, river nutrient discharge, plankton productivity and important environmental factors such as salinity and temperature. Tidal and spatial variations had no significant effect on nutrient concentrations and net fluxes within the water column. The results imply that benthic fluxes are largely responsible for the nutrient dynamics of the near shore coastal ecosystems especially where direct terrestrial inputs do not contribute significantly to the nutrient budget.
© 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Gazi bay; Nutrient sources; Benthic fluxes; Fluvial discharge; Community production; Coastal ecosystems

I.O JUMBA, S.O W. "Levels of aluminium in green leaf of clonala teas, black tea and black tea liquors and effects of rates of nitrogen fertilizers on the aluminium black tea contents.". In: Food Chemistry 35, 59-68. Association of Africa Universities; 1990. Abstract

Clonal teas have different aluminium content increasing with age of leaf. Although aluminium andfertilizernitrogen enhance teagrowth andteayields, respectively, field trials have shown no relationship between total aluminium content in the leaf and clonal tea yields. Higher aluminium concentrations were found in the dust grades of black tea than in the large size grades. However, aluminium levels decreased in the tea liquor from dust grades compared to the large size grades. Only up to 40% of the total aluminium in tea was infused into tea liquors; the amounts infused varied with clones and grading (sorting). Aluminium content of black tea was lowered by increasing rates of nitrogenous fertilizers, more frequent fertilizer application, and application of NPK 20:10:10 as opposed to NPKS 25:5:5:5.

I.O JUMBA, J.O L, S.O W. "Organochlorine pesticide residues in Tana and Sabaki Rivers in Kenya. Bull." Environ. Contam. and Toxicology.. 2003;71:298-307.
I.O JUMBA, N.F SUTTLE, S.O W, E.A HUNTER. "Effects of soil origin and mineral composition of herbage species on the mineral composition of forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya I. Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sulphur.". In: Tropical Grasslands (Journal of Australian Grassland Society) 29, 40-46. Association of Africa Universities; 1995. Abstract

Samples of topsoil (0-30 cm) and dry season herbage from 135 sites in the Mt Elgon region of Kenya were classified according to farm (n = 84), site altitude, underlying soil bedrock (6 types) and botanical composition (6 classes). Effects on pasture concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and S were determined using a mixed model for unbalanced data sets and the Wald (W) statistic to assess the significance of fixed effects. Associated effects on pH, plus extractable Ca and P concentrations in the topsoils were also evaluated.
Soil bedrock influenced herbage concen-trations of S (P < 0.001) but not those of Ca, P or Mg. Mean herbage S concentrations were lowest on volcanic and metamorphic gneiss associations (1.2 g/kg DM) but only extreme values would be inadequate for grazing livestock. Altitude appeared to affect the concentration of P (P < 0.01) and not those of Ca, Mg and S in herbage but the effect on P was dependent on soil P. Geological and topographical maps cannot be used to predict macro-mineral disorders in live¬stock in the Mt Elgon region.
Herbage species differed markedly in their concentrations of S (P < 0.001), Ca (P < 0.001) and Mg (P < 0.05) but not P. Ca deficiency may arise on setaria, S deficiency on some napier grass pastures and P deficiency on some dry season pastures irrespective of botanical compo¬sition.
Low herbage P concentrations may reflect advanced maturity rather than low soil P status (mean value 20 mgP/kg DM). The correlation between soil P and herbage P was significant (r = 0.595), and similar in slope and intercept for all herbage classes but not strong enough to predict deficient Ijerbages. Herbage Ca was not corre¬lated with soil Ca.

I.O JUMBA, V.O M, S.O W. The status of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Lake Victoria Catchment. Proc.. Vol. Vol. II .; 2005. Abstract

The use of most organochlorine pesticides has been banned or restricted in the republic of Kenya under the Rotterdam and Stockholm convention due to high levels of persistence in the environment and toxicity to nontarget organisms. Studies conducted in some parts of the country have revealed that residue levels of these compounds are still in the environment. However, the residues of these compounds have not been exhaustively studied in the Lake Victoria catchment area. This study was set to investigate the residues levels of p,p-DDT, o,p'-DDE, p.p-DDD, g-HCH, D-HCH, a-HCH, Aldrin, and Dieldrin, in water samples from Lake Victoria catchment. Samples were collected during the short rain, dry and wet seasons and analysed using gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector. Residue levels ranging from below detection limit (BDL)-0.44 ug/l in river Nzoia water, between BDL-0.34 ug/l in river Sio water, BDL- 0.26 ug/l in water from Sio Port, and between BDL-0.31 ug/l in water from lake Victoria at Marenga Beach were detected.
Key words: Organochlorine, residues, Lake Victoria

I.O JUMBA, S.O W, N.F SUTTLE. "Mineral composition of tropical forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya. I. Macro-minerals.". In: Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 73 No. 2 (April) 108-112. Association of Africa Universities; 1996. Abstract

A survey of the macro-mineral concentrations in herbage in the Mt Elgon region of western Kenya is described. A total of 135 samples of dry-season herbage from 84 farms covering 30 000 km2 was analysed for calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), and sulphur (S). Mean (±standard deviation) concentrations were Ca, 1.5 (0.52); P, 1.4 (0.76); Mg, 1.6 (0.53); S, 1.5 (0.59) g kg'1 dry matter. Calcium, P, and Mg concentrations were low compared with surveys in other tropical countries but this may partly reflect the mature stage at which herb¬age was sampled. Comparisons with recent estimates of the mineral requirements of ruminants indicated that most of the samples were deficient in Ca and P while a minority was deficient in Mg and S. However, such deficits are not synonymous with constraints upon livestock pro¬duction, and supplementation trials with grazing livestock should be conducted.
Keywords: Calcium; Phosphorus; Magnesium; Sulphur; Tropical pasture

I.O JUMBA, GATARI MJ, GATEBE CK, MANGALA MJ, MAINA C, A.M.KINYUA, D.M.MAINA. "Non-destructive analysis of mercury by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique in beauty creams sold in Kenya. Proc. Int.". In: Proceedings of an international Symposium on Harmonization of Health RelatedEnvironmental Measurements using Nuclear and Isotopic techniques, IAEA Vienna, 361- 368. Association of Africa Universities; 1997. Abstract

NON-DESTRUCTIVE ANALYSIS OF MERCURY BY THE ENERGY DISPERSIVE X RAY FLUORESCENCE TECHNIQUE IN BEAUTY CREAMS SOLD IN KENYA.
Analysis of mercury in 100 different beauty creams by the energy dispersive X ray fluorescence technique is described. Each sample was brought to a melt by warming on a water bath at 40-50eC, and then poured onto a 2.5 cm diameter Mylar backed aluminium ring so as to acquire the configuration of a homogeneous pellet when cooled. No other physical or chemical treatments were applied to the sample. The results of our mercury level measurements and analysis (u,g/g) showed that: (a) the detection limit for the detector system was 3.3; (b) 'Madonna' (green) (n= 10) had the highest level of mercury: 29 000 + 2800; (c) 'Madonna' (red) (n = 10) had a level of 18 000 ± 1700; (d) 'Pimplex' cream (« = 10) had 6800 ± 690; (e) 'Shirley' (original) (n = 10) registered 14 000 ± 1100; (0 'Bestlady' cream registered 13 000 ± 1300; (g) 'Topsine' (n = 10) had 1600 ± 150; (h) 'Fennel' (n = 10) had 4300 ± 430; (i) 'Shirley' (new), 'Dermovate' and 'Topshirley' creams (n = 10 each) registered mercury levels below the detection limit; (j) there was a significant difference (p < 0.001) in the results for 'Madonna' (red), 'Pimplex' and 'Shirley' (original) for batches bought during March and September 1995. The health implications of some of these high levels of mercury present in some beauty creams in Kenya are discussed.

I.O JUMBA, E.O O, J.O B, D.O O. Environmental impact assessment of the proposed National Oil Corporation of Kenya Truck Loading Facility, Industrial Area, Nairobi, Kenya.. NAIROBI: Ministry of Energy; 1999. AbstractWebsite

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
An environmental impact assessment study was carried out in the area covering the proposed National Oil Corporation of Kenya (NOCK) truck loading facility which is located in Nairobi's industrial area. The main objective of the study was to assess the state of the environment before the development and commissioning of the facility, in order that the design of the facility can objectively take into account the minimisation of the risk of possible negative environmental impacts that may be generated by activities at the facility, and that a baseline of the current environmental state in the area be provided for monitoring such changes in the future.
This environmental impact assessment study included: a geological/geophysical survey to establish the geology and structures of the proposed construction site; establishment of baseline levels of groundwater and existence of water wells within the area; determination of current levels of pollution in air, soil and groundwater by chemical analysis of samples collected in the area; qualitative investigation of noise pollution status; assessment of existing factory activities in the vicinity of the site vis a vis their effect on the environment and complementarity of the proposed facility; determination of possible effects of various pollutants on human settlements adjoining the area; and rating the potential health risk to workers within the truck loading facility.
Black cotton soils with a thickness of about 70cm overlie relatively thick (51m) phonolites which characterise the geology of the area. There are a number of fractures/cracks traversing the area in a nearly north-south direction. These are believed to be shallow fractures, and it is recommended that pits be dug 3 to 4 m deep to establish the depth of the fractures. Beneath the phonolites (>51m depth) are the Athi tuffs and lake beds where most of the groundwater in the area occurs. This is consistent with water strike levels in boreholes drilled in the Industrial Area. Given the thickness and impermeability of the phonolites and shallow depth of the fractures, contamination of groundwater (>52m depth) by infiltration of pollutants from the surface is most likely insignificant. Groundwater quality in the area does, however, not appear to be suitable for drinking due to its high Fl and Fe content, but is suitable for other domestic and factory use. Heavy metal analysis of the soils reveals that the only metal that could threaten ground water quality in the area is lead, which appears to come from automobile exhaust emissions and atmospheric loading and fall-out of the volatile gasoline additive, lead tetraethyl. This may contaminate the transient (seasonal) groundwater that accumulates in the near surface zone (weathered, fractured phonolite and soil <8m deep) during the rainy seasons, and dries up soon after the rains.
Analysis of organic volatiles reveals the presence of hydrocarbons (hexane, benzene and xylenes) which are components of petrol. The source of these hydrocarbons appears to be the Kenya Pipeline Company pumping station to the West and Shell, Caltex and Mobil loading facilities to the East of the proposed site. Although the concentrations are not of serious concern, it is recommended that frequent monitoring be done to check any danger that might be posed to the new facility. The air concentrations of sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, ammonia and nitrogen-dioxide suggest a low acid and base deposition in the area. Nitrogen
dioxide levels are, however, close to critical limits. Concentrations of the various air pollutants warrant further monitoring, to check the likely risk on human health within the facility. The nearest human settlements are located at least two kilometres to the North and East of the area, so air pollutants and noise that may emanate from the facility are unlikely to pose a threat to them.
The overall finding of the environmental impact assessment study is that the site is suitable for development of a truck loading facility as proposed by National Oil Corporation of Kenya. It is, however, strongly recommended that this baseline study should form the basis for monitoring and evaluation of the environmental conditions as site development proceeds, and when the facility is operational.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W, D.M.K O, L MBUVI, J.O L, I.O JUMBA. "Accumulation, distribution and Metabolism of 14C-1, 1-Trichloro-2, 2- bis-(p-Chlorophyenly) ethane (ppDDT) residues in model tropical marine ecosystem.". In: Environmental Technology (U.K.) 23, 1285-1292. Association of Africa Universities; 2002. Abstract

Accumulation, distribution and metabolism of ring labelled, "C-1,1,1, - trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) in a model marine aquatic ecosystem consisting of sea water, sediment, oysters (Isognomonon alatus) and Humbug fish (Dascillus aruanus) were studied in the laboratory. "C-p,p'-DDT distributes rapidly in the ecosystem immediately after application on the water surface with reduction of its concentration in the water phase from 1.18 ng g"1 to 0.71 ng g'after 2 hours and an increase in its content in the sediment and oysters. The bioconcentration factor reached a maximum of 19x 10* in oysters, and 1657 in Humbug fish after 24 hours. The sediment concentration reached 117 ng g"1 after 168 hours from start of application. A peak bioconcentration factor of 111 x 103 was calculated after 120 hours when 0.24 mg kg"1 of '^>p,p'-DDT was maintained through dosing every 24 hours with 0.002 mg kg' of a mixture of labelled and non-labelled pesticide. The rate of depuration of accumulated "C-p,p'-DDT sediment residues was up to 78.3% after 24 hours while oysters lost only 14.0% during the same period. The loss in Humbug fish was only 22.2% in three days. Volatilisation and sorption losses from seawater alone (without sediment/biota) were found to be very high in the range of 73.8 - 91.5% over 24 h for p,p'-DDT in aerated and non-aerated ecosystem. Gas chromatograph and TLC analysis of water, sediment and oyster samples revealed presence of p,p'-DDT and substantial amounts of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD three days after pesticide dosage.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W. "The determination of mercury in body beauty soaps and creams sold in Kenya and Norway.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technol (a) 3, 89-91. Association of Africa Universities; 1982. Abstract

flame-less atomic absorption spcctropholometry technique lias been used to determine mercury concentrations in 14 skin-lightening creams and soaps commonly sold in the Kenyan market and 10 in the Norwegian market. The use of borohydride or stannous chloride as the reducing agents for mercuric salts gave different results. When slannous chloride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 222 to 4920 jjg/kg. When borohydride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 0.95 to 1121.86 |jg/kg. The difference in results has been attributed to the difference in digestion modes and the ability of the boric acid to encapsulate the mercuric salts. In general the Kenya products had slightly higher mercury content.

I.O JUMBA, P.W WANGUI, R MADAD, G.A WAFULA, TONGA, C MIRIKAU, R SHIKUKU. KENYA NATIONAL INVENTORY OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (POPs) UNDER THE STOCKHOLM CONVENTION. GEF/UNEP/GoK - PART IV: Identification And Quantification of dioxins and Furans releases in Kenya.. NAIROBI: United Nation Enviroment programme (UNEP),Nairobi; 2006. Abstracttable_tl.docfor_ferrous_and_non_ferrous_category.doc

SUMMARY
The total Dioxins (PCDD) and Furans (PCDF) release in Kenya is estimated to be 4,740 g TEQ per annum. The Uncontrolled Combustion Processes category generates 4,304 g TEQ which is the highest of all the categories that were identified, amounting to 91% of the total national release. Waste Incineration generated 249.4 g TEQ equivalent to 5% of the total national release, while Disposal/Landfilhng category has a notable contribution of 106 g TEQ which amounts to 2% of the total national release. Ferrous and non ferrous metal production contributes 12.8 g TEQ which is equivalent to 0.3% of the total national release. Releases from the remaining categories are not significant when compared to the ones already mentioned. However, this does not in anyway underrate their importance, especially in instances where total elimination by application of Best Available Technologies (BAT) and Best Environmental Practices (BEP) can be achieved. These results are summarised in Table Tl and Figures Fl and F2.
Uncontrolled domestic waste burning, a subcategory under the Uncontrolled Combustion Processes category, is the single most significant source of PCDD/PCDF. It generates 2168 g TEQ, which is equivalent to 45.7% of the total national releases. Landfill fires sub category is the second significant source of release, contributing 2126.3g TEQ which is equivalent to 44.8% of the total national release.
With regards to vectors, air receives the bulk of the PCDD/PCDF amounting to 3,103 g TEQ which is equivalent to 66% of the total national release. The bulk of this release comes from the Uncontrolled Combustion Processes, amounting to 2854g TEQ, which is equivalent to 92% of the total national release to air. Release to residues amounts to 1,614 g TEQ which is approximately 34% of the total national release, with the main contributor to this being Uncontrolled Combustion Processes, These results are summarised in Figure F2.
Uncontrolled Combustion Processes category therefore requires significant attention because of the great impact it may have in the country. Policies to govern the management of solid waste are necessary and would go along way in minimizing this impact. Similar efforts to address medical waste would also have a significant impact on the releases in the country. The release of PCDD/PCDF to water also needs to be addressed seriously considering the fact that a significant percentage of the country's population relies on surface water for domestic use.
There are no municipal waste incinerators in Kenya but there are isolated hazardous waste incinerators. However, the inventory has established that the medical waste accounts for the bulk of releases for this category. This is because majority of the government district hospitals and institutions operate the De Mont fort type incinerators. Only two major hospitals operate commercially acquired incinerators. However, most of the incinerators do not have effective air pollution control systems (APCs). To a large extent many of The medical facilities either openly bum their waste or have installations called incinerators which in effect are open burners. The total release from this category averages 249.4 g TEQ.
Hazardous wastes or waste oil are not currently used as fuel for firing cement kilns for fear of compromising on cement quality.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W, D.M.K O, J.O L. "Dissipation, Distribution and Uptake of 14C-Chloropyrifos in a Model Tropical Seawater/Sediment/Fish Ecosystem. Bull.". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. and Toxicology, 70 883-890. Association of Africa Universities; 2003. Abstract

Chlorpyrifos, O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate, is one of the most widely used organophosphorous pesticides worldwide due its high efficacy (Carvalho et al. 1992; Liu et al. 2001, Meikle and Youngson 1978). In Kenya, Dursban formulations are mainly used for protection of horticultural fruits and vegetables (Lalah 1994), Because of its low water solubility (0.4 mg/L) and high hydrophobicity (log Kow of 5.27), it is believed that chlorpyrifos would be able to partition easily onto aquatic sediments and macrophytes where it can pose dangers to benthic organisms (Ronday et al. 1998). It is also quite a volatile toxicant due to its low vapour pressure (2.5 mPa at 25 °C) and low air-to-water partition coefficient (8.9 10"4 at 25 °C) and its residues have been detected in air and rainwater samples (Liu et al. 2001).Increasing use of chlorpyrifos also causes a lot of anxiety to environmentalists and toxicologists because it is toxic to both humans and wildlife. As an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, it can cause impairment in mammalian brain cell development (Lund et al. 2000; Jeanty et al 2001; Jett et al 1999; Slotkin et al. 2001). Widespread use of this compound is therefore considered to be of great danger particularly to pregnant women and children Some of its reported toxicities to aquatic organisms include 96 hr LCNo of 0.13 |.ig/L and 96 hr LC?o of 0.035 Ug/L in adult Neomysis integer and Americamysis bahia, respectively (Roast et al. 1999). Although its toxicity in mammalian and aquatic organisms has been well documented, its fate and effects on aquatic ecosystems in tropical conditions where it is expected to degrade and dissipate faster (Carvalho et al 1992) are little known. In a laboratory model aquarium simulating a tropical marine environment, we studied the persistence and accumulation of HC-chlorpyrifos in sediment, fish and oysters. The results obtained from these studies are reported in this paper.

I.O JUMBA, N.F SUTTLE, S.O W. "Macro and trace element composition of forages in Western Kenya: Implications for sheep and cattle health and production.". In: Kenya Chemical Society Inaugural Conference Proceedings, June 7-11, 1993, pp 149-154. Association of Africa Universities; 1993. Abstract

ABSTRACT
In a preliminary study, 135 samples of mature forages from 84 livestock farms (farm size 10 • 6000 acres) in Bungoma and Trans Nzoia districts were assessed for both macro (Co, S, Mg and P) and trace elements (Co, Cu, Se, Mo, Zn, Fe and Mn) using a variety of chemical techniques. Mean concentrations of these elements were low compared with surveys in other tropical countries. Comparison with recent estimates of the mineral requirements of cattle and sheep indicated that 70 -98 % of the forages were deficient in Co, P and Cu. Several pastures contained less Mg, S, Zn andSe than ruminants are thought to require but deficiencies of Co, Mn and Fe were rare. Re-assessment of the data for Cu availability using two derived prediction equations, one for hay: Cu (%DM)=8.9 -0.7logtMo - 2.61logc S and the other for grass: Cu (%DM) = 5.72 - 1.2975 • 2.785hgf Mo + 0.227 Mo X S showed that forage Mo and S rarely reached concentrations high enough to be antagonistic to Cu. However, Fe concentrations were sufficiently high to implicate this element as an independent Cu antagonist. Since forage mineral deficits are not synonymous with constraints upon livestock production, the possibility of such constraints should be further investigated, first through blood analysis and then by supplementation trials with grazing animals beginning with Cu.

I.O JUMBA, Mbakaya CFL, P.A O, W B, W K, H N, J W, P N, P O. "Micronutrient Zinc Deficiency as a possible co-factor in the transmission and progression of HIV/AIDS in Kenya. Afri. J. Food, Agric., Nutr. and Development Vol. 4 (2). Also available at www.talcuk.org:." Community Nutrition Material for healthcare workers in resource-Poor areas .UNICEF. 2004;vol 4 (2)(0-9549467-9-0/978-09549467-9-1). AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
Thirty-four HIV/AIDS patients at various stages of disease progression volunteered to manage their health using a nutritional supplement that contained several micronutrients that included a 15 nig daily dose of elemental zinc. This initial publication only focuses on trends in the serum zinc levels and the observed biochemical changes following intervention, considering the critical role this trace element plays in human immunity. At baseline and after 30 months of follow-up, the patients' serum zinc levels were determined as was their clinical status. Four women who were found to be HIV negative at baseline and who had lost their husbands to HIV/AIDS, yet they had regularly had un-protected sex with them, had a mean serum zinc level of 116.2 ± 32.7 meg/100 ml. The serum zinc levels of asymptomatic, moderately symptomatic and severely symptomatic HIV/AIDS patients in the cohort reduced from baseline to post intervention levels of 92.5+12.1 to 78.0 + 8.2 meg/100 ml (P = 0.056); 81.9+ 17.6 to 73.2 + 12.2 meg/100 ml (P = 0.267) and 72.7+ 8.0 to 66.8 + 14.3 meg/100 ml (P = 0.022), respectively, all being far below the mean serum zinc level of 120.0 + 22.0 meg/100 ml reported in normal control subjects in Western literature. For all patients combined, the serum zinc levels fell from 79.2 + 14.5 to 71.0 + 13.0 meg/100 ml (P= 0.016) notwithstanding that the patients had used zinc supplements at recommended daily allowances (RDA) over a period of 30 months. Notably, micronutrient zinc sufficiency plays a key role in promoting cell-mediated immunity and it is probably partly due to this reason that the high-risk women in this study, who also had comparably high serum zinc levels fell from 79.2 +/-14.5 to 71.0 +/-13.0 mcg/100 ml (p=0.016) notwithstanding that patients had used zinc supplements at recommended daily allowances (RDA) over a period of 30 months. Notably, micronutrient zinc sufficiency plays a key role in promoting cell -mediated immunity and it is probably partly due to this reason that the high risk women in this study, who also had comparably high serum zinc levels, remained negative for HIV antibodies despite repeated exposure to the virus. thus from this preliminary data shows HIV/AIDS patients to be deficient in zinc in a manner consistent with their status of disease progression and considering that this trace element is recognized to possess antiviral and antibacterial properties, it is now apparently evident that zinc supplementation may play a key role in the fight against HIV/AIDS not only in Kenya but also in other African countries where the disease has reached epidemic proportions against a background of rampant malnutrition

Key words: Micro nutrient zinc, underutilized arsenal, combating, hiv/aids, SUB-SAHARAN Africa

I.O JUMBA, kituyi E.N, S.O W. "Occurrence of chlorfenvinvos in cow's milk sampled at a range of sites in western Kenya.". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. and Toxic. (USA) 58(6), 969-975. Association of Africa Universities; 1997. Abstract

Kenya's fast growing human population is expected to reach 35 million by the year 2000. In order to cope with such a rapid rate of growth, efforts must be directed towards adequate agricultural and livestock production to counter the disproportionate increase in demand for food. To provide sufficient animal protein (milk and beef products) attempts must be made to eliminate the current constraints hindering livestock production and expansion in Kenya (KARI,1989). One such constraint (in terms of both health effects and economic losses) is the presence of several important infectious diseases affecting cattle, characterized by the occurrence of parasites in the animal's blood (haemoparasites) (Mutugi et al, 1989).
There are two major groups of haemoparasitic diseases that occur in Kenya: tick-transmitted, and tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted (trypanosomiasis) diseases. Tick-borne diseases are considered to be the most important animal health problem in the high potential areas, while trypanosomiasis is a major threat in the low potential range lands (Mutugi, 1986). These diseases restrict introduction of higher producing but susceptible stock in certain areas of the country; inflict high mortalities in susceptible stock; lead to productivity losses in recovered animals; and necessitate exclusion of highly productive breeds of livestock from locations where there is an outbreak (FAO, 1984).
Tick-borne diseases frequently encountered in Kenya are theileriosis, anaplasmosis, cowdriosis and babesiosis. Theileriosis comprises a group of protozoan parasites of the genus Theileria, which are transmitted by the ixodid ticks. Four different species of this genus are recorded in cattle; clinical theileriosis is associated with one species, Theileria parva transmitted by the brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. This species causes the notorious East Coast Fever (ECF), a highly fatal disease of cattle. A closely related form, corridor disease (T.parva Tawrencei infection) transmitted by the same tick is a buffalo derived parasite that causes very high mortalities in infected cattle (Mutugi et al, 1989). In Western Kenya, both ECF and anaplasmosis are common practical animal health problems that are seriously affecting the livestock industry. Outbreaks of these diseases are frequent and have continued to pose great challenges in terms of control for over 80 years.

Currently, the most conventional method of controlling ECF and anaplasmosis in cattle involves the use of acaricides. In Western Kenya, many types of acaricides are available but presently, the most commonly used chemical is chlorfenvinphos (ILRAD, 1991). It is frequently applied on cattle either through plunge dips or sprays. Little, however, is known about the fate of this compound and its residual effect in milk and beef. A recent survey in Kenya (KEMRI,1988) suggests that chronic or acute exposure to chlorfenvinphos can result in serious health effects in humans. Residue levels exceeding 8jug/kg of butterfat in cow's milk are currently regarded as dangerous for human consumption (Codex Alimentarius,1993), although concentrations as high as 20/ig/kg have been reported in Australia (Shell, 1969).
The purpose of this project was to establish the levels of chlorfenvinphos typically occurring in Kenyan cow's milk; and to determine the influence of season (climate changes) variation in butterfat content, and method of acaricide application (plunge dip or spray) on the residue content in milk sampled at a range of sites in Western Kenya.

Correspondence to: I. O. Jumba

I.O JUMBA, S.M KISIA. "Skull abnormalities in the Waterbuck Kobus Ellipsiprymnus Defassa (Ruppel 1935) in the Rift Valley Lake Systems of Kenya.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian (Journal of the Kenya Veterinary Association) 23, 85-86. August 1998 Issue. Association of Africa Universities; 1998. Abstract

|7 Skulls of the waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprynnus defassa) ithree lake systems of the central Kenyan Rift Valley (viz. tfakuru, Elementaita and Naivasha) were examined for bnormalities, as a result of chronic signs of ill health, in ome of the animals in the region. The waterbuck were ulled randomly and weighed. Several parameters were leasured. A post mortem examination was carried out on ach of the animals culled. Bone samples were stripped F all tissue by boiling. The skulls were weighed and amined for any abnormalities. The teeth were used for eing the animals.
lemean age of the waterbuck was 5.1±1.7 years. 67% of Bimals in poor body condition showed skeletal normalities including pathological eruption and growth • wear of teeth. The teeth had black stains along the gual and buccal surfaces but no evidence of fluorosis. |je abnormalities observed in the skulls could be uted to mineral imbalances in some of the areas in the al Kenyan Rift Valley region. Abnormal eruption of i could in turn play a role in poor feeding of the affected als thus contributing to poor health.

I.O. JUMBA1, Wandiga SO, N.F SUTTLE, E.A HUNTER. "Effects of soil origin and mineral composition and herbage species on the mineral composition of forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya. 2. Trace elements." Tropical Grasslands (1995), . 1995; Volume 29:47-52 . Abstract

Samples of topsoil and herbage from 135 sites in the Mt Elgon region of Kenya were classified according to farm, site altitude, underlying soil bedrock (6 types) and botanical composition (6 classes). Effects of altitude, bedrock and species on pasture concentrations of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn were determined using a mixed model for unbalanced data sets and the Wald statistic (W) to assess statistical significance. Extractable concentrations of each element in the soil were measured at each site except for Se where total Se was used.
Cu values were particularly low in forages associated with tertiary volcanic bedrock (3.8 ± 0.34 mg/kg DM), but even the maximal values (5.4 ± 0.34 mg/kgDM on metamorphosed sedi¬mentary material) were marginal for ruminants. Se and Cu concentrations were usually low at low altitudes but no other significant effects of alti¬tude or geology on herbage trace element concen¬trations were found. For Cu and Se alone, geological and topographical maps may help to delineate areas where risks of deficiency are high or low. Herbage composition was poorly corre¬lated with total (Se) or extractable (other trace elements) concentrations in the soil.
Species differences were important for all Clements except Se, with kikuyu grass (Pennis-etum clandestinum) the richest in all but Mn. For Cu and Zn, deficiencies were most likely to occur with rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) with 3.5 mg Cu and 19.5 mgZn/kg DM and setaria (Setaria sphacelata) with 3.9 mg Cu and 17.7 mg Zn/kg DM. Species differences in Mo were within a low range of values (derived means < 1.6 mg/kgDM) but may, in combination with S, influence Cu availability. The lowest mean Se value (0.047 mg/ kgDM in setaria) was inadequate for ruminants. Species variation in Co, Fe and Mn was signifi¬cant but values were consistently above animal requirements and for Co and Fe were probably influenced by soil contamination.

I.O.Kibwage. "K.A.M Kuria, M. De Proft, IJ. Hoogmartens and G.M. Laekeman. Cultivating the African plant Ajuga remota in Belgium and confirming it's biological activity against plasmodium falciparum. Zeitschrift fur Arzenei-& Gewurzpflanzen(Z.Arzn.Gew.Pfe.6:69-72."; 2001. Abstract

Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological investigations led to
identification of Ajuga remota Benth (Lamiaceae) as being frequently
used in herbal medicine treatment of malaria in Kenya. The
antimalarial activity of the plant has been confirmed by in vitro testing
against Plasmodium falciparum. In order to ensure a continuous
production of plant material we started local cultures in ieuven
(Belgium).
Micropropagation of Ajuga remota starting from seeds ona general
culture medium was not successful. Sowing the seeds in full soil in
the greenhouse resulted in a germination rate of more than 75 %.
Intensive watering was necessary to initiate germination. Within 4
months the plant could be harvested and decoctions were prepared
from the dried material. The antimalarial activity of Belgian Ajuga
remota decoctions in vitro expressed as ICso (mean ± SO) was
998 ± 168 uqirn'. This was comparable with the ICso of Kenyan
grown Ajuga remota: 974 ± 112 j.1g/ml. Greenhouse cultivation
seems to provide satisfying conditions to grow enough plants and
enabling further research into validating Kenyan herbal medicine
practice.

I.T. KAMANJA, Mbaria J.M., P.K. GATHUMBI, M. MBAABU, A LANYASUNYA, D.W. G, D KABASAJ, S.G. KIAMA. Medicinal Plants Used in the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections by the Samburu Community, Kenya. Kamanja et al ; 2015.ijpr_2015_72_44-52_research_5-_mgt_std_samburu.pdf
I.W M, C.M K. TFD 632:Socialization Process and Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi-ODEL; 2012.
I.W.  K, G.W. W, G. N, Khatete DI, W.I A. "Preparedness of Public Secondary School in Integration of Information Communication Technology in Teaching-Learning Process in Nyeri South District." .” Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) . 2015;6 (5): 371-382 .
C
Cornet I, Gheit T, Franceschi S, Vignat J, Burk RD, Sylla BS, Tommasino M, Clifford GM. "Human papillomavirus type 16 genetic variants: phylogeny and classification based on E6 and LCR." J. Virol.. 2012;86(12):6855-61. Abstract

Naturally occurring genetic variants of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) are common and have previously been classified into 4 major lineages; European-Asian (EAS), including the sublineages European (EUR) and Asian (As), African 1 (AFR1), African 2 (AFR2), and North-American/Asian-American (NA/AA). We aimed to improve the classification of HPV16 variant lineages by using a large resource of HPV16-positive cervical samples collected from geographically diverse populations in studies on HPV and/or cervical cancer undertaken by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In total, we sequenced the entire E6 genes and long control regions (LCRs) of 953 HPV16 isolates from 27 different countries worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed previously described variant lineages and subclassifications. We characterized two new sublineages within each of the lineages AFR1 and AFR2 that are robustly classified using E6 and/or the LCR. We could differentiate previously identified AA1, AA2, and NA sublineages, although they could not be distinguished by E6 alone, requiring the LCR for correct phylogenetic classification. We thus provide a classification system for HPV16 genomes based on 13 and 32 phylogenetically distinguishing positions in E6 and the LCR, respectively, that distinguish nine HPV16 variant sublineages (EUR, As, AFR1a, AFR1b, AFR2a, AFR2b, NA, AA1, and AA2). Ninety-seven percent of all 953 samples fitted this classification perfectly. Other positions were frequently polymorphic within one or more lineages but did not define phylogenetic subgroups. Such a standardized classification of HPV16 variants is important for future epidemiological and biological studies of the carcinogenic potential of HPV16 variant lineages.

I
Ibisomi L, Odimwegu C, Otieno A, KIMANI M. ". Degree of Preference Implementation and Fertility Changes in Developing Countries.". In: The XXVth IUSSP Conference. Tours, France; 2005.
ibrahim Y. "Cultural, Environmental and Sustainability Issues in a Third World City.". In: Seminar Talks: 3rd year Studio 2006/7. ADD Building, UoN; 2006.
Ibrahim E;A. "Can Africa's saving collapse be reversed? .". 2000. AbstractWebsite

Private saving in Sub-Saharan Africa declined from more than 11 percent of disposable income in the 1970s to less than 8 percent in the 1980s and only partially recovered (to less than 9 percent) in the 1990s. This article analyzes the determinants of private saving in Sub-Saharan Africa, seeking to explain the region's dismal performance and identify policies that could help to reverse the region's decline in saving. The analysis shows that in Sub-Saharan Africa causality runs from growth to investment (and perhaps to private saving), whereas a rise in the saving rate Granger-causes an increase in investment. Foreign aid Granger-causes a reduction in both saving and investment, and investment also Granger-causes an increase in foreign aid. The empirical analysis of private saving in Sub-Saharan Africa and other regions over 1970–95 suggests that private saving in Africa can be explained by standard behavioral models. According to these models private saving in Africa lags behind that in other regions (most notably, the high performing Asian economies) because of the region's lower per capita income, high young-age dependency ratio, and high dependence on aid. The combined effects of these factors substantially outweigh Africa's advantage from its lower public saving and higher government consumption. Finally, analysis of the experiences of Kenya, Zimbabwe, and Botswana provides further insight into the saving process in Sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright The Author 2000. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / the world bank

Ibrahim, Farah A; Kahn H. "Assessment of world views .". 1987.Website
Ichang’i DW, J.Omenge, Opiyo Akech N. "Got Ramogi: A Rare Syenitic Intrusion in the Archaean Greenstone Belt of Western Kenya." African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Science and Engineering Series. 2015;13(1):58-67.
Ichimaru, M. MPBC, et al. "Hydroxyespintanol and Schefflericha cone:Two new compounds from Uvaria scheffleri." Nat. Med . 2010;64:75-79 .
Ichimaru, M; Nakatani MNKMJCMN; M;. "Hydroxyespintanol and schefflerichalcone: two new compounds from Uvaria scheffleri.". 2010. Abstract

A chemical investigation of the petroleum ether extract and chloroform extract of the root of Uvaria scheffleri Diels (Annonaceae) led to the isolation of two new compounds, named hydroxyespintanol (1) and schefflerichalcone (2), together with eight known compounds (3-10). The structural elucidation of compounds 1 and 2 by spectroscopic studies is described. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells was studied. Among these, 2'-hydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxychalcone (5) exhibited cytotoxicity (IC(50) 12 microM), and espintanol (3), which was the main ingredient, also showed some cytotoxicity (IC(50) 44 microM)

Idah G, Ndeti N, Mberia H. "Evaluating Opinion Leadership Strategies used to Communicate Adaptive Climate Change Information to Residents of Arid and Semi-Arid Areas in Kenya." International journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2014;Vol. 4,(Issue 12.).
Idenya PM, Oburra HO. "Frequency of Adenotonsillectomy in some Nairobi Hospitals." East African Medical Journal. 2001;78(7):338-342. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors.
Design: Retrospective, descriptive study.
Setting: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals.
Results: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1 % of cases.
Conclusion: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.

Idenya PM. Standing in the Gap: an invite to minister as intercessor. US: Xulon Press; 2015. AbstractXulon Press

When I made the decision to make prayer a part of my daily activities, I found myself drawn to it by an inner yearning that made me look forward to those moments. Initially I prayed for my own needs, then for those close to me, then for those who asked me to pray for them. There emerged a noticeable pattern of how I prayed. It was by a movement of my heart in prayer, over which I had absolutely no control. I only needed to start praying and I would find myself drawn to particular groups or situations to pray for - ‘the unborn’, ‘the departed souls’, ‘peace in families’, ‘mothers’, ‘priests’, ‘the unemployed’. One time, while I was praying the rosary, I felt drawn to pray for missionaries. When I finished, I went to my workplace and immediately did an internet search on “missionary rosary”. I came across the “world mission rosary” that was inaugurated by Venerable Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen with these words, “We must pray, and not for ourselves, but for the world.”
Praying with this rosary became my transformation into intercessory prayer for all the peoples of the world. The joy that I found in intercession drew me to do some research work on intercession as a gift and as a ministry. That which I thought was something that is for a specific group of people turned out to be an open invite to all who are baptized Christians. I found this to be one area we can and should take up seriously our baptismal commitment as priests, prophets and kings. Thus, I decided to share my findings with all those who are probably desirous to serve in this ministry by coming up with “Standing in the Gap: an invite to minister as intercessor”. Will you?

Idenya PM. Under the Watchful Eye of Mary: LIVING the MYSTERIES of the HOLY ROSARY. UK: AuthorHouse; 2016. AbstractAuthorHouse UK

As the Lord Jesus faced imminent death upon the Cross, He dedicated all His beloved disciples to a love relationship with His Mother saying, “Behold your mother!” St. John was present at the foot of the Cross, representing all mankind. And from that hour, he took her into his home. This commissioning of the Blessed Virgin Mary as Mother of all mankind illustrates the great love with which the LORD Jesus offered His life for all peoples - by giving us the gift of His mother. All are to comprehend that Mary has an active role to play in our faith and in our spiritual life. We acknowledge that this is how the LORD Jesus wished to bring His Sacrifice to completion by entrusting His mother to His beloved disciple, and in the beloved disciple to all mankind. It is a concrete maternal love relationship between Mary and all who trustingly commend themselves to her care. Under the watchful eye of Mary is a spiritual journey where we learn from the Blessed Mother of God what living a worthy discipleship in the LORD is, and we meditatively pray with the Blessed Mary as the first Christian Community did before Pentecost.

Ifeoluwa Adekoya, Adewale Obadina, Cynthia Chilaka Adaku, Marthe De Boevre, Okoth S, Saeger SD, Njobeh P. "Mycobiota and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in South African maize-based opaque beer." International journal of food microbiology. 2018;270:22-30.
Igizeneza A, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW. "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from indigenous slaughter chicken in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 2018;95(10).
Ignatovich VF. "Enhancement of the antigenic activity and virulence of the vaccine strain E of Rickettsia prow azeki by passages in cell culture." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):481-5. Abstract

Changes in the biological properties of the vaccine strain E of Rickettsia prowazeki occurred upon cultivation of A1 (human amnion) cells infected with this strain. In the course of passages of these cells the antigenic activity and virulence of the rickettsia increased. The changes were observed in 10 out of 22 cell cultures examined: in 6 cultures there was an increase in the antigenic activity and in 4 both in the antigenic activity and in virulence. The time of the occurrence of these changes in the rickettsial populations varied from 12-18 to 53-102 days of passage of the infected cells.

Ihwagi FW, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Kironchi G, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina, Douglas‐Hamilton I. "Rainfall pattern and nutrient content influences on African elephants’ debarking behaviour in Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya." African Journal of Ecology. 2012;50(2):152-159.
IJMwaniki. "On long-term-memory volatility and asymmetry in TOP40 and NSE20 index log returns." ECONOMICS AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCE. 2019. AbstractWebsite

This article investigates the presence of long term memory of returns in south African and Kenyan financial markets over a period 1995-2010. Empirical results indicate significant presence of linear autocorrelation of order three for NSE20 index and autocorrelation of order one for TOP40 index. There is strong evidence of changing variance for both indices in addition to more autocorrelation between absolute returns for both markets. Theoretical autocorrelation function is fitted and parameters estimated. Different ARCH type models are conditioned on normal distribution and A-PGARCH model based on absolute daily returns seems to significantly outperform four other models (TGARCH, GARCH, GARCH-M and GJR-GARCH) in modeling the changing variance and volatility asymmetry in the two emerging markets.

IJMwaniki. "On Heteroscedastic, Skewed and Leptokurtic Log Returns and Spectral Density of Standardized Residuals." Journal of Advances in Economics and Finance. 2019;4 (May 2019):79-90. AbstractWebsite

A search for a distribution which adequately describes the dynamics of log returns has been a subject of study for many years. Empirical evidence has resulted in stylized facts of returns. Arguably, in this study, the three components of returns, mean equation part, the changing variance. part and the resulting residuals are determined and their corresponding parameters estimated within the proposed framework. Spectral density analysis is used to trace the seasonality component.
inherent in the standardized residuals. Empirical data sets from eight different indexes and common
stock are applied to the model, and results tabulated in support of the resulting framework.

IJMwaniki. "On skewed leptokurtic returns and pentanomial lattice option valuation via minimal entropy martingale measure." Cogent Economics & Finance. 2017;5(1):1-16. AbstractWebsite

This article develops, a lattice-based approach for pricing contingent claims when parameters governing the logs of the underlying asset dynamics are modelled by generalized hyperbolic distribution and normal inverse Gaussian distribution. The pentanomial lattice is constructed using a moment matching procedure. Moment generating functions of generalized hyperbolic distribution and normal inverse Gaussian distribution are utilized to compute probabilities and jump parameters under historical measure P. Minimal entropy martingale measure (MEMM) is used to value European call option with a view of comparing the results with some of the existing benchmark models such as Black Scholes model. Empirical data from S&P500 index, RUTSELL2000 index and RUI1000 index are used to demonstrate how the model works. There is a significant difference especially for long term maturity (six months and above) type of contracts, the proposed model outperform the benchmark model, while performing poorly at short term contracts. Pentanomial NIG models seem to outperform the other models, especially for long-dated maturities.

IJMwaniki. "Modeling heteroscedastic, skewed and leptokurtic returns in discrete time." Journal of Applied Finance & Banking. 2019;9(5):1-14. AbstractWebsite

Popular models of finance, fall short of accounting for most empirically found stylized features of financial time series data, such as volatility clustering, skewness and leptokurtic nature of log returns. In this study, we propose a general framework for modeling asset returns which account for serial dependencies in higher moments and leptokurtic nature of scaled GARCH filtered residuals. Such residuals are calibrated to normal inverse Gaussian and hyperbolic distribution. Dynamics of risky assets assumed in Black Scholes model, Duans GARCH model and other benchmark models for contract valuation, are shown to be nested in the the proposed framework

IJMwaniki. "Geometric Brownian Motion assumption and the generalized hyperbolic distribution on modeling returns." Journal of advances in applied mathematics. 2019;4 (3):103-111. AbstractWebsite

Generalized hyperbolic distribution and some of its subclasses like normal, hyperbolic and variance gamma distributions are used to fit daily log returns of eight listed companies in Nairobi Securities Exchange and Montréal Exchange. EM-based maximum likelihood estimation procedure is used to estimate parameters of the model. Kernel densities and empirical distribution of data are compared. The goodness of fit statistics of proposed distributions are used to measure how well model fits the data. Empirical results show that Generalized hyperbolic Distribution seems to improve partially, the geometric Brownian assumption on modeling returns of the underlying process, both in a developed and emerging market. Both markets seem to have different stochastic time

Ijumba N, Abungu NO. "Power factor correction and energy cost savings.". In: The 4TH IEEE Africon Conference in Africa ( South African Universities Power Engineering Conference. IEEE Africon Conference in Africa ( South African Universities Power Engineering Conference); 1994. Abstract

In this paper a hybrid numerical technique is presented, suitable for analyzing transmission properties of an arbitrarily shaped slot in a thick conducting plane. The slot is  excited by an electromagnetic source of arbitrary orientation. The analysis of the problem is based on the "generalized network formulation" for aperture problems. The problem is solved using the method of moments(MOM) and the finite element method(FEM) in a hybrid format. The finite element method is applicable to inhomogeneously filled slots of arbitrary shape while the method of moments is used for solving the electromagnetic fields in unbounded regions of the slot. The cavity region has been subdivided into tetrahedral elements resulting in triangular elements on the surfaces of the apertures.  Validation results for rectangular slots are presented. Close agreement between our data and published results is observed.  Thereafter, new data has been generated for cross-shaped, H-shaped and circular apertures.

Ijumba, N; Abungu NO. "Power Factor Correction And Energy Cost Savings.". 1994.
Ijumba N, Gakuru M, Abungu NO. "Applications of electric field calculations in optimization of insulator design.". In: The 4th IEEE International Conference on Properties and Applications of Dielectric Material. The IEEE International Conference on Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials; 1994. Abstract

When an insulator is placed in an electrode gap, its surface charge field distorts the geometric field, leading to a flashover at a voltage value dependent on the degree of the gap field distortion. This paper reports on studies conducted to determine the relationship between flashover voltages and electric filed distribution along solid insulator surfaces. The surface electric field distribution along different insulator profiles was determined using the Finite-Difference method, and the flashover of the actual profile model measured. The obtained results show that each profile had a peak surface electric field and the higher the peak value, the lower the flashover voltage. The correlation curve for peak electric field and flashover voltage was developed using a curve fitting technique based on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm.

Ijumba N, Orero SO, Abungu NO. "Computer applications in voltage monitoring and control (case of the Kenya Power and Lighting Company.". In: The International Workshop on Voltage Collapse & Voltage Regulatio. The International Workshop on Voltage Collapse & Voltage Regulation; 1992. Abstract

When an insulator is placed in an electrode gap, its surface charge field distorts the geometric field, leading to a flashover at a voltage value dependent on the degree of the gap field distortion. This paper reports on studies conducted to determine the relationship between flashover voltages and electric filed distribution along solid insulator surfaces. The surface electric field distribution along different insulator profiles was determined using the Finite-Difference method, and the flashover of the actual profile model measured. The obtained results show that each profile had a peak surface electric field and the higher the peak value, the lower the flashover voltage. The correlation curve for peak electric field and flashover voltage was developed using a curve fitting technique based on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm.

IK N. "MALARIA: Poverty, Race, and Public Health in the United States, by Margaret Humphreys.". In: The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 196 pp., 2001, $41.50 (Hardcover) Social Science and Medicine Vol. 57(12): 2476-2476. Wiley Interscience; 2003. Abstract

Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. This article assesses knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer among rural women of Kenya. One hundred and sixty women (mean age 37.9 years) who sought various health care services at Tigoni subdistrict hospital, Limuru, Kenya, were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire. In addition, three focus group discussions (25 participants) were held, five case narratives recorded, and a free list of cervical cancer risk factors obtained from a group of 41 women respondents. All women were aged between 20 and 50 years. About 40% knew cervical cancer, although many still lack factual information. A history of sexually transmitted diseases (61.5%), multiple sexual partners (51.2%), and contraceptive use (33%) were identified as risk factors. Other factors mentioned include smoking, abortion, and poor hygiene standards. High parity, early sexual debut, and pregnancy were not readily mentioned as risk factors. We propose a folk causal model to explain the link between these factors and cervical cancer. Lack of knowledge constrains utilization of screening services offered at the clinics. Consequently, respondents support educating women as a way to tackling issues on cervical cancer. It is recommended that an integrated reproductive health program that addresses comprehensively women's health concerns be put in place.

Ikamari LDE. "‘Situation Analysis of MCH facilities in Teso District, Kenya, Kenya’." Health line: A Journal of Health. 2002;6(4):64-71. AbstractWebsite

This paper sets to establish the factors that underlie the choice of place of delivery among expectant women in Teso District. This paper uses the data and information collected in Teso District between the year 2000 and 2001. The results indicate that out of the 76 per cent of 1170 women in the reproductive age and who had a birth during the five years preceding the study delivered their last born babies at home. This was a result of lack of access to institutionalised care, the availability of cheap and more accessible alternative care providers (TBAs) and the poor quality of services offered at the local health facilities. The traditional birth attendants and nurse/midwives were the main providers of maternal health care. The constraints to utilisation of institutionalised delivery care were manifold. The major constraints were unavailability and inaccessibility of health facilities, competing priorities, poverty, exorbitant user charges and associated costs, and poor services offered at the local health facilities. Reducing or removing these constraints would result in increased utilisation of institutionalised delivery care in the study district.

Ikamari LDE. "‘State of Maternal Health in Rural Kenya’.". In: Maternal Health Challenges in Kenya-What Evidence Shows Workshop. Serena Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
Ikamari LDE. "Population Growth and Socio-economic development.". In: Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Training Seminar for Registered Nurses and Clinical Officers of the Ministry of HealthOrganised by The Family Planning Private Sector (FPPS). Methodist Guest House, Nairobi, Kenya; 1993.
Ikamari LDE. A situation Analysis of the Health Facilities in Teso District’. Rockefeller Foundation; 2001.
Ikamari LDE, Towett R. "‘Sexual Initiation and Contraceptive Use Among Female Adolescents in Kenya’." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2007;Volume 14:1-13.
Ikamari LDE. "'Socio-economic Impact of AIDS at Malaba Border Township, Kenya’.". In: AIDS Workshop . Nairobi; 1992.
Ikamari LDE. "Barriers to Utilisation of Maternal Health care in Teso District’.". In: Rockefeller Foundation.; 2001.
Ikamari LDE. "‘An upsurge in early childhood mortality in Kenya: A search of explanations’ ." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2004;11(1 & 2):9-20. AbstractWebsite

 Journal of African Health Sciences (11) 1&2: 9-20.

Ikamari, LDE; Ayiemba EHO. "Population And Sustainable Development."; 2001.
Ikamari LDE. "Regional variation in neonatal and post-neonatal motality in Kenya." Journal of African Population Studies. 2013;Vol 27(1).
Ikamari, Lawrence D.E.; Oucho O-AAOJ; ABC. "Regional variation in infant mortality in Kenya: A search for explanations."; 2000.
Ikamari LDE. "’The effect of birth intervals on infant and child mortality in Kenya." Tanzanian Journal of Population Studies and Development. 1997;4(2):1-20. AbstractWebsite

This article seeks to identify some of the factors underlying regional variation in child mortality in Kenya. The data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey are used for the purpose. Logistic regression is used to analyse the data. On the basis of child mortality estimates obtained, provinces were grouped into two mortality groups: High (HLM) and Low (LMP). The results show that the values of explanatory variables in LMP were significantly high than in the high mortality region. However, their differences did not explain much of the differences in the variation in child mortality between the two regions. Decomposing the results revealed that the differences were largely due to nature or structure of relations between mortality and explanatory variables.

Ikamari LDE. "‘Development, Implementation and Funding of Population Policy and Programmes in Kenya’.". In: The University of Nairobi Silver Jubilee and PSRI 20th Anniversary Celebrations. PSRI, University of Nairobi ; 1997.
Ikamari LDE. "Health Systems Research: A Training Manual.". In: A manual developed for African Medical and Research Foundation. Headquarters, Nairobi; 2004.
Ikamari LDE. "’Sibling mortality correlation in Kenya’." Journal of Biosocial Science. 2002;32:265-278. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines whether infant and child mortality risks among successive siblings are closely correlated, and if so, whether the survival status of the preceding child is an important factor affecting infant and child mortality in Kenya. The data used were drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. The results indicate both infant and child mortality rates were significantly higher among subsequent children whose preceding siblings had died in infancy than for those whose preceding siblings had survived through infancy. The results provide empirical evidence that infant and child mortality risks among successive siblings are closely correlated in Kenyan families and that effect of the survival status of the preceding child is in important in determining infant mortality but not child mortality.

IKAMARI L, Ocholla-Ayayo ABC, Nyamongo I, Otieno AAT. Maternal mortality situation in Kenya, Population, Health and Development.; 2000.Website
Ikamari LDE. "Re-positioning of the Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCDs) initiative in Kenya, 2001-2007.". In: Consultative meeting on Documenting Best /Promising Practices in Population & Reproductive health. Dhaka Bangladesh; 2007.
Ikamari LDE, Lucas TJ, Nalwamba C. "’Provincial view of fertility and mortality change in Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe’.". In: Africa Today: Proceedings of the international Seminar. Sydney: University of New South Wales; 1995.
IKAMARI LAWRENCEDE. "‘Persistence of FGM in Nyambene District, Kenya’." Health line: A Journal of Health . 2002;6(3):39-50. AbstractWebsite

This paper sets to establish the factors that underlie the choice of place of delivery among expectant women in Teso District. This paper uses the data and information collected in Teso District between the year 2000 and 2001. The results indicate that out of the 76 per cent of 1170 women in the reproductive age and who had a birth during the five years preceding the study delivered their last born babies at home. This was a result of lack of access to institutionalised care, the availability of cheap and more accessible alternative care providers (TBAs) and the poor quality of services offered at the local health facilities. The traditional birth attendants and nurse/midwives were the main providers of maternal health care. The constraints to utilisation of institutionalised delivery care were manifold. The major constraints were unavailability and inaccessibility of health facilities, competing priorities, poverty, exorbitant user charges and associated costs, and poor services offered at the local health facilities. Reducing or removing these constraints would result in increased utilisation of institutionalised delivery care in the study district.

Ikamari LDE. "‘A status report on the integration of the PPD generic models in the PSRI training programmes’.". In: Partners Meeting on Networking among Partner Institutions: Progress and Challenges. Taicang, China; 2010.
Ikamari LDE. "’Explaining regional variation in infant and child mortality in Kenya’, Working Paper No. 57." Demography Department. The Research School of Social Sciences (RSS); 1995.
Ikamari LDE. "’Formal Training Programs at PSRI’.". In: Curriculum Development Workshop. Green Hills Hotel, Nyeri, Kenya; 1993.
Ikamari LDE. "‘Maternal Care Utilisation in Teso District’." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2004;Volume 11(1 & 2):9-20. AbstractWebsite

This study seeks to document recent trends in early childhood mortality in the country and to offer some plausible explanations for the upsurge in the trends. Data and information from various sources are used in this paper to achieve this purpose. The results obtained show that infant, child and under-five mortality rates had declined in the 1960s and 1970s but were taking un upward trend since early 1990s. This situation is attributable to a combination of factors, including increased poverty, adverse effects of economic hardships and cost recovery programs associated with structural adjustment programs, increased childhood malnutrition, decreased use of certain maternity care services, decline in the coverage of child immunisations, inability of the public health system to provide services, and the HIV/ AIDS epidemic and the recent ethnic clashes that rocked some parts of the Rift Valley, Coast, Nyanza and Western province. In order to reverse the upward trend in mortality, there is an urgent need to intensify efforts to reduce poverty, to enable most people to have adequate food supply, improve the public health sector so that it can deliver health care to all people; to make greater efforts to raise the living standards of rural populations and improve the quality of housing, sanitary and sewerage conditions in urban slums. In addition, concerted efforts must continue to be made to contain the spread of HIV/AIDS, to assist AIDs orphans and to eliminate completely and to avoid recurrence of ethnic clashes and cattle rustling.

Ikamari LDE. "Regional variation in the timing of childbearing in Kenya." Journal of Population Studies. 2008;12:1-25.
Ikamari LDE. 'Factors Affecting Child Survival in Kenya’. The Australian National University; 1996.
Ikamari LDE. ’Poverty Eradication in Kenya’. Office of the President as a Section of the National Poverty Eradication Plan, Republic of Kenya; 1997.
Ikamari LDE, Odwe G. Analysis of Unintended Pregnancy and pregnancy termination among women in selected urban settlements in Nairobi. Nairobi: African Population and Health Centre; 2010.
Ikamari LDE. "Birth Intervals and Child Survival in Kenya." African Journal of Health Sciences . 1998;5(1):15-24. AbstractWebsite

This paper seeks to identify some the factors that underlie regional variation in infant mortality in Kenya. The data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used for this purpose. Logistic regression is used to analyse the data. On the basis of infant mortality estimates obtained, provinces were grouped into two groups: High (HMP) and low (LMP). The results obtained show that the values of explanatory variables in LMP region than in the high mortality region. However, their differences did not explain much of the variation in infant mortality between the two mortality regions. Decomposing the results revealed that the differences were largely due to the differences in the nature or structure of relationships, as represented by logit coefficients, between mortality and explanatory variables. The results indicate that the lower average level of maternal education, higher proportion of preceding child loss, higher proportion mothers belonging to low economic status households and a lower proportion of mothers belonging to households possessing livestock and lower use of modern contraception modestly contributed to high infant mortality in the high mortality region

Ikamari LDE, Ayiemba EHO. "Population and Sustainable Development.". In: African Training Course on Local and Regional Development Planning. The UNCRD Training Programme for Anglophone Africa. KCB Management Centre, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
Ikamari LDE. "‘An Innovative and Integrated Initiative to Reposition Intrauterine Devices in the National Family Planning Programme-Kenya’.". In: Sharing Innovative Experiences: Experiences in Addressing Population and Reproductive Health Challenges. New York: UNDP; 2011.
Ikamari LDE. "The Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods in Differential Mortality Analysis.". In: Population, Health and Development in Africa.; 2001.
Ikamari LDE. ‘A Status report on the implementation of the KeFA Project’. Hanoi, Vietnam: National Institutes for Health (NIH) Partnership for HIV/AIDS Research Meeting; 2010.
Ikamari LDE. "IUCD re-introduction in Kenya: A Case of Best Practice.". In: In PP Documentation of Best Practices in Family planning and Reproductive Health: Partners in Population and Development Secretariat. Dhaka Bangladesh; 2011.
Ikamari LDE. "‘African ontology and its implications for public health research’.". In: Second Cohort of Carta PhD Fellows Training Workshop. The Oak Place, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Ikamari LDE. 'Determinants of Contraceptive Use in Kenya'. Population Studies and Research Institute, University of Nairobi; 1985.
Ikamari LDE, Ayiemba EHO. "The Implications of the Demographic and Epidemiologic Transitions for Planning with special emphasis on adolescent reproductive health.". In: Training Workshop on Adolescent Sexuality and Reproductive Health with special emphasis on STI/AIDS for Middle Level Managers from Anglophone Sub-Saharan Africa. Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
Ikamari LD;, Izugbara C;, Ochako R. "Prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Background

The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in Kenya continues to be high. The 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) showed that nearly 50% of unmarried women aged 15–19 and 45% of the married women reported their current pregnancies as mistimed or unwanted. The 2008–09 KDHS showed that 43% of married women in Kenya reported their current pregnancies were unintended. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical factors contributing to schoolgirl drop out in Kenya. Up to 13,000 Kenyan girls drop out of school every year as a result of unintended pregnancy. Unsafe pregnancy termination contributes immensely to maternal mortality which currently estimated at 488 deaths per 100 000 live births. In Kenya, the determinants of prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in diverse social and economic situations, particularly in urban areas, are poorly understood due to lack of data. This paper addresses the prevalence and the determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in slum and non-slum settlements of Nairobi.
Methods

This study used the data that was collected among a random sample of 1262 slum and non-slum women aged 15–49 years in Nairobi. The data was analyzed using simple percentages and logistic regression.
Results

The study found that 24 percent of all the women had unintended pregnancy. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 21 per cent among women in slum settlements compared to 27 per cent among those in non-slum settlements. Marital status, employment status, ethnicity and type of settlement were significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Logistic analysis results indicate that age, marital status and type of settlement had statistically significantly effects on unintended pregnancy. Young women aged 15–19 were significantly more likely than older women to experience unintended pregnancy. Similarly, unmarried women showed elevated risk for unintended pregnancy than ever-married women. Women in non-slum settlements were significantly more likely to experience unintended pregnancy than their counterparts in slum settlements.

The determinants of unintended pregnancy differed between women in each type of settlement. Among slum women, age, parity and marital status each had significant net effect on unintended pregnancy. But for non-slum women, it was marital status and ethnicity that had significant net effects.
Conclusion

The study found a high prevalence of unintended pregnancy among the study population and indicated that young and unmarried women, irrespective of their educational attainment and household wealth status, have a higher likelihood of experiencing unintended pregnancy. Except for the results on educational attainments and household wealth, these results compared well with the results reported in the literature.

The results indicate the need for effective programs and strategies to increase access to contraceptive services and related education, information and communication among the study population, particularly among the young and unmarried women. Increased access to family planning services is key to reducing unintended pregnancy among the study population. This calls for concerted efforts by all the stakeholders to improve access to family planning services among the study population. Increased access should be accompanied with improvement in the quality of care and availability of information about effective utilization of family planning methods.

Ikamari LDE. "‘Institutional Delivery Care: a tough choice among women in Teso District’." A Journal of Health . 2003;7(1):6-13. AbstractWebsite

This paper sets to establish the factors that underlie the choice of place of delivery among expectant women in Teso District. This paper uses the data and information collected in Teso District between the year 2000 and 2001. The results indicate that out of the 76 per cent of 1170 women in the reproductive age and who had a birth during the five years preceding the study delivered their last born babies at home. This was a result of lack of access to institutionalised care, the availability of cheap and more accessible alternative care providers (TBAs) and the poor quality of services offered at the local health facilities. The traditional birth attendants and nurse/midwives were the main providers of maternal health care. The constraints to utilisation of institutionalised delivery care were manifold. The major constraints were unavailability and inaccessibility of health facilities, competing priorities, poverty, exorbitant user charges and associated costs, and poor services offered at the local health facilities. Reducing or removing these constraints would result in increased utilisation of institutionalised delivery care in the study district.

Ikamari LDE. "’Assessment of the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey Maternity History Data’.". In: the Demography Department Seminar. The Research School of Social Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra; 1996.
Ikamari LDE. Constraints to Data Use in Kenya. USA: MEASURE Evaluation/Future Group Project; 2005.
Ikamari LDE. "The effect of education on timing of marriage in Kenya." Demographic Research Journal. 2005;12:1-20.Website
IKAMARI LAWRENCEDE. "The effect of education on the timing of marriage in Kenya." Demographic Research. 2005;12:1-28. Abstract
n/a
Ikamari LDE. "‘Population Policies and Programmes in Kenya’.". In: The 1995/96 M.Sc. Students Attending JVP Course. Reproductive Biology Unit, Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi; 1996.
Ikamari, Lawrence D.E.; Oucho O-AAOJ; ABC. "Regional variation in infant mortality in Kenya: A search for explanations."; 2000.
Ikamari LDE, Odwe G. Socio-economic determinants of unwanted pregnancy among women in slum and non-slum settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Nairobi: African Population and Health Centre; 2010.
Ikamari LDE. "’Regional variation in infant and child mortality in Kenya’." Tanzanian Journal of Population Studies and Development . 1998;5(1 & 2):39-64. AbstractWebsite

This article seeks to identify some of the factors underlying regional variation in child mortality in Kenya. The data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey are used for the purpose. Logistic regression is used to analyse the data. On the basis of child mortality estimates obtained, provinces were grouped into two mortality groups: High (HLM) and Low (LMP). The results show that the values of explanatory variables in LMP were significantly high than in the high mortality region. However, their differences did not explain much of the differences in the variation in child mortality between the two regions. Decomposing the results revealed that the differences were largely due to nature or structure of relations between mortality and explanatory variables.

Ikamari LDE. "‘An upsurge in early childhood mortality in Kenya: a search for plausible explanations’ .". In: Population Association of Kenya’s Second Conference. Mbagathi, Nairobi; 2000.
Ikamari LDE. "Trends and Changes in Non-Use of Contraceptives in Kenya. In A closer look at KDHS 2003’: Further Analysis of Contraceptive Prevalence and Fertility Stalls.". In: Summaries of Selected NCAPD Working Papers. www.ncapd-ke.org/publications MEASURE Evaluation Publication.; 2006.
Ikamari LDE, Lwanga CK. "‘Correlates of unmet need for contraception in Zambia’." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2002;7:11-23.Website
Ikamari LDE. "‘Our (PSRI) experiences on integrating the PPD Generic Models in the training programmes’.". In: The PPD Consultative Partners Meeting. Washington Hotel, Dhaka Bangladesh; 2008.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Effects of Increased Energy Costs on Balance of Payments and Real Incomes in Kenya.". In: ILO Proejct paper. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1982. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Transition to Market Economies: The Challenges and Opportunities for the Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Ida Tsuneo and Kshioka Tomihide (eds). ternational Research Center Center for Japanese Studies, International Symposium, No. 9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa

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