Publications

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Book
Ferrier S, Ninan KN, Leadley P, Alkemade R, Acosta LA, Akcakaya HR, Brotons L, Cheung WWL, Christensen V, Harhash KA, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Lundquist C, Obersteiner M, Pereira HM, Peterson G, Pichs-Madruga R, Ravindranath N, Rondinini C, Wintle BA. The methodological assessment report on scenarios and models of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Bonn, Germany: IPBES; 2016.2016.methodological_assessment_report_scenarios_models.pdf
M OM, F. M, J. AM. Human Resources Management. Mombasa, Kenya ; 2014.
Fanuel Mugwang'a Keheze, Karimi Mwangi Patrick, Walter N, WAITA SEBASTIAN. Copper Based Solar Cell Materials. London: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing ; 2013.
Parita S, Francis M, James M. Environmental Audits and Educational Institutions. Lamberts Publishing; 2012.
Longo D, Fauci A, Kasper D, Hauser S, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. Harrison's {Principles} of {Internal} {Medicine} 18E {Vol} 2 {EB}. McGraw Hill Professional; 2012. Abstract
n/a
K. JT, W M, F. A, Prabhu R, Shiferaw B, Gbegbelegbe S, Massawe S, Kyotalimye M, Wanjiku J, Macharia E. Responding to the food price crisis in Eastern and Southern Africa: Policy options for national and regional action. Entebbe: ASARECA; 2008.
Mwabu G, Fosu A. Malaria and Poverty in Africa.; 2007.Website
Kremmer E, Krämer PM, Weber CM, Räuber C, Martens D, Forster S, Stanker LH, Rauch P, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. Optical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples.; 2007. AbstractOptical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples

An optical immunosensor (AQUA-OPTOSENSOR) and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the analysis of pyrethroids and DDT in river water and/or sediment, are described. The optical immunosensor consists of a bench-top optical read-out-device and disposable single-use sensor chips. ELISA was carried out in the coating antigen format. As examples, phenothrin (pyrethroid) and p,p'-DDT were chosen. Herein we describe the overall strategy, the set-up and principle of the immunosensor platform, and show representative results for immunosensor and ELISA analysis. The immunosensor employs fluorophore (Oyster®-645)-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mouse mAb Py-1 and rat mAb DDT 7C12), and makes use of the evanescent field, thus operating without washing steps. ELISA in the coating antigen format uses a second antibody labeled with peroxidase. Both, phenothrin and p,p'-DDT can be analyzed with these immunochemical techniques in the low ppb levels. Advantages and drawbacks of both immunochemical platforms are discussed.

Krämer PM, Weber CM, Kremmer E, Räuber C, Martens D, Forster S, Stanker LH, Rauch P, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. Optical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples.; 2007. AbstractOptical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples

An optical immunosensor (AQUA-OPTOSENSOR) and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the analysis of pyrethroids and DDT in river water and/or sediment, are described. The optical immunosensor consists of a bench-top optical read-out-device and disposable single-use sensor chips. ELISA was carried out in the coating antigen format. As examples, phenothrin (pyrethroid) and p,p'-DDT were chosen. Herein we describe the overall strategy, the set-up and principle of the immunosensor platform, and show representative results for immunosensor and ELISA analysis. The immunosensor employs fluorophore (Oyster®-645)-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mouse mAb Py-1 and rat mAb DDT 7C12), and makes use of the evanescent field, thus operating without washing steps. ELISA in the coating antigen format uses a second antibody labeled with peroxidase. Both, phenothrin and p,p'-DDT can be analyzed with these immunochemical techniques in the low ppb levels. Advantages and drawbacks of both immunochemical platforms are discussed.

Oketch E, Francheschi L, Mimbi P. Politics and the Common Good. Nairobi: Strathmore University Press; 2007.
Owuor SO, Foeken D. The crops.; 2006.Website
Owuor SO;, Foeken D, King’ori PW. The support.; 2006.Website
Boniface; Makau, F; Wellington, N; Ekaya J;, Gathuma M. Guidelines For Emergency Livestock Off -take Handbook.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

Kenya’s agricultural sector accounts for 20–30% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Of this, the livestock sector alone makes a contribution of about 50%. Thus, livestock contributes heavily to the GDP and food security of its population. It also provides the necessary thrust for other forms of development in the country. Recent statistics indicate that currently over 50% of the country’s livestock population is based in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), which form about 80% of the country’s land area. However, comparative international statistics show that livestock contributes 88% of the total agricultural output in Botswana even though the country has half Kenya’s livestock population and is of less agricultural potential. Thus, there is a huge potential contribution that livestock can make to the Kenyan national economy. Unfortunately, this sector receives only 10% of the government’s agricultural expenditure and less than one per cent of total spending, yet it is estimated that Kenya’s potential to export livestock products if adequately exploited would earn more than the earnings from tea and coffee combined. This then calls for new thinking about livestock development strategies to harness the arid landsThe livestock sector accounts for 90% of employment and more than 95% of household incomes in the ASALs. Most of the livestock slaughtered in major urban centres originates in these areas, with an annual slaughter of about 1.6 million Tropical Livestock Units. Kenya’s livestock from the ASALs is worth Kshs 60 billion (US$800 million). The internal livestock trade in trade in thepastoral areas alone nets in about 6 billion shillings (US$80 million )a yearIn the arid areas of the ASALs, arable crop production is not possible without some form of irrigation; while in semi-arid areas rainfall may be sufficient for certain types of crops, requiring special management techniques. Therefore, except for the areaunder cropping, the rest of the arid areas is used for livestock.......

editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Frank Kürschner Pelkmann. 7 2004 Church-State Relations: A Challenge for African Christianity, Nairobi: Acton (with Frank Kürschner-Pelkmann).. Nairobi: Acton; 2004.
F.G M, Anne N. Educational Policy and Planning. NAIROBI: KTTC-VVOB; 2004.
Kioko UM, Guthrie T, Lara G, Sumbana H, Phororo H, Kerapeletswe C, Fairstein C, Valdes A, Sotomayor J, Darce D. Funding the fight: Budgeting for HIV/AIDS in Developing Countries. ISBN 1-919798-71-4, . Idasa, Cape Town; 2004.
Gachene CKK, GichukiDN; Gachene CKK, FN; Mungai. Systematic gully evaluation as a precondition for control..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines some of the reasons for the low success rate in gully control and argues that a more careful examination of each situation and a greater understanding of the processes at work could lead to more successful interventions. It outlines a systematic evaluation of a gully erosion problem and analysis of the options for control or reclamation. Evaluation should involve assessment of the causes of gully formation, gully morphology, gully erosion/sedimentation processes, soil characteristics, land use in the vicinity, and catchment characteristics.

Kolb, Helga H, Fernandez, Eduardo E, Nelson, Ralph R (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. Abstract

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Kolb, Helga, Fernandez, Eduardo, Nelson, Ralph (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Kolb, Helga, Fernandez, Eduardo, Nelson, Ralph (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Book Chapter
Benit-Gbaffou C, Dubresson A, Fourchard L, Ginisty K, Jaglin S, Olukoju A, Owuor S, Vivet J. " Exploring the role of party politics in the governance of African cities. In S. Baker & L. Fourchard (eds.), Politics and Policies: Governing."; 2013.
W O-K, F.M O, D K, W MA. "Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - publication.". In: Ecosystem Services and Carbon Sequestration in the Biosphere. Dordrecht: Springer Science; 2013.
Ananga AA, E CE, Ochieng JW, Kumar S, Kambiranda D, Vasanthaiah H, Tsolova V, Senwo Z, F KF, Anike FN. "Prospects for Transgenic and Molecular Breeding for Cold Tolerance in Canola (Brassica napus).". In: Oilseeds. INTECH; 2012.2012_oilseeds_by_intech_june_2012.pdf
Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM, Francis J, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Clavel D, Verhagen J. "Technologie de réensemencement d'herbages graminacées comme moyen de réhabilitation des terres dégradées et d'amélioration des moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans la région semi-aride du Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

La dégradation du sol constitue un problème majeur dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique subsaharienne. La lutte contre cette dégradation du sol est capitale pour garantir une productivité durable et à long terme des terres semi-arides habitées. Le Cenchrus ciliaris (vulpin des prés africains), l'Enteropogon macrostachyus (seigle sauvage) et l'Eragrostis superba (Eragrostis Maasai) sont d'importantes graminées vivaces dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique de l'Est. Une étude a été faite pour évaluer la contribution de ces herbages graminacées indigènes à l'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques du sol, la réhabilitation, la sécurité alimentaire et les moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans les districts semi-arides du Kenya. Les propriétés hydrologiques du sol ont été testées à l'aide d'un simulateur Kamphorst, à diverses hauteurs de chaume, pour donner une image de trois différentes intensités de pâturage (faible, moyenne, élevée). L'estimation de la couverture végétale s'est faite à l'aide de la méthode d'échantillonnage step-point. Une étude a également été réalisée dans 50 ménages agro-pastoraux pour évaluer les avantages multidimensionnels des herbages graminacées. La production de sédiments (comme fonction d'écoulement et capacité d'infiltration) était considérablement différente (P<0,05) à diverses hauteurs de chaume. Les estimations de la couverture végétale des herbages graminacées étaient également considérablement différentes (P<0,05). Le Cenchrus ciliaris avait le plus grand impact en matière d'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus avait la plus grande couverture. Le Cenchrus ciliaris et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. Ces résultats étaient dus à la croissance et aux caractères morphologiques des herbages graminacées. En général, une augmentation de la hauteur de chaume augmente la capacité d'infiltration et réduit l'écoulement et la formation de sédiments. Les résultats de l'enquête réalisée auprès des ménages révèlent que les herbages graminacées constituent une source de revenus par le biais de la vente de foin, de graines de graminacées et de lait, ce qui participe également d'un régime équilibré. Les herbages graminacées constituent également une source bon marché de matériel pour la confection de toitures de chaume et d'aliments pour le bétail. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mwega F, Fengler W, Kharas H. "Kenya.". In: Delivering Aid Differently. Brookings Institution Press; 2010.
F.N. Namu, J.M. Githaiga, E..N.Kioko, P. N. Ndegwa, C.L. Häuser. "Butterfly species composition and abundance in an old, middle-aged, and young secondary forests.". In: In: Kühne L. (Ed.), Butterflies and moths diversity of the Kakamega forest (Kenya), pp. 47-61. Brandenburg, Germany: Brandenburgische Universitätsdruckerei und Verlagsgesellschaft; 2008. Abstract

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

Onwonga RN, Freyer B, Lelei JJ. "Traditional soil fertility management strategies: Do they conform to recommendations in organic farming? A case study of the smallholder farmers of the Central Rift Valley Province of Kenya."; 2008. Abstract

The low input nature of organic farming (OF) is often likened to the traditional soil fertility management practices (TSFMP) of smallholder farming systems in developing countries. There are however no concrete studies to support this assertion. The present study aims at comparing the TSFM practices with recommendations in OF specifically recycling of organic wastes of crop and animal origin and maintenance of long-term fertility of the soil. These were monitored through resource flow mapping and calculation of nitrogen balances, at crop production level, using NUTMON toolbox. The study was conducted in Gilgil, Lare and Molo divisions of the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. Crop residues and manure were the principal organic resources recycled within the smallholder farming systems. The calculated N balances were negative; -70.9, -80.2 and -99.8 kg/ha/year for Gilgil, Lare and Molo, respectively. The organic resources recycled within the farm were therefore insufficient to sustain soil fertility. This is contrary to recommendations in OF, in which the long-term soil fertility should be maintained and/or enhanced. There were however opportunities; composting, biomass transfer and improved use of external and internal farm boundaries, enhanced livestock manure handling and integration of agroforestry trees, for improving the TSFMP to expectations of OF

Berson DM. "Retinal {Ganglion} {Cell} {Types} and {Their} {Central} {Projections}." In: Masland RH, Albright TD, Dallos P, Oertel D, Firestein S, Beauchamp GK, Bushnell CM, Basbaum AI, Kaas JH, Gardner EP, eds. The {Senses}: {A} {Comprehensive} {Reference}. New York: Academic Press; 2008:. Abstract

Ganglion cells are the only retinal neurons communicating directly with the brain. It is well known that mammalian ganglion cells comprise more than a dozen types, clearly distinguishable from one another in structure and function. Each type also appears to send axons to a distinctive subset of the many central visual nuclei receiving direct retinal input. The implication is that each ganglion cell type forms a specialized channel sculpted by evolutionary pressures to fulfill specific visual functions. Though the outlines of this perspective have been clear for decades, many essential details are lacking. The goal of this chapter is to summarize the state of knowledge about where retinal axons are distributed in the brain and which types of ganglion cells contribute to these pathways. The primary focus is on ganglion cell types that appear to be conserved across mammalian phylogeny.

David B, David N, Mary K, Francisca O-O, Abdulreshid A, John M, Benson G. "Alcohol and other Substance Related Disorders Chapter 35.". In: The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. Nairobi: AMREF; 2007.
Siriba DN, Farah HO. "Land Management Information Systems in the Knowledge Economy: What options are there for Kenya.". In: Discussion and Guiding Principles for Africa - land management Systems in the Knowledge Economy. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa; 2007.
Plummer FA, Ngugi EN, Embree J, Fowke K, Ndinya-Achola J, MacDonald K, Ball T, Nagelkerke N, Kimani J, Ma L. "Rapid selection for HLA alleles that protect against HIV-1 infection correlates significantly to the declining incidence of HIV-1 in an East African sex worker population."; 2007.
FARAH DRIBRAHIM. "DEEGAAN, POLITICS AND WAR IN SOMALIA."; 2002.
Farah KO, Nyariki DM, Noor AA;, Ngugi RK, Musimba1 NK. "The Socio-economic and Ecological Impacts of Small-scale Irrigation Schemes on Pastoralists and Drylands in Northern Kenya."; 2001. Abstract

ABSTRACT Northern Kenya, as in other sub-Saharan arid and semi-arid regions, has faced challenges related to the prevailing socio-economy, ecology and polity in the last quarter of last century. In some of these areas, pastoralists have been settled on the peri-urban fringes of towns and have been exposed to flood-retreat cultivation; a culture that has been traditionally practised by the riverine Bantu communities. From the late 1960s these pastoralists started irrigation agriculture with assistance from the government and nongovernmental organisations. The outcome has been the mushrooming of irrigation schemes along rivers. This paper looks at the development of small-scale irrigation schemes and their sustainability. It also analyses their socio-economic and ecological effects on pastoral households and the drylands, taking Garissa District as a case. Interviews, a questionnaire and existing literature on irrigation schemes were used to collect data. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the socio-economic effects of irrigation on the pastoral households. The results show that irrigation farming plays a supplementary role in pastoral economies, takes away child labour from pastoralism and reduces pastoral mobility. The implication is that irrigation farming in arid areas does not seem to offer a long-term sustainable economic livelihood.

Peichl L, Sandmann D, Boycott BB. "Comparative {Anatomy} and {Function} of {Mammalian} {Horizontal} {Cells}." In: Chalupa LM, Finlay BL, eds. Development and {Organization} of the {Retina}. Springer US; 1998:. {NATO} {ASI} {Series}. Abstract

Near the end of his life Ramón y Cajal (1933) summarized aspects of his view of the retina and, under the section heading “The paradox of vertebrate retinal horizontal cells” admitted defeat in understanding their role in visual processing. By then, horizontal cells had been identified and studied anatomically for more than six decades; today, six decades later, they are still amongst the most enigmatic neurons (historical reviews, e.g., Wässle et al., 1978a; Gallego, 1986; Piccolino, 1986, 1988). Numerous studies, using an ever-increasing arsenal of methods, have modified some of Cajal’s observations and added many new ones. For technical reasons, there has been a concentration on horizontal cell physiology and cellular biology in non-mammalian vertebrate retinae (reviewed in Dowling, 1987; Djamgoz et al., 1995; Kamermans & Spekreijse, 1995), and the results have been generalized to deduce mammalian horizontal cell function. Most recently, however, an increasing number of studies are examining mammalian horizontal cells with physiological and immunocytochemical approaches; and comparative anatomical studies are demonstrating previously unsuspected differences between species. More specific questions can now be asked although, as yet, answers are still scant. This review summarizes some earlier views of mammalian horizontal cell morphology and connectivity, then focuses on how some of the newer findings have modified the issues, and tries to suggest where answers may be sought.

Peichl L, Sandmann D, Boycott BB. "Comparative {Anatomy} and {Function} of {Mammalian} {Horizontal} {Cells}." In: Chalupa LM, Finlay BL, eds. Development and {Organization} of the {Retina}. Springer US; 1998:. {NATO} {ASI} {Series}. Abstract

Near the end of his life Ramón y Cajal (1933) summarized aspects of his view of the retina and, under the section heading “The paradox of vertebrate retinal horizontal cells” admitted defeat in understanding their role in visual processing. By then, horizontal cells had been identified and studied anatomically for more than six decades; today, six decades later, they are still amongst the most enigmatic neurons (historical reviews, e.g., Wässle et al., 1978a; Gallego, 1986; Piccolino, 1986, 1988). Numerous studies, using an ever-increasing arsenal of methods, have modified some of Cajal’s observations and added many new ones. For technical reasons, there has been a concentration on horizontal cell physiology and cellular biology in non-mammalian vertebrate retinae (reviewed in Dowling, 1987; Djamgoz et al., 1995; Kamermans & Spekreijse, 1995), and the results have been generalized to deduce mammalian horizontal cell function. Most recently, however, an increasing number of studies are examining mammalian horizontal cells with physiological and immunocytochemical approaches; and comparative anatomical studies are demonstrating previously unsuspected differences between species. More specific questions can now be asked although, as yet, answers are still scant. This review summarizes some earlier views of mammalian horizontal cell morphology and connectivity, then focuses on how some of the newer findings have modified the issues, and tries to suggest where answers may be sought.

FN. K, Waruingi) BC. "Fundamentals of Marketing: An African Perspective; Nairobi: ." Kenya Literature Bureau; 1998.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, F.N. K. "Business Statistics .". In: Introduction to Business. Kenya Literature Bureau; 1996. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya. (Kibera F.N. Ed.)

Mwega FM, Seck D, Chhibber A, Fischer S. "Comments on Financial Sector Policy.". In: Economic Re form in Sub - Saharan Africa .; 1991.
Frye DM, Ilnicki RD, Michieka RW. "Weed control in southern greens."; 1978.
Conference Paper
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "M.Sc. Project on Kenya's Domestic Export.". In: . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; Submitted. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mwangi N, Minnies D, Parsley S, Patel D, Gichuhi S, Muthami L, Moorman C, Macleod D, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Developing open online learning resources: Lessons from a short course on the control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy.". In: College of Ophthalmologists in Eastern Central & Southern Africa (COECSA). Addis Ababa; 2018. Abstract

Background: A need identified during another study prompted the development of the open online course on control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy. In our technological age, potential for learning online can provide a unique opportunity to develop context-specific content for local relevance. We report on the lessons learnt in the development of this short online course for an international audience of diverse eye care practitioners.

Methods: We developed this online short course through a formal planning process facilitated by UNESCO. The participants included eye health educators, learning designers, and content experts. The course curriculum was informed by learning from an ongoing doctorate program, as well as by clinical, public health and educational experience.

Results: Lessons learnt include:
1. Identifying the need and content – Learning and research from a doctorate research program can inform content development.
2. Identifying the relevance – the content needs to be customized for the target audience and local context.
3. Developing the learning design – promoting digital teaching skills and co-creation of content are valuable entry points.
4. Accommodating appropriate peer review and mentorship may enhance learning and quality assurance.
5. Resource planning activities need to be documented as a learning point.
6. There are significant costs in course development, such as time spent in content development, and ongoing maintenance eg maintaining the online platform.
7. Sources of quality open access resources in eye care are limited.

Conclusion: Content development is a unique learning experience, and it is essential to develop and support context specific learning resources. Open educational practice supports a collaborative process that enhances relevance and quality of training. The online format emphasizes the importance of learning design requirements to bridge the transactional distance between the participant and the educator.

Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Narla RD, Mwang’ombe AW. "Biopesticide-based IPM systems to reduce synthetic pesticide residues in vegetables for niche market access by small holder growers.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Fulano AM, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Efficacy of Antagonistic Fungal Isolates in Management of Diseases in Snap Beans.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Kotikot T, Ndalamia J, OGUTU H, B Nyaoke, MW MUREITHI, Farah B, C Perciani, Mac Donald K, Anzala O, Jaoko W. " Reproductive Tract Infections Among Low Risk Women Attending KAVI-VZV 001 Study in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES ."; 2016.
Ferrier S, Ninan KN, Leadley P, Alkemade R, Acosta-Michlik L, Akçakaya HR, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Summary for policymakers of the assessment report of the methodological assessment of scenarios and models of biodiversity and ecosystem services.". In: Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, IPBES Secretariat. Bonn, Germany; 2016.
Nyamai C, Rollion C, Feneyrol J, Martelat J-E, Omito E, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu A. "The boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from tsavorite deposits in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique metamorphic belt, with a special focus on the mining districts in Kenya.". In: 13th SGA Biennial Meeting. Nancy, France; 2015. Abstractgiulianietal.boronsga-2015.pdf

The dravitic tourmalines associated with different types of rock from the tsavorite-bearing
metasedimentary Neoproterozoic sequence in Kenya, Tanzania, and Madagascar show two
ranges of boron isotopic compositions:(1) Tourmalines associated with tsavorite nodules
have homogenous 8113 values of-19.8 1 1.2 'llm that clearly involve continental evaporitic
material;(2) Tourrnalines from unmineralized rocks (elastic metasediments, metapegmatite,
and marble) have 8118 values between 45.9 and 40.356 “, which reflect a magmatic source
for the elastic tourmaline and probably an evaporitic one for tourmaline in marble.

obanda BA, Cook A, Fevre E, Wang S, Bebora L, Mwituria JM, Ng'etich R, Okoth W, Nafula C, Ogara W, Thaiyah AG, Kariuki S, Gabreyes WA. "Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in abattoir workers and livestock from western Kenya.". In: ICOPHAI. Thailand; 2015.
Ebinger C, Muirhead J, Roecker S, Tiberi C, Muzuka A, Ferdinand R, Mulibo G, Kianji G. "Rift initiation with volatiles and magma.". In: European Geophysical Union . Vienna, Austria; 2015.
MJ H, FK M, J A, M M, AW M'ombe, JJ A, F O. "Effect of cattle manure and calcium ammonium nitrogen on grwoth and leaf yield of local cowpea accessions in coastal Kenya.". In: KAPAP CGS COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH STAKEHOLDERS CONFERENCE. KALRO Headquaters ; 2015.
Olago D, van der Lubbe HJL, Sier MJ, Feibel CS, Beck C, Dupont-Nivet G, Vonhof H, Joordens JJ, Cohen A, Prins M. "Sr isotope stratigraphy and lithogenic grain-size distributions of the Pleistocene Turkana Basin, Kenya."; 2015.
Muirhead J, Lee H, Fischer T, Kattenhorn SA, Ebinger C, Kianji G, Maqway M, Thomas N, Onguso B. "Fault-controlled fluid migration during early-stage continental rifting in the Magadi Basin, Kenya.". In: American Geophysical Union Annual Meeting, Volume: Eos, Trans. AGU 95, Fall Meet. San Francisco, CA,; 2014.
Lee H, Muirhead JD, Fischer T, Kattenhorn SA, Ebinger C, Thomas N, Kianji G, Ongu B. "Fault-related soil efflux of mantle-derived CO2 in the Magadi and Natron Basins, East African Rift.". In: American Geophysical Union Annual Meeting, Volume: Eos, Trans. AGU 95, Fall Meet. San Francisco, CA,; 2014.
Bendick R, Fisseha S, Lewi E, Reilinger R, King R, Kianji G. "GPS Constraints on the Spatial Distribution of Extension in the Ethiopian Highlands and Main Ethiopian Rift.". In: American Geophysical Union Annual Meeting, Volume: Eos, Trans. AGU 95, Fall Meet. San Francisco, CA,; 2014.
Lambert, C, Murhead, J., Ebinger, C. J, Tiberi, C., Roecker SW, Ferdnard WR, Kianji, G., Mulibo, G.D. "The importance of magmatic fluids in continental rifting in East Africa.". In: American Geophysical Union. San Francisco; 2014.
Katternhorn SA, Muirhead JD, W. DE, Fischer TP, Lee H, Ebinger CJ. "Contribution of transverse structures, magma, and crustal fluids to continental rift evolution: the East African rift in southern Kenya.". In: AGU FALL 2013. San Francisco, California; 2013. Abstract

The Magadi rift in southern Kenya formed at ~7 Ma within Proterozoic rocks of the Mozambique orogenic belt, parallel to its contact with the Archean Tanzania craton. The rift is bounded to the west by the ~1600-m-high Nguruman border fault. The rift center is intensely dissected by normal faults, most of which offset ~1.4-0.8 Ma lavas. Current E-W extensional velocities are ~2-4 mm/yr. Published crustal tomography models from the rift center show narrow high velocity zones in the upper crust, interpreted as cooled magma intrusions. Local, surface-wave, and SKS-splitting measurements show a rift-parallel anisotropy interpreted to be the result of aligned melt zones in the lithosphere. Our field observations suggest that recent fault activity is concentrated at the rift center, consistent with the location of the 1998 seismic swarm that was associated with an inferred diking event. Fault zones are pervasively mineralized by calcite, likely from CO2-rich fluids. A system of fault-fed springs provides the sole fluid input for Lake Magadi in the deepest part of the basin. Many of these springs emanate from the Kordjya fault, a 50-km-long, NW-SE striking, transverse structure connecting a portion of the border fault system (the NW-oriented Lengitoto fault) to the current locus of strain and magmatism at the rift center. Sampled springs are warm (44.4°C) and alkaline (pH=10). Dissolved gas data (mainly N2-Ar-He) suggests two-component mixing (mantle and air), possibly indicating that fluids are delivered into the fault zone from deep sources, consistent with a dominant role of magmatism to the focusing of strain at the rift center. The Kordjya fault has developed prominent fault scarps (~150 m high) despite being oblique to the dominant ~N-S fault fabric, and has utilized an en echelon alignment of N-S faults to accommodate its motion. These N-S faults show evidence of sinistral-oblique motion and imply a bookshelf style of faulting to accommodate dextral-oblique motion along the Kordjya fault. Fault relationships imply that the NW-SE transverse structures represent recent activity in the rift, and have locally tilted Late Pleistocene sediments. Given the abundance of N-S striking faults in the rift, the tendency for fault activity along transverse features suggests a change in the rifting driving forces that are likely the result of an interplay between strain localization at the rift center, inherited crustal fabric (NW structures in the Mozambique belt), a possible counterclockwise rotation of stress related to interacting rift segments in southern Kenya, and an active hydrothermal fluid regime that facilitates faulting. By connecting the Lengitoto fault to the rift center, the Kordjya fault has effectively caused the Magadi rift to bypass the Nguruman border fault, which has been rendered inactive and thus no longer a contributor to the rifting process

F.W N, B.O A, Hilonga. "Organic Binders To enhance Fuel Efficiency Of Charcoal Stoves (JIKOS) and in Water Filters.". In: 7TH International Conference of the Africa Materials research Society (A-MRS). Addis Ababa, Ethopia; 2013.juami_conference_presentation_2013.pdf
G.O.Oyoo, F.Adelowo. "AfricanJournal ofRheumatology Systemic.". In: ISSN. Vol. 1.; 2013:. Abstractafrica_journal_rheumatology.pdf

Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
infection is a worldwide burden whose
seroprevalence is higher in developing countries with Cameroon being the
third most aff ected country in Africa.
HCV both a hepatotropic and lympho-
tropic infection is responsible for a great
number of hepatic and extra hepatic
disorders some of which are rheumatic
in nature. These rheumatologic mani-
festations though extensively studied
in western countries; there is little or no
data in sub-Saharan Africa.
Objective: The study was conducted
with the aim to describe the musculo-
skeletal manifestations associated to
HCV infection in a hospital setting in
Cameroon.
Design: A cross-sectional study.
Setting: Three hospitals in Cameroon:
the Douala General Hospital, a tertiary
referral hospital with a capacity of 320
beds in Douala, the largest city and
economic capital of Cameroon; the
University Teaching Hospital of the
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical
Sciences of the university of Yaoundé
1, a 240 beds hospital in Yaoundé the
political capital of Cameroon and the
“Centre Médical de la Cathédrale”,
a private acceptable standard
Gastroenterology clinic also found in
Yaoundé.
Patients and methods: From February
to June 2009, we did a multicentric
cross-sectional study of patients from
the Gastroenterology, Rheumatology
and Internal medicine outpatient clinics
of three hospitals in Cameroon. Patients
with HIV or HBV infection and those on
antiviral treatment were excluded.
Results: Among 148 patients with HCV
infection identifi ed during the study
period, only 62 fulfi lled eligibility, 15
(24.2%) of whom had musculoskeletal
manifestations related to HCV, the
commonest of which were myalgia
9/62 (14.5%) , arthritis 6/62 (9.7%), bone
pain 6.4% (4/62), sicca syndrome 3/62
(4.8%), and Raynaud’s phenomenon
6/62 (9.7%). Among patients with
rheumatologic manifestations, 9/15
(60%), had rheumatologic symptoms at
HCV diagnosis and in 6/15 (40%). HCV
infection was discovered during routine
medical check-up. Musculoskeletal
manifestations were neither associat ed
with the genotype (p=0.17) nor with the
viral load (p>0.98).
Conclusion: Arthralgia is the most
common presenting feature of the
symptomatic disease. Musculoskeletal
manifestations may be confused with symptoms of common tropical infections, leading to delayed diagnosis
and treatment of HCV infection.
Key words: Hepatitis C Virus, Arthralgia,
Extra hepatic manifestations; Africa
Introduction
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection
which occurs worldwide has a higher
seroprevalence in Africa, estimated
at 5.3% compared to about 1.03%
in Europe1,2. Cameroon, the third
most affected country in Africa, has a
seroprevalence which varies from as low
as 0.6% to 4.8% in Pygmy groups and
blood donors, to as high as 13% in hospital
based studies4,5. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
which is a single-stranded, spherical RNA enveloped fl avivirus, measuring 38 to 50
nm in diameter has multiple genotypes
and quasispecies classifi ed in six major
clades. This genetic diversity confers to
this virus a difference in pathogenicity,
disease severity, and response to treatment
with interferon3. Though considered a
hepatotropic virus, HCV’s lymphotropic
nature is responsible for a great number of
extra hepatic immune system disorders1.
About 40 to 70% of affected patients will
develop an extra hepatic manifestation
that can have a rheumatic nature

McLigeyo AA, Lule G, FREDRICK OTIENOCF, Kayima JK;, Omonge E;. "Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated lipodystrophy: The prevalence, severity and phenotypes in patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in Kenya.". In: Journal of AIDS and HIV Research. Vol. 5.; 2013:. Abstract

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is widely accessible to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Kenya. Their long term use is associated with chronic complications such as lipodystrophy which may lead to stigmatization, reduced self esteem and poor adherence to HAART. This cross-sectional study described the prevalence of lipodystrophy, the phenotypes and severity among adult HIV infected patients on chronic HAART at a HIV clinic in Kenya. Data were collected using an investigator administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements done using a protocol based on the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence of lipodystrophy was 51.3% (confidence interval (CI) 45.6 to 57.6). Lipoatrophy occurred in 44%, lipohypertrophy in 15% and mixed syndrome in 41% of patients with lipodystrophy. Facial atrophy occurred in 75.7% of patients with lipodystrophy, upper limb atrophy in 48.5%, and lower limb atrophy in 36.8%. Abdominal obesity occurred in 40.4% of patients with lipodystrophy, breast enlargement in 30.9% and dorsocervical fat accumulation in 5.1%. Most patients had severe lipoatrophy, whereas lipohypertrophy was described as mild to moderate using the HIV out-patient study (HOPS) scale. HIV associated lipodystrophy was common in HIV-infected patients on chronic HAART. The main phenotype was lipoatrophy which majority of the patients described as severe.

Adekunle AA;, Ellis-Jones J;, Ajibefun I;, Nyikal RA;, Bangali S;, Fatunbi O;, Ange A. "Agricultural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa: experiences from multiple-stakeholder approaches."; 2012.
Kioko UM, Menon V, Ally M, Forsythe S. "Costs and Impacts of Scaling Up Male Circumcision in Tanzania.". In: Washington, DC: Futures Group, USAID | Health Policy Initiative, Costing Task Order.; 2012.
Karugia J;, Wanjiku J;, Nzuma J;, Gbegbelegbe S;, Macharia E;, Massawe S;, Freeman A;, Waithaka M;, Kaitibie S. "The Impact Of Non - Tariff Barriers On Maize And Beef Trade In East Africa."; 2012.
Karugia J;, Wanjiku J;, Nzuma J;, Gbegbelegbe S;, Macharia E;, Massawe S;, Freeman A;, Waithaka M;, Kaitibie S. "The Impact Of Non - Tariff Barriers On Maize And Beef Trade In East Africa."; 2012.
Florence N. "Emerging Trends in Building Envelope Technologies; Transferable Technologies in Nairobi.". In: 2nd Annual East African Regional Workshop; . ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2011.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Golden Sunbeams in Shadowy Storms.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. WordAlive; 2011.
Chege F, Day R, T R, A S, Muthomi J, W O, E K, R N, J.G M’E, J J, F O, Mohamed R. "A new partnership in phytosanitary capacity development for protecting agriculture and supporting trade in Africa: The Centre of Phytosanitary Excellence (COPE).". In: 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
Mulwa J, Barongo J, Fairhead D, Mariita N, Patel J. "Integrated Geophysical Study of Lake Bogoria Basin, Kenya: Implications for Geothermal Energy Prospecting.". In: Proceedings: World Geothermal Congress 2010. Bali, Indonesia: World Geothermal Congress; 2010. Abstract

The Lake Bogoria basin, here in referred to as the study area, is located in the greater Baringo-Bogoria basin (BBB), about 100 km to the north of Menengai geothermal prospect on the floor of Kenya Rift Valley (KRV). It is bound by latitudes 0o 00’ and 0o 30’N and longitudes 35o45’E and 36o15’E within the rift graben. The study area is characterized by geothermal surface manifestations which include hot springs, spouting geysers, fumaroles/steam jets and mud pools. The area is overlain by Miocene lavas lavas, mainly basalts and phonolites, and Pliocene to recent sediments and pyroclastics such as tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, superficial deposits, volcanic soils, alluvium and lacustrine silts. The terrain is characterized by extensive faulting forming numerous N-S ridges and fault scarps.
Gravity and magnetotelluric (MT) surveys were undertaken in the area to determine the heat source, characterize the geothermal reservoir, and evaluate the geothermal resource potential of the basin.
Gravity survey results indicate Bouguer anomaly having an amplitude of ~40 mGals aligned in a north-South direction and interpreted to be due to a series of dyke injections and hence the heat source in the basin. The interpretation of Bouguer anomaly has been constrained by using previous seismic results. The MT survey results show three distinct layers in the basin. The first layer, overlain by high resistivity thin layers, is ~3 km thick and has resistivities ranging between 4-30 -m. This layer is interpreted to be due to a combination of saline sediments and circulation of high temperature geothermal fluids. The second layer is ~10 km thick and resistivity values range between 85-2500 -m. This layer is interpreted to be fractured basement metamorphic rocks hosting a steam reservoir where circulating fluids are heated by underlying dyke injections. The substratum is characterized by resistivities ranging between 0.5-47 -m and is interpreted as hot dyke injections which are the heat sources for this geothermal prospect. The magnetotelluric results in this study are consistent with results of previous microseismic study in Lake Bogoria basin by Young et al. (1991).
On the basis of gravity and MT results, the heat source in Lake Bogoria basin is due to cooling dyke injections occurring at depths of ~6 – 12 km in the subsurface. Gravity method however favours depths of ~3 – 6 km. The geothermal reservoir is probably two-phase and is attributed to condensation of high temperature steam from the underlying fractured basement metamorphic rocks.

Farah Z;, Meyer J;, Wangoh J;, Eberhard P;, Gallmann P;, Rehberger. B. "Effect of Ultra - High - Temperature treatments on camel milk.".; 2010.
Mwabu G, Fosu A. "Human Development in Africa.". In: UNDP Working Paper No. 8, New York.; 2010.
Njage PMK;, Jans C;, Wangoh J;, Farah Z;, Lacroix C;, Meile L. "iodiversity And Genotyping Of Staphylococci Isolated In Raw And Fermented Camel Milk In East Africa.".; 2010.
Njage PMK;, Jans C;, Wangoh J;, Farah Z;, Lacroix C;, Meile L. "iodiversity And Genotyping Of Staphylococci Isolated In Raw And Fermented Camel Milk In East Africa.".; 2010.
Njage PMK;, Jans C;, Wangoh J;, Farah Z;, Lacroix C;, Meile. L. "Microbial biodiversity of camel milk and fermented camel milk products: technology, hygiene and safet."; 2010.
Ndetei DM, Tyrer P, Mulder R, Crawford M, Newton-Howes G, Simonsen E, Koldobsky N, Fossati A, Mbatia J, Barrett B. "Personality Disorder: A New Global Perspective."; 2010.personality_disorder_-_a_new_global_perspective.pdf
Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Bosire R, Kiarie JN, Mackelprang RD, Gatuguta A, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "Predicting pregnancy in HIV-1-discordant couples."; 2010. Abstract

This study examines the incidence and predictors of pregnancy in HIV-1-discordant couples from Nairobi, Kenya. Women from 454 discordant couples were followed for up to 2 years. One-year cumulative incidence of pregnancy was 9.7%. Pregnancy rates did not differ significantly between HIV-1-infected and uninfected women (HR = 1.46). The majority of pregnancies occurred among women < 30 years old reporting a desire for future children (1-year incidence 22.2%). Pregnancy rates may be high among discordant couples, indicating desire for children may override concerns of HIV-1 transmission and increase unprotected sex, and highlighting the need to make conception safer.

Cheryl R;L, Shirley W;, Flatt MS;, La Jolla CA;, Karanja N;, Cynthia T;, Nancy SE. "Two-Year Results From a Multi-Site Randomized Trial of a Commercial Weight Loss Program."; 2010. Abstract

Commercial weight loss programs may contribute to efforts to reduce the prevalence of obesity, although evidence of efficacy and effects on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors is critical in evaluating the likelihood of sustained benefits. The Jenny Craig (JC) program involves individualized diet and exercise counseling (provided either in-person at community-based sites or by telephone), prepackaged foods and a low-energy density diet. The aims of this study are (1) To test, in a multi-site randomized controlled trial, whether the JC Centre-based and/or JC Direct (telephone-based) interventions promote greater weight loss and maintenance of that loss in overweight or obese women over a 24-month period compared to usual care (UC) conditions; and (2) To describe the effect of the program (vs. UC conditions) on selected biochemical factors, cardiopulmonary fitness, quality of life (QOL) and eating attitudes and behaviors. At randomization, participants (n=442) were 44(10) (mean[SD]) yrs, with BMI 33.8(3.4) kg/m2, weight 92.1(10.7) kg, and waist circumference 108.6(9.6) cm. Two-year data are available for 91% of study participants (n=406), and weight loss is - 8.1(8.6), -6.7(9.3), and -2.2(7.4) kg for the JC Centre- based, JC Direct, and UC groups, an average weight reduction of -8.7%, -7.3%, and -2.4% of initial weight, respectively. The proportion of women at highest risk (CRP>3 mg/L) in the JC arms decreased significantly from 53% at enrollment to 33% at two years, but was unchanged in the UC arm. Interim analysis also shows the JC intervention to promote favorable changes in lipid, leptin and carotenoid levels, and improved cardiopulmonary fitness

Fridah L;G, Isabelle B;, Job L;, John M;, Henry M;, Joshua A;O, Okeyo AM. "A cost-benefit analysis of seced in-vitro fertilization embryo transfer in Kenya."; 2009.
Fridah L;G, Isabelle B;, Job L;, John M;, Henry M;, Joshua A;O, Okeyo AM. "A cost-benefit analysis of seced in-vitro fertilization embryo transfer in Kenya."; 2009.
Fridah L;G, Isabelle B;, Job L;, John M;, Henry M;, Joshua A;O, Okeyo AM. "A cost-benefit analysis of seced in-vitro fertilization embryo transfer in Kenya."; 2009.
Fridah L;G, Isabelle B;, Job L;, John M;, Henry M;, Joshua A;O, Okeyo AM. "A cost-benefit analysis of seced in-vitro fertilization embryo transfer in Kenya."; 2009.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Awange D O, Wakoli K A, Onyango J F, Chindia M L, Dimba E O, Guthua S W. Reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. East Afr Med J 2009, 86: 517 .". In: East Afr Med J 2009, 86: 517 . University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Natural Hazards and the Art of Forecasting.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Kenya Meteorological Society; 2009.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Solomon M M. Onyango J.F, Nyabola L.O, Opiyo A, Chindia M. L: Evaluation of Acute Morbidity and Quality of Life among head and neck cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy. East Afr Med J 2009; 86: 173 .". In: East Afr Med J 2009; 86: 173 . University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Adeline V L, Dimba E, Wakoli A K, Njiru A K, Awange D O, Onyango J F, Chindia M L: Clinicopathological features of Ameloblastoma in Kenya: a 10-year audit. J Craniofac Surg 2008; 19: 1589 .". In: J Craniofac Surg 2008; 19: 1589 . University of Nairobi Press; 2008. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Cloud Cover Estimation Over Selected Locations in East Africa Using Satellite Derived Reflectivity Data.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2008.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Contribution to the Heat Budget in Nairobi Metro-Area by the Anthropogenic Heat Component.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2008. Abstract
This study quantifies the ejected waste heat from artificial supplies comprising road transport and industrial, commercial, domestic and metabolic heating activities which may enhance the urban temperatures in Nairobi metro area, taking into account the energy intensity of a given activity and the level of the activity, considering expended fossil and biofuels, electrical energy consumption and human metabolism. Translation of linear source strengths to area averages from the road transport sector yields about 4% of the total anthropogenic energy over the city. The contribution from the road sector is likely to rise to 10.8 W m-2 in 2029 as the City expands. The industrial/commercial sector contributes up to 35.5 W m-2 or 57% of the total anthropogenic energy, and could increase to 284 W m-2 by 2029 due to industrialization and economic growth. Domestic utilities account for up to 13 W m-2, which is 21% of the total anthropogenic energy. Depending on the activity engaged in, human metabolism contributes up to 11.4 W m-2, which is about 18% of the total anthropogenic energy supplies. The sum total area-averaged anthropogenic energy consumption over the city centre is currently small, constituting about 11 to 18% of the global radiation for the warmer and colder seasons, respectively. Notably, only a part of this energy is released into the atmosphere as waste heat as most is used for the intended purposes. If the current trends of rising population, increased motor vehicle density and enhanced industrialization persist, the anthropogenic waste heat ejection would be large enough to alter the heat balance of the study area appreciably in future by 2030.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Contribution to the Heat Budget in Nairobi Metro-Area by the Anthropogenic Heat Component.". In: Proceedings: 1st KenGen/IAEA geothermal Conference in Kenya. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2008. Abstract
This study quantifies the ejected waste heat from artificial supplies comprising road transport and industrial, commercial, domestic and metabolic heating activities which may enhance the urban temperatures in Nairobi metro area, taking into account the energy intensity of a given activity and the level of the activity, considering expended fossil and biofuels, electrical energy consumption and human metabolism. Translation of linear source strengths to area averages from the road transport sector yields about 4% of the total anthropogenic energy over the city. The contribution from the road sector is likely to rise to 10.8 W m-2 in 2029 as the City expands. The industrial/commercial sector contributes up to 35.5 W m-2 or 57% of the total anthropogenic energy, and could increase to 284 W m-2 by 2029 due to industrialization and economic growth. Domestic utilities account for up to 13 W m-2, which is 21% of the total anthropogenic energy. Depending on the activity engaged in, human metabolism contributes up to 11.4 W m-2, which is about 18% of the total anthropogenic energy supplies. The sum total area-averaged anthropogenic energy consumption over the city centre is currently small, constituting about 11 to 18% of the global radiation for the warmer and colder seasons, respectively. Notably, only a part of this energy is released into the atmosphere as waste heat as most is used for the intended purposes. If the current trends of rising population, increased motor vehicle density and enhanced industrialization persist, the anthropogenic waste heat ejection would be large enough to alter the heat balance of the study area appreciably in future by 2030.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango J F, Vilembwa A, Awange D O, Wakoli KA, Dimba E A: Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a dentigerous cyst lining: a case report and literature review, JMOSI, 2008; 7: 478 .". In: a case report and literature review, JMOSI, 2008; 7: 478 . University of Nairobi Press; 2008. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, ENOCH DROMONGE. "Otieno CF, Huho AN, Omonge EO, Amayo AA, Njagi E.Type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical and aetiologic types, therapy and quality of glycaemic control of ambulatory patients.East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):24-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):24-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2008. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease with multiple causes revolving around beta cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and enhanced hepatic glucose output. Clinical judgement based on obesity status, age of onset and the clinical perception of residual beta cell insulin secretory function (hence insulin-requiring or not), has been used to determine therapeutic choices for each patient. Further laboratory testing of the clinically defined type 2 diabetes unmasks the various aetiologic types within the single clinical group. OBJECTIVE: To determine the aetiological types of the clinically defined type 2 diabetic patients, their chosen therapies at recruitment and the quality of glycaemic control achieved. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Diabetes out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: A total of 124 patients with clinical type 2 diabetes were included, 49.2% were males. The mean duration of diabetes in males was 26.09 (20.95) months and that of females was 28.68 (20.54) months. The aetiological grouping revealed the following proportions: Type 1A-3.2%, Type 1B-12.1%, LADA-5.7%, and "true" type 2 diabetes 79.0%. All the patients with Type 1A were apparently, and rightly so, on "insulin-only" treatment even though they did not achieve optimal glycaemic control with HbA1c % = 9.06. However the study patients who were type 1B and LADA were distributed all over the treatment groups where most of them did not achieve optimal glycaemic control, range of HbA1c of 8.46 -10.6%. The patients with "true" type 2 were also distributed all over the treatment groups where only subjects on 'diet only' treatment had good HbA1c of 6.72% but those in other treatment groups did not achieve optimal glycaemic control of HbA1c, 8.07 - 9.32%. CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease where clinical judgement alone does not adequately tell the various aetiological types apart without additional laboratory testing of C-peptide levels and GAD antibody status. This may partly explain the inappropriate treatment choices for the various aetiological types with consequent sub-optimal glycaemic control of those patients.

FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Response of the Moisture Budget to the Growth and Development of Nairobi City .". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Africa J. of Sc. and Tech; 2008.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Response of the Moisture Budget to the Growth and Development of Nairobi City .". In: Proceedings: 1st KenGen/IAEA geothermal Conference in Kenya. Africa J. of Sc. and Tech; 2008.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Simulation of the Impact of Deforestation on Rainfall in the Lake Victoria Basin.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2008.
Musembi RJ, B. O. Aduda, Mwabora JM, M.Rusu, Fostiropolous K, Lux-Steiner MC. "Temperature dependent characterization of TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS eta Solar Cell.". In: International Conference on Nanoscience and technology . Stockholm, Sweden.; 2007. Abstract

Temperature dependent current - voltage measurements have been used to characterize an highly structured TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell, which under AM1.5 had the following parameters: Voc = 0.249V, Jsc = 9.24mA/cm2, a fill factor FF = 0.339 and an efficiency of 0.78%. The current voltage characterizations have been done in the dark as well as under illumination. Diode ideality factor A under illumination has been found to be between 1 < A < 2 while in the dark A > 2. Recombination mechanism of the charge carriers has been found to be dominated by tunneling in the dark, while under illumination the charge carrier recombination is thermally activated. In this device, the type and place of the dominant recombination mechanism has been found to depend on illumination.

M. DRGICHUHICHRISTINE, Bosire R, Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wariua G, JM M, G W, C G, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, J R, R G, B L, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, Farquhar C. "Breast milk alpha-defensins are associated with HIV type 1 RNA and CC chemokines in breast milk but not vertical HIV type 1 transmission.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jan;34(1):25-9. African Crop Science Society; 2007. Abstract

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Alpha-defensins are proteins exhibiting in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity that may protect against mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 via breast milk. Correlates of alpha-defensins in breast milk and transmission risk were determined in a cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Nairobi followed for 12 months postpartum with their infants. Maternal blood was collected antenatally and at delivery for HIV-1 viral load and infant HIV-1 infection status was determined < 48 h after birth and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Breast milk specimens collected at month 1 were assayed for alpha-defensins, HIV-1 RNA, subclinical mastitis, and CC and CXC chemokines. We detected alpha-defensins in breast milk specimens from 108 (42%) of 260 HIV-1-infected women. Women with detectable alpha-defensins (> or =50 pg/ml) had a median concentration of 320 pg/ml and significantly higher mean breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels than women with undetectable alpha-defensins (2.9 log(10) copies/ml versus 2.5 log(10) copies/ml

FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Anthropogenic Energy Component and Climate Change in Nairobi Metro-area.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Kenya Meteorological Society; 2007.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Inter-comparison of Satellite, Dobson Spectrophotometer and Ozonsonde Ozone Data Observations over Nairobi.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Kenya Meteorological Society; 2007.
R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN, FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Rainfall Distribution over Nairobi Area.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2007.
R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN, FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Rainfall Distribution over Nairobi Area.". In: Journal of KMS VOL 2,NO.2,Pg 85-91. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2007.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Relationship between ENSO parameters and trends and periodic fluctuations in East Africa rainfall.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2007.
Mukabana RW, Kannady K, Kiama MG, Ijumba JN, Mathenge EM, Ibrahim Kiche, Nkwengulila G, Mboera L, Mtasiwa D, Yamagata Y, Schayk IV, Knols BGJ, Lindsay SW, de Castro MC, de Castro MC, Tanner M, Fillinger U, Killeen GF. "Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa.". In: Malaria Journal, 5 (1): 9. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract

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Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of
practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots
level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

L.U. A, W.D. B, F.J. M, E.O. O. "Molecular characterization of a tsetse fly midgut proteolytic lectin that mediates differentiation of African trypanosomes.Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Apr;36(4):344-52. Epub 2006 Jan 19.". In: Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Apr;36(4):344-52. Epub 2006 Jan 19. MBA; 2006. Abstract

Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.

FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango JF, Awange DO, Njiru A, Macharia IM. Pattern of occurrence of head and neck cancer presenting at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):288-91.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):288-91. University of Nairobi Press; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Currently there is a dearth of data on the pattern of occurrence of head and neck cancers in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive analysis of the pattern of occurrence of head and neck cancers in a Kenyan population. DESIGN: Retrospective hospital-based descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. RESULT: A total of 793 cases were recorded consisting of 507 male and 286 female (M: F = 2:1). Most of the lesions arose from the upper aerodigestive pathway. The larynx was the most common site for aerodigestive malignancies. This was followed in order of frequency, by the tongue, the mouth, and the nasopharynx. Outside the aerodigestive pathway the eye was the most commonly affected site followed by the thyroid. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignancy. Sarcomas were typically rare. Gender and age distribution showed an overall male preponderance and a wide age range. However, specific tumour sites and tumour types showed varying patterns of gender and age distribution. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the relative prominence of laryngeal, oral and nasopharyngeal cancers in the African population. It is, however, at variance with other African studies regarding the relative frequency of nasal and paranasal cancers.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango JF, Macharia IM.Delays in diagnosis, Referral and management of Head and neck cancers presenting at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):85-91.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):85-91. University of Nairobi Press; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The most important prognostic factor in head and neck cancer is the stage of the disease at presentation. Early cancer has an excellent prognosis following treatment. Unfortunately most patients present with late disease that requires radical treatment with considerable morbidity and mortality. Clinical experience at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) shows that most patients present with late disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes of late presentation of head and neck cancer. DESIGN: A prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. RESULTS: Forty four cases were seen among whom 34 were males and 10 were females. The age range was 20 to 90 years with a peak incidence between 50 and 60 years. Most of the patients had little or no education and the majority lived in the rural areas. Seventy one percent of the patients came from the Central and Eastern provinces. Tobacco and alcohol use were the most common risk habits. The larynx was the most common site affected followed by the tongue. In 61% of the cases the size of the tumours at presentation was unknown. In 14% the size was 1-2cm, in 7% of the cases it was 2-4 cm while in 5% of the cases it was 4-6 cm. In 14% of the cases the tumour size was over 6 cm. The most common presenting symptom was hoarseness followed by swelling. The majority of the patients attended a public health facility nearest them. For most patients the facility lay within 5 km and could be accessed by walking. However, most of the patients went through multiple referrals to get to KNH. By the time the patients reached KNH, 35 patients (77%) had been treated with unspecified medications, two (4%) had had tooth extraction, and seven (16%) had had biopsies done. The time-lapse between the first symptom and consultation ranged from zero and eight months. Forty five percent of the patients presented to a medical facility within one month of their symptom and 45% presented after three months. The time lapse between referral and attendance at KNH ranged from zero and thirteen weeks and 45% of the patients presented to KNH within two weeks of referral. The overall duration of symptoms by the time of diagnosis ranged from zero months to unspecified years. Thirty two percent of the cases had experienced symptoms for six months or less by the time of diagnosis. However, a number of patients had had their symptoms for a number of years by the time of diagnosis. The distribution of the tumours by stage at the time of final diagnosis were as follows: stage I were 2%, stage II 6%, stage III 14% and stage IV 56%. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the referral system was the main cause of delayed presentation of head and neck cancer to Kenyatta National Hospital.
FLORENCE DRMURILA. "Seroprevalence of hepatitis B markers in pregnant women in Kenya. East Afr Med J . 2006 Sep; 83 ( 9 ): 485-93 . PMID: 17447350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okoth F, Mbuthia J, Gatheru Z, Murila F, Kanyingi F, Mugo F, Esamai F, Alavi Z, Otieno J, Kiambat.". In: East Afr Med J . 2006 Sep; 83 ( 9 ): 485-93 . UN-HABITAT; 2006. Abstract
Virus Research Center, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P.O. Box 54628, 00200, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hepatitis B serological markers in pregnant women from various geographical sites in Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional observational study of women attending antenatal clinics. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital and eight hospitals from five provinces in Kenya. SUBJECTS: All women in their third trimester of pregnancy attending the antenatal clinic over the period June 2001 to June 2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each pregnant woman age and gestation were documented. Hepatitis serological markers were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 2241 pregnant women were enrolled. Among them 205 women (9.3%) were positive for HbsAg and from these 18 (8.8%) were found to have HbeAg. Protective antibodies (anti-HbsAg) were detected in 669 (30.2%) of the women. There were notable significant regional differences for HbsAg rates. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the presence of high disease carrier rate and the corresponding previously reported low level of HbeAg suggesting questionable low rate of perinatal transmission but high rate of horizontal transmission. PMID: 17447350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES, OCHUKU MRMBUYATHOMAS. "T.O. Mbuya, .". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 2006.
FELIX PROFMBITHIPETERMULWA. "P.M.F Mbithi, E.M. Njoroge, J.M.Gathuma, T.M. Wachira, J.K. Magambo, S. Njiru and E. Zeyhle (2005). Evaluation of Ethyl Alcohol in Treatment of Cystic Echinococcosis using Puncture Aspiration Introduction Reaspiration (PAIR) Technique. Journal of Animal a.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in PAIR technique. Animals naturally infected with Echinococcus were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cysts (n=7) were punctured, drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol, while in the control group, cysts (n=9) were only punctured and drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound showed collapsed endocysts after cyst puncture in both groups. One month later, there was decrease in cyst size, increased echogenicity and complete or partial detachment of the endocyst. Postmortem examination of the cysts in test group showed gross degeneration with marked fibrosis of the surrounding liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic contents and degenerated endocysts. Microscopically, only debris and dead protoscoleces with detached hooks were seen. In the control group, the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of the cysts showed clear fluid with intact endocysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protoscoleces were dead with detached hooks. In the test group, histopathology showed host cell reaction consist of infiltrated, adventitial layer with neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was destroyed and replaced with young fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells. In the control group, histopathology showed detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia, and inflammatory cells in both the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less in the control than in the test group. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscoleces, possibly due to the detachment of the endocyst from the host wall.

FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Acute aflatoxicosis: case report. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):320-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):320-4. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
The objective of this presentation is to document the salient clinical findings in a case of aflatoxicosis and to review the literature on the same so as to increase the index of suspicion, enhance early diagnosis and improve management. The case was a 17-year-old schoolboy presenting with vomiting, features of infection and gastrointestinal tract symptoms. Examination revealed a very ill looking pale patient with abdominal distension, tenderness and rectal bleeding and easy bruisability. Investigations showed abnormal liver function tests, pancytopenia and elevated serum levels of aflatoxins. Management consisted of supportive care including antibiotics and antifungal therapy, transfusion of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma. His recovery was uneventful. The literature on human aflatoxicosis shows that the presentation may be acute, subacute and chronic. The degree of emanating clinical events also conforms to status of the aflatoxicosis. Overall, the features are protean and may masquerade many other forms of toxaemias. In conclusion, the diagnosis of aflatoxicosis takes cognisance of geographical location, past events, staple diet and clinical features to exclude other infections. Also required are high index of suspicion and importantly serum levels of aflatoxin. Treatment strategies involved use of antimicrobials and supporting the damaged multi-organs.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Diabetes care in Kenya–where are we and which way forward? East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S161-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S161-2. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes has a long pre-clinical period before diagnosis, during which there may be development of complications, both of microvascular and macrovascular types. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factor profile of hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in patients with short-term (=/ < 2 years) type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study over six months. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included. The mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 10.3 (7.5) months. There were 66% of the study subjects with obesity, 50% with hypertension, 29% had ideal glucose control and less than 40% had high LDL-cholesterol. Twenty eight (28%) who had polyneuropathy had significant differences in their older age, higher total and LDL-cholesterol compared with those who did not have polyneuropathy. Twenty five (25%) of the study patients had micro-albuminuria and only 1% had macro-albuminuria. There were no significant differences in the selected characteristics between study patients with and those without albuminuria. Only 7% of the study patients had retinopathy on direct ophthalmoscopy. CONCLUSION: Microvascular complications occurred in patients with type 2 diabetes of short duration of not more than two years. The risk factors of hypertension, poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and cigarette smoking were present in a fair proportion of the study patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes should be actively screened for complications and the risk factors thereof, even if the diabetes was of recent onset.
OMONDI DROYOOGEORGE, FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management strategies in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S197-203.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S197-203. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most common hyperglycaemic emergency in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes. It carries very high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, both in the treated patients and those who are presenting to hospital with diabetes for the first time. OBJECTIVE: To review the risk factors, mechanisms and management approaches in diabetes ketoacidosis in published literature and to discuss them in the context of why a significant proportion of patients who develop diabetic ketoacidosis in sub-Saharan Africa still have high mortality. DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world. DATA SYNTHESIS: The main causes or precipitants of DKA in patients in SSA are newly diagnosed diabetes, missed insulin doses and infections. The major underlying mechanism is insulin deficiency. Treated patients miss insulin doses for various reasons, for example, inaccessibility occasioned by; unavailability and unaffordability of insulin, missed clinics, perceived ill-health and alternative therapies like herbs, prayers and rituals. Infections also occur quite often, but are not overt, like urinary tract, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Due to widespread poverty of individuals and nations alike, the healthcare systems are scarce and the few available centres are unable to adequately maintain a reliable system of insulin supply and exhaustively investigate their hospitalised patients. Consequently, there is little guarantee of successful outcomes. Poor people may also have sub-optimal nutrition, caused or worsened by diabetes, more so, at first presentation to hospital. Intensive insulin therapy in such individuals mimics 're-feeding syndrome', an acute anabolic state whose outcome may be unfavourable during the period of treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality and morbidity from diabetic ketoacidosis remains high in sub-Saharan Africa, improved healthcare systems and reliable insulin supply can reverse the trend, at least, to a large extent. Individuals and populations need empowerment through education, nutrition and poverty eradication to improve self-care in health and living with diabetes.

FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Focus on delay as a strategy for care designs and evaluation of diabetic foot ulcers in developing countries: a review. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S204-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S204-8. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract

Background: While foot care services for diabetic patients are necessary if limb morbidity and wastage are to be reduced, they may not be sufficient. Even when the few service centers and personnel that are available appear to be functioning relatively well, patients still face multiple barriers to derive maximum benefits from the services. OBJECTIVES: To review certain aspects of care of diabetes foot ulcers in developing countries with emphasis on causes of delay in care delivery. DATA SOURCES: Review of published literature on care of diabetic foot ulcers as well as our local experiences. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of potential or actual delay in care delivery and causes of such delay in pre-hospital phase, access to hospital and within-hospital phase of care. DATA SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSIONS: The barriers or causes of delay are observed to occur at various levels: decision to seek care, reaching the treatment facility and receiving the desired optimal care. The usual main causative/ risk factors that include peripheral neuropathy causes inattention and delays the decision to seek care; peripheral vascular insufficiency and infection are both involved in initiation of diabetic foot ulcers and are also major causes of delay in ulcer healing process. Aside from the processes unique to diabetes, the health care providers and the facilities of care have had major contributions in delaying the desired care of the foot ulcers. This may arise from heavy workload, priority illnesses, shortage of required supply for standard care and/or just wrong attitudes. Patients' inadequate knowledge of self-care, unique socio-economic and socio-cultural characteristics are also contributors to the barriers that compound sub-optimal foot care. Care programme designs that lay emphasis on causes of delay are more likely to seek to eliminate such causes. Just like justice, footcare delayed is foot (care) denied.

FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "General Circulation and Climatology.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2005.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Introduction to GrADS.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. IGAG Climate Prediction and Applications Centre; 2005.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45 (9.4) years and that of males was 55.83 (9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85 (6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98 (5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol > 4.2 mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C > 2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment. CONCLUSION: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total–and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45 (9.4) years and that of males was 55.83 (9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85 (6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98 (5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol > 4.2 mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C > 2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment. CONCLUSION: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total–and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Mwendwa FM, Otieno CF, Kayima JK, Amayo EO, Otieno PO.Risk factor profile and the occurrence of microvascular complications in short-term type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S163-72.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S163-72. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes has a long pre-clinical period before diagnosis, during which there may be development of complications, both of microvascular and macrovascular types. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factor profile of hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in patients with short-term (=/ < 2 years) type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study over six months. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included. The mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 10.3 (7.5) months. There were 66% of the study subjects with obesity, 50% with hypertension, 29% had ideal glucose control and less than 40% had high LDL-cholesterol. Twenty eight (28%) who had polyneuropathy had significant differences in their older age, higher total and LDL-cholesterol compared with those who did not have polyneuropathy. Twenty five (25%) of the study patients had micro-albuminuria and only 1% had macro-albuminuria. There were no significant differences in the selected characteristics between study patients with and those without albuminuria. Only 7% of the study patients had retinopathy on direct ophthalmoscopy. CONCLUSION: Microvascular complications occurred in patients with type 2 diabetes of short duration of not more than two years. The risk factors of hypertension, poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and cigarette smoking were present in a fair proportion of the study patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes should be actively screened for complications and the risk factors thereof, even if the diabetes was of recent onset.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Mwendwa FM, Otieno CF, Kayima JK, Amayo EO, Otieno PO.Risk factor profile and the occurrence of microvascular complications in short-term type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S163-72.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S163-72. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes has a long pre-clinical period before diagnosis, during which there may be development of complications, both of microvascular and macrovascular types. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factor profile of hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in patients with short-term (=/ < 2 years) type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study over six months. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included. The mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 10.3 (7.5) months. There were 66% of the study subjects with obesity, 50% with hypertension, 29% had ideal glucose control and less than 40% had high LDL-cholesterol. Twenty eight (28%) who had polyneuropathy had significant differences in their older age, higher total and LDL-cholesterol compared with those who did not have polyneuropathy. Twenty five (25%) of the study patients had micro-albuminuria and only 1% had macro-albuminuria. There were no significant differences in the selected characteristics between study patients with and those without albuminuria. Only 7% of the study patients had retinopathy on direct ophthalmoscopy. CONCLUSION: Microvascular complications occurred in patients with type 2 diabetes of short duration of not more than two years. The risk factors of hypertension, poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and cigarette smoking were present in a fair proportion of the study patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes should be actively screened for complications and the risk factors thereof, even if the diabetes was of recent onset.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Numerical Simulation of the Influence of Urbanisation on Convective Activities over Nairobi City.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. International Human Dimensions Programme; 2005.
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F. and MBUYA T. O. (2005). The Limiting Value of the Fleet Angle of a Rope Running Off a Sheave. The Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering 1(1) 37-46.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango JF, Noah S.Pattern of clefts of the lip and palate managed over a three year period at a Nairobi hospital in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):649-51.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):649-51. University of Nairobi Press; 2005. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The pattern of cleft lip and palate in the African population remains uncertain. The few studies of clefts in African populations have suggested that the pattern of these defects may be significantly different from those reported in other population groups. However, most of these studies have been based on very small sample sizes bringing into question the validity of those findings. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the pattern of cleft lip and palate cases managed at a Nairobi hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: Gertrude's Garden Children's Hospital, a private exclusive children's hospital in Nairobi, where cleft lip and palate treatment was being offered at subsidised rates to needy children under the sponsorship of an international organization. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and nine cases were seen during the study period. RESULTS: Age at presentation ranged between 1 week and 45 years, with 75% presenting between 0-5 years. The average age was 10 months. Gestation histories were missing for most cases but for those with gestation histories none were significant. Most children ranked between first to third birth orders, suggesting birth to young mothers. Six cases of associated deformities were identified among the cases. No syndromic clefts were seen. The most common cleft deformity was the cleft lip and palate (CL+P) followed by isolated cleft lip (CL). Isolated cleft palate was least common. There was a male preponderance in all cleft types and most of the clefts occurred on the left side. CONCLUSION: The pattern of clefts in this study does not differ significantly from those reported in the literature for the non-African populations.

FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Otieno CF, Vaghela V, Mwendwa FW, Kayima JK, Ogola EN.Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Kenya: levels of control attained at the Outpatient Diabetic Clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):320-4. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of specific cardiovascular risk factors in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes and the levels of control achieved in them. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study over a six month period. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and eleven patients with type 2 diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic attributes, duration of diabetes, levels of glycaemia, body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and modes of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients were enrolled, 57.3% were females. The mean (SD) age for women was 54.45 (9.44) and that of men was 55.8 (9.02) years. About 77% of the study population were on oral glucose-lowering agents with or without insulin but less than 30% achieved HbA1c < 7%; 15% were active cigarette smokers; about 50% were hypertensive with female predominance but 65% of them did not achieve desired blood pressure level inspite of treatment. Just over 50% had raised LDL-cholesterol and over 75% had raised total cholesterol but only three men were on statins without achieving desired targets. Body mass index above 30 kg/m2 as a measure obesity was found in 32% of females and 16% males. Most of the study patients admitted use of Aspirin at certain times in the course of their diabetes. CONCLUSION: The study showed that specific cardiovascular risk factors of hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity were prevalent although not adequately controlled to targets. Statin use was extremely low in people who already needed them. Regular Aspirin use was infrequent because many patients did not quite understand its role in their diabetes treatment. It is recommended that a more pro-active approach in multifactorial address of cardiovascular risk factors be used in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes to forestall future cardiovascular events.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Patterns of homocysteine in Kenyans with type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S180-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S180-3. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Increased total homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The measurement of tHcy in blood is therefore of potential great importance especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the total homocysteine levels in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, prospective study. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with Type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular, renal, liver or other chronic disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of tHcy, HbA1c, lipids and socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients, 48% males, with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The mean (sd) age of the males was 56.85 (8.96) years and of the females was 55.68 (8.93) years. The mean (sd) total serum homocysteine for males of 12.97 (6.06) micromol/l was significantly higher than that of the females of 10.64 (4.41) micromol/l. The cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, the body mass index and blood pressure of the study subjects did not show any statistically significant influence on their homocysteine levels. However, increasing age and duration of diabetes showed a significant linear relationship with rising level of total serum homocysteine. Some study participants reported smoking habit but unreliably. CONCLUSION: There was a significant proportion of the study patients with high levels of serum homocysteine, although most of them were of low to intermediate risk category. It may be prudent to assay homocysteine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes who are either older or have had diabetes for long duration for potential intervention.
K PROFNGANGAJOHN, FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Simulation of the influence of surface heterogeneity on air flow and convection over Nairobi area: Implication on airquality in the city.". In: Journal of the African Meteorological Society, Vol. 6 No.1 pp. 25-35. SMA; 2005.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Tropical Meteorology I.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2005.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Tropical Meteorology II.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2005.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Vasculitis in HIV: report of eight cases. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):656-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):656-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe vasculitis in HIV patients, their CD4 levels, anatomical sites affected and clinical patterns. DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kisumu District Hospital and Nairobi Rheumatology Clinic between January 2002 and May 2005. SUBJECTS: Eight patients with HIV and vasculitis. RESULTS: Eight patients (four males and four females) were recruited with an age range of 24-61 years, mean 33.13 years. Five had central nervous system vasculitis and three had peripheral vasculitis. The CD4 counts were low, range 2-200 cells/mm3 (mean of 79.25 cells/mm3), normal levels of CD4 are 355-1298 cells/mm3, indicating severe immunosuppression. Two patients tested positive for HBV (hepatitis B virus). CONCLUSION: HIV associated vasculitis is recognised and may be complicated by coinfection with hepatitis viruses. It occurs at low CD4 counts. Central nervous system involvement is a common site. Management is multidisciplinary.
Farah KO, Nyariki DM, Ngugi RK, Noor IM, Guliye AY. "The Somali and the camel: Ecology, management and economics."; 2004.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Advances of Numerical Weather Prediction over the GHA Region.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre; 2004.
FLORENCE DRMURILA, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised febrile children in Nairobi: is there an association? East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okwara FN, Obimbo EM, Wafula EM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . UN-HABITAT; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: There is laboratory evidence of altered immune function in children with malaria. Bacterial infections have been documented to complicate severe forms of malaria. However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children with and without malaria. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: General paediatric wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Children aged between three months and 12 years admitted with an acute febrile illness, with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standardised questionnaire, information on socio-demography, symptomatology, and nutritional status was obtained. Malaria slides, blood and urine cultures were performed on each child. RESULTS: Malaria parasitaemia was present in 158 (60%) of 264 children presenting with acute febrile illness with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. Bacteria were isolated from blood and/or urine of 62 (23%) of all enrolled children. Bacteraemia was prevalent among 11.4% of 158 children with malaria and among 13.2% of 106 without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 28.1% of blood isolates, gram-negative 62.5%, and atypical bacteria 9.4%. UTI was prevalent among 13.3% of 158 children with malaria and 16.0% of 106 children without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 18.4%, gram-negative 78.9%, and atypical bacteria 2.6% of the urine isolates. Presence of malaria parasitaemia was not associated with an increased risk of bacteraemia (OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.4-0.7], or UTI (OR 0.8 95% CI [0.4-1.6] in this study population. CONCLUSION: Among children hospitalised in Nairobi with fever and no obvious bacterial infective focus, there should be a high index of suspicion for malaria, followed by bacteraemia and UTI. Malaria parasitaemia does not appear to be associated with increased risk of bacterial co-infection. PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FLORENCE DRMURILA, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised febrile children in Nairobi: is there an association? East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okwara FN, Obimbo EM, Wafula EM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: There is laboratory evidence of altered immune function in children with malaria. Bacterial infections have been documented to complicate severe forms of malaria. However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children with and without malaria. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: General paediatric wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Children aged between three months and 12 years admitted with an acute febrile illness, with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standardised questionnaire, information on socio-demography, symptomatology, and nutritional status was obtained. Malaria slides, blood and urine cultures were performed on each child. RESULTS: Malaria parasitaemia was present in 158 (60%) of 264 children presenting with acute febrile illness with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. Bacteria were isolated from blood and/or urine of 62 (23%) of all enrolled children. Bacteraemia was prevalent among 11.4% of 158 children with malaria and among 13.2% of 106 without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 28.1% of blood isolates, gram-negative 62.5%, and atypical bacteria 9.4%. UTI was prevalent among 13.3% of 158 children with malaria and 16.0% of 106 children without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 18.4%, gram-negative 78.9%, and atypical bacteria 2.6% of the urine isolates. Presence of malaria parasitaemia was not associated with an increased risk of bacteraemia (OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.4-0.7], or UTI (OR 0.8 95% CI [0.4-1.6] in this study population. CONCLUSION: Among children hospitalised in Nairobi with fever and no obvious bacterial infective focus, there should be a high index of suspicion for malaria, followed by bacteraemia and UTI. Malaria parasitaemia does not appear to be associated with increased risk of bacterial co-infection. PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Introduction to Unix.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. IGAG Climate Prediction and Applications Centre; 2004.
FELIX PROFMBITHIPETERMULWA, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K.H. Zessin, P.M.F. Mbithi, W.K. Munyua and J.M. Maribei. (2004). Helminthosis in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26 pp. 29-33.". In: Law Journal,Issue No.4. Materials Research Society; 2004. Abstract
A study was conducted in sixty-two randomly selected herds in Kikuyu division, Kiambu District in Central Kenyan Highlands to obtain prevalence, spectrum and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Faecal samples from a total of 598 pigs of various age-group categories (piglets, weaners, growers and adults) were taken during a period of a 4 months in 1999 ad examined for helminthes eggs (EPG) using modified McMaster technique. Gastrintestinal helminth eggs wewre observed in 57 (91.9%) of the herds. The Helminths observed were Strongles (35.1%). Ascarids (10%), Trichuris (4), Strongloids (3.2%) and Tapeworms (0.3%). The overall prevalence of the helminaths was 43.5%. the prevalence among the various age groups differed significantly (p<0.01) with the highest prevalence in the weaners (55.6%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%). The prevalence of Strongles and Strongloids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups. The highest prevalence for Strongyles was in the growers (41.7%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%) while the highest prevalence for lowest in the adults (0.8%). The prevalence of Ascarids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups with the highest prevalence in weaners (27.8%) and the lowest in the piglets (3.6%). The prevalence of Trichuris worms was significantly (p<0.5) higher in the weaners than in the piglets. The high prevalence of the Gatrointestinal helmnths observed indicates the need to control these parasites due to their detrimental effects on productivity and also due to their public health significance.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango JF, Omondi BI, Njiru A, Awange OOOral Cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):318-21.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):318-21. University of Nairobi Press; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of oral cancer in the African population is still uncertain. Earlier reports suggested a relatively low incidence of oral cancer among Africans. However, there have been recent reports of an upward trend in the incidence of oral cancers in developing countries as a consequence of changes in life style and the emergence of new diseases. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect changes in the pattern of oral cancer in Kenya in view of these changes. OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in the pattern of oral cancer in the past 20 years. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. METHOD: Pathology records of cases of oral cancer diagnosed at Kenyatta National Hospital from 1978 to 1997 were analysed for relative frequency, age, sex and site distribution. RESULTS: Of a total 22,788 malignancies 821 cases (3.6%) were oral cancer. Yearly relative frequency of oral cancer ranged between 1.5% of the total malignancies. There was a small male predominance (M:F = 1.3:1). The most preferred site for oral cancer was the tongue but with a significant number involving the maxilla and mandible. Comparison with a previous study did not demonstrate a dramatic change in the pattern of oral cancer in Kenya. An overall gradual decline of cancers diagnosed at Kenyatta National Hospital was noted. This decline could not be accounted for in this study. CONCLUSION: This study does not show any increase in the frequency or change in the pattern of oral cancer in this population despite changes in life style and the emergence of AIDS disease in the country.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F., Njiru, A. Kaposis sarcoma in a Nairobi hospital. East Afr Med J. 2004 Mar;81(3):120-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Mar;81(3):120-3. University of Nairobi Press; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is associated epidemiologically with HIV infection and a number of countries have reported a dramatic increase in the incidence of KS with the advent of AIDS. Although AIDS is prevalent in Kenya, no studies on the impact of AIDS on the pattern of KS has been carried out. OBJECTIVE: To determine any changes in the pattern of KS that might have occurred since the advent of AIDS in the country. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). METHOD: Pathology records of cases of KS diagnosed at KNH from 1968 to 1997 were analysed with respect to relative frequency, age, sex and site distribution; and trend. The period was divided into the pre and post AIDS era from 1983, which is the time the first AIDS patient was reported in the country. RESULT: A total of 1108 cases of KS consisting of 911 males and 197 females were recorded. The relative frequency of KS ranged between 2% to 5% of the total malignancies. There was a gradual decline in the male to female ratio from about 10:1 in the sixties to about 2:1 in 1997. There was no dramatic difference in the age distribution in the pre and post AIDS era, although a large number of cases were recorded as adults without age specification in the post AIDS era. Site distribution was characteristic of the disease with most of the cases having the lesions occurring in the lower limbs and involving the skin. CONCLUSION: Although these findings do not demonstrate a dramatic alteration in the pattern of KS in the post AIDS era there were indications that such changes may have been obscured by under-reporting. The fall in the male:female ratio is a strong indication of a rise in KS among female patients. A further study is necessary to elucidate the true impact of AIDS on the pattern of KS in the country.

Moses S, Kaul R, Kimani J, Fonck K, Nagelkerke N, Keli F, Mac Donald K, Maclean I, Bwayo J, Ronald A, others. "Prevalent HSV-2 infection and risk for HIV seroconversion in a cohort of Kenyan female sex workers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of antibiotic chemoprophylaxis to reduce HIV incidence.". In: Medscape General Medicine. Vol. 6.; 2004. Abstract
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FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Transfusion haemosiderosis inspite of regular use of desferrioxamine: case report. East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):326-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):326-8. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
We describe a case of a female who developed haemosiderosis, in the course of treatment for very severe unstable aplastic anaemia for fourteen years. She was 37 years old at the time of initial diagnosis. Her management consisted of regular blood transfusions aimed at haemoglobin above 8.5 g/dl, antimicrobials, oxymetholone, low dose prednisone and folate. She had received about seventy five units of blood at the start of 2 grams of desferrioxamine with every subsequent blood transfusion. Annual tests of serum ferritin showed progressive increase. She developed skin changes, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, recurrent infections, generalized joint and abdominal pains and liver failure. She died within six weeks of developing congestive heart failure coupled with liver failure due to haemosiderosis despite regular use of desferrioxamine.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Introduction to Meteorology I.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2003.
Ogada, Mordecai O. WONRO, Frank LG. "Limiting depredation by African carnivores: The role of livestock husbandry." Conservation Biology 17 (6): 1521-1530; 2003. Abstract
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FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Principles of Numerical Weather Prediction.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre; 2003.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Quality of glycaemic control in ambulatory diabetics at the out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):406-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):406-10. uon; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Treatment of diabetes mellitus is based on the evidence that lowering blood glucose as close to normal range as possible is a primary strategy for reducing or preventing complications or early mortality from diabetes. This suggests poorer glycaemic control would be associated with excess of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. This presumption is suspected to reach high proportions in developing countries where endemic poverty abets poor glycaemic control. There is no study published on Kenyan patients with diabetes mellitus about their glycaemic control as an audit of diabetes care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the glycaemic control of ambulatory diabetic patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study on each clinic day of a randomly selected sample of both type 1 and 2 diabetic patients. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. METHODS: Over a period of six months, January 1998 to June 1998. During routine diabetes care in the clinic, mid morning random blood sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 305 diabetic patients were included, 52.8% were females and 47.2% were males. 58.3% were on Oral Hypoglycaemic Agent (OHA) only, 22.3% on insulin only; 9.2% on OHA and insulin and 4.6% on diet only. 39.5% had mean HbA1c < or = 8% while 60.5% had HbA1c > or = 8%. Patients on diet-only therapy had the best mean HbA1c = 7.04% while patients on OHA-only had the worst mean HbA1c = 9.06%. This difference was significant (p=0.01). The former group, likely, had better endogenous insulin production. The influence of age, gender and duration of diabetes on the level of glycaemic control observed did not attain statistically significant proportions. CONCLUSION: The majority of ambulatory diabetic patients attending the out-patient diabetic clinic had poor glycaemic control. The group with the poorest level of glycaemic control were on OHA-only, while best control was observed amongst patients on diet-only, because of possible fair endogenous insulin production. Poor glycaemic control was presumed to be due to sub-optimal medication and deteriorating diabetes. There is need to empower patients with knowledge and resources to enhance their individual participation in diabetes self-care. Diabetes care providers and facilities also need capacity building to improve care of patients with diabetes.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Quality of glycaemic control in ambulatory diabetics at the out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):406-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):406-10. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Treatment of diabetes mellitus is based on the evidence that lowering blood glucose as close to normal range as possible is a primary strategy for reducing or preventing complications or early mortality from diabetes. This suggests poorer glycaemic control would be associated with excess of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. This presumption is suspected to reach high proportions in developing countries where endemic poverty abets poor glycaemic control. There is no study published on Kenyan patients with diabetes mellitus about their glycaemic control as an audit of diabetes care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the glycaemic control of ambulatory diabetic patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study on each clinic day of a randomly selected sample of both type 1 and 2 diabetic patients. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. METHODS: Over a period of six months, January 1998 to June 1998. During routine diabetes care in the clinic, mid morning random blood sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 305 diabetic patients were included, 52.8% were females and 47.2% were males. 58.3% were on Oral Hypoglycaemic Agent (OHA) only, 22.3% on insulin only; 9.2% on OHA and insulin and 4.6% on diet only. 39.5% had mean HbA1c < or = 8% while 60.5% had HbA1c > or = 8%. Patients on diet-only therapy had the best mean HbA1c = 7.04% while patients on OHA-only had the worst mean HbA1c = 9.06%. This difference was significant (p=0.01). The former group, likely, had better endogenous insulin production. The influence of age, gender and duration of diabetes on the level of glycaemic control observed did not attain statistically significant proportions. CONCLUSION: The majority of ambulatory diabetic patients attending the out-patient diabetic clinic had poor glycaemic control. The group with the poorest level of glycaemic control were on OHA-only, while best control was observed amongst patients on diet-only, because of possible fair endogenous insulin production. Poor glycaemic control was presumed to be due to sub-optimal medication and deteriorating diabetes. There is need to empower patients with knowledge and resources to enhance their individual participation in diabetes self-care. Diabetes care providers and facilities also need capacity building to improve care of patients with diabetes.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Risk factors and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2003 Jan;80(1):36-43.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Jan;80(1):36-43. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. The diabetic patients with foot ulcers require long hospitalisation and carry risk of limb amputation. The risk factors for developing diabetic foot ulcers are manageable. In Kenya there is paucity of data on such risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers and the risk factors in a clinic-based setting. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus who had active foot ulcers in both outpatient and inpatient units. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diabetic foot ulcers glycated haemoglobin, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease and fasting lipid profile. RESULTS: One thousand seven hundred and eighty eight patients with diabetes mellitus were screened and 82 (4.6%) were found to have foot ulcers. The males and females with diabetic foot ulcers were compared in age, duration of foot ulcers, blood pressure, glycaemic control, neurological disability score and their proportion. Diabetic foot ulcers occurred mostly in patients who had had diabetes for a long duration. The types of (occurence) ulcers were neuropathic (47.5%), neuroischaemic (30.5%) and ischaemic (18%). The neuropathic ulcers had significantly poorer glycaemic control compared to other types and the longest duration (23.3 weeks). Ischaemic ulcers had significantly higher total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure compared to other ulcer types. Wagner stage 2 ulcers were the commonest (49.4%) but stage 4 ulcers had their highest neuropathic score (7.8/10) and longest duration (23.6 weeks). Aerobic infective pathogens were isolated from 73.2% of the ulcers. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers was 4.6% in this tertiary clinic. The risk factors of diabetic foot ulcers in the study were poor glycaemic control, diastolic hypertension, dyslipidaemia, infection and poor self-care. These findings are similar to studies done in other environments and they are modifiable to achieve prevention, delay in formation or improved healing of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. Therefore, specific attention should be paid to the management of these risk factors in patients with or without diabetes foot ulcers in this clinic.
Ndung’u DK;, Oswald A;, Friesen D;, Ariga ES;, Mburu M. "Effect of fodder legumes on stimulation, attachment and emergence of Striga hermonthica on maize."; 2002.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus: case report. East Afr Med J. 2002 Feb;79(2):103-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Feb;79(2):103-5. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients with diabetes mellitus and alcohol dependence syndrome are presented. Both were married and in middle age. MI stayed alone in the city while his spouse and two children lived in the rural home. He showed no obvious underlying psychiatric morbidity. FWK was living with his family in the city. He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given. Review of literature on alcoholism and its potential impact on the course and management of diabetes is presented.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Amayo E. O, Kwasa T. O, Otieno C. F Herpes zoster myelitis: report of two cases East African Medical Journal 2002: Vol.79,5,;279-280.". In: East African Medical Journal 2002: Vol.79,5,;279-280. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients aged 40 and 45 years with HIV infection and paraplegia are presented. The two had sub-acute onset paraplegia with a sensory level, which developed 10 days after herpes zoster dermatomal rash. They both had asymmetrically involvement of the lower limbs. Investigation including imaging of the spinal cord did not reveal any other cause of the neurological deficit. The two responded very well to treatment with acyclovir. Herpes zoster myelitis is a condition likely to rise with the upsurge of HIV infection and there is a need to identify the condition early. We also review the literature on the subject.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Amayo E. O, Kwasa T. O, Otieno C. F Herpes zoster myelitis: report of two cases East African Medical Journal 2002: Vol.79,5,;279-280.". In: East African Medical Journal 2002: Vol.79,5,;279-280. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients aged 40 and 45 years with HIV infection and paraplegia are presented. The two had sub-acute onset paraplegia with a sensory level, which developed 10 days after herpes zoster dermatomal rash. They both had asymmetrically involvement of the lower limbs. Investigation including imaging of the spinal cord did not reveal any other cause of the neurological deficit. The two responded very well to treatment with acyclovir. Herpes zoster myelitis is a condition likely to rise with the upsurge of HIV infection and there is a need to identify the condition early. We also review the literature on the subject.
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "Deletion Designs.". In: Journal of Science and Technology, 7, (2002), 323-332. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, MOSES FRANK (2002). Gear ratios for compound gear trains of minimum weight. Computer.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 2002. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango JF, Kayima JK, Owen WO.Rhinocerebral mucormycosis: case report.East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):390-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):390-3. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, fulminating opportunistic fungal infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. These fungi are ubiquitous, subsisting on decaying vegetation and diverse organic material. Although the fungi and spores of mucorales show minimal intrinsic pathogenicity towards normal persons, they can initiate aggressive and fulminating infection in the immune compromised host. Because rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs infrequently it may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for those who are not familiar with its clinical presentation. We present a patient with classical presentation of rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, the orbit and cranial base who, was treated by a combination of aggressive surgical and medical therapy and subsequently had surgical repair of the oral defect. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the clinical presentation and pathogenesis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and to emphasise the need for high index of suspicion in its diagnosis and management.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F,. Kayima, J.K, and Owen, W.O: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):390-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):390-3. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, fulminating opportunistic fungal infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. These fungi are ubiquitous, subsisting on decaying vegetation and diverse organic material. Although the fungi and spores of mucorales show minimal intrinsic pathogenicity towards normal persons, they can initiate aggressive and fulminating infection in the immune compromised host. Because rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs infrequently it may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for those who are not familiar with its clinical presentation. We present a patient with classical presentation of rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, the orbit and cranial base who, was treated by a combination of aggressive surgical and medical therapy and subsequently had surgical repair of the oral defect. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the clinical presentation and pathogenesis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and to emphasise the need for high index of suspicion in its diagnosis and management.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, FLORENCE DRMURILA, C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Pattern of use of skin care products in children with and without eczematous skin lesions. East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):645-50. Wamalwa DC, Wafula EM, Munyao TM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):645-50. UN-HABITAT; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare the pattern of use of skin care products between children with eczematous skin lesions and those without. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Two well baby clinics at the Kenyatta National Hospital and the Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty nine infants with eczematous skin lesions and 89 age and sex matched controls without skin lesions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence and severity of skin lesions related to the type of skin care products used by the child. RESULTS: Exposure to various products was not significantly different between infants with skin lesions and those without. However, more mothers whose children had a skin rash had made a change in the type of soap and or skin cream used for their child (p<0.0001). The principal reason for changing products was skin rash in the baby and most mothers made changes away from scented baby soap products. CONCLUSION: The study found no significant difference between the cases and controls regarding the type of skin care products used.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, FLORENCE DRMURILA, C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Pattern of use of skin care products in children with and without eczematous skin lesions. East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):645-50. Wamalwa DC, Wafula EM, Munyao TM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):645-50. Wasonga, C, Sheila O. Okoth, Joseph C. Mukuria and Charles C.O.A.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare the pattern of use of skin care products between children with eczematous skin lesions and those without. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Two well baby clinics at the Kenyatta National Hospital and the Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty nine infants with eczematous skin lesions and 89 age and sex matched controls without skin lesions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence and severity of skin lesions related to the type of skin care products used by the child. RESULTS: Exposure to various products was not significantly different between infants with skin lesions and those without. However, more mothers whose children had a skin rash had made a change in the type of soap and or skin cream used for their child (p<0.0001). The principal reason for changing products was skin rash in the baby and most mothers made changes away from scented baby soap products. CONCLUSION: The study found no significant difference between the cases and controls regarding the type of skin care products used.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, FLORENCE DRMURILA, C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Pattern of use of skin care products in children with and without eczematous skin lesions. East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):645-50. Wamalwa DC, Wafula EM, Munyao TM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):645-50. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare the pattern of use of skin care products between children with eczematous skin lesions and those without. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Two well baby clinics at the Kenyatta National Hospital and the Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty nine infants with eczematous skin lesions and 89 age and sex matched controls without skin lesions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence and severity of skin lesions related to the type of skin care products used by the child. RESULTS: Exposure to various products was not significantly different between infants with skin lesions and those without. However, more mothers whose children had a skin rash had made a change in the type of soap and or skin cream used for their child (p<0.0001). The principal reason for changing products was skin rash in the baby and most mothers made changes away from scented baby soap products. CONCLUSION: The study found no significant difference between the cases and controls regarding the type of skin care products used.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Upper gastrointestinal findings in diabetic outpatients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):232-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):232-6. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of H. pylori and the associated upper gastrointestinal endoscopic lesions in diabetic outpatients with dyspepsia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Adult diabetic outpatients with dyspepsia attending the KNH diabetic clinic. RESULTS: Of the 257 randomly selected diabetic outpatients screened, 137 (53.3%) had dyspepsia. Seventy one of these patients underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Fifty five (77.5%) of the 71 patients had H.pylori infection identified by rapid urease test and histology. The prevalence of H. pylori increased with HbA1c level but there was no statistically significant association with poor glycaemic control (HbA1c >7.0%). Forty eight (67.6%) of the 71 had gastritis, 17 (25.7%) had duodenitis, eight (11.3%) had oesophageal candidiasis, seven (9.9%) had bile reflux, six (8.5%) had reflux oesophagitis, six (8.5%) had ulcers (five duodenal, one gastric) and one (1.4%) had gastric cancer. Fourteen (19%) had endoscopically normal mucosa. The prevalence of H. pylori was 82.3% (32/38) in patients with antral gastritis. All ulcers and the cancer lesion (adenocarcinoma) were associated with H. pylori. Histological gastritis was found in 57 (81.8%) and was significantly associated with H. pylori. CONCLUSION: Although dyspepsia is common in diabetic outpatients at KNH, endoscopic findings and H. pylori status are not significantly different from those of non-diabetic population.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Upper gastrointestinal findings in diabetic outpatients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):232-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):232-6. test; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of H. pylori and the associated upper gastrointestinal endoscopic lesions in diabetic outpatients with dyspepsia.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya.
SUBJECTS: Adult diabetic outpatients with dyspepsia attending the KNH diabetic clinic. RESULTS: Of the 257 randomly selected diabetic outpatients screened, 137 (53.3%) had dyspepsia. Seventy one of these patients underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Fifty five (77.5%) of the 71 patients had H.pylori infection identified by rapid urease test and histology. The prevalence of H. pylori increased with HbA1c level but there was no statistically significant association with poor glycaemic control (HbA1c >7.0%). Forty eight (67.6%) of the 71 had gastritis, 17 (25.7%) had duodenitis, eight (11.3%) had oesophageal candidiasis, seven (9.9%) had bile reflux, six (8.5%) had reflux oesophagitis, six (8.5%) had ulcers (five duodenal, one gastric) and one (1.4%) had gastric cancer. Fourteen (19%) had endoscopically normal mucosa. The prevalence of H. pylori was 82.3% (32/38) in patients with antral gastritis. All ulcers and the cancer lesion (adenocarcinoma) were associated with H. pylori. Histological gastritis was found in 57 (81.8%) and was significantly associated with H. pylori. CONCLUSION: Although dyspepsia is common in diabetic outpatients at KNH, endoscopic findings and H. pylori status are not significantly different from those of non-diabetic population.

FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, MOSES FRANK (2001). An information processing approach to materials selection in engineering design and manufacturing.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 2001. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F., Awange, D.O. and Wakiaga, J.M.: Ameloblastoma: A clinico pathological analysis of 176 cases, Afric. J. Oral Health Sci, 2001; 2:4 .". In: Afric. J. Oral Health Sci, 2001; 2:4 . University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, fulminating opportunistic fungal infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. These fungi are ubiquitous, subsisting on decaying vegetation and diverse organic material. Although the fungi and spores of mucorales show minimal intrinsic pathogenicity towards normal persons, they can initiate aggressive and fulminating infection in the immune compromised host. Because rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs infrequently it may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for those who are not familiar with its clinical presentation. We present a patient with classical presentation of rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, the orbit and cranial base who, was treated by a combination of aggressive surgical and medical therapy and subsequently had surgical repair of the oral defect. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the clinical presentation and pathogenesis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and to emphasise the need for high index of suspicion in its diagnosis and management.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F., Awange, D.O.: Ameloblastic Sarcoma of the Mandible: A case report, Afric J of Oral Health Sciences, 2000; 1:.". In: Afric J of Oral Health Sciences, 2000; 1:. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, fulminating opportunistic fungal infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. These fungi are ubiquitous, subsisting on decaying vegetation and diverse organic material. Although the fungi and spores of mucorales show minimal intrinsic pathogenicity towards normal persons, they can initiate aggressive and fulminating infection in the immune compromised host. Because rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs infrequently it may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for those who are not familiar with its clinical presentation. We present a patient with classical presentation of rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, the orbit and cranial base who, was treated by a combination of aggressive surgical and medical therapy and subsequently had surgical repair of the oral defect. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the clinical presentation and pathogenesis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and to emphasise the need for high index of suspicion in its diagnosis and management.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F: Ameloblastoma: Where are we? Afric. J. Oral Health Sci. 2001; 2: 2.". In: Afric. J. Oral Health Sci. 2001; 2: 2. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, fulminating opportunistic fungal infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. These fungi are ubiquitous, subsisting on decaying vegetation and diverse organic material. Although the fungi and spores of mucorales show minimal intrinsic pathogenicity towards normal persons, they can initiate aggressive and fulminating infection in the immune compromised host. Because rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs infrequently it may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for those who are not familiar with its clinical presentation. We present a patient with classical presentation of rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, the orbit and cranial base who, was treated by a combination of aggressive surgical and medical therapy and subsequently had surgical repair of the oral defect. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the clinical presentation and pathogenesis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and to emphasise the need for high index of suspicion in its diagnosis and management.
Abayo GO;, Ransom JK;, Oswald A;, Ariga ES;, Friesen D. "Effect Of Short-term Improved Fallow On Striga Infestation In Maize.".; 2000.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Numerical Simulation of the Impact of Urbanization on the Microclimate over Nairobi Area.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2000.
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, MOSES FRANK (2000). Gear ratios for reverted compound gear trains of minimum weight. The mechanical engineering 6th annual seminar. Proceedings of a seminar held at Juja, near Nairobi, Kenya, on 8th - 9th June 2000.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 2000. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FLORENCE DRMURILA. "Galactosaemia in an infant: case report.Murila FV. East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3. UN-HABITAT; 1999. Abstract
Galactosaemia is a disorder of galactose metabolism in which raised levels of galactose and galactose-l-phosphate damage various organs. It is a very rare disease (incidence 1 in 60,000) and the diagnosis is often missed, leading to poor prognosis. A case of clinical galactosaemia that was diagnosed at the age of 11 months is reported. It is important to be aware of this condition as early treatment may prevent some of the complications.
FLORENCE DRMURILA, M. PROFMACHARIAW, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Iron deficiency anaemia in children of a peri-urban health facility. East Afr Med J . 1999 Sep; 76 ( 9 ): 520-3 . PMID: 10685324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Murila FV, Macharia WM, Wafula EM.". In: East Afr Med J . 1999 Sep; 76 ( 9 ): 520-3 . UN-HABITAT; 1999. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia(IDA) and its risk factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: A peri-urban health centre in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and three children, aged six months to six years. INTERVENTION: Demographic data were obtained and each child examined for signs of iron deficiency anaemia. Blood was drawn for haemoglobin determination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia was made using a pre-defined criteria. RESULTS: Iron deficiency anaemia had a prevalence of 7.4% (95% CI = 4.8-10.0) and was predominantly mild (93.6%). Age was found to be significantly associated with iron deficiency anaemia with a prevalence of (14.6%) in infants. No association was found between IDA and sex, birthweight, weaning age and weaning diet, sanitation, water source or mother's education. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in this health facility was relatively low and was predominantly mild.

PIP: This cross-sectional survey, conducted in a periurban health center in Nairobi, Kenya, determined the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and its risk factors among 403 children aged 6 months to 6 years. Demographic data were obtained and each child was assessed for signs of IDA. Blood was drawn for hemoglobin determination. The diagnosis of IDA was made using predefined criteria. Findings revealed that the prevalence of IDA was 7.4% (95% confidence interval = 4.8-10.0) and was predominantly mild (93.6%). Age was found to be significantly associated with IDA, with a 14.6% prevalence rate in infants. No association was found between IDA and factors such as sex, birth weight, weaning age and weaning diet, sanitation, water source, or education of the mother. Although the study showed that IDA was not a major health problem in the area, as evidenced by the low prevalence rate and presence of only mild cases, there is still a need for emphasis on health education at the health facility since young children are at high risk of IDA.

PMID: 10685324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

FLORENCE DRMURILA, M. PROFMACHARIAW, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Iron deficiency anaemia in children of a peri-urban health facility. East Afr Med J . 1999 Sep; 76 ( 9 ): 520-3 . PMID: 10685324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Murila FV, Macharia WM, Wafula EM.". In: East Afr Med J . 1999 Sep; 76 ( 9 ): 520-3 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia(IDA) and its risk factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: A peri-urban health centre in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and three children, aged six months to six years. INTERVENTION: Demographic data were obtained and each child examined for signs of iron deficiency anaemia. Blood was drawn for haemoglobin determination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia was made using a pre-defined criteria. RESULTS: Iron deficiency anaemia had a prevalence of 7.4% (95% CI = 4.8-10.0) and was predominantly mild (93.6%). Age was found to be significantly associated with iron deficiency anaemia with a prevalence of (14.6%) in infants. No association was found between IDA and sex, birthweight, weaning age and weaning diet, sanitation, water source or mother's education. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in this health facility was relatively low and was predominantly mild.

PIP: This cross-sectional survey, conducted in a periurban health center in Nairobi, Kenya, determined the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and its risk factors among 403 children aged 6 months to 6 years. Demographic data were obtained and each child was assessed for signs of IDA. Blood was drawn for hemoglobin determination. The diagnosis of IDA was made using predefined criteria. Findings revealed that the prevalence of IDA was 7.4% (95% confidence interval = 4.8-10.0) and was predominantly mild (93.6%). Age was found to be significantly associated with IDA, with a 14.6% prevalence rate in infants. No association was found between IDA and factors such as sex, birth weight, weaning age and weaning diet, sanitation, water source, or education of the mother. Although the study showed that IDA was not a major health problem in the area, as evidenced by the low prevalence rate and presence of only mild cases, there is still a need for emphasis on health education at the health facility since young children are at high risk of IDA.

PMID: 10685324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, MOSES FRANK (1999). Gear ratios for non.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1999. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Francis F. Ojany (1998) Editors. African Mountains and Highlands: Planning fr Sustainable Use of Mountain Resources. Proceedings of the 3rd African Mountains Association (AMA) 1993 - 421 pp. Published by the UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY , Tokyo, Japan.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1998. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
FELIX PROFMBITHIPETERMULWA, K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, J.M. Nduhiu, A.G. Thaiyah, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.J.M. Munyua (1998). An outbreak of urticarial form of swine erysipelas in a medium-scale piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya. J.S. Afr. Vet. Med. Ass. 69 (2) 61-64.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference held at Kabete in August 1998. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1998. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
FELIX PROFMBITHIPETERMULWA, K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, J.M. Nduhiu, A.G. Thaiyah, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.J.M. Munyua (1998). An outbreak of urticarial form of swine erysipelas in a medium-scale piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya. J.S. Afr. Vet. Med. Ass. 69 (2) 61-64.". In: Kenya Veterinary Assciation Annual Scientific Conference, 22nd - 24th April, 1998), Embu, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1998. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
CR N, T C, JA S, PA W, D F, N P, FJ K, K M. ".Coma scales for children with severe falciparum malaria.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Mar-Apr;91(2):161-5. uon press; 1997. Abstract

{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55

FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F. and Mwangi W. N.: Medical Audit in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Division of Dental Surgery, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. The New Afric. Journal of medicine. 1997; 2; 26 .". In: The New Afric. Journal of medicine. 1997; 2; 26 . University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, fulminating opportunistic fungal infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. These fungi are ubiquitous, subsisting on decaying vegetation and diverse organic material. Although the fungi and spores of mucorales show minimal intrinsic pathogenicity towards normal persons, they can initiate aggressive and fulminating infection in the immune compromised host. Because rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs infrequently it may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for those who are not familiar with its clinical presentation. We present a patient with classical presentation of rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, the orbit and cranial base who, was treated by a combination of aggressive surgical and medical therapy and subsequently had surgical repair of the oral defect. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the clinical presentation and pathogenesis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and to emphasise the need for high index of suspicion in its diagnosis and management.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Wakiaga JM, Onyango JF, Awange DO.Clinico-pathological analysis of jaw tumours and tumour-like conditions at the Kenyatta national hospital.East Afr Med J. 1997 Feb;74(2):65-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Feb;74(2):65-8. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of 568 jaw tumours and tumour-like conditions seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a period of fifteen years. For descriptive purposes, the term tumour is used here in its wider context to cover both neoplastic and dysplastic jaw lesions which present primarily as jaw swellings. The study reveals a pattern consistent with other African series and suggests a more aggressive progression and younger age at onset than elsewhere.
Feng H, O. OL. "Multilevel Analysis of the Interconnection between Divorce and Labour Force Participation in Canada, 1931-1991." International Journal of Marriage and Family 1, 2: 12-23; 1996. Abstract
n/a
Feng H, O. OL. "Risk Factors Associated with High Birth Orders among Canadian Women." Canadian Studies in Popultion 2, 3: 8-19; 1996. Abstract
n/a
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango JF, Awange DO, Wakiaga JM.Oral tumours and tumour-like conditions in Kenya: II. Age, sex and site distribution.East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):568-76.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):568-76. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
This paper presents the age, sex and site distribution of oral tumours and tumour like conditions in Kenya. It confirms some important points. First, there is an overall lower mean age for oral tumours in African series compared to non African series. Secondly, sex bias in the distribution of oral tumours is less marked for most tumours in Africans. Thirdly, there is difference in site distribution and oral tumours between Africans and non-African populations.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN, FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F., Awange, D.O. and Wakiaga, J.M: Oral tumours and tumour-like conditions in Kenya: I. Histological distribution. East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):560-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):560-3. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract

A histological analysis of 3141 cases of oral tumours and tumour-like lesions diagnosed at Kenyatta National Hospital between 1978 and 1992 has been carried out. Squamous cell carcinoma, salivary gland tumours and lymphoid tumours form the majority of lesions. In general, the histological distribution of the oral tumours do not differ significantly from those reported in non African series save for the Burkitt's lymphoma.

FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Awange DO, Onyango JF.Oral verrucous carcinoma: report of two cases and review of literature.East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8. Review. University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
Verrucous carcinoma is a rare and distinct pathological and clinical variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Two case reports of histologically proven oral verrucous carcinoma are presented. One case presented with a history of tobacco chewing, snuff taking and miraa chewing. While the relationship between tobacco chewing or snuff dipping and verrucous carcinoma has been investigated and described, the role played by miraa chewing is still unknown and thus requires further study. Both cases were successfully managed by only conservative surgical excision. No radiotherapy was used. Clinical and histo-pathological examination of verrucous carcinoma is therefore very important in its diagnosis and treatment planning.

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