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E KJ, Frederick OCF, M KE, Violet O-H, Kenn M. "The Burden of Co-morbid Depression in Ambulatory Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research. 2016;3(1). AbstractThe Burden of Co-morbid Depression in Ambulatory Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

Background:
Co-morbid depression is a serious condition in patients with diabetes that negatively affects their self-management, including drug adherence, consequently, the treatment outcomes and quality of life are also affected.
Objective:
To determine the burden of co-morbid depression in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and to document their socio-demographic and
clinical characteristics and any associated risk factors.
Methods:
This was a cross-sectional study done on patients living with type-2 diabetes on follow-up at the diabetes out-patient clinic (DOPC) at the KNH. Systematic sampling method was used to recruit 220 study subjects. The PHQ-9 questionnaire was used to assess for co-morbid depression. Socio-demographic and clinical details were obtained both from the subjects and their medical records. Physical examination was done, including blood pressure and BMI determined. Blood samples were collected from the cubital fossa to measure HbA1C in COBAS INTEGRA system with its reagent in the pre-dilution cuvette for automated analysis of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Statistical associations of patients’ characteristics and co-morbid depression were determined using Chi-square test and Odds Ratios.
Results:
The prevalence of co-morbid depression in patients with type 2 diabetes at the DOPC of KNH using the PHQ-9 was
32.3% (95% CI 26.4-38.6%). Of these, depression was mild in 42.3%,moderate in 40.8% and severe in 16%. Subjects with co- morbid depression were: aged 65years and above (p = 0.006), over-weight/obese (p = 0.035), and had longer duration of diabetes of 5years and above. The presence of co-morbid depression was significantly associated with poor glycaemic control, (OR = 3.3,
95% CI, 1.6 - 6.8, p = 0.001).
Conclusion:
About one-third (32.3%) of the study subjects with type 2 diabetes had co-morbid depression. Patients with type 2 diabetes who are at higher risk (older age of 65 years and above, long duration of diabetes, poor glycaemic control and presence of diabetes-related complications,) should be screened for co-morbid

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Benit-Gbaffou C, Dubresson A, Fourchard L, Ginisty K, Jaglin S, Olukoju A, Owuor S, Vivet J. " Exploring the role of party politics in the governance of African cities. In S. Baker & L. Fourchard (eds.), Politics and Policies: Governing."; 2013.
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Inwani I, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Obimbo E, Wamalwa D, G J-S, Farquhar C. " Performance of clinical algorithms for HIV-1 diagnosis and antiretroviral initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months in Kenya." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Apr 15;50(5):492-8. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318198a8a4.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy, approximately 50% die before 2 years.
METHODS:
We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: (1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), (2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and (3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA polymerase chain reaction testing.
FINDINGS:
A total of 1418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1 infected. Compared with HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI criteria were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4% improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD criteria to 74% and 84%, respectively; however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively.
INTERPRETATION:
Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high-prevalence resource-limited setting remains a challenge, and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

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Kotikot T, Ndalamia J, OGUTU H, B Nyaoke, MW MUREITHI, Farah B, C Perciani, Mac Donald K, Anzala O, Jaoko W. " Reproductive Tract Infections Among Low Risk Women Attending KAVI-VZV 001 Study in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES ."; 2016.
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F.N. K. " The Impact of Print Communication of the Adoption of Innovations by Kenyan Farmers”." Nairobi Journal of Management, University of Nairobi. 1996;1(2):183-193.
FN. K. " “A bird’s eye view of Factors influencing Product Distribution Systems in Kenya”, ." CONTACT, Journal of Consumer Association,. 1980:3-6.
F.N K. " “A Critical Review of Communication Theory”, ." Journal of African Management. 1982:2-8.
FN. K. " “Communication and Modernization in Central Kenya: An Experiment,” ." Business Management Review, Faculty of Commerce and Management, University of Dares- Salaam, . 1999;2(2):71-84.
FN. K. " “Rural Buyers’ Exposure to mass media”, ." Management, Journal of Kenya Institute of Management. 1982.
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Jimmy ML, Nzuve F, Flourence O, Manyasa E, Muthomi J. ". Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and trait correlations in selected sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) varieties." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;11(5):47-56.
CR N, T C, JA S, PA W, D F, N P, FJ K, K M. ".Coma scales for children with severe falciparum malaria.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Mar-Apr;91(2):161-5. uon press; 1997. Abstract

{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55

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D.C W, E.M O, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Inwani I, Benki-Nugent S, G J-S. "1. Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a prospective cohort." BCM Pediatr. 2010:10-33.predictors_of_mortality_in_hiv-1infected_children.pdf
Ogutu O, F W. "12. Steroid use in Rhesus negative sensitized mothers to reduce Rhesus anti-D titres." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2005;19:40-43.
Franceschi L, Gachenga E, Lutz D, Akech M. "14) GOVERNANCE, INSTITUTIONS AND THE HUMAN CONDITION ." Strathmore University & Law Africa. 2009.
Fawzia M. Afrid Butt1*, Julius Ogengo1 JB2 MC3 ED4 EW5LAO. "A 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Open Journal of Stomatology. 2012;2:54-59.benign_tumours_2012.pdf
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F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "2nd Opening lecture on "Savanna and Woodland Ecosystems in Tropical America and Africa: Geomorphological concepts". Pp. 3-4 (see also Symposium on Savanna and Woodland Ecosystem in Tropics. University of Brasilia, BRAZIL, 2-7 October.". In: UNESCO/ROSTA Technical Report 1985, pp. 52, Nairobi. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
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editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Frank Kürschner Pelkmann. 7 2004 Church-State Relations: A Challenge for African Christianity, Nairobi: Acton (with Frank Kürschner-Pelkmann).. Nairobi: Acton; 2004.
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Omosa-Manyonyi G, Park H, Mutua G, Farah B, Bergin PJ, Laufer D, Lehrman J, Chinyenze K, Barin B, Fast P, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal specimen collection in clinical trial participants in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(10):e110228. Abstract

Mucosal specimens are essential to evaluate compartmentalized immune responses to HIV vaccine candidates and other mucosally targeted investigational products. We studied the acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal sampling in East African clinical trial participants at low risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Konyole SO, Kinyuru JN, Owuor BO, Kenji GM, Onyango CA, Estambale BB, Friis H, Roos N, Owino VO. "Acceptability of Amaranth Grain-based Nutritious Complementary Foods with Dagaa Fish (Rastrineobola argentea) and Edible Termites (Macrotermes subhylanus) Compared to Corn Soy Blend Plus among Young Children/Mothers Dyads in Western Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A (IUCD), the injectable, Depo-Provera and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill, Microgynon. A non-randomised sample of volunteer participants was used. One thousand and seventy-six users were followed up for a period of one year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUCD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older, and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of IUCD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUCD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12 month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%) and lowest for IUCD users (20%) and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). Ninety percent of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUCD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUCD has the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among the young OC users.
PIP:
This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction, and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A IUD; the injectable Depo-Provera; and the low-dose oral contraceptive Microgynon. A nonrandomized sample of volunteer participants was used. 1076 users were followed up for a period of 1 year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method-specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of the IUD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12-month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%), lowest for IUD users (20%), and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). 90% of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUDs have shown the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among young OC users

Silen W, Machen TE, Forte JG. "Acid-base balance in amphibian gastric mucosa." Am. J. Physiol.. 1975;229(3):721-30. Abstract

It has been established that H+ secretion can be maintained in frog stomach in the absence of exogenous CO2 by using a nutrient bathing fluid containing 25 mM H2PO4 (pH approximately equal to 4.5) or by lowering the pH of a nonbuffered nutrient solution to about 3.0-3.6. Exogenous CO2 in the presence of these nutrient solutions uniformly caused a marked decrease in H+ secretion, PD, adn short-circuit current (Isc) and an increase in transmucosal resistance (R). Elevation of nutrient [k+] to 83 mM reduced R significantly but transiently without change in H+ when nutrient pH less than 5.0, whereas R returned to base line and H+ increased when nutrient pH greater than 5.0. Acidification of the nutrient medium in the presence of exogenous CO2 results in inhibition of the secretory pump, probably by decreasing intracellular pH, and also interferes with conductance at the nutrient membrane. Removal of exogenous CO2 from standard bicarbonate nutrient solution reduced by 50% the H+, PD, and Isc without change in R; K+-free nutrient solutions reverse these changes in Isc and PD but not in H+. The dropping PD and rising R induced by K+-free nutrient solutions in 5% CO2 - 95% O2 are returned toward normal by 100% O2. Our findings support an important role for exogenous CO2 in maintaining normal acid-base balance in frog mucosa by acting as an acidifying agent.

Barongo J, Macheyeki AS, Mdala H, Chapola LS, Manhica VJ, Chisambi J, Feitio P, et al. "Active fault mapping in Karonga-Malawi after the December 19, 2009 Ms 6.2 seismic event." Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2015;102:233-246. AbstractFull Text

The East African Rift System (EARS) has natural hazards – earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides along the faulted margins, and in response to ground shaking. Strong damaging earthquakes have been occurring in the region along the EARS throughout historical time, example being the 7.4 (Ms) of December 1910. The most recent damaging earthquake is the Karonga earthquake in Malawi, which occurred on 19th December, 2009 with a magnitude of 6.2 (Ms). The earthquake claimed four lives and destroyed over 5000 houses. In its effort to improve seismic hazard assessment in the region, Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group (ESARSWG) under the sponsorship of the International Program on Physical Sciences (IPPS) carried out a study on active fault mapping in the region.

The fieldwork employed geological and geophysical techniques. The geophysical techniques employed are ground magnetic, seismic refraction and resistivity surveys but are reported elsewhere. This article gives findings from geological techniques. The geological techniques aimed primarily at mapping of active faults in the area in order to delineate presence or absence of fault segments. Results show that the Karonga fault (the Karonga fault here referred to as the fault that ruptured to the surface following the 6th–19th December 2009 earthquake events in the Karonga area) is about 9 km long and dominated by dip slip faulting with dextral and insignificant sinistral components and it is made up of 3–4 segments of length 2–3 km. The segments are characterized by both left and right steps.

Although field mapping show only 9 km of surface rupture, maximum vertical offset of about 43 cm imply that the surface rupture was in little excess of 14 km that corresponds with Mw = 6.4. We recommend the use or integration of multidisciplinary techniques in order to better understand the fault history, mechanism and other behavior of the fault/s for better urban planning in the area.

Macheyeki AS, Chapola LS, Manhiça V, Chisambi J, Feitio P, Ayele A, Barongo J, Ferdinand RW, Ghebrebrhan O, Goitom B, Hlatywayo JD, Kianji GK, Marohbe I, Mulowezi A, Mutamina D, Mwano JM, Shumba B, andTumwikiri. "Active Fault Mapping in Karonga-Malawi after the December 19, 2009 Ms 6.2 Seismic Event.". 2014.
Kuria, Z.N., Woldai, T., Barongo, J.O., van der F.D. M. "Active fault segments as potential earthquake sources: inferences from integrated geophysical mapping of the Magadi fault system, southern Kenya Rift." Journal of African Earth Sciences . 2010;57:345-359.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Acute aflatoxicosis: case report. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):320-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):320-4. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
The objective of this presentation is to document the salient clinical findings in a case of aflatoxicosis and to review the literature on the same so as to increase the index of suspicion, enhance early diagnosis and improve management. The case was a 17-year-old schoolboy presenting with vomiting, features of infection and gastrointestinal tract symptoms. Examination revealed a very ill looking pale patient with abdominal distension, tenderness and rectal bleeding and easy bruisability. Investigations showed abnormal liver function tests, pancytopenia and elevated serum levels of aflatoxins. Management consisted of supportive care including antibiotics and antifungal therapy, transfusion of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma. His recovery was uneventful. The literature on human aflatoxicosis shows that the presentation may be acute, subacute and chronic. The degree of emanating clinical events also conforms to status of the aflatoxicosis. Overall, the features are protean and may masquerade many other forms of toxaemias. In conclusion, the diagnosis of aflatoxicosis takes cognisance of geographical location, past events, staple diet and clinical features to exclude other infections. Also required are high index of suspicion and importantly serum levels of aflatoxin. Treatment strategies involved use of antimicrobials and supporting the damaged multi-organs.
Katz MA, Marangu D, Attia EF, Bauwens J, Bont LJ, Bulatovic A, Crane J, Doroshenko A, Ebruke BE, Edwards KM, Fortuna L, Jagelaviciene A, Joshi J, Kemp J, Kovacs S, Lambach P, Lewis KDC, Ortiz JR, Simões EAF, Turner P, Tagbo BN, Vaishnavi V, Bonhoeffer J. "Acute wheeze in the pediatric population: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data." Vaccine. 2019;37(2):392-399.
Celum C, Kiarie, J.W, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated
and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to
suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels,
suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV Daily acyclovir therapy did not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1, despite a reduction
in plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.25 log10 copies per milliliter and a 73% reduction in the
occurrence of genital ulcers due to HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00194519

Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010.Website
Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2010;362(5):427-39. Abstract

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1.

Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci . 2018;13(81):https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-018-0773-2.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Muthami L, Ngugi N, Nduri C, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):81. Abstract

The use of clinical practice guidelines envisages augmenting quality and best practice in clinical outcomes. Generic guidelines that are not adapted for local use often fail to produce these outcomes. Adaptation is a systematic and rigorous process that should maintain the quality and validity of the guideline, while making it more usable by the targeted users. Diverse skills are required for the task of adaptation. Although adapting a guideline is not a guarantee that it will be implemented, adaptation may improve acceptance and adherence to its recommendations.

FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Adeline V L, Dimba E, Wakoli A K, Njiru A K, Awange D O, Onyango J F, Chindia M L: Clinicopathological features of Ameloblastoma in Kenya: a 10-year audit. J Craniofac Surg 2008; 19: 1589 .". In: J Craniofac Surg 2008; 19: 1589 . University of Nairobi Press; 2008. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
MUIGUA" "KARIUKI, FRANCIS" "KARIUKI. "ADR, Access to Justice and Development in Kenya ." Strathmore Law Journal. 2015;1(June, 2015):1-21.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Advances of Numerical Weather Prediction over the GHA Region.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre; 2004.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Africa and the Islands by R.J. Harrison Church of Others.". In: A Review in Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 3 No.1, pp.145-147, March 1965. UN-HABITAT; 1965. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The African Environment and the Problems of Development (12 pp.) Paper read at the Regional Seminar on Human Environment. Addis Ababa, 23-38 August.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1971. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "African Mountains and Highlands: Topics for Research and Action with special Reference to the Kenya Scene.". In: In 2nd proceedings of the African Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 12, No.4, 1992. UN-HABITAT; 1992. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
G.O.Oyoo, F.Adelowo. "AfricanJournal ofRheumatology Systemic.". In: ISSN. Vol. 1.; 2013:. Abstractafrica_journal_rheumatology.pdf

Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
infection is a worldwide burden whose
seroprevalence is higher in developing countries with Cameroon being the
third most aff ected country in Africa.
HCV both a hepatotropic and lympho-
tropic infection is responsible for a great
number of hepatic and extra hepatic
disorders some of which are rheumatic
in nature. These rheumatologic mani-
festations though extensively studied
in western countries; there is little or no
data in sub-Saharan Africa.
Objective: The study was conducted
with the aim to describe the musculo-
skeletal manifestations associated to
HCV infection in a hospital setting in
Cameroon.
Design: A cross-sectional study.
Setting: Three hospitals in Cameroon:
the Douala General Hospital, a tertiary
referral hospital with a capacity of 320
beds in Douala, the largest city and
economic capital of Cameroon; the
University Teaching Hospital of the
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical
Sciences of the university of Yaoundé
1, a 240 beds hospital in Yaoundé the
political capital of Cameroon and the
“Centre Médical de la Cathédrale”,
a private acceptable standard
Gastroenterology clinic also found in
Yaoundé.
Patients and methods: From February
to June 2009, we did a multicentric
cross-sectional study of patients from
the Gastroenterology, Rheumatology
and Internal medicine outpatient clinics
of three hospitals in Cameroon. Patients
with HIV or HBV infection and those on
antiviral treatment were excluded.
Results: Among 148 patients with HCV
infection identifi ed during the study
period, only 62 fulfi lled eligibility, 15
(24.2%) of whom had musculoskeletal
manifestations related to HCV, the
commonest of which were myalgia
9/62 (14.5%) , arthritis 6/62 (9.7%), bone
pain 6.4% (4/62), sicca syndrome 3/62
(4.8%), and Raynaud’s phenomenon
6/62 (9.7%). Among patients with
rheumatologic manifestations, 9/15
(60%), had rheumatologic symptoms at
HCV diagnosis and in 6/15 (40%). HCV
infection was discovered during routine
medical check-up. Musculoskeletal
manifestations were neither associat ed
with the genotype (p=0.17) nor with the
viral load (p>0.98).
Conclusion: Arthralgia is the most
common presenting feature of the
symptomatic disease. Musculoskeletal
manifestations may be confused with symptoms of common tropical infections, leading to delayed diagnosis
and treatment of HCV infection.
Key words: Hepatitis C Virus, Arthralgia,
Extra hepatic manifestations; Africa
Introduction
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection
which occurs worldwide has a higher
seroprevalence in Africa, estimated
at 5.3% compared to about 1.03%
in Europe1,2. Cameroon, the third
most affected country in Africa, has a
seroprevalence which varies from as low
as 0.6% to 4.8% in Pygmy groups and
blood donors, to as high as 13% in hospital
based studies4,5. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
which is a single-stranded, spherical RNA enveloped fl avivirus, measuring 38 to 50
nm in diameter has multiple genotypes
and quasispecies classifi ed in six major
clades. This genetic diversity confers to
this virus a difference in pathogenicity,
disease severity, and response to treatment
with interferon3. Though considered a
hepatotropic virus, HCV’s lymphotropic
nature is responsible for a great number of
extra hepatic immune system disorders1.
About 40 to 70% of affected patients will
develop an extra hepatic manifestation
that can have a rheumatic nature

Farquhar C, Nathanson N. "The Afya Bora Consortium: an Africa-US partnership to train leaders in global health." Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am.. 2011;25(2):399-409. Abstract

The Afya Bora Consortium is a partnership of 8 academic health institutions, 4 in Africa and 4 in the United States. The Consortium is developing a Global Health Leadership Fellowship for medical, nursing, and public health professionals, largely drawn from the 4 African partner countries. The fellowship provides trainees with practical skills to prepare them for future positions leading the design, implementation, and evaluation of large, high-impact programs in governmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and academic health institutions in their own countries. This article describes a Pilot of the proposed program.

Nyamai C, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu AW, Feneyrol J, Giuliani G, et al. "Age and origin of the tsavorite and tanzanite mineralizing fluids in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Metamorphic Belt." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(4):763-786. AbstractFull Text

The genetic model previously proposed for tsavorite- (and tanzanite-) bearing mineralization hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (stretching from Kenya through Tanzania to Madagascar) is refined on the basis of new Sm-Nd age determinations and detailed Sr-O-S isotope and fluid-inclusion studies. The deposits are hosted within meta-sedimentary series composed of quartzites, graphitic gneisses, calc-silicate rocks intercalated with meta-evaporites, and marbles. Tsavorite occurs either in nodules (also called “boudins”) oriented parallel to the metamorphic foliation in all of the deposits in the metamorphic belt or in quartz veins and lenses located at the hinges of anticlinal folds (Lelatema fold belt and Ruangwa deposits, Tanzania). Gem tanzanite occurs in pockets and lenses in the Lelatema fold belt of northern Tanzania.

The Sm-Nd isotopic data for tsavorites and tanzanites hosted in quartz veins and lenses from Merelani demonstrate that they formed at 600 Ma, during the retrograde metamorphic episode associated with the East African Orogeny. The tsavorites hosted in nodules do not provide reliable ages: their sedimentary protoliths had heterogeneous compositions and their Sm-Nd system was not completely rehomogenized, even at the local scale, by the fluid-absent metamorphic recrystallization.

The initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of calcite from marble and tanzanites from Merelani fit with the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates. Seawater sediment deposition in the Mozambique Ocean took place around 720 Ma.

The quartz-zoisite O-isotopic thermometer indicates a temperature of formation for zoisite between 385 and 448 °C.

The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite (between –7.8 and –1.3‰ V-CDT) associated with tsavorite in the Lelatema fold belt deposits suggests the contribution of reduced marine sulfate. The sulfur in pyrite in the marbles was likely derived from bacterial sulfate reduction which produced H2S. Fluid inclusion data from tsavorite and tanzanite samples from the Merelani mine indicate the presence of a dominant H2S-S8±(CH4)±(N2)±(H2O)-bearing fluid. In the deposits in Kenya and Madagascar, the replacement of sulfate by tsavorite in the nodules and the boron isotopic composition of tourmaline associated with tsavorite are strong arguments in favor of the participation of evaporites in garnet formation.

Adekunle AA;, Ellis-Jones J;, Ajibefun I;, Nyikal RA;, Bangali S;, Fatunbi O;, Ange A. "Agricultural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa: experiences from multiple-stakeholder approaches."; 2012.
FH W, GN K, PM S, A WG, CM M. "Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya." J. Occup Environ Hyg. 2012;9(5):340-344. AbstractWebsite

The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

David B, David N, Mary K, Francisca O-O, Abdulreshid A, John M, Benson G. "Alcohol and other Substance Related Disorders Chapter 35.". In: The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. Nairobi: AMREF; 2007.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus: case report. East Afr Med J. 2002 Feb;79(2):103-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Feb;79(2):103-5. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients with diabetes mellitus and alcohol dependence syndrome are presented. Both were married and in middle age. MI stayed alone in the city while his spouse and two children lived in the rural home. He showed no obvious underlying psychiatric morbidity. FWK was living with his family in the city. He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given. Review of literature on alcoholism and its potential impact on the course and management of diabetes is presented.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Amayo E. O, Kwasa T. O, Otieno C. F Herpes zoster myelitis: report of two cases East African Medical Journal 2002: Vol.79,5,;279-280.". In: East African Medical Journal 2002: Vol.79,5,;279-280. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients aged 40 and 45 years with HIV infection and paraplegia are presented. The two had sub-acute onset paraplegia with a sensory level, which developed 10 days after herpes zoster dermatomal rash. They both had asymmetrically involvement of the lower limbs. Investigation including imaging of the spinal cord did not reveal any other cause of the neurological deficit. The two responded very well to treatment with acyclovir. Herpes zoster myelitis is a condition likely to rise with the upsurge of HIV infection and there is a need to identify the condition early. We also review the literature on the subject.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Amayo E. O, Kwasa T. O, Otieno C. F Herpes zoster myelitis: report of two cases East African Medical Journal 2002: Vol.79,5,;279-280.". In: East African Medical Journal 2002: Vol.79,5,;279-280. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients aged 40 and 45 years with HIV infection and paraplegia are presented. The two had sub-acute onset paraplegia with a sensory level, which developed 10 days after herpes zoster dermatomal rash. They both had asymmetrically involvement of the lower limbs. Investigation including imaging of the spinal cord did not reveal any other cause of the neurological deficit. The two responded very well to treatment with acyclovir. Herpes zoster myelitis is a condition likely to rise with the upsurge of HIV infection and there is a need to identify the condition early. We also review the literature on the subject.
L K, WR M, WA H, T L, LW I, Orago AA, FH C. "Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatellite loci." Insect molecular biology. 1999;8(2):287-297. AbstractPubMed link

We analysed genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae populations using microsatellite loci to determine whether the Rift Valley restricts the flow of genes. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were significant, and were most likely to be due to the high frequency of null alleles observed. An. arabiensis populations occurring between 40 and 700 km apart across the Eastern arm of the Rift Valley were not differentiated (pair-wise F(ST) range: 0.0033-0.0265, P > 0.05). Neither were An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Ghana (F(ST): 0.0063, P > 0.05) despite a geographical separation of about 5000 km. In contrast, significant differentiation was observed between An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Kilifi (about 700 km apart; F(ST) = 0.1249, P < 0.01), suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow.

Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Analysis of multipurpose uses and management of Zizphus spina-christi (L.) desf. in semi-arid Ethiopia: Implications for food security." Second RUFORUM Biennial Meeting . 2010. Abstract

Quantitative ethnobotanical study of Ziziphus spina-christi
was undertaken in six areas of east Shewa, Ethiopia. Both
structured questionnaire and focus-group interviews were
conducted with about 200 households. Arable land cultivation,
and increased frequencies of drought are reducing areas under
Z. spina-christi. The multi-purpose tree is highly nutritious,
helps main soil fertility, and is an important source of income in
the region. Research and policy support are needed to exploit
the potential of this agroforestry tree species.
Key words: East Shewa, food security, nutrition, wild fruits,
Ziziphus spina-christi

Nwaka S, Ochem A, Besson D, Ramirez B, Fakorede F, Botros S, Inyang U, Mgone C, Adae-Mensah I, Konde V, Nyasse B, Okole B, Guantai A, Loots G, Atadja P, Ndumbe P, Sanou I, Olesen O, Ridley R, Ilunga T. "Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent." 12. 2012;11(12):2-15.analysis_of_pan-african_centres_of_excellence_in_health_innovation_highlights_opportunities_and_challenges_for_local_innovation_and_in.pdf
Otieno AC, Carter AB, Hedges DJ, Walker JA, Ray DA, Garber R, Anders BA, Stoilova N, Laborde ME, Fowlkes JD, Huang CH, and B. Perodeau, Batzer MA. "Analysis of the human Alu Ya-lineage." Journal of Molecular Biology. 2004;342:109-118.
Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Hawary, El., Yumoto, K., Yamazaki, Y., Mahrous, A., Ghamry, E., Meloni, A., Badi K, Kianji, G., Uiso CBS, Mwiinga N, Joao, L., Affluo, T., Sutcliffe, P.R., Mengestu, G., Baki, P., Abe, Ikeda, A., Fujimoto A. Annual and semi-annual Sq variations at 960 MM MAGDAS I and II stations in Africa, Earth and planets Space. Earth and planets space; 2012.
G G, ZN Q, W K, F W. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 2013;1(25):15-21. Abstractantenatal_corticosteroid_use_in_preterm_birth_at_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Background:Preterm birth causes about 75% of neonatal deaths that are not attributable to congenital malfor-mations. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers at risk of preterm birth reduce the incidence/severity of RDS, intraventricular haemmorhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal deaths. The WHO recommends use of antenatal steroids for all pregnant women 26-34 weeks gestation at risk of preterm delivery and after 34 weeks gestation only if there is evidence of fetal pulmonary immaturity. Despite this, ACS are widely used locally across all gestational periods.Objective: To determine the frequency of administration and impact of ACS in reducing the morbidity and mor-tality in preterm neonates born 28- 37 weeks gestation at Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.Setting: Kenyattah National Hospital labour ward, antenatal wards, NBU, NICU.Methods: The study compared the neonatal outcomes of mothers with preterm birth who received antenatal steroids and those who did not receive. The study populations were mothers with preterm birth due to preterm labor, PPROM and severe pre eclampsia and their neonates. Mothers who met the inclusion criteria were recruit-ed immediately after delivery, interviewed, medical records scrutinized and information obtained entered into a questionnaire. Neonates were followed until discharge/death/ 7th day whichever came earlier. The outcome measures considered were the occurrence and severity of RDS, NBU admissions and neonatal deaths.Results: Two hundred and six mother/neonate pairs were recruited. Overall 35% of mothers/neonates were exposed to ACS. Forty six percent of those who delivered <34 weeks received ACS compared to 26% of those who delivered >34 weeks. Only 3% of mothers received a complete course of ACS. ACS significantly reduced the occurrence and severity of RDS in preterm neonates up to 34 weeks gestation. Sixty eight percent of neonates delivered before 34 weeks and not exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 38% of those exposed (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, P= 0.005). Exposure to ACS >34 weeks gestation did not reduce occurrence and severity of RDS. Forty percent of those exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 37% of those not exposed (RR 1.2 95% CI 0.7-1.8, P =0.755). ACS reduced neonatal mortality across all gestational ages. The neonatal mortality within 7 days of life was 26% among those exposed to ACS <34 weeks compared to 38% among those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6, p=0.224). for those delivered after 34 weeks mortality was 3.3% in the exposed group compared to 9.2% in the non exposed group (RR 1.1 95%CI 1.0-1.2 p=0.443). ACS did not reduce NBU/NICU admissions across all gestational ages. Eighty five percent of neonates exposed to ACS before 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 71% of those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 1-2.1, p=0.113). Fifty percent of neonates exposed to ACS after 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 32.2% of those not exposed (RR 1.3 95% CI 0.9-2.1, p=0.225). Conclusions: ACS are underutilized. ACS significantly reduce the incidence/severity of neonatal RDS and mortality <34 weeks gestation.Recommendations: There is need to upscale the utilization of ACS. The study provides local evidence to discourage routine use of ACS >34 weeks.

G G, ZN Q, W K, F W. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 2013;25(1):15-21. Abstractfull_article.pdf

AbstractBackground: Preterm birth causes about 75% of neonatal deaths that are not attributable to congenital malfor-mations. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers at risk of preterm birth reduce the incidence/severity of RDS, intraventricular haemmorhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal deaths. The WHO recommends use of antenatal steroids for all pregnant women 26-34 weeks gestation at risk of preterm delivery and after 34 weeks gestation only if there is evidence of fetal pulmonary immaturity. Despite this, ACS are widely used locally across all gestational periods.Objective: To determine the frequency of administration and impact of ACS in reducing the morbidity and mor-tality in preterm neonates born 28- 37 weeks gestation at Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.Setting: Kenyattah National Hospital labour ward, antenatal wards, NBU, NICU.Methods: The study compared the neonatal outcomes of mothers with preterm birth who received antenatal steroids and those who did not receive. The study populations were mothers with preterm birth due to preterm labor, PPROM and severe pre eclampsia and their neonates. Mothers who met the inclusion criteria were recruit-ed immediately after delivery, interviewed, medical records scrutinized and information obtained entered into a questionnaire. Neonates were followed until discharge/death/ 7th day whichever came earlier. The outcome measures considered were the occurrence and severity of RDS, NBU admissions and neonatal deaths.Results: Two hundred and six mother/neonate pairs were recruited. Overall 35% of mothers/neonates were exposed to ACS. Forty six percent of those who delivered <34 weeks received ACS compared to 26% of those who delivered >34 weeks. Only 3% of mothers received a complete course of ACS. ACS significantly reduced the occurrence and severity of RDS in preterm neonates up to 34 weeks gestation. Sixty eight percent of neonates delivered before 34 weeks and not exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 38% of those exposed (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, P= 0.005). Exposure to ACS >34 weeks gestation did not reduce occurrence and severity of RDS. Forty percent of those exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 37% of those not exposed (RR 1.2 95% CI 0.7-1.8, P =0.755). ACS reduced neonatal mortality across all gestational ages. The neonatal mortality within 7 days of life was 26% among those exposed to ACS <34 weeks compared to 38% among those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6, p=0.224). for those delivered after 34 weeks mortality was 3.3% in the exposed group compared to 9.2% in the non exposed group (RR 1.1 95%CI 1.0-1.2 p=0.443). ACS did not reduce NBU/NICU admissions across all gestational ages. Eighty five percent of neonates exposed to ACS before 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 71% of those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 1-2.1, p=0.113). Fifty percent of neonates exposed to ACS after 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 32.2% of those not exposed (RR 1.3 95% CI 0.9-2.1, p=0.225). Conclusions: ACS are underutilized. ACS significantly reduce the incidence/severity of neonatal RDS and mortality <34 weeks gestation.Recommendations: There is need to upscale the utilization of ACS. The study provides local evidence to discourage routine use of ACS >34 weeks.

Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, John-Stewart GC. "Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2004;37(5):1620-6. Abstract

To determine effect of partner involvement and couple counseling on uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission, women attending a Nairobi antenatal clinic were encouraged to return with partners for voluntary HIV-1 counseling and testing (VCT) and offered individual or couple posttest counseling. Nevirapine was provided to HIV-1-seropositive women and condoms distributed to all participants. Among 2104 women accepting testing, 308 (15%) had partners participate in VCT, of whom 116 (38%) were couple counseled. Thirty-two (10%) of 314 HIV-1-seropositive women came with partners for VCT; these women were 3-fold more likely to return for nevirapine (P = 0.02) and to report administering nevirapine at delivery (P = 0.009). Nevirapine use was reported by 88% of HIV-infected women who were couple counseled, 67% whose partners came but were not couple counseled, and 45%whose partners did not present for VCT (P for trend = 0.006). HIV-1-seropositive women receiving couple counseling were 5-fold more likely to avoid breast-feeding (P = 0.03) compared with those counseled individually. Partner notification of HIV-1-positive results was reported by 138 women (64%) and was associated with 4-fold greater likelihood of condom use (P = 0.004). Partner participation in VCT and couple counseling increased uptake of nevirapine and formula feeding. Antenatal couple counseling may be a useful strategy to promote HIV-1 prevention interventions.

FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Anthropogenic Energy Component and Climate Change in Nairobi Metro-area.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Kenya Meteorological Society; 2007.
Johns T, Fambert GM, Kokwaro JO, Mahunnah R, Kimanani E. "Anti-giardial activity of gastrointestinal remedies of the Luo of East Africa." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995;46(1):1-17.
VM M, O MJ, J Z, BM G, R M, LK O, FT W, MR J, LA W, I M. "Anti-Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis activities of (-)-gossypol and derivatives from Thespesia garckeana." Natural Product Communications (NPC). 2015;10(4):613-616.masila_et_al.pdf
GB B, F B, JF O, FM M, E D. "Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Aerobic Bacterial Agents in Post-Surgical Orofacial Infections." The annals of African Surgery. 2015.
Forthal DN, Landucci G CRBASMCJBOBRW. "Antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI) antibody activity does not correlate with risk of HIV-1 superinfection." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 2013; 63(1): 31-3.
Forthal DN, Landucci G CRBAMCRSJBOBWC. "Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Virus Inhibition Antibody Activity Does Not Correlate With Risk of HIV-1 Superinfection." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.. 2013;63(1):31-33.
Fulano AM, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Antifungal Activity of Local Microbial Isolates against Snap Bean Pathogens." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2016;5(12):112-122.
Murithi CK, Fidahusein DS, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW. "Antimalarial activity and in vivo toxicity of selected medicinal plants naturalised in Kenya." Int J Edu Res. 2014;2:395-406.
Ndakala AJ, Gessner RK, Gitari PW, October N, White KL, Hudson A, Fakorede F, Shackleford DM, Kaiser M, Yeates C, Charman SA, Chibale K. "Antimalarial Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles." Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2011;54:4581-4589.Website
Kitonde CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Senna didymobotry used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;1(2):1-12.
Kitonde CK, Fidahusein D, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Senna didymobotry used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(1):1-12.
Kitonde* CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Senna didymobotrya used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(1):1-12.
Kitonde CK, F. DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF VERNONIA GLABRA (STEETZ) OLIV. & HIERN. IN KENYA." African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicines. 2013;10(1):149-157. Abstract

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening in Kenya. Majority of the sick are seeking herbal remedies in search of effective, safe, and affordable cure. This project aims to investigate the antimicrobial activity and presence of active phytochemical compounds in different parts of Vernonia glabra ; a plant used by herbalists in various regions of Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems. The plant sample was collected in January 2010 in Machakos, and different parts dried at room temperature under shade, ground into powder and extracted in Dichloromethane: Methanol in the ratio 1:1, and water. These crude extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger for antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion technique. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for active crude extracts were done using disc diffusion technique after the failure of agar and broth dilution methods. It was observed that the organic crude extracts of flower, leaf, stem, root, and/or entire plant, showed activity against one or four micro-organisms, and at concentrations lower than the aqueous crude extracts. Organic crude extract of the leaf showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (mean inhibition zone 1.85), recording higher activity than the commercially used standard antibiotic (Streptomycin mean inhibition zone of 1.30). The organic crude extract of flower showed significant activity only against S.aureus , with the lowest MIC of 1.5625mg/100μl, compared to streptomycin with M.I.C of 6.25mg/100μl. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography Agar-Overlay showed that, flower alkaloids (50% active), root sapogenins (43.8% active), and root terpenoids (38.5% active) were identified as the potential antibacterial compounds against S.aureus. These results suggest that, V.glabra contains phytochemicals of medicinal properties and justify the use of V.glabra in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of microbial based diseases. However, research on toxicity which is missing in this study is recommended for V. glabra in order to verify, validate and document the safety of this medicinal plant to the society.

Fehr J, Hatz C, Soka I, Kibatala P, Urassa H, Battegay M, Jeffrey Z, Smith T, Mshinda H, Frei R, others. "Antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent surgical site infections in a rural sub-{Saharan} hospital." Clinical microbiology and infection. 2006;12:1224-1227. AbstractWebsite
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Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

in and of indigenous and neglected plants and fruits ATPP. "Appropriate Technologies in Processing and Preservation of indigenous and neglected plants and fruits."; 1988.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Are Weather and Climate Forecasts by National Meteorological Centres Reliable?" Bulletin of the Kenya Meteorological Society. 2012.Website
Bergin P, Langat R, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Farah B, Ouattara G, Park H, Coutinho H, Laufer D, Fast P, Verlinde C, Bizimana J, Umviligihozo G, Nyombayire J, Ingabire R, Kuldanek K, Cox J, McMorrow M, Fidler S, Karita E, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Assessment of anti-HIV-1 antibodies in Oral and Nasal Compartments of Volunteers from Three different Populations." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

In this study, we assessed the feasibility of collecting standardized nasal and salivary samples at centers in Nairobi (Kenya), Kigali (Rwanda) and London (UK) using different collection devices and media (Synthetic absorptive matrices versus flocked swabs, and Salimetrics Oral swabs versus whole oral fluid collection). We detected anti Gag (p24) and envelope (gp140) antibodies in both nasal fluid and salivary collections from all HIV-infected individuals, and cross-reactive anti-p24 antibodies were detected in 10% of HIV-uninfected individuals enrolled at one site. Collections from the nasal turbinates were comparable to samples collected deeper in the nasopharyngeal tract, and the yield of anti-p24 IgA in the whole oral fluid samples was higher than in samples collected from the parotid gland. We noted a trend toward reduced levels of anti-HIV antibody in the volunteers receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Levels of antibodies were stable over multiple collection visits. Overall, this study shows that nasal and salivary samples can be collected in a standardized manner over repeated visits in both low and high resource settings. These methods may be used in support of future HIV vaccine clinical trials.

S. M. Githigia, M. Mutugi, P. G. Kareru, F. K. Njonge, R. Waihenya, Nyakundi. WO. "Assessment of herbal anthelmintics used by the farmers in Kirinyaga county, Kenya, for the treatment of helminthiosis in cattle." African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2013;Vol. 7(29):2100-2104. Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess and validate the herbal anthelmintic remedies used by farmers in
Kirinyaga county, Kenya for the treatment of their cattle against gastrointestinal nematodes. The herbs
used were identified via questionnaire surveys through focused group discussions. The aqueous
extracts of plants used: Aspillia pluriseta, Vernonia lasiopus, Entada leptostachya and Erythrina
abyssinica were prepared and using dosage between 10 and 30%, the viability of infective strongyle
larvae were assessed for a period of 48 h. The results of the in vitro antihelmintic study indicated a high
to moderate anthelmintic activity for the tested extracts. E. leptostachya exhibited the highest in vitro
anthelmintic activity, while E. abyssinica had the lowest activity. The anthelmintic activity may have
been due to the presence of saponins in the herbal remedies. There was a positive correlation between
the saponin concentration and the anthelmintic activity of the extracts. In general, the in vitro
anthelmintic activity increased with the extract concentration for the medicinal plants examined.

Fikir Alemayehu, Onwonga Richard MJK, V WO. "Assessment of Shoreline Changes in the Period 1969-2010 in Watamu area, Kenya." Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: H Environment & Earth Science. 2014;14. Abstract
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Baden LR, Karita E, Mutua G, Bekker L-G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Page-Shipp L, Walsh SR, Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Roux S, Laher F, Innes C, Seaman MS, Cohen YZ, Peter L, Frahm N, McElrath JM, Hayes P, Swann E, Grunenberg N, Grazia-Pau M, Weijtens M, Sadoff J, Dally L, Lombardo A, Gilmour J, Cox J, Dolin R, Fast P, Barouch DH, Laufer DS. "Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Novel Vaccine Platforms for HIV-1 Prevention: A Randomized Trial." Ann. Intern. Med.. 2016;164(5):313-22. Abstract

A prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is a global health priority.

Lokken EM, Manguro GO, Abdallah A, Ngacha C, Shafi J, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Srinivasan S, Fiedler TL, Munch MM, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR, Balkus JE. "Association between vaginal washing and detection of by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis." Sex Transm Infect. 2019. Abstract

Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of spp. detected by both culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Yadav G, Saskin R, Ngugi E, Kimani J, Keli F, Fonck K, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M, Moses S, others. "Associations of sexual risk taking among Kenyan female sex workers after enrollment in an HIV-1 prevention trial." JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2005;38:329-334. Abstract
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Falk E, Thim T, Kristensen IB. "Atherosclerotic plaque, adventitia, perivascular fat, and carotid imaging." JACC. Cardiovascular imaging. 2009;2:183-186. Abstract
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Virmani R, Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, Finn AV, Gold HK, Tulenko TN, Wrenn SP, Narula J. "Atherosclerotic {Plaque} {Progression} and {Vulnerability} to {Rupture} {Angiogenesis} as a {Source} of {Intraplaque} {Hemorrhage}." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2005;25:2054-2061. AbstractWebsite

Observational studies of necrotic core progression identify intraplaque hemorrhage as a critical factor in atherosclerotic plaque growth and destabilization. The rapid accumulation of erythrocyte membranes causes an abrupt change in plaque substrate characterized by increased free cholesterol within the lipid core and excessive macrophage infiltration. Neoangiogenesis is associated closely with plaque progression, and microvascular incompetence is a likely source of intraplaque hemorrhage. Intimal neovascularization is predominantly thought to arise from the adventitia, where there are a plethora of pre-existing vasa vasorum. In lesions that have early necrotic cores, the majority of vessels invading from the adventitia occur at specific sites of medial wall disruption. A breech in the medial wall likely facilitates the rapid in-growth of microvessels from the adventitia, and exposure to an atherosclerotic environment stimulates abnormal vascular development characterized by disorganized branching and immature endothelial tubes with “leaky” imperfect linings. This network of immature blood vessels is a viable source of intraplaque hemorrhage providing erythrocyte-derived phospholipids and free cholesterol. The rapid change in plaque substrate caused by the excessive accumulation of erythrocytes may promote the transition from a stable to an unstable lesion. This review discusses the potential role of intraplaque vasa vasorum in lesion instability as it relates to plaque rupture.

Virmani R, Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, Finn AV, Gold HK, Tulenko TN, Wrenn SP, Narula J. "Atherosclerotic {Plaque} {Progression} and {Vulnerability} to {Rupture} {Angiogenesis} as a {Source} of {Intraplaque} {Hemorrhage}." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2005;25:2054-2061. AbstractWebsite

Observational studies of necrotic core progression identify intraplaque hemorrhage as a critical factor in atherosclerotic plaque growth and destabilization. The rapid accumulation of erythrocyte membranes causes an abrupt change in plaque substrate characterized by increased free cholesterol within the lipid core and excessive macrophage infiltration. Neoangiogenesis is associated closely with plaque progression, and microvascular incompetence is a likely source of intraplaque hemorrhage. Intimal neovascularization is predominantly thought to arise from the adventitia, where there are a plethora of pre-existing vasa vasorum. In lesions that have early necrotic cores, the majority of vessels invading from the adventitia occur at specific sites of medial wall disruption. A breech in the medial wall likely facilitates the rapid in-growth of microvessels from the adventitia, and exposure to an atherosclerotic environment stimulates abnormal vascular development characterized by disorganized branching and immature endothelial tubes with “leaky” imperfect linings. This network of immature blood vessels is a viable source of intraplaque hemorrhage providing erythrocyte-derived phospholipids and free cholesterol. The rapid change in plaque substrate caused by the excessive accumulation of erythrocytes may promote the transition from a stable to an unstable lesion. This review discusses the potential role of intraplaque vasa vasorum in lesion instability as it relates to plaque rupture.

Faxon DP, Fuster V, Libby P, Beckman JA, Hiatt WR, Thompson RW, Topper JN, Annex BH, Rundback JH, Fabunmi RP, Robertson RM, Loscalzo J. "Atherosclerotic {Vascular} {Disease} {Conference} {Writing} {Group} {III}: {Pathophysiology}." Circulation. 2004;109:2617-2625. AbstractWebsite
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Bose S, Yap L-F, Fung M, Starzcynski J, Saleh A, Morgan S, Dawson C, Chukwuma MB, Maina E, Buettner M, Wei W, Arrand J, Lim PVH, Young LS, Teo SH, Stankovic T, Woodman CBJ, Murray PG. "The ATM tumour suppressor gene is down-regulated in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma." J. Pathol.. 2009;217(3):345-52. Abstract

A micro-array analysis using biopsies from patients with EBV-positive undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and from cancer-free controls revealed down-regulation of tumour suppressor genes (TSG) not previously associated with this disease; one such gene was the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. Q-PCR confirmed down-regulation of ATM mRNA and ATM protein expression in tumour cells was weak or absent in almost all cases. In NPC cell lines, however, ATM was down-regulated only in the EBV-positive line, C666.1, and in none of five EBV-negative lines. In vitro infection of EBV-negative NPC cell lines with a recombinant EBV was followed by the down-regulation of ATM mRNA and protein, and only EBV-positive cells showed a defective DNA damage response following gamma-irradiation. Our data suggest that loss of ATM function could be an important step in the pathogenesis of NPC, and may have implications for the treatment of this disease.

FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Awange D O, Wakoli K A, Onyango J F, Chindia M L, Dimba E O, Guthua S W. Reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. East Afr Med J 2009, 86: 517 .". In: East Afr Med J 2009, 86: 517 . University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Awange DO, Onyango JF.Oral verrucous carcinoma: report of two cases and review of literature.East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8. Review. University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
Verrucous carcinoma is a rare and distinct pathological and clinical variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Two case reports of histologically proven oral verrucous carcinoma are presented. One case presented with a history of tobacco chewing, snuff taking and miraa chewing. While the relationship between tobacco chewing or snuff dipping and verrucous carcinoma has been investigated and described, the role played by miraa chewing is still unknown and thus requires further study. Both cases were successfully managed by only conservative surgical excision. No radiotherapy was used. Clinical and histo-pathological examination of verrucous carcinoma is therefore very important in its diagnosis and treatment planning.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Awange, D.O. and Onyango, J.F.: Oral Verricous Carcinoma: Report of two cases and review of literature.East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8. University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
Verrucous carcinoma is a rare and distinct pathological and clinical variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Two case reports of histologically proven oral verrucous carcinoma are presented. One case presented with a history of tobacco chewing, snuff taking and miraa chewing. While the relationship between tobacco chewing or snuff dipping and verrucous carcinoma has been investigated and described, the role played by miraa chewing is still unknown and thus requires further study. Both cases were successfully managed by only conservative surgical excision. No radiotherapy was used. Clinical and histo-pathological examination of verrucous carcinoma is therefore very important in its diagnosis and treatment planning.
Temu CK, F.J.Gichaga. "Axle Load Study along the Nairobi-Thika Road (A2) ." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(2).
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FLORENCE DRMURILA, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised febrile children in Nairobi: is there an association? East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okwara FN, Obimbo EM, Wafula EM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . UN-HABITAT; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: There is laboratory evidence of altered immune function in children with malaria. Bacterial infections have been documented to complicate severe forms of malaria. However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children with and without malaria. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: General paediatric wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Children aged between three months and 12 years admitted with an acute febrile illness, with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standardised questionnaire, information on socio-demography, symptomatology, and nutritional status was obtained. Malaria slides, blood and urine cultures were performed on each child. RESULTS: Malaria parasitaemia was present in 158 (60%) of 264 children presenting with acute febrile illness with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. Bacteria were isolated from blood and/or urine of 62 (23%) of all enrolled children. Bacteraemia was prevalent among 11.4% of 158 children with malaria and among 13.2% of 106 without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 28.1% of blood isolates, gram-negative 62.5%, and atypical bacteria 9.4%. UTI was prevalent among 13.3% of 158 children with malaria and 16.0% of 106 children without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 18.4%, gram-negative 78.9%, and atypical bacteria 2.6% of the urine isolates. Presence of malaria parasitaemia was not associated with an increased risk of bacteraemia (OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.4-0.7], or UTI (OR 0.8 95% CI [0.4-1.6] in this study population. CONCLUSION: Among children hospitalised in Nairobi with fever and no obvious bacterial infective focus, there should be a high index of suspicion for malaria, followed by bacteraemia and UTI. Malaria parasitaemia does not appear to be associated with increased risk of bacterial co-infection. PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FLORENCE DRMURILA, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised febrile children in Nairobi: is there an association? East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okwara FN, Obimbo EM, Wafula EM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: There is laboratory evidence of altered immune function in children with malaria. Bacterial infections have been documented to complicate severe forms of malaria. However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children with and without malaria. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: General paediatric wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Children aged between three months and 12 years admitted with an acute febrile illness, with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standardised questionnaire, information on socio-demography, symptomatology, and nutritional status was obtained. Malaria slides, blood and urine cultures were performed on each child. RESULTS: Malaria parasitaemia was present in 158 (60%) of 264 children presenting with acute febrile illness with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. Bacteria were isolated from blood and/or urine of 62 (23%) of all enrolled children. Bacteraemia was prevalent among 11.4% of 158 children with malaria and among 13.2% of 106 without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 28.1% of blood isolates, gram-negative 62.5%, and atypical bacteria 9.4%. UTI was prevalent among 13.3% of 158 children with malaria and 16.0% of 106 children without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 18.4%, gram-negative 78.9%, and atypical bacteria 2.6% of the urine isolates. Presence of malaria parasitaemia was not associated with an increased risk of bacteraemia (OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.4-0.7], or UTI (OR 0.8 95% CI [0.4-1.6] in this study population. CONCLUSION: Among children hospitalised in Nairobi with fever and no obvious bacterial infective focus, there should be a high index of suspicion for malaria, followed by bacteraemia and UTI. Malaria parasitaemia does not appear to be associated with increased risk of bacterial co-infection. PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu AY, Mackelprang RD, Rositch AF, Bosire R, Manyara L, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Barriers to antiretroviral initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(3):e87-93. Abstract

In Kenya and much of sub-Saharan Africa, nearly half of all couples affected by HIV are discordant. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) slows disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals and reduces transmission to uninfected partners. We examined time to ART initiation and factors associated with delayed initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples in Nairobi.

Faktorovich EG, Steinberg RH, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, LaVail MM. "Basic fibroblast growth factor and local injury protect photoreceptors from light damage in the rat." The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1992;12:3554-3567. Abstract

Injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) into the eye, intravitreally or subretinally, delays photoreceptor degeneration in inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat, as does local injury to the retina (Faktorovich et al., 1990). To determine whether this heparin-binding peptide or local injury is effective in any other form of photoreceptor degeneration, we examined their protective roles in light damage. Albino rats of the F344 strain were exposed to 1 or 2 weeks of constant fluorescent light (115-200 footcandles), either with or without 1 microliter of bFGF solution (1150 ng/microliters in PBS) injected intravitreally or subretinally 2 d before the start of light exposure. Uninjected and intravitreally PBS-injected controls showed the loss of a majority of photoreceptor nuclei and the loss of most inner and outer segments after 1 week of light exposure, while intravitreal injection of bFGF resulted in significant photoreceptor rescue. The outer nuclear layer in bFGF-injected eyes was two to three times thicker than in controls, and the inner and outer segments showed a much greater degree of integrity. Following recovery in cyclic light for 10 d after 1 week of constant light exposure, bFGF-injected eyes showed much greater regeneration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments than did the controls. bFGF also increased the incidence of presumptive macrophages, located predominantly in the inner retina, but the evidence suggests they are not directly involved in photoreceptor rescue. Subretinal injection of bFGF resulted in photoreceptor rescue throughout most of the superior hemisphere in which the injection was made, with rescue extending into the inferior hemisphere in many of the eyes. Remarkably, the insertion of a dry needle or injection of PBS into the subretinal space also resulted in widespread photoreceptor rescue, extending through 70% or more of the superior hemisphere, and sometimes into the inferior hemispheres. This implicates the release and widespread diffusion of some endogenous survival-promoting factor from the site of injury in the retina. Our findings indicate that the photoreceptor rescue activity of bFGF is not restricted to inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat, and that light damage is an excellent model for studying the cellular site(s), kinetics, and molecular mechanisms of both the normal function of bFGF and its survival-promoting activity. Moreover, the injury-related rescue suggests that survival-promoting factors are readily available to provide a protective role in case of injury to the retina, presumably comparable to those that mediate the "conditioning lesion" effect in other neuronal systems.

F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Bechuanaland: Pan African Outpost or Bantu Homeland by E.S. Munger. Review in East Africa.". In: In Bull. Geog. Assoc. of Ghana, vol.II. No. 1, pp.15-26, January 1966. UN-HABITAT; 1966. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
Maxwell TJ, Ameyaw M-M, Pritchard S, Thornton N, Folayan G, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Tariq M, Mobarek A, Evans DA, Ofori-Adjei D, Templeton AR, McLeod HL. "Beta-2 adrenergic receptor genotypes and haplotypes in different ethnic groups." Int. J. Mol. Med.. 2005;16(4):573-80. Abstract

The human beta-2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) is responsible for the binding of endogenous catecholamines and their exogenously administered agonists and antagonists. Three functional polymorphisms in codons 16, 27 and 164 have been described which have clinical importance for several diseases, including asthma, hypertension, heart failure, cystic fibrosis and obesity, as well as response to beta-agonist therapy. These were evaluated in 726 individuals from 8 distinct ethnic populations (Chinese, Filipino, Southwest Asian, Saudi, Ghanaian, Kenyan, Sudanese, and European from Scotland). The results show that most haplotypes are shared among all populations, yet there are marked differences in their frequency distributions geographically. The genetic distance tree is different from standard human population distance trees, implying a different mode of evolution for this locus than that for human population gene-flow history. The multilocus frequency differences between the observed clusters of populations correspond to historical haplotype groupings that have been found to be functionally different with respect to multiple medically related phenotypes. Further studies are needed to see if functional relationships are the same across populations.

Ingebrigtsen T, Morgan MK, Faulder K, Ingebrigtsen L, Sparr T, Schirmer H. "Bifurcation geometry and the presence of cerebral artery aneurysms." Journal of Neurosurgery. 2004;101:108-113. Abstract

OBJECT: The angles of arterial bifurcations are governed by principles of work minimization (optimality principle). This determines the relationship between the angle of a bifurcation and the radii of the vessels. Nevertheless, the model is predicated on an absence of significant communication between these branches. The circle of Willis changes this relationship because the vessels proximal to the ring of vessels have additional factors that determine work minimization compared with more distal branches. This must have an impact on understanding of the relationship between shear stress and aneurysm formation. The authors hypothesized that normal bifurcations of cerebral arteries beyond the circle of Willis would follow optimality principles of minimum work and that the presence of aneurysms would be associated with deviations from optimum bifurcation geometry. Nevertheless, the vessels participating in (or immediately proximal to) the circle of Willis may not follow the geometric model as it is generally applied and this must also be investigated. METHODS: One hundred seven bifurcations of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), distal internal carotid artery (ICA), and basilar artery (BA) were studied in 55 patients. The authors analyzed three-dimensional reconstructions of digital subtraction angiography images with respect to vessel radii and bifurcation angles. The junction exponent (that is, a calculated measure of the division of flow at the bifurcation) and the difference between the predicted optimal and observed branch angles were used as measures of deviation from the geometry thought best to minimize work. The mean junction exponent for MCA bifurcations was 2.9 +/- 1.2 (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]), which is close to the theoretical optimum of 3, but it was significantly smaller (p {\textless} 0.001; 1.7 +/- 0.8, mean +/- SD) for distal ICA bifurcations. In a multilevel multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the observed branch angles were significant independent predictors for the presence of an aneurysm. The odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for the presence of an aneurysm was 3.46 (1.02-11.74) between the lowest and highest tertile of the observed angle between the parent vessel and the largest branch. The corresponding OR for the smallest branch was 48.06 (9.7-238.2). CONCLUSIONS: The bifurcation beyond the circle of Willis (that is, the MCA) closely approximated optimality principles, whereas the bifurcations within the circle of Willis (that is, the distal ICA and BA) did not. This indicates that the confluence of hemodynamic forces plays an important role in the distribution of work at bifurcations within the circle of Willis. In addition, the observed branch angles were predictors for the presence of aneurysms.

F. Mwaura, Mavuti KM, and Wamicha WN. "Biodiversity characteristics of small high altitude tropical man-made reservoirs in the eastern Rift Valley, Kenya." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management. 2002;7:1-12.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Mose F, Newman LP, Njunguna R, Tamooh H, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C, Kiarie J. "Biomarker evaluation of self-reported condom use among women in HIV-discordant couples." Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24(7):537-40. Abstract

Self-reported condom use is a commonly collected statistic, yet its use in research studies may be inaccurate. We evaluated this statistic among women in HIV-discordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial in Nairobi, Kenya. Vaginal swabs were acquired from 125 women and tested for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for semen exposure, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ten (10%) of 98 women who reported 100% use of condoms in the previous month tested PSA positive. In a bivariate logistic regression analysis, among women who reported 100% condom use in the previous month, those with ≤8 years of school had significantly higher odds of testing PSA-positive (odds ratio [OR] = 8.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-69.13) than women with more schooling. Our estimate may be conservative, as the ability to detect PSA may be limited to 24-48 hours after exposure. Less educated women may be a target group for counselling regarding reporting sexual behaviour in clinical trials.

Fredrick Ongowe, Sophie Hennequin, Josephine Kagunda Wairimu, Nyoungue Aimé, Mamadou Lamine Diouf, Mouhamadou Diaby, Abderrahman Iggidr, Mamadou Sy, Salle G. "Biomathematics modelling for the study of failures propagation: Application to a production resource.". 2010.
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Narla RD, Mwang’ombe AW. "Biopesticide-based IPM systems to reduce synthetic pesticide residues in vegetables for niche market access by small holder growers.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Efferth T, Banerjee M, Abu-Darwish MS, Abdelfatah S, Böckers M, Bhakta-Guha D, Bolzani V, Daak S, Demirezer LÖmür, Dawood M, Efferth M, El-Seedi HR, Fischer N, Greten HJ, Hamdoun S, Hong C. "Biopiracy versus One-World Medicine–From colonial relicts to global collaborative concepts." Phytomedicine. 2019;53:319-331. Abstract

Background
Practices of biopiracy to use genetic resources and indigenous knowledge by Western companies without benefit-sharing of those, who generated the traditional knowledge, can be understood as form of neocolonialism.
Hypothesis
The One-World Medicine concept attempts to merge the best of traditional medicine from developing countries and conventional Western medicine for the sake of patients around the globe.
Study design
Based on literature searches in several databases, a concept paper has been written. Legislative initiatives of the United Nations culminated in the Nagoya protocol aim to protect traditional knowledge and regulate benefit-sharing with indigenous communities. The European community adopted the Nagoya protocol, and the corresponding regulations will be implemented into national legislation among the member states. Despite pleasing progress, infrastructural problems of …

Mbugua-Gitonga Agnes, F M, Thenya & T. "Biotechnology and Food Security in Kenya - An Assessment of Public Concerns on Biosafety, Public Health and Religious Ethics." Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology. . 2016;9(3):1-13.
Nyamai C, Rollion C, Feneyrol J, Martelat J-E, Omito E, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu A. "The boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from tsavorite deposits in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique metamorphic belt, with a special focus on the mining districts in Kenya.". In: 13th SGA Biennial Meeting. Nancy, France; 2015. Abstractgiulianietal.boronsga-2015.pdf

The dravitic tourmalines associated with different types of rock from the tsavorite-bearing
metasedimentary Neoproterozoic sequence in Kenya, Tanzania, and Madagascar show two
ranges of boron isotopic compositions:(1) Tourmalines associated with tsavorite nodules
have homogenous 8113 values of-19.8 1 1.2 'llm that clearly involve continental evaporitic
material;(2) Tourrnalines from unmineralized rocks (elastic metasediments, metapegmatite,
and marble) have 8118 values between 45.9 and 40.356 “, which reflect a magmatic source
for the elastic tourmaline and probably an evaporitic one for tourmaline in marble.

FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "The Boundary-Layer Flow-Field Regime over Nairobi.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 1992.
M. DRGICHUHICHRISTINE, Bosire R, Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wariua G, JM M, G W, C G, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, J R, R G, B L, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, Farquhar C. "Breast milk alpha-defensins are associated with HIV type 1 RNA and CC chemokines in breast milk but not vertical HIV type 1 transmission.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jan;34(1):25-9. African Crop Science Society; 2007. Abstract

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Alpha-defensins are proteins exhibiting in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity that may protect against mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 via breast milk. Correlates of alpha-defensins in breast milk and transmission risk were determined in a cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Nairobi followed for 12 months postpartum with their infants. Maternal blood was collected antenatally and at delivery for HIV-1 viral load and infant HIV-1 infection status was determined < 48 h after birth and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Breast milk specimens collected at month 1 were assayed for alpha-defensins, HIV-1 RNA, subclinical mastitis, and CC and CXC chemokines. We detected alpha-defensins in breast milk specimens from 108 (42%) of 260 HIV-1-infected women. Women with detectable alpha-defensins (> or =50 pg/ml) had a median concentration of 320 pg/ml and significantly higher mean breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels than women with undetectable alpha-defensins (2.9 log(10) copies/ml versus 2.5 log(10) copies/ml

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage I0, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talibs Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implementation Science. 2016;11(30). Abstractbuilding_capacity_in_implementation_science_research_training_at_the_university_of_nairobi.pdf

Background: Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap
between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health
care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by
training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative,
the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.
Methods: This paper describes how the University of Nairobi leveraged resources from the Medical Education
Partnership to develop an institutional program that provides training and mentoring in implementation science,
builds relationships between researchers and implementers, and identifies local research priorities for
implementation science.
Results: The curriculum content includes core material in implemerjjation science theory, methods, and experiences.
The program adopts a team mentoring and supervision approach, in which fellows are matched with mentors at the
University of Nairobi and partnering institutions University of Washington, Seattle, and University of Maryland,
Baltimore. A survey of program participants showed a high degree satisfaction with most aspects of the program,
including the content, duration, and attachment sites. A key strength of the fellowship program is the partnership
approach, which leverages innovative use of information technology to offer diverse perspectives, and a team model
for mentorship and supervision.
Conclusions: As health care systems and training institutions seek new approaches to increase capacity in
implementation science, the University of Nairobi Implementation Science Fellowship program can be a model
for health educators and administrators who wish to develop their program and curricula.
Keywords: Implementation science, Training, Fellowship program

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Ayieko P, Were F, Paton C, Tunis S, Forrest CB. "Building Learning Health Systems to Accelerate Research and Improve Outcomes of Clinical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." PLOS Medicine. 2016;10(1371). Abstractbuilding_learning_health_systems_to_accelerate_research_and_improve_outcomes_of_clinical_care_in_low-_and_middle-income_countries.pdf

Achieving universal coverage that supports high-quality care will require that health systems are designed to integrate the delivery of health services with the generation of new knowledge about the effectiveness of these services.
System strengthening and research will need to be better integrated to achieve this in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) so that changes in coverage, quality, and impact are measured, costs are contained, and health systems are responsive to users’ needs and concerns.
In high-income countries, learning health systems (LHS) are emerging to meet similar needs. The LHS vision aspires to engage policy makers, researchers, service providers, and patients in learning that uses and strengthens routinely collected data to conduct pragmatic, contextually appropriate research, promote rapid adoption of findings to improve quality and outcomes, and promote continuous learning.
Although there are significant challenges, we should begin to develop LHS in LMIC for their immediate and longer term benefits and to avoid having to retrofit health systems with the capability to promote learning at a later date and even greater cost.
A global coalition on how to build LHS effectively that shares accumulating learning could enable such a strategy.

English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Ayieko P, Were F, Paton C, Tunis S, Forrest CB. "Building Learning Health Systems to Accelerate Research and Improve Outcomes of Clinical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." PLoS Med.. 2016;13(4):e1001991. AbstractWebsite

Mike English and colleagues argue that as efforts are made towards achieving universal health coverage it is also important to build capacity to develop regionally relevant evidence to improve healthcare.

T
Fredrick O. "THE BULL AND BEAR MARKET AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." Aim Journal of Business . 2008. Abstract

This research sought to establish the existence of the bull and bear market at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The bull market is experienced when the prices of securities are in an upward trend while the Bear market is experienced when the prices of securities are in a downward trend. Bull and bear market can be traced back to the time of Charles Dow when he made analysis of trends in the stock market. The current and potential investors do not have any form of reference when making investment decisions, they will therefore benefit from this research since they will confirm which months are prone to the bull and bear markets and therefore not dispose their stocks in panic and also know the best time to purchase shares respectively. The Government will also benefit from it since it will be able to create a conducive environment for investment in the stock exchange and also for taxation purposes. It will also be useful to the Capital Markets Authority which is the main regulator of the Nairobi Securities Exchange since they will establish the genuine bull and bear market. The research was entirely based on secondary data from stocks of the year 2006. The research design was historical since it was dealing with issues that had occurred. Some fifteen out of the fifty two equities of companies trading in the Nairobi Securities Exchange were analyzed. Stratified and purposive samplings were used to select the fifteen companies. The data was analysed using percentages, mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients. The findings confirmed that all the sampled stocks experienced both the bull and bear market. January, February and March were the months when most stocks experienced the bear market while August to November were the months when the majority of stocks experienced bull market. The study recommends the licensing of more stock brokers by CMA and also a further research into the role of stock brokers in influencing stock prices in the secondary market.

B
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, F.N. K. "Business Statistics .". In: Introduction to Business. Kenya Literature Bureau; 1996. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya. (Kibera F.N. Ed.)

F.N. Namu, J.M. Githaiga, E..N.Kioko, P. N. Ndegwa, C.L. Häuser. "Butterfly species composition and abundance in an old, middle-aged, and young secondary forests.". In: In: Kühne L. (Ed.), Butterflies and moths diversity of the Kakamega forest (Kenya), pp. 47-61. Brandenburg, Germany: Brandenburgische Universitätsdruckerei und Verlagsgesellschaft; 2008. Abstract

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

Flora N. Namu, John M. Githaiga, Esther N.Kioko, Paul N. Ndegwa, L. C. "Butterfly species composition and abundance in an old, middle-aged, and young secondary forests, in:Kühne L. (Ed.), Butterflies and moths diversity of the Kakamega forest (Kenya)." Brandenburgische Universitätsdruckerei und Verlagsgesellschaft, Germany. 2008:47-61.
F.N. Namu, J.M. Githaiga, E.N. Kioko, Ndegwa PN, C.L. Häuser, L.Kühn. "The butterfly, Hypolimnas salmacis magnifica (Drury, 1773) in Kakamega Forest National Reserve (KFNR) Kenya." Metamorphosis. 2008;18(4):142-143. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

C
Choi RY, Fowke KR, Juno J, Lohman-Payne B, Oyugi JO, Brown ER, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "C868T single nucleotide polymorphism and HIV type 1 disease progression among postpartum women in Kenya." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2012;28(6):566-70. Abstract

The C868T single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD4 receptor encodes an amino acid substitution of tryptophan for arginine in the third domain. Previous studies suggest that C868T increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition; however, the influence of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on disease progression has not been established. The presence of the C868T polymorphism was not statistically significantly associated with HIV-1 disease progression outcomes in a cohort of postpartum Kenyan women.

F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Cairo, Egypt 21-26 June 1975. (I was invited by the Deputy Secretary, General of the U.N as one the UN EXPERTS TO ADVISE THE Governmental delegates in preparation of the Vancouver Congress.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1975. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
KS S, FMA B, EAO D. "Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour. Anatomy Journal of Africa." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013.
Furukawa T, Fujiwara K, Kiboi S, Mutiso P. "Can stumps tell what people want: Pattern and preference of informal wood extraction in an urban forest of Nairobi, Kenya." Biological Conservation. 2011;144:3047-3054.
De Vuyst H, Parisi MR, Karani A, Mandaliya K, Muchiri L, Vaccarella S, Temmerman M, Franceschi S, Lillo F. "Cancer Causes & Control > Vol. 21, No. 12, December 2010.". 2010.Website
Zhang X, Wallace OL, Domi A, Wright KJ, Driscoll J, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Karita E, Allen S, Fast P, Gilmour J, Price MA, Parks CL. "Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein." Virology. 2015;482:218-24. Abstract

Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies.

Mwai AO;, Malmfors B;, Andersson-Eklund L;, Philipsson J;, Rege JEO;, Hanotte O;, Fulss R. Capacity building for sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. ILRI-SLU Project progress report for the period 1999-2003.; 2005. Abstract

To promote a sustainable and improved use of animal genetic resources in developing countries, ILRI in collaboration with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), and supported by Sida (Sweden), launched a project training the trainers, for national agricultural research systems (NABS) scientists (national university teachers and researchers) in developing countries. The main objectives of the project were to strengthen subject knowledge and skills, and teaching and communication skills of scientists teaching and supervising students in animal breeding and genetics at least up to MSc level. Other objectives were to catalyse curriculum development, stimulate contacts and networking, and to develop computer-based training resources relevant for use by NARS scientists in teaching and research. This capacity building project was an integrated component of the ILRI research agenda on Animal Genetic Resources. It was also an endeavour by ILRI to collaborate with and strengthen NARS institutions and scientists. The project was initially planned to include regions in sub-Saharan Africa, SouthEast Asia and South Asia, resources allowing, Latin America. The activities in each region or sub-region included: planning activities (questionnaire, country visits, planning workshop), training course for university teachers and researchers (three weeks, combining training in animal genetics/breeding and teaching methodologies), development of an Animal Genetics Training Resource' (on CD-ROM, and later also on the Web), follow-up activities, including impact assessment (questionnaires and follow-up workshops). During the period 1999 to 2003 a full round of activities was completed for sub Saharan Africa. The training course was conducted for Eastern/Southern Africa (20 scientists from 10 countries) and for Western/Central Africa (18 scientists from 10 countries). The planning and follow-up workshops were performed jointly for the region. In addition, the planning activities and training course (18 scientists from 9 countries) were completed for South-East Asia. Version 1 of the computer-based training resource (CD) was released in late 2003. The resource contains modules, i.e. core texts on issues related with farm animal genetic resources, quantitative methods and teaching methods, and Resources containing case studies, breed information, maps, examples, exercises, video clips, a glossary and a virtual library. It also contains references to web links, books and other CDs. The participants found the training courses very useful; average score for Overall Impression was 8.2 (scale 1-9). They also indicated that the computer-based training resource would be a valuable tool both in teaching and in research, but had not yet had a chance to explore and use it fully. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants' home institutions, both on teaching methods and on course content. Students have shown more interest and understanding of animal breeding and genetics. The impact on participants' research has been just as large; more focus on research involving indigenous animal genetic resources, improved research proposal writing, research methodologies and science communication skills, and also more efficient supervision of students' research. Many of the participants have actively disseminated materials and experiences from the course to colleagues in their home institutions. Other important outcomes have been increased contacts and an open e-mail network `Afrib' formed by the African course participants. The project also strengthened Swedish knowledge and expanded PhD activities on animal genetic resources in developing countries; these were valuable `spin-off effects' of the project. The 'training the trainers' approach adopted in the ILRI-SLU project seems to be a good model for effective capacity building to promote a sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. The approach was innovative and has functioned well; the model could be extended to other disciplines. Furthermore, linking universities from the North to those of the South, with a CGIAR institute playing both a facilitating and catalytic role was beneficial. The project will now proceed to South Asia and version 2 of the computer-based training resource will be developed. More impact analyses will also be performed.

Sanchez JL, Johns MC, Burke RL, Vest KG, Fukuda MM, Yoon IK, Lon C, Quintana M, Schnabel DC, Pimentel G, Mansour M, Tobias S, Montgomery JM, Gray GC, Saylors K, Ndip LM, Lewis S, Blair PJ, Sjoberg PA, Kuschner RA, Russell KL, Blazes DL, Witt CJ, Money NN, Gaydos JC, Pavlin JA, Gibbons RV, Jarman RG, Stoner M, Shrestha SK, Owens AB, Iioshi N, Osuna MA, Martin SK, Gordon SW, Bulimo WD, Waitumbi DJ, Assefa B, Tjaden JA, Earhart KC, Kasper MR, Brice GT, Rogers WO, Kochel T, Laguna-Torres VA, Garcia J, Baker W, Wolfe N, Tamoufe U, Djoko CF, Fair JN, Akoachere JF, Feighner B, Hawksworth A, Myers CA, Courtney WG, Macintosh VA, Gibbons T, Macias EA, Grogl M, O'Neil MT, Lyons AG, Houng HS, Rueda L, Mattero A, Sekonde E, Sang R, Sang W, Palys TJ, Jerke KH, Millard M, Erima B, Mimbe D, Byarugaba D, Wabwire-Mangen F, Shiau D, Wells N, Bacon D, Misinzo G, Kulanga C, Haverkamp G, Kohi YM, Brown ML, Klein TA, Meyers M, Schoepp RJ, Norwood DA, Cooper MJ, Maza JP, Reeves WE, Guan J. "Capacity-building efforts by the AFHSC-GEIS program." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S4. AbstractWebsite

Capacity-building initiatives related to public health are defined as developing laboratory infrastructure, strengthening host-country disease surveillance initiatives, transferring technical expertise and training personnel. These initiatives represented a major piece of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) contributions to worldwide emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and response. Capacity-building initiatives were undertaken with over 80 local and regional Ministries of Health, Agriculture and Defense, as well as other government entities and institutions worldwide. The efforts supported at least 52 national influenza centers and other country-specific influenza, regional and U.S.-based EID reference laboratories (44 civilian, eight military) in 46 countries worldwide. Equally important, reference testing, laboratory infrastructure and equipment support was provided to over 500 field sites in 74 countries worldwide from October 2008 to September 2009. These activities allowed countries to better meet the milestones of implementation of the 2005 International Health Regulations and complemented many initiatives undertaken by other U.S. government agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of State.

McCauley DJ, Dawson TE, Power ME, Finlay JC, Ogada M, Gower DB, Caylor K, WD Nyingi, Githaiga JM, Nyunja J, Joyce FH, Lewison RL. "Carbon stable isotopes suggest that hippopotamus-vectored nutrients subsidize aquatic." Issue: Ecosphere, 6 (4). 2015.
Zuriel D, Fink-Puches R, Cerroni L. "A case of primary cutaneous extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma, nasal type, with a 22-year indolent clinical course.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a rare type of cytotoxic lymphoma involving mainly the upper aerodigestive tract and associated with Epstein-Barr virus. The disease has usually a poor prognosis related to several factors. The skin is the second most common affected organ, and cases may be localized to the skin only without any other extracutaneous manifestations. Although primary cutaneous cases may have a better prognosis, survival usually is still poor. We report a case of primary cutaneous extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, in a 77-year-old woman with an indolent course for more than 22 years and still limited to the skin.

NW M. Causes of increased drop out in primary school in Nyandarua District, Kenya’.. F A, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Alimonti JB, Koesters SA, Kimani J, Matu L, Wachihi C, Plummer FA, Fowke KR. "Cd4+ T Cell Responses In Hiv-exposed Seronegative Women Are Qualitatively Distinct From Those In Hiv-infected Women.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

The immune response of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed seronegative (ESN) women may be qualitatively different from that in those infected with HIV (HIV(+)). In a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya, we found significantly lower (P< or =.01) levels of CD4(+)-specific immune activation and apoptosis in the ESN women compared with those in the HIV(+) women. Compared with the HIV(+) women, a lower proportion of the ESN women showed p24 peptide pool responses by the short-term, CD4(+)-specific, interferon (IFN)- gamma intracellular cytokine staining assay, whereas the proportion showing responses by the long-term, CD8(+)-depleted T cell proliferation assay was similar. Interestingly, the ESN responders had a 4.5-fold stronger proliferation response (P=.002) than the HIV(+) group. These data suggest that, compared with those in HIV(+) women, CD4(+) T cells in ESN women have a much greater ability to proliferate in response to p24 peptides.

Cohen-Cory S, Escandón E, Fraser SE. "The cellular patterns of {BDNF} and {trkB} expression suggest multiple roles for {BDNF} during {Xenopus} visual system development." Developmental biology. 1996;179:102-115. Abstract

The temporal patterns of BDNF and trkB expression in the developing Xenopus laevis tadpole, and the responsiveness of retinal ganglion cells to BDNF, both in culture and in vivo, suggest significant roles for this neurotrophin during visual system development (Cohen-Cory and Fraser, Neuron 12, 747-761, 1994; Nature 378, 192-196, 1995). To examine the potential roles of this neurotrophin within the developing retina and in its target tissue, the optic tectum, we studied the cellular sites of BDNF expression by in situ hybridization. In the developing optic tectum, discrete groups of cells juxtaposed to the tectal neuropil where retinal axons arborize expressed BDNF, supporting the target-derived role commonly proposed for this neurotrophin. In the retina, retinal ganglion cells, ciliary margin cells, and a subset of cells in the inner nuclear layer expressed the BDNF gene. The expression of BDNF coincided with specific trkB expression by both retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells, as well as with the localization of functional BDNF binding sites within the developing retina, as shown by in situ hybridization and BDNF cross-linking studies. To test for a possible role of endogenous retinal BDNF during development, we studied the effects of neutralizing antibodies to BDNF on the survival of retinal ganglion cells in culture. Exogenously administered BDNF increased survival, whereas neutralizing antibodies to BDNF significantly reduced baseline retinal ganglion cell survival and differentiation. This suggests the presence of an endogenous retinal source of neurotrophic support and that this is most likely BDNF itself. The retinal cellular patterns of BDNF and trkB expression as well as the effects of neutralizing antibodies to this neurotrophin suggest that, in addition to a target-derived role, BDNF plays both autocrine and/or paracrine roles during visual system development.

Fisher SK, Lewis GP, Linberg KA, Verardo MR. "Cellular remodeling in mammalian retina: results from studies of experimental retinal detachment." Progress in retinal and eye research. 2005;24:395-431. Abstract

Retinal detachment, the separation of the neural retina from the retinal pigmented epithelium, starts a cascade of events that results in cellular changes throughout the retina. While the degeneration of the light sensitive photoreceptor outer segments is clearly an important event, there are many other cellular changes that have the potential to significantly effect the return of vision after successful reattachment. Using animal models of detachment and reattachment we have identified many cellular changes that result in significant remodeling of the retinal tissue. These changes range from the retraction of axons by rod photoreceptors to the growth of neurites into the subretinal space and vitreous by horizontal and ganglion cells. Some neurite outgrowths, as in the case of rod bipolar cells, appear to be directed towards their normal presynaptic target. Horizontal cells may produce some directed neurites as well as extensive outgrowths that have no apparent target. A subset of reactive ganglion cells all fall into the latter category. Muller cells, the radial glia of the retina, undergo numerous changes ranging from proliferation to a wholesale structural reorganization as they grow into the subretinal space (after detachment) or vitreous after reattachment. In a few cases have we been able to identify molecular changes that correlate with the structural remodeling. Similar changes to those observed in the animal models have now been observed in human tissue samples, leading us to conclude that this research may help us understand the imperfect return of vision occurring after successful reattachment surgery. The mammalian retina clearly has a vast repertoire of cellular responses to injury, understanding these may help us improve upon current therapies or devise new therapies for blinding conditions.

Ogeng'o JA, Cohen DL, Sayi JG, Matuja WB, Chande HM, Kitinya JN, Kimani JK, Friedland RP, Mori H, Kalaria RN. "Cerebral amyloid beta protein deposits and other Alzheimer lesions in non-demented elderly east Africans." Brain Pathol.. 1996;6(2):101-7. Abstract

There is little knowledge of the existence of Alzheimer disease (AD) or Alzheimer type of dementia in indigenous populations of developing countries. In an effort to evaluate this, we assessed the deposition of amyloid beta (A beta) protein and other lesions associated with AD in brains of elderly East Africans. Brain tissues were examined from 32 subjects, aged 45 to 83 years with no apparent neurological disease, who came to autopsy at two medical Institutions in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam. An age-matched sample from subjects who had died from similar causes in Cleveland was assessed in parallel. Of the 20 samples from Nairobi, 3 (15%) brains exhibited neocortical A beta deposits that varied from numerous diffuse to highly localized compact or neuritic plaques, many of which were also thioflavin S positive. Two of the cases had profound A beta deposition in the prefrontal and temporal cortices and one of these also exhibited moderate to severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Similarly, 2 of the 12 samples from Dar es Salaam exhibited diffuse and compact A beta deposits that were also predominantly reactive for the longer A beta 42 species compared to A beta 40. We also noted that A beta plaques were variably immunoreactive for amyloid associated proteins, apolipoprotein E, serum amyloid P and complement C3. Tau protein reactive neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) were also evident in the hippocampus of 4 subjects. By comparison, 4 (20%) of the 20 samples from randomly selected autopsies performed in Cleveland showed A beta deposits within diffuse and compact parenchymal plaques and the vasculature. These observations suggest A beta deposition and some NFT in brains of non-demented East Africans are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that in age-matched elderly controls from Cleveland. While our small scale study does not document similar prevalence rates of preclinical AD, it suggests that elderly East Africans are unlikely to escape AD as it is known in developed countries.

García JL, Fernandez N, Garcia-Villalon AL, Monge L, Gomez B, Dieguez G. "Cerebral reactive hyperaemia and arterial pressure in anaesthetized goats." Acta physiologica Scandinavica. 1995;153:355-363. Abstract

{The effects of arterial pressure on cerebral reactive hyperaemia were studied in anaesthetized goats measuring electromagnetically middle cerebral artery flow and performing arterial occlusions of 5-30 s. Under normotension (mean arterial pressure

Choi RY, Levinson P, Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Bosire R, Liu AY, Hirbod T, Kiarie J, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G, Broliden K, Farquhar C. "Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A detected among HIV-1-exposed seronegative female partners in HIV-1-discordant couples." AIDS. 2012;26(17):2155-63. Abstract

Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) was associated with reduced HIV-1 acquisition in a cohort of commercial sex workers. We aimed to define the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1-neutralizing IgA from HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) women in HIV-1-serodiscordant relationships.

Choi RY, Levinson P, Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Bosire R, Liu AY, Hirbod T, Kiarie J, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G, Broliden K, Farquhar C. "Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A detected among HIV-1-exposed seronegative female partners in HIV-1-discordant couples." AIDS. 2012;26(17):2155-63. Abstract

Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) was associated with reduced HIV-1 acquisition in a cohort of commercial sex workers. We aimed to define the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1-neutralizing IgA from HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) women in HIV-1-serodiscordant relationships.

Shah A, Fawole B, M'imunya JM, Amokrane F, Nafiou I, Wolomby JJ, Mugerwa K, Neves I, Nguti R, Kublickas M, Mathai M. "Cesarean Delivery Outcomes From The Who Global Survey On Maternal And Perinatal Health In Africa.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between cesarean delivery rates and pregnancy outcomes in African health facilities. METHODS: Data were obtained from all births over 2-3 months in 131 facilities. Outcomes included maternal deaths, severe maternal morbidity, fresh stillbirths, and neonatal deaths and morbidity. RESULTS: Median cesarean delivery rate was 8.8% among 83439 births. Cesarean deliveries were performed in only 95 (73%) facilities. Facility-specific cesarean delivery rates were influenced by previous cesarean, pre-eclampsia, induced labor, referral status, and higher health facility classification scores. Pre-eclampsia increased the risks of maternal death, fresh stillbirths, and severe neonatal morbidity. Adjusted emergency cesarean delivery rate was associated with more fresh stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and severe neonatal morbidity--probably related to prolonged labor, asphyxia, and sepsis. Adjusted elective cesarean delivery rate was associated with fewer perinatal deaths. CONCLUSION: Use of cesarean delivery is limited in the African health facilities surveyed. Emergency cesareans, when performed, are often too late to reduce perinatal deaths.

FN O, JP O, F W. "The challenges fraughting isoniazid prophylaxis as a child tuberculosis prevention strategy in high burden settings in Nairobi, Kenya." East and Central Africa Medical Journal. 2015;2(1):39-45. Abstractthe_challenges_fraughting_isoniazid_prophylaxis_as_a_child_tuberculosis_prevention.pdf

Background: Paediatric Tuberculosis (TB) is rapidly becoming a major public health concern among the urban poor. Though contacts' tracing and Isoniazid Prophylaxis Therapy (lPT) is an effective prevention strategy, its benefits have not been realized in many resource poor settings. Barriers to its uptake have not been fully elucidated.
Objectives: To evaluate the challenges that fraught the implementation of' contact tracing and IPT, as a TB prevention strategy in children in household contact with adults with TB from informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.
Metbodology: A prospective longitudinal multicenter cohort study was done, where 366 recently diagnosed TB smear positive source cases were asked to enroll their child contacts for IPT. Consent was sought. Structured standard questionnaire was used to get information on source case TB treatment, socio-demographics, TB knowledge and perceptions. Baseline screening was done to exclude those with TB and/or other chronic illnesses. Contacts were then put on daily isoniazid for 6 months and followed up monthly for one year for new TB disease. Adherence, safety and challenges were monitored. Focused group discussions and key informant interviews were used to provide secondary data.
Results: All the 366 source cases interviewed were on first line anti- TB treatment. IPT acceptability was 87.3%. A total of 428 child contacts were screened, but 14(3.2%) had TB disease hence excluded. Compliance rates were 93% (95% CI 90.1 - 96.2%) and 85% (95% CI 80.2%- 88%) after 1'1and 6th months respectively. Challenges reported included; side effects in 22%, programmatic concerns in 86%, drug related issues in 70.1 %, and various health system challenges. The leading programmatic challenge was too many hospital visits (65.2%) and the drug related challenge was difficulty in administering tablets to children (44.3%). IPT completion rate was 368 out of 414 (88.8%). By endpoint, IPT failure was documented in 6( 1.6%), hence the relative risk of new TB disease in contacts on IPT was 0.49 (95% CI 0.21 -0.86).
Conclusion: IPTwas an effective and safe child TB prevention strategy in informal settlements, but it's implementation had been hampered by relatively low acceptability, sub-optimal adherence, programmatic challenges, and high defaulting rates and by limited benefits realized.

Guthua SW, F.G. M, Gathece LW. "Challenges in Tobacco control in Kenya.". 2002.
F.G. M, S.W. G, Gathece LW. "Challenges in Tobacco control in Kenya.". 2002.
FG M, SW G, LW G. "Challenges in tobacco control in Kenya." KDA News letter (2002).
Isabella Epiu, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Cephas Mijumbi, Chokwe TM, Edwin Lugazia, Francois Ndarugirire, Tw T. "Challenges of Anesthesia in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Access to Safe Obstetric Anesthesia in East Africa ." Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2017;124(1):290-299.
Mganga KZ, Nyangito MM, Musimba NKR, Nyariki DM, Mwangombe AW, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Daniele Clavel4, Francis J, von Kaufmann R, Verhagen J. "The challenges of rehabilitating denuded patches of a semi-arid environment in Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science & Technology . 2010;4(7):430-466. Abstract

Land degradation is a major problem in the semi-arid environments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fighting land degradation is essential to ensure the sustainable and long-term productivity of the habited semi-arid lands. In Kenya, grass reseeding technology has been used to combat land degradation. However, despite the use of locally adapted perennial grass species namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) failure still abound. Therefore, more land is still being degraded. The aim of this study was to determine the main factors which contribute to failures in rehabilitating denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya. A questionnaire was administered to capture farmer perceptions on failures on rangeland rehabilitation using grass reseeding technology. Rainfall data was collected during the study period. Moreover, rehabilitation trials using the three grasses were done under natural rainfall. Results from this study show that climatic factors mainly low amounts of rainfall to be the main contributor to rehabilitation failures. 92% of the respondents asserted that reseeding fails because of low rainfall amounts received in the area. The study area received a total of 324 mm of rainfall which was low compared to the average annual mean of 600mm. Reseeded trial plots also failed to establish due to the low amounts of rainfall received. This showed how low rainfall is unreliable for reseeding. Other factors namely destruction by the grazing animals, pests and rodents, flush floods, poor sowing time, poor seed quality, lack of enough seed and weeds also contribute to rehabilitation failures in semi-arid lands of Kenya.

Key words: Land degradation, grass reseeding, rehabilitation failures, low rainfall.

Firszt JB, Reeder RM, Holden TA, Burton H, Chole RA. "Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss." Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite
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Firszt JB, Reeder RM, Holden TA, Burton H, Chole RA. "Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss." Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite
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Firszt JB, Reeder RM, Holden TA, Burton H, Chole RA. "Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss." Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite
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Omondi PAO, Awange JL, Forootan E, Ogallo LA, Barakiza R, Girmaw GB, Komutunga E. "Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes over the Greater Horn of Africa region from 1961 to 2010.". 2013.Website
Roxby AC, Fredricks DN, Odem-Davis K, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Masese L, Fiedler TL, De Rosa S, Jaoko W, Kiarie JN, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Changes in Vaginal Microbiota and Immune Mediators in HIV-1-Seronegative Kenyan Women Initiating Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016;71(4):359-66. Abstractchanges_in_vaginal_microbiota_and_immune_mediators_in_hiv-1-seronegative_kenyan_women_initiating_depot_medroxyprogesterone_acetate.pdfPUBMED

Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is associated with HIV acquisition. We studied changes in vaginal microbiota and inflammatory milieu after DMPA initiation.

Nakanwagi-Mukwaya A, Reid AJ, Fujiwara PI, Mugabe F, Kosgei RJ, Tayler-Smith K. "Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis retreatment cases in three regional hospitals, Uganda." Public Health Action . 2013;3(2):149-155.characteristics_and_treatment_outcomes_of_tuberculosis_3_regions_uganda.pdf
Lingappa JR, Kahle E, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Magaret A, Baeten J, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife K, de Bruyn G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, McIntyre J, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington W, Corey L, Wald A, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 discordant couples enrolled in a trial of HSV-2 suppression to reduce HIV-1 transmission: the partners study." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(4):e5272. Abstract

The Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study (Partners Study) is a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of daily acyclovir for genital herpes (HSV-2) suppression among HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons to reduce HIV-1 transmission to their HIV-1 susceptible partners, which requires recruitment of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. We describe the baseline characteristics of this cohort.

Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Barnes L, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Panteleeff D, Krows M, Shah H, Revall J, Morrison S, Ondrejcek L, Ingram C, Coombs RW, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25828. Abstract

Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.

Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Barnes L, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Panteleeff D, Krows M, Shah H, Revall J, Morrison S, Ondrejcek L, Ingram C, Coombs RW, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25828. Abstract

Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.

L Z, ME E, G K, S R, P M, B C, K M, S I, A J, R D, V F, S O, B G, C M, E O, P L, MM A-K, C H-H, SS S, A H, W D, DY G, SG A, AG D, BA S, DM B, A ES, AS I, J M, F B-T, BN O, O I, C S, R M, A AF, N K, A D, M S, OS O, T O, HH E, AO M, AM A, P M, D O, J M, S Y, BM M. "Characteristics, complications, and gaps in evidence-based interventions in rheumatic heart disease: the Global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (the REMEDY study)." Eur Heart J. . 2014.
Fualal J, Moses W, Jayaraman S, Nalugo M, Ozgediz D, Duh Q-Y, Kebebew E. "Characterizing thyroid disease and identifying barriers to care and treatment in {Uganda}." World J Endoc Surg. 2012;4:47-53. AbstractWebsite
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Wangoh J. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk Nr. 12295. Farah Z, Puhan Z, eds. Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; 1997.
Fombong AT, Teal PEA, Arbogast RT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus harlodi: Role of (Z)-9- Pentacosene." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38:1463-1473.Website
Fombong AT, Teal TE, Arbogast RT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus haroldi: role of (Z)-9-pentacosene." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38(12):1463-1473. AbstractPubMed link

Oplostomus haroldi Witte belongs to a unique genus of afro-tropical scarabs that have associations with honey bee colonies, from which they derive vital nutrients. Although the attributes of the honey bee nest impose barriers to communication among nest invaders, this beetle still is able to detect conspecific mates for reproduction. Here, we show, through behavioral studies, that cuticular lipids serve as mate discrimination cues in this beetle. We observed five steps during mating: arrestment, alignment, mounting, and copulation, and a post-copulatory stage, lasting ~40–70 % of the total mating duration, that suggested mate guarding. Chemical analysis identified the same nine straight-chain alkanes (C23–C31), six methyl-branched alkanes (6), and five mono-unsaturated alkenes in the cuticular lipids of both sexes. Methyl alkanes constituted the major component (46 %) of male cuticular lipids, while mono-unsaturated alkenes were most abundant (53 %) in females. (Z)-9-Pentacosene was twice as abundant in females than in males, and ~20 fold more concentrated in beetles than in worker bees. In mating assays, (Z)-9-pentacosene elicited arrestment, alignment, and mounting, but not copulation, by male beetles. These results represent the first evidence of a contact sex pheromone in a scarab beetle. Such contact pheromones may be an essential, cryptic mechanism for arthropods associated with eusocial insects.

Matasyoh, Lexa G., Josphat C. Matasyoh, Francis N. Wachira, Miriam G. Kinyua, Muigai ATW, Mukiama TK. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. growing in Eastern Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6:760-765 .
KABUBO-MARIARA J, M.M. KARIENYE, F.M. KABUBO. "Child Survival, Poverty and Inequality in Kenya: Does Physical Environment Matter?" African Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;2(1):65-84.ajss_manuscript.pdf
Renaud Becquet, Milly Marston, Franc¸ois Dabis, Lawrence H. Moulton, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Max Essex, iDidier K. Ekouevi, Debra Jackson, Anna Coutsoudis, Charles Kilewo, Vale´ riane Leroy, Stefan Z. Wiktor, Ruth Nduati, Philippe Msellati, Basia Zaba PGD, the survival group" Marie-Louise Newell UNAIDSC. "Children Who Acquire HIV Infection Perinatally Are at Higher Risk of Early Death than Those Acquiring Infection through Breastmilk: A Meta-Analysis." PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 2 February 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 2 | e28510. 2012. Abstractchildren_who_acquire_hiv.pdfWebsite

Abstract
Background: Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be
updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates of infant
survival by timing of HIV-infection (perinatally or postnatally) are thus needed.
Methodology/Principal Findings: A pooled analysis was conducted of individual data of all available intervention cohorts and
randomized trials on prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission in Africa. Studies were right-censored at the time of infant
antiretroviral initiation. Overall mortality rate per 1000 child-years of follow-up was calculated by selected maternal and infant
characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves by child’s HIV infection status and timing of HIV
infection. Individual data from 12 studies were pooled, with 12,112 children of HIV-infected women. Mortality rates per 1,000
child-years follow-up were 39.3 and 381.6 for HIV-uninfected and infected children respectively. One year after acquisition of
HIV infection, an estimated 26% postnatally and 52% perinatally infected children would have died; and 4% uninfected
children by age 1 year. Mortality was independently associated with maternal death (adjusted hazard ratio 2.2, 95%CI 1.6–3.0),
maternal CD4,350 cells/ml (1.4, 1.1–1.7), postnatal (3.1, 2.1–4.1) or peri-partum HIV-infection (12.4, 10.1–15.3).
Conclusions/Results: These results update previous work and inform future UNAIDS modelling by providing survival
estimates for HIV-infected untreated African children by timing of infection. We highlight the urgent need for the
prevention of peri-partum and postnatal transmission and timely assessment of HIV infection in infants to initiate
antiretroviral care and support for HIV-infected children.

Fluck RA, Jaffe MJ. "Cholinesterases from plant tissues. VI. Preliminary characterization of enzymes from Solanum melongena L. and Zea mays L." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):130-4. Abstract

Enzymes capable of hydrolyzing esters of thiocholine have been assayed in extracts of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) and Zea Mays L. (corn). The enzymes from both species are inhibited by the anti-cholinesterases neostigmine, physostigmine, and 284c51 and by AMO-1618, a plant growth retardant and they both have pH optima near pH 8.0. The enzyme from eggplant is maximally active at a substrate concentration of 0.15 mM acetylthiocholine and is inhibited at higher substrate concentrations. On the basis of this last property, the magnitude of inhibition by the various inhibitors, and the substrate specificity, we conclude that the enzyme from eggplant, but not that from corn, is a cholinesterase.

Long J, Kanyinga K, Ferree K, Gibson C. "Choosing Peace over Democracy." Journal of Democracy. 2013;Vol. 24(No. 3):140-155.
Faridah H Were, Moturi CM, Wafula GA. "Chromium Exposure and Related Health Effects among Tannery Workers in Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2014;4(7):25-35. Abstract

Background. There is increasing concern over the health effects of chromium (Cr) exposure stemming from various activities in tanneries in Kenya. Chromium is a toxic metal in its hexavalent form, and is widely used in the tanning process. Objectives. A detailed exposure assessment of Cr and related health effects among tannery workers in Kenya was performed. Methods. Spot urine and 8-hour full-shift personal breathing zone air samples of the workers (N = 40) and control group (N = 40) were collected and subsequently analyzed for total Cr using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The medical history, respiratory, and dermatological condition of each of the selected workers was determined. Lung function was further investigated using a spirometer. Results. Tannery workers in various production lines had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean airborne Cr levels (± standard deviation [SD] of 63.0±11.6 µg/m3) compared to those in the control group (1.39±0.64 µg/m3), and general workers had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean concentrations of Cr (66.8±13.1 µg/m3) than those in other lines of production. A significant positive association (R2 = 0.76, P < 0.001) was also observed between urinary and breathing zone air Cr levels. Mean urinary Cr level exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists biological exposure index for Cr of 30 µg/g creatinine, and 78% of Cr levels of the general workers exceeded this limit. Tannery workers showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms (30% and 20%, respectively) compared to the control group (10% and 7.5%, respectively). It was further established that production workers had significantly reduced ventilatory function, with 17% experiencing pulmonary obstruction, 13% pulmonary restriction, and 7.5% both manifestations compared to 5% for each of the listed corresponding manifestations in the control group. Conclusions. Our study revealed inadequate engineering controls, work practices and personal hygiene, together with improper management of tannery wastes that has led to considerable exposures to Cr and related health effects among workers.

Key Words. Kenya; developing country; chromium; tannery workers; adverse health effects; respiratory diseases; dermatological condition

F.G. M, Ogwell AEO, Dimba EAO, Komu P. "cigarette smoking and oral health among health care students.". 2009.
EK G, G.O.Oyoo, F.O O, E.A O, S J, J O, B.C S. "Clinical characteristics of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Nairobi, Kenya." Afr J Rheumatol . 2015;2(3):62-66. Abstractclinical_characteristics_of_patients.pdf

Abstract
Background: Systemic lupus
erythematosus (SLE), a chronic
multisystem autoimmune disease with a
wide spectrum of manifestations, shows
considerable variation across the globe,
although there is data from Africa is
limited. Quantifying the burden of SLE
across Africa can help raise awareness and
knowledge about the disease. It will also
clarify the role of genetic, environmental
and other causative factors in the natural
history of the disease, and to understand
its clinical and societal consequences in
African set up.
Objective: To determine the clinical
profile of SLE patients at a tertiary care
centre in Nairobi, Kenya.
Methods: Case records of patients who
were attending the Nairobi Arthritis
Clinic seen between January 2002
and January 2013 were reviewed.
This was a cross-sectional study done
on 100 patients fulfilling the 2012
Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics
(SLICC) criteria for SLE attending
the Nairobi Arthritis Clinic, Kenya.
The patients were evaluated for sociodemographic,
clinical and immunological
manifestations and drugs used to manage
SLE.
Results: Hundred patients diagnosed with
SLE were recruited into the study. Ninety
seven per cent of the study participants
were female with a mean age of 36.6
years. Thirty three years was the mean
age of diagnosis. The mean time duration
of disease was 3 years with a range of
0-13 years. There was extensive disease
as many had multi-organ involvement.
Majority (83%) of the study participants
met between 4 and 6 manifestations
for the diagnosis criteria for SLE. Non
erosive arthritis and cutaneous disease
were the commonest initial manifestation.
The patients had varied cutaneous,
haematological, pulmonary, cardiac, renal
and neuropsychiatric manifestations.
Antinuclear antibody (ANA) assay and
anti-dsDNA was positive in 82% and
52%. Patients on steroids, non-steroidal
drugs and synthetic disease modifying
anti-rheumatic drugs were 84%, 49% and
43% respectively. None of the patients
were on biologic disease modifying antirheumatic
drugs.

Monroe-Wise A, Kibore M, Kiarie J, Ruth Nduati, Mburu J, Drake FT, Bremner W, Holmes K, Farquhar C. "The Clinical Education Partnership Initiative: an innovative approach to global health education." BMC Med Educ. 2014;14:1043. Abstract

Despite evidence that international clinical electives can be educationally and professionally beneficial to both visiting and in-country trainees, these opportunities remain challenging for American residents to participate in abroad. Additionally, even when logistically possible, they are often poorly structured. The Universities of Washington (UW) and Nairobi (UoN) have enjoyed a long-standing research collaboration, which recently expanded into the UoN Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI). Based on MEPI in Kenya, the Clinical Education Partnership Initiative (CEPI) is a new educational exchange program between UoN and UW. CEPI allows UW residents to partner with Kenyan trainees in clinical care and teaching activities at Naivasha District Hospital (NDH), one of UoN's MEPI training sites in Kenya.

Muraguri GR, Ngumi PN, Wesonga D, Ndungu SG, Wanjohi JM, Bang K, Foxb A, Dunneb J, McHardy N. "Clinical efficacy and plasma concentrations of two formulations of buparvaquone in cattle infected with East Coast fever.". 2006.Website
Nyawira M, Muchai G, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Atieno J, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga PT, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):33-39. Abstract

All persons living with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have a lifetime risk of developing Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a
potentially blinding microvascular complication of DM. The risk increases with the duration of diabetes. The
onset and progression of DR can be delayed through optimization of control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids. The risk of blindness from DR can be reduced through cost-effective interventions such as screening for DR and treatment of sight-threatening DR with laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF medications.
Several factors make it important to provide guidance to clinicians who provide services for diabetes and
diabetic retinopathy in Kenya. First, the magnitude of both DM and DR is expected to increase over the next
decade. Secondly, as the retina is easily accessible for examination, the early signs of retinopathy may provide clinicians with the best evidence of microvascular damage from diabetes. This information can be used to guide subsequent management of both DM and DR. Thirdly, there are notable gaps in service delivery for the detection,treatment and follow-up of patients with DR, and the services are inequitable. Strengthening of service delivery will require close collaboration between diabetes services and eye care services.
Following a systematic and collaborative process of guideline development, the first published national
guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to
highlight the recommendations in the guidelines, and to facilitate their adoption and implementation.

Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):33-9.
F M, JJ C. "Clinical Learning Experiences: A study among Undergraduate Nursing Students, Kenya." Nursing Research and Practice Journal. 2018.
FO Otieno, GO Oyoo CFOEAO, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF, Omondi EA. "Clinical presentation of patients with adult onset still’s disease in Nairobi: case series." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2015;3(1). AbstractWebsite

Introduction: Adult Still’s Disease (ASD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, typically characterized by a clinical triad (daily spiking high fevers, evanescent rash, arthritis), and a biological triad (hyperferritinemia, hyperleukocytosis with neutrophilia and abnormal liver function test).
Objective: This case series set out to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with ASD seen at a rheumatology clinic in Nairobi.
Results: After a record search, 8 patients were noted to have ASD. Fever and arthritis were noted to be most predominant presenting features with almost all the patients having hyperferritinemia.

FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Cloud Cover Estimation Over Selected Locations in East Africa Using Satellite Derived Reflectivity Data.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2008.
John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Farquhar C, Ruth Nduati, and Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha GJ-S. "Cofactors for HIV-1 Incidence during Pregnancy and Postpartum Period." Curr HIV Res. 2010 October ; 8(7): 510–514.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Objectives—To estimate HIV-1 incidence and cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy
and postpartum.
Design—Retrospective study among women who were HIV seronegative during pregnancy.
Methods—Mothers accompanying their infants for routine 6-week immunizations at 6 maternal
child health clinics in Nairobi and Western Kenya were tested for HIV-1 after completing a
questionnaire that included assessment of sociodemographics, obstetric history and HIV-1 risk
perception.
Results—Of 2,135 mothers who had tested HIV-1 seronegative antenatally, 2,035 (95.3%)
accepted HIV-1 re-testing at 6 weeks postpartum. Of these, 53 (2.6%) were HIV-1 seropositive
yielding an estimated HIV-1 incidence of 6.8 (95% CI: 5.1-8.8) per 100 woman-years). Mothers
who seroconverted were more likely to be employed (45.3% vs 29.0%, p=0.01), married (96.2 vs
86.6%, p=0.04) and from a higher HIV-1 prevalence region (60.4% in Western Kenya vs 28.8% in
Nairobi, p<0.001). Among married women, those in polygamous relationship were significantly
more likely to seroconvert (19.6% vs 6.7%, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, region and
employment independently predicted seroconversion.
Conclusions—Repeat HIV-1 testing in early postpartum was highly acceptable and resulted in
detection of substantial HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum period. Within
prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission programs strategic approaches to prevent
maternal HIV-1 acquisition during pregnancy are urgently needed.

John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Richardson B, Ruth Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha D, John-Stewart G. "Cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum period." Curr. HIV Res.. 2010;8(7):510-4. Abstract

to estimate HIV-1 incidence and cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum.

W. GS, F.G. M, M. OT, A. WK. "Combined Modality Approach in the management of Oral and Circumoral Haemangiomas with emphasis on the use of Absolute Ethyl Alcohol.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Although various modalities of treatment of haemangiomas including embolic therapy have been proposed, consideration of cost and technological requirements suggest that cheaper methods with less technological re-quirements need to be developed for use particularly in developing countries. The study objective was to de¬scribe the pattern of circumoral haemangiomas and explore the possible role of absolute ethyl alcohol in their management. It was a prospective study using hospital based study group at the University of Nairobi teaching and referral Dental Hospital. Of the 25 cases (24 females, 1 male) on follow-up, 68% had carvemous while 20% had capillary haemangiomas. The majority of the haem angiomas ranged in size from 2cm 2 - 31.5cm2. The lower lip was the most frequently affected (52%). None of the cases underwent spontaneous involution even after 10 years of follow-up. After intra lesions administration of alcohol, 3 cases of carvenous haeman¬gioma measuring 2cm2 and none of the capillary type underwent complete resolution. Other benefits of ethyl alcohol included better localization of the lesion and negligible intra and post operative haemorrhage for cases requiring surgery. Although pain and swelling for a few days were recorded in all cases and superficial tissue necrosis in two cases, there were no major alcohol-related complications. Therefore, Intra-lesion administra¬tion of absolute ethyl alcohol appears to be effective adjuvant to surgery and in addition may result in com¬plete resolution of small cavernous types of lesion. Spontaneous resolution of haemangiomas is not common in our set-up.

Mwega FM, Seck D, Chhibber A, Fischer S. "Comments on Financial Sector Policy.". In: Economic Re form in Sub - Saharan Africa .; 1991.
Fu P, Hughes J, Zeng G, Hanook S, Orem J, Mwanda OW, Remick SC. "A comparative investigation of methods for longitudinal data with limits of detection through a case study." Stat Methods Med Res. 2016;25(1):153-66. Abstract

The statistical analysis of continuous longitudinal data may be complicated since quantitative levels of bioassay cannot always be determined. Values beyond the limits of detection (LOD) in the assays may not be observed and thus censored, rendering complexity to the analysis of such data. This article examines how both left-censoring and right censoring of HIV-1 plasma RNA measurements, collected for the study on AIDS-related Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AR-NHL) in East Africa, affects the quantification of viral load and explores the natural history of viral load measurements over time in AR-NHL patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. Data analyses using Monte Carlo EM algorithm (MCEM) are compared to analyses where the LOD or LOD/2 (left censoring) value is substituted for the censored observations, and also to other methods such as multiple imputation, and maximum likelihood estimation for censored data (generalized Tobit regression). Simulations are used to explore the sensitivity of the results to changes in the model parameters. In conclusion, the antiretroviral treatment was associated with a significant decrease in viral load after controlling the effects of other covariates. A simulation study with finite sample size shows MCEM is the least biased method and the estimates are least sensitive to the censoring mechanism.

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