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C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Mbiuki S.M. and Kiptoon J.C. (1982): Fibrosarcoma in an Avrshire Heifer .". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1982.
C KJ, O AN. "Effects of Distributed Generation penetration on system power losses and voltage profiles." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2013;3(12):1-8. Abstractijsrp-p24585.pdf

In present times, the use of DG systems in large amounts in different power distribution systems has become very popular and is growing on with fast speed. Although it is considered that DG reduces losses and improves system voltage profile, this paper shows that this is not always true. The paper presents a GA-IPSO based approach which utilizes combined sensitivity factor analogy to optimally locate and size a multi-type DG in IEEE 57-bus test system with the aim of reducing power losses and improving the voltage profile. The multi-type DG can operate as; type 1 DG (DG generating real power only), type 2 DG (DG generating both real and active power) and type 3 DG (DG generating real power and absorbing reactive power). It further shows that though the system losses are reduced and the voltage profile improved with the location of the first DG, as the number of DGs increases this is not the case. It reaches a point where any further increase in number of DGs in the network results to an increase in power losses and a distortion in voltage profile.

C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI, Maina S, Olima W. "Adopting a new eco-ethical philosophy of living; the diminishing options for Nairobi and humanity." Africa Habitat . 2010;Review 4 . Abstract

Burning refuse, especially plastics and other hazardous waste that affect air quality has been a common practice. Authorities point to a well balanced environmental past. During those good old days, people used to be able to throw garbage away. And garbage actually went "away." As they pose, Where is "away" now? "Away" is here. "Away" is someone's back yard. There is no place to go from here. We now see that we inhabit a smaller and smaller planet. "Away" has become very close indeed. Based on preliminary findings of a continuing research, and having used case study approaches to isolate pertinent issues, secondary data obtained through stratified random sampling points to unsustainable livelihoods. This papers objective was to highlight this problem from an eco-ethical perspective. The effect of lack of eco-ethics is numerous. From the very cradle of evolution, nature has been propagating to man in subtle ways the message 'use but don't abuse'. The ancient Bible has a message: After God created the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve, He took the two of them around and told them 'See the world I created, it is all for you, don't spoil it because no one will be there to restore it', (Genesis 2:15). This is probably the first and strongest statement, based upon which Humankind later developed ideas of nature and ecological ethics. Data reveals that humanity and designers, the case of this study, has ignored their responsibility to nurture their environment. This paper concludes that mankind has got a responsibility to future generations in the process of their current development endeavours.

C BL, Njagi L W, Mbuthia P G, DI K. "Various manifestations of ovarian carcinoma and Marek’s disease / leucosis complex in chickens: Case reports .". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.2008-manifestation_of_ovarian_carcinoma_and_chicken.pdf
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Mukuria, J.C., Noguchi, A., Suzuki, E. and Naiki, M. (1994). Potential use of specific human and chicken antibodies for detection of HD antigen(s) in sera of cancer patients. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 47: 253 .". In: Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 47: 253 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1994. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Nyaga P.N., Bebora L.C. and Njagi L.W. (2000): Production status of indigenous ducks from peri-urban villages in Kenya.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 2000.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Nyaga P.N. and Bebora L.C. (1988): Zoonotic human chlamydiosis of avian origin.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1988.
C N. "The Impact of HIV and AIDS on the University of Nairobi." African Symposium . 2001;1(3).
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Buoro I.B.J., Nyamwange S.B. and Kiptoon J.C. (1994): .". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Cellular network coverage planning efficiency is traditionally evaluated through various network metrics assessing the Quality of Service (QoS). When it comes to coverage service, however, user satisfaction can be considered the logical metric of performance. This study presents a hybrid Quality of Experience (QoE) index that can be used as a basis of network coverage planning efficiency assessment. A spatial analysis framework is employed to evaluate the user perceived QoS offered by one of the leading cellular service providers in Kenya as perceived by consumers under everyday conditions of use. Regions where subscribers may be experiencing low service quality service were identified. The study shows that urban based consumers tend to have higher quality expectations than the rural users.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Kiptoon J.C.: Prevention of Calf Pneumonia and associated respiratory conditions.April 1984. Paper presented to the scientific meeting of the Kenya Veterinarian Association, ILRAD, Kabete, Kenya.". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1984.
C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI. "Developing an Authentic African Architecture." Africa Habitat Review . 2011;5. Abstract

The idea of the existence of an African Architecture has been problematic over the years since the onset of European occupation. Early scholars of non-Western built forms saw them as not constituting architecture but as shelter or mere dwellings (Oliver, 1987). Others classed these built forms as primitive or indigenous architecture (Guidoni, 1987 Gardi, 1973)while others have classed built forms on the African continent as African Architecture (Kultermann, 1969).Globally, most indigenous societies build their structures using local resources and quite often adapted to the climate of the locality. In addition, traditional built forms tend to respect historical precedents and local customary practices. In this regard, it can be argued that traditional architecture is green architecture without the benefits of sophisticated technologies. The above notwithstanding, most Western architecture imported to the continent, had little regard for local practices and quite often ignored local climate. In attempting to train architects for contemporary practice, this paper argues for hybrid architecture. This is because there is no current pure African architecture in existence. What happened over time was the Africanisation of Western and Eastern architectural models to suit the African condition. The resultant architecture has been a hybrid of these various architectures, what Mazrui refers to as the Triple African Heritage. This architecture is a spatial counter form for the contemporary African society and can be seen to be authentic

C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Noguchi, A., Mukuria, J.C., Suzuki, E. and Naiki, M. (1996). Failure of human immunoresponse to N-Glycolylneuraminic acid epitope contained in recombinant human erythropoietin. Nephron 72: 599 .". In: Nephron 72: 599 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1996. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C., Nyaga P.N., Njagi L.W., Mbuthia P.G., Mugera G.M., Minga U.M. and Olsen J.E. (2002): Production status of indigenous chicken from peri-urban villages in Kenya.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in December 2002; Kenya. Taylor & Francis; 2002.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. and Nyaga P.N. (1989): Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella gallinarum isolates recovered from Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., Special issue:115-118.". In: Paper presented at 2nd Faculty of Veterinary Medicine biennial scientific conference, University of Nairobi. Taylor & Francis; 1989.
C DG. "An overview of Reproductive Health and HIV .". In: Annual Africa Biomedical Research Conference. Karen, Nairobi, Kenya; 2008.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Njoroge, W.J., Kakimoto, K., Songok, E.M., Makokha, E.P., Mukuria, J.C., Munyua,J.K., Adungo, N.I., Oloo, J.A., Orege, P.A. and Tukei,P.M. Use of short-course Zidovudine (ZDV) for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV-1 in rural Western Kenya.". In: E.A. Medical Journal. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C., Oundo J.O., Khamala J., Saidi S., Sang W.K., Yamamoto H. and 16 Mukundi P.W. (1993): Some E. coli strains causing septicaemia in chicks in Kenya.Kenya Veterinarian 17:1-3.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 1993.
C M, Z.B A, J N. "Top Management Team, Diversity Management Strategies And Performance Of Commercial Banks In Kenya ." DBA Africa Management Review. 2014;4(2):23-31.
C MRONDIEKISTEPHEN. "Ondieki. S. C; "Simulation of Reservoir Operation - Kidatu Reservoir Systei proceedings of the KSAE International Conference: 7-8 Oct. 1999: Nairobi.". In: Vol. 170, no. 6 the American Naturalist December 2007. 2003; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} We investigated whether resistant pollen genotypes can be selected for when the maternal plants are infected and whether infection can result to changes in the pistil nutrient level influencing reproductive outcome. Both resistance and susceptibility come with costs that may affect pre- and post-fertilization reproductive functions. We performed the study by crossing zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant and susceptible pollen (from a hybrid donor) to infected and healthy maternal plants. We also analysed the pistil nutrient content in both treatments and found an increase of the susceptible and not resistant genotypes when maternal plants were infected. The level of nutrients K, P and S was higher in the pistils of the infected maternal plants than the healthy ones. Pistil nutrient level did not affect pollen tube growth rates, as indicated by seed siring patterns along the fruit. We propose that the effect on the siring ability of pollen carrying the susceptible and resistant alleles occurred at the post-fertilization stage, possibly as an indirect result of different growth rates of the two embryo genotypes under elevated nutrient conditions. We discuss our results with respect to possibilities of differential selection, costs and reproductive implications.
C N. "„Research on Men and Its Implications for Policy and Programme Development in Reproductive Health.". In: Programming for Male Involvement in Reproductive Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.
C N. "AIDS control policies in Kenya: a crit ical perspect ive on prevent ion.". In: AIDS: Foundations for the future. London: Taylor and Francis Publishers; 1994.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "NgatiaT.A. and Kiptoon, J.C. (1989): .". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1989.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH, A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Carolyne G O Wasonga, Sheila A. Okoth, Joseph C Mukuria and Charles O.A. Omwandho MUSHROOM POLYSACCHARIDE EXTRACTS DELAY PROGRESSION OF CARCINOGENESIS IN MICE.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2008.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Kiptoon J.C. Mugera G.M. and Lutu W.Z. (1977): Studies on the Pathogenesis of Bovine Petechial Fever (.". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1977.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Gathumbi J.K., Bebora L.C., Muchiri D.J. and Ngatia T.A. (1995): A survey of mycotoxins in poultry feeds used in Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 43:243-245.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 1995.
C MRONDIEKISTEPHEN. "Ondieki, SC. 2003: Water Modeling and simulating water level fluctuations: Mtera- Kidatu case study; Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment (JEAE); Volume 3 No.1 2003: 32-38.". In: Vol. 170, no. 6 the American Naturalist December 2007. 2003; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} We investigated whether resistant pollen genotypes can be selected for when the maternal plants are infected and whether infection can result to changes in the pistil nutrient level influencing reproductive outcome. Both resistance and susceptibility come with costs that may affect pre- and post-fertilization reproductive functions. We performed the study by crossing zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant and susceptible pollen (from a hybrid donor) to infected and healthy maternal plants. We also analysed the pistil nutrient content in both treatments and found an increase of the susceptible and not resistant genotypes when maternal plants were infected. The level of nutrients K, P and S was higher in the pistils of the infected maternal plants than the healthy ones. Pistil nutrient level did not affect pollen tube growth rates, as indicated by seed siring patterns along the fruit. We propose that the effect on the siring ability of pollen carrying the susceptible and resistant alleles occurred at the post-fertilization stage, possibly as an indirect result of different growth rates of the two embryo genotypes under elevated nutrient conditions. We discuss our results with respect to possibilities of differential selection, costs and reproductive implications.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M. Munene J.N. Karitu P.T., Kimoro C., Kiptoon J.C. and Buoro I.B.J. 1990) .". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1990.
C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI. "Spatial Transformations in Nairobi. A study of Nairobi’s Urban Process.". In: Diverse Informalities.; 2008.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Mukuria JC, Naiki M, Kato S.Microstructure of the sialic acid moiety of N-glycolylneuraminyllactosylceramide and the elucidation of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antigenicity.Immunol Lett. 1986 Mar;12(2-3):165-9.". In: Immunol Lett. 1986 Mar;12(2-3):165-9. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1986. Abstract
The carboxyl (-COOH) group of heterophile Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antigen-active ganglioside (N-glycolylneuraminyllactosylceramide) was esterified (-CO2CH3) by methyl iodide and then reduced to a primary alcohol (-CH2OH) by sodium borohydride. The intact molecule (commonly known as HD3) as well as its two derivatives were tested for HD antigen potency using four human pathologic sera containing HD antibodies. The methyl ester derivative (1-methyl-HD3) gave the same inhibition potency as HD3, but the reduced HD3 gave poor inhibition (1/66) compared to the intact HD3. The results show that reduction of the carboxyl group diminishes the inhibitory potency of HD3. This suggests that although the N-glycolyl (-CH2OH) group of HD3 is the most important determinant for manifestation of HD antigenicity, it is likely that the antibody recognizes both the N-glycolyl and carboxyl groups together when they form a hydrogen bond (-CH2OH–-OOC-), aided by their possible proximity, and that substitution of either group therefore reduces the reaction of HD3 with HD antibody dramatically.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. (1997): Role of plasmids in virulence of enteric bacteria. E.A. Medical Journal 74(7): 43-45.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 1997.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. (1986): Salmonellosis in poultry: the disease, its diagnosis and Prevention.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1986.
C O, J W, J O, M.F O. "Corporate Governance Practices and Financial Performance of Deposit Taking Saccos in Western Kenya." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management . 2017;4(3):195-212.corporate_governance_practices.pdf
C N. "The social meanings of death from HIV /AIDS: an African interpretative view ." Culture, Health and Society. 2000;2(2):1-14.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J. M., R.G. Wahome, B.M. Mitaru, G.J.O. Agumbah and Kiptoon J.C. (1993). .". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Cellular network coverage planning efficiency is traditionally evaluated through various network metrics assessing the Quality of Service (QoS). When it comes to coverage service, however, user satisfaction can be considered the logical metric of performance. This study presents a hybrid Quality of Experience (QoE) index that can be used as a basis of network coverage planning efficiency assessment. A spatial analysis framework is employed to evaluate the user perceived QoS offered by one of the leading cellular service providers in Kenya as perceived by consumers under everyday conditions of use. Regions where subscribers may be experiencing low service quality service were identified. The study shows that urban based consumers tend to have higher quality expectations than the rural users.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Kiptoon J.C., Waiyaki P.G. and Mugera G.M. (1982): Haematological and Biochemical Changes in Cattle poisoned by Gnidia latifolia (Meisn): Toxicology journ. Vol.125 p.129-139.". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1982.
C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI. "Spatial Transformations in Nairobi." Research Magazine, Oslo School of Architecture and Design.. No.8 (2007).
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Suzuki, E., Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M., Kurosawa, T. and Hanaue, J. (1987). Elevation of heterophilic antibodies to rabbit erythrocytes in human pathologic sera: Quantitative studies by ELISA using glycosphingolipid antigen. Japanese Journal of Veterinary R.". In: Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 35: 11 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1987. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
C O, E M, SK M, Ngechu. Variation of ground water static levels in Nairobi City Since 1927.. New Delhi India ; 2012.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. (1987): Common poisons - poultry. Kenya Veterinarian 11:7-8.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1987.
C N. "Emerging infectious diseases with reference to HIV/AIDS.". In: East Africa in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change. Nairobi: Nairobi: Acton Publishers; 2001.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Kiptoon J.C. and Mugera G.M. (1983): Bovine Petechial Fever .". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1983.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Noguchi, A., Mukuria, J.C., Suzuki, E. and Naiki, M. (1995). Immunogenicity of N-glycolylneuraminic acid .". In: Journal of Biochemistry 117: 59 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1995. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Gathumbi J.K. and Bebora L.C. (2000): The occurrence of aflatoxin in poultry tissues collected in Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 48:61-62.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in December 2002; Kenya. Taylor & Francis; 2000.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. and Nyaga P.N. (1989): Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella gallinarum isolates recovered from Kenya.". In: Paper presented at 1st Faculty of Veterinary Medicine biennial scientific conference, University of Nairobi. Taylor & Francis; 1989.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J. M., R.G. Wahome, B.M. Mitaru, G.J.O. Agumbah and Kiptoon J.C. (1993). .". In: A paper presented at the 3rd Biannual SRNET conference 5-9th December 1994 - Kampala, Uganda. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1993. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Kiptoon J.C. and Muraguri J.M. (1985): A survey of the Bacterial agents associated with Acute Enteritis in adult cattle in Kabete. Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian vol. 8 p.7-8.". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1985.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Mwangi, D.W., Mukuria,J.C. and Noguchi, A. (1998). Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) serum antibody and total sialic acid levels in hepatoma patients.African Journal of Health Sciences 5: 108 .". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 5: 108 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Mbuthia P.G., Nyaga P.N., Bebora L.C., Njagi L.W., Minga U.M. and Olsen J.E. (2003): Ducks in rural and semi-urban poultry production.". In: Paper presented at a National Poultry Workshop on . Taylor & Francis; 2003.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Gitao C.G. and Bebora L.C. (1992): Histomoniasis in a peacock. Indian Vet. Journal 69:933-934.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 1992.
C MRONDIEKISTEPHEN. "Ondieki, SC. 1999: Water Balance of The Mtera ? Kidatu Reservoir System System. Proceedings of the KSAE International Conference, 7 - 8 Oct. 1999, Nairobi; pp 21 - 30.". In: Vol. 170, no. 6 the American Naturalist December 2007. 2003; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} We investigated whether resistant pollen genotypes can be selected for when the maternal plants are infected and whether infection can result to changes in the pistil nutrient level influencing reproductive outcome. Both resistance and susceptibility come with costs that may affect pre- and post-fertilization reproductive functions. We performed the study by crossing zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant and susceptible pollen (from a hybrid donor) to infected and healthy maternal plants. We also analysed the pistil nutrient content in both treatments and found an increase of the susceptible and not resistant genotypes when maternal plants were infected. The level of nutrients K, P and S was higher in the pistils of the infected maternal plants than the healthy ones. Pistil nutrient level did not affect pollen tube growth rates, as indicated by seed siring patterns along the fruit. We propose that the effect on the siring ability of pollen carrying the susceptible and resistant alleles occurred at the post-fertilization stage, possibly as an indirect result of different growth rates of the two embryo genotypes under elevated nutrient conditions. We discuss our results with respect to possibilities of differential selection, costs and reproductive implications.
C N. "Kwale Report.". In: Challenges of Implementing Free Primary Education in Kenya: Experiences from the Districts. Nairobi: UNESCO; 2005.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Ngatia T.A., Kiptoon J.C., Njiro S.M. and Kuria J.K.N. (1988). Some rabbit diseases around Kabete area of Kenya: A review of postmortem cases; Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. Vol.36 p.243-244.". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1988.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Kanduma EG, Mukuria JC, Mwanda OW.Serum total sialic acid and Hanganutziu-Deicher antibody in normals and in cancer patients.East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):207-14.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):207-14. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Kiptoon J.C. Maribei J.M. Kamau, L.J.W. and Thuo P. (1970). .". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1970.
C MRONDIEKISTEPHEN. "Ondieki, SC, Gitau, AN 2000: Conservation tillage implements and operations for soil and water management. Proceedings of the KSAE International Conference, 30 Nov. - 1 Dec. 2000, Nairobi; pp 9 - 12.". In: Vol. 170, no. 6 the American Naturalist December 2007. 2003; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} We investigated whether resistant pollen genotypes can be selected for when the maternal plants are infected and whether infection can result to changes in the pistil nutrient level influencing reproductive outcome. Both resistance and susceptibility come with costs that may affect pre- and post-fertilization reproductive functions. We performed the study by crossing zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant and susceptible pollen (from a hybrid donor) to infected and healthy maternal plants. We also analysed the pistil nutrient content in both treatments and found an increase of the susceptible and not resistant genotypes when maternal plants were infected. The level of nutrients K, P and S was higher in the pistils of the infected maternal plants than the healthy ones. Pistil nutrient level did not affect pollen tube growth rates, as indicated by seed siring patterns along the fruit. We propose that the effect on the siring ability of pollen carrying the susceptible and resistant alleles occurred at the post-fertilization stage, possibly as an indirect result of different growth rates of the two embryo genotypes under elevated nutrient conditions. We discuss our results with respect to possibilities of differential selection, costs and reproductive implications.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Mulei C.M. Rege J.E.O. and Kiptoon J.C. (1989): .". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1989.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Mutiga E.R., Kiptoon J.C. and Masha J.B. (1978): Puerperal Disease of Dairy Cattle in Kenya; Med. Vet. Pract. Vol.59.p.45-46.". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1978.
C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI, Adebayo AA. "Traditional Architecture; Settlement Evolution and Built Form.". In: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. Nairobi; 1995.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Mukuria JC, Naiki M, Hashimoto M, Kato S.A specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure for detection of heterophile Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibodies.J Immunol Methods. 1986 Feb 12;86(2):179-85.". In: J Immunol Methods. 1986 Feb 12;86(2):179-85. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1986. Abstract

A specific, relatively sensitive, quantitative and standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure was developed for the detection of heterophile Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibodies which are occasionally elevated in pathologic human sera. The HD antigen-active molecule used for the assay was a ganglioside (N-glycolylneuraminyllactosylceramide, abbreviated as NeuGc-LacCer) previously purified from horse erythrocyte membranes. The test used antigen-coated plastic microtiter plates and anti-human immunoglobulin G (IgG, Fab fragment) conjugated with alkaline phosphatase. Fifty-four normal human sera gave ELISA values ranging from -2 to 2%. Random sera from hospitalized patients were first screened by the horse erythrocyte hemagglutination (HA) test, whereby 5.7% (76 cases) gave abnormal HA titers of 128-4096 compared to titers in normal sera equal to or less than 64. Ninety-seven % of the patients' sera gave abnormal ELISA values (3-200%). They were classified into 3 groups: cancer (42 cases), infection (10 cases), and others (24 cases). The potential value of this ELISA method is discussed.

C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. (1996): The erratic nature of Enterobacteriaceae with particular mention to the genera Escherichia, Shigella and Salmonella: A practical review. Discovery and Innovation 8(3): 215-218.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 1996.
C N. "Kenyan men interested in family planning, but can the available services address their needs?" Social Science Research Policy Briefs. 1999;1(1):1-2.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Buoro I.B.J., Nyamwange S.B., Ihiga M.K. and Kiptoon J.C. (1992): The seasonal and Annual Distribution of Canine Ehrlichiosis and Bebesiosis in the Tropical Environment of Kabete Kenya.". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Cellular network coverage planning efficiency is traditionally evaluated through various network metrics assessing the Quality of Service (QoS). When it comes to coverage service, however, user satisfaction can be considered the logical metric of performance. This study presents a hybrid Quality of Experience (QoE) index that can be used as a basis of network coverage planning efficiency assessment. A spatial analysis framework is employed to evaluate the user perceived QoS offered by one of the leading cellular service providers in Kenya as perceived by consumers under everyday conditions of use. Regions where subscribers may be experiencing low service quality service were identified. The study shows that urban based consumers tend to have higher quality expectations than the rural users.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Waiyaki P.G., Kiptoon J.C. and Mugera G.M. (1982): Gnidia latifolia (Meisn) toxicity in Rats. The Kenya veterinarian Vol.6 p.10-14.". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1982.
C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI. "Built Form Transformations as an Income Generating Strategy." Wits Journal of Architecture and Planning Studies. 2004;Vol.1(No.1).
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M., Hashimoto, M. and Kato, S. (1986). Specificities of human heterophile HD antibodies to a glycosphingolipid and a glycoprotein. Journal of Biochemistry 100: 469 .". In: Journal of Biochemistry 100: 469 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1986. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
C O, E EM, SK M, W N. "A study on the engineering behaviour of Nairobi subsoil." Asian Research Publishing Network, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2011;6(7).a_study_on_the_engineering_behaviour_of.pdf
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "1Bebora L.C. (1987): Chick morbidity and mortality.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1987.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Mugera G.M. Kiptoon J.C. and Waiyaki P.G. (1982): Studies on the Toxicity of Gndia latifolia (Meisn) in cattle. Bull Anim. Hlth. & Prod. Afr. Vol.30.250-257.". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1982.
C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI. "Informal Urbanism in Nairobi." Built Environment Journal . 2011;Vol. 37 (No. 1). Abstract

Post-colonial Nairobi has experienced a rapid urbanization rate averaging 5 per cent per annum from 1963 to the present. The planning framework inherited from the colonial regime and little changed after Independence has not been able to cope with the increased demand for urban goods and services. This has made it necessary for Nairobi residents to seek and source these through informal processes. The informal processes have in turn generated an informal urban process, but since these processes are not homogenous this paper argues for the case of informal urbanisms. The paper traces the origins of informality and argues that informality is not illegal. The paper then examines the informalization of Buru Buru a middle-income estate built in the 1970s and early 1980s. The under provision of social facilities/amenities in this estate has resulted in the residents making alterations and extensions to their dwellings as a mitigating intervention.

C BL, Njagi L W, Mbuthia P G, Nyaga P N. "Importance of environmental hygiene in reducing bacterial load exposure to night – housed indigenous chickens.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.2008-importance_of_environmental_hygiene_in_indigenous_chicken.pdf
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Mukuria, J.C., Mwangi, D.W., Noguchi, A., Waiyaki, P.G., Asano, T. and Naiki, M. (1995). Evidence for a free N-acetylneuraminic acid .". In: Biochemical Journal 305: 459 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1995. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH, A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Carolyne G O Wasonga, Sheila A. Okoth, Joseph C Mukuria and Charles O.A. Omwandho MUSHROOM POLYSACCHARIDE EXTRACTS DELAY PROGRESSION OF CARCINOGENESIS IN MICE.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS).; 2008. Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting

C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C., Nyaga P.N. and Njagi L.W. (2000): Bacterial species recovered from ducks sampled from peri-urban villages of Kenya.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 2000.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Kaminjolo J.S., Ayoade J.A., Makhambera T.P.E., Nyaga P.N. and Bebora L.C. (1988): Contagious ecthyma in a boer goat: short communication. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 36:83-85.". In: Paper presented at 1st Faculty of Veterinary Medicine biennial scientific conference, University of Nairobi. Taylor & Francis; 1988.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M. Munene J.N. Karitu P.T., Kimoro C., Kiptoon J.C. and Buoro I.B.J. 1990) .". In: Proc. 9th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1990. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Kiptoon J.C., Mugera G.M. and Karitu P.T. (1984): .". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1984.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Mwangi DW, Mukuria JC, Noguchi A.Serum Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody and total sialic acid levels in hepatoma patients.Afr J Health Sci. 1998;5(1-2):108-12.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 1998;5(1-2):108-12. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1998. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Mbuthia P.G., Njagi L.W., Nyaga P.N., Bebora L.C., Minga U.M. and Olsen J.E. (2003): Clinical signs of fowl cholera in experimental immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed Kenyan indigenous chickens and ducks.". In: Paper presented presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting held in December 2003, and at Kenya Veterinary Association Scientific meeting in April 2003. Taylor & Francis; 2003.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Chai D.C., Bebora L.C. and Karaba W.W. (1990): Yersinia enterocolitica infection in vervet monkey.". In: Paper presented at 2nd Faculty of Veterinary Medicine biennial scientific conference, University of Nairobi. Taylor & Francis; 1990.
C MRONDIEKISTEPHEN. "Gitau, AN, Ondieki, SC. 1999: Influence of tillage practice and draft power requirements and resultant soil micro-structure System System. Proceedings of the KSAE International Conference, 30 Nov. - 1 Dec. 2000, Nairobi; pp 9 - 12.". In: Vol. 170, no. 6 the American Naturalist December 2007. 2003; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} We investigated whether resistant pollen genotypes can be selected for when the maternal plants are infected and whether infection can result to changes in the pistil nutrient level influencing reproductive outcome. Both resistance and susceptibility come with costs that may affect pre- and post-fertilization reproductive functions. We performed the study by crossing zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant and susceptible pollen (from a hybrid donor) to infected and healthy maternal plants. We also analysed the pistil nutrient content in both treatments and found an increase of the susceptible and not resistant genotypes when maternal plants were infected. The level of nutrients K, P and S was higher in the pistils of the infected maternal plants than the healthy ones. Pistil nutrient level did not affect pollen tube growth rates, as indicated by seed siring patterns along the fruit. We propose that the effect on the siring ability of pollen carrying the susceptible and resistant alleles occurred at the post-fertilization stage, possibly as an indirect result of different growth rates of the two embryo genotypes under elevated nutrient conditions. We discuss our results with respect to possibilities of differential selection, costs and reproductive implications.
C N. "Obstacles to Managing the Dual risks of Unwanted Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections among Young Males in Kenya.". In: The Health and Development of African Male Adolescents and Young Men. Geneva: WHO/UNAIDS; 2001.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Kiptoon J. C.: .". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1986.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Kanduma, E.G., Mukuria, J.C., and Mwanda, E.O. (2001). Total Sialic acid (TSA) and Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody in malignant and healthy sera. E.A. Med. J. (Submitted).". In: E.A. Med. J. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2001. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

C K, Ogutu O. "13. Condom acceptability and use among patients attending STC clinic in Nairobi ." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 1992;10:25-30 .
C MRONDIEKISTEPHEN. "Ondieki. S. C: "Water Balance of The Mtera - Kidatu Reservoir System:" in proceedings of the KSAE International Conference: 7-8 Oct. 1999: Nairobi.". In: Vol. 170, no. 6 the American Naturalist December 2007. 2003; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} We investigated whether resistant pollen genotypes can be selected for when the maternal plants are infected and whether infection can result to changes in the pistil nutrient level influencing reproductive outcome. Both resistance and susceptibility come with costs that may affect pre- and post-fertilization reproductive functions. We performed the study by crossing zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant and susceptible pollen (from a hybrid donor) to infected and healthy maternal plants. We also analysed the pistil nutrient content in both treatments and found an increase of the susceptible and not resistant genotypes when maternal plants were infected. The level of nutrients K, P and S was higher in the pistils of the infected maternal plants than the healthy ones. Pistil nutrient level did not affect pollen tube growth rates, as indicated by seed siring patterns along the fruit. We propose that the effect on the siring ability of pollen carrying the susceptible and resistant alleles occurred at the post-fertilization stage, possibly as an indirect result of different growth rates of the two embryo genotypes under elevated nutrient conditions. We discuss our results with respect to possibilities of differential selection, costs and reproductive implications.
C BL, Njagi L W. "A case of Newcastle disease in parrots in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and production in Africa. 2007;55:292-295. Abstractabstract-_nd_in_parrots-2007.pdf

Bull.Anim.Hlth.Prod.Afr.,(2007),55,292-295

C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Ngatia T.A. and Kiptoon J.C. *(1989): .". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1989.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Wasonga CG, Okoth SA, Mukuria JC, Omwandho CO.Mushroom polysaccharide extracts delay progression of carcinogenesis in mice. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2008;7(2):147-52.". In: J Exp Ther Oncol. 2008;7(2):147-52. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2008. Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body's immune system increasing a patient's risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting that these extracts may be useful as adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.

C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Mugera G.M. and Kiptoon J.C. (1978); Some observations of the Morphology and Infection of the Agent of Bivine Petechial Fever 1: Bull. Anim. Hlth and Prod. in Africa Vol.26.p99-105.". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1978.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M. Hashimoto, M., Nishiura, K., and Okabe, M. (1985). A potential radioimmunoassay system for the detection of HD type heterophile antigen(s) and antibodies in tissues and fluids. Journal of Immunological Methods 80: 97 .". In: Journal of Immunological Methods 80: 97 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1985. Abstract

A specific, relatively sensitive, quantitative and standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure was developed for the detection of heterophile Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibodies which are occasionally elevated in pathologic human sera. The HD antigen-active molecule used for the assay was a ganglioside (N-glycolylneuraminyllactosylceramide, abbreviated as NeuGc-LacCer) previously purified from horse erythrocyte membranes. The test used antigen-coated plastic microtiter plates and anti-human immunoglobulin G (IgG, Fab fragment) conjugated with alkaline phosphatase. Fifty-four normal human sera gave ELISA values ranging from -2 to 2%. Random sera from hospitalized patients were first screened by the horse erythrocyte hemagglutination (HA) test, whereby 5.7% (76 cases) gave abnormal HA titers of 128-4096 compared to titers in normal sera equal to or less than 64. Ninety-seven % of the patients' sera gave abnormal ELISA values (3-200%). They were classified into 3 groups: cancer (42 cases), infection (10 cases), and others (24 cases). The potential value of this ELISA method is discussed.

C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Gathumbi J.K., Bebora L.C. Muchiri D.J. and Ngatia T.A. (1996): Mycological examination of poultry feeds used in Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 44:19-22.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 1996.
C MRONDIEKISTEPHEN. "Ondieki, SC, Gumbe, LO. 2003: Modeling Water Level Fluctuations in Large Dams. Operations Research So.". In: Vol. 170, no. 6 the American Naturalist December 2007. 2003; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} We investigated whether resistant pollen genotypes can be selected for when the maternal plants are infected and whether infection can result to changes in the pistil nutrient level influencing reproductive outcome. Both resistance and susceptibility come with costs that may affect pre- and post-fertilization reproductive functions. We performed the study by crossing zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant and susceptible pollen (from a hybrid donor) to infected and healthy maternal plants. We also analysed the pistil nutrient content in both treatments and found an increase of the susceptible and not resistant genotypes when maternal plants were infected. The level of nutrients K, P and S was higher in the pistils of the infected maternal plants than the healthy ones. Pistil nutrient level did not affect pollen tube growth rates, as indicated by seed siring patterns along the fruit. We propose that the effect on the siring ability of pollen carrying the susceptible and resistant alleles occurred at the post-fertilization stage, possibly as an indirect result of different growth rates of the two embryo genotypes under elevated nutrient conditions. We discuss our results with respect to possibilities of differential selection, costs and reproductive implications.
C N. "Factors influencing male interest in family planning in Kenya ." African Journal of Reproductive Health . 1998;2(2):122-141.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Mbithi P.M.F., Mbiuki S.M. and Kiptoon J.C. (1991): Clinical and Experimental Evaluation of the Healing of Autologous free full-thickness skin grafted on untreated skin wounds in Distal limbs of cattle. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. Vol.39 p.289-291.". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1991.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Kiptoon J.C. (1981), Masha J.B., Shatry and Wolff W.A. (1983). The Clinical signs of East Coast Fever. (Bovine Theileria parva Infection) .". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1981.
C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI. "Nairobi’s Informal Modernism.". In: 6th N-AERUS Workshop, Promoting Social Inclusion in Urban Areas: Policies and Practice. Lund, Sweden; 2005. Abstractn-aerus_workshop_paper_2005.pdf

Nairobi was established more than 100 years ago as a transit point for the Uganda
Railway. The Uganda railway was built by the British Colonial Administration, to link Mombasa on the
Indian Ocean coast with Lake Victoria in the interior of East Africa, in order to extract natural resources. In
1900 commissioner Charles Eliot introduced hut tax, and encouraged European settlement based upon a
policy of integrated development. However the advent of the first European settlers swiftly changed this
vision, and separate development was established as policy. These were the beginnings of social, economic
and spatial exclusions. By the end of the Second World War, most of the land in Nairobi had been
privatised, making it almost impossible for any inclusive civic development to take place.
At independence in 1963, the restriction of the movement of Africans was relaxed, creating a large influx
of people into the city. These people were excluded from main stream formal operations of the city, and
had to survive from their own `wits’. In recent times, neo-liberal policies have had no meaningful impact
on the provision of urban services to the poor. The reduced role of the state has created a haven for
privateers to exploit the urban poor. In the process an informal modernism has emerged in Nairobi, where
moneyed developers build 8-10 storey rental business cum residential blocks, further marginalising the
poor. This paper further argues that for there to be any meaningful progress, the state should provide
subsidised rental housing for the poor, as they are unable to get into the home ownership bracket based on
market rates.

C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M., Hashimoto, M. and Kato, S., (1986). A specific ELISA procedure for detection of heterophile HD antibodies. Journal of Immunological Methods: 179 .". In: Journal of Immunological Methods: 179 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1986. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
C GJ. "Gatumu J,C(1983)Attitudes of head teachers towards Christian Religious Education in Runyenjes, Embu.". In: M.Ed Research Thesis. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1983. Abstract

Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Karanja M.W., Bebora L.C. and Mbugua P.N. (1998): Pathogenicity of E. coli isolated from normal healthy chicken. Kenya Veterinarian.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 1998.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. (1986): Common poisons-poultry.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1986.
C N. "Human Resource Development in Makueni District, Kenya 1989 - 1999.". In: Policy Requirements for farmer investment in semi-arid Africa: Makueni District Profile. Crewkerne, UK: Drylands Research; 2000.
C. WG, W. GD, O. NM, K. NF, G. N, M. MJ. "Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of some Kenyyan medicinal plants.". In: 6th Biennial Scientific Conference.; 2008.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, FLORENCE DRMURILA, C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Pattern of use of skin care products in children with and without eczematous skin lesions. East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):645-50. Wamalwa DC, Wafula EM, Munyao TM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):645-50. UN-HABITAT; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare the pattern of use of skin care products between children with eczematous skin lesions and those without. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Two well baby clinics at the Kenyatta National Hospital and the Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty nine infants with eczematous skin lesions and 89 age and sex matched controls without skin lesions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence and severity of skin lesions related to the type of skin care products used by the child. RESULTS: Exposure to various products was not significantly different between infants with skin lesions and those without. However, more mothers whose children had a skin rash had made a change in the type of soap and or skin cream used for their child (p<0.0001). The principal reason for changing products was skin rash in the baby and most mothers made changes away from scented baby soap products. CONCLUSION: The study found no significant difference between the cases and controls regarding the type of skin care products used.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "High uptake of postpartum hormonal contraception among HIV-1-seropositive women in Kenya. Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Balkus J, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Schiff MA, Wamalwa D, G.". In: Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2007. Abstracthigh_uptake_of_postpartum_hormonal_contraception.pdf

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA. jbalkus@u.washington.edu
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and not using contraception. CONCLUSIONS: Using existing the healthcare infrastructure, it is possible to achieve high levels of postpartum hormonal contraceptive utilization among HIV-1-seropositive women.
PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Herpes simplex virus type 2 and risk of intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Obstet Gynecol . 2007 Feb; 109 ( 2 Pt 1 ): 403-9 . Erratum in: Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1002-3. PMID: 17267842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Drake AL, J.". In: Obstet Gynecol . 2007 Feb; 109 ( 2 Pt 1 ): 403-9 . Erratum in: Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1002-3. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
Departments of Epidemiology and Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. adrake2@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To determine whether herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was associated with risk of intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and to define correlates of HSV-2 infection among HIV-1-seropositive pregnant women. METHODS: We performed a nested case control study within a perinatal cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus and the presence of genital ulcers were ascertained at 32 weeks of gestation. Maternal cervical and plasma HIV-1 RNA and cervical HSV DNA were measured at delivery. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two (87%) of 175 HIV-1-infected mothers were HSV-2-seropositive. Among the 152 HSV-2-seropositive women, nine (6%) had genital ulcers at 32 weeks of gestation, and 13 (9%) were shedding HSV in cervical secretions. Genital ulcers were associated with increased plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P=.02) and an increased risk of intrapartum HIV-1 transmission (16% of transmitters versus 3% of nontransmitters had ulcers; P = .003), an association which was maintained in multivariable analysis adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P=.04). We found a borderline association for higher plasma HIV-1 RNA among women shedding HSV (P=.07) and no association between cervical HSV shedding and either cervical HIV-1 RNA levels or intrapartum HIV-1 transmission (P=.4 and P=.5, [corrected] respectively). CONCLUSION: Herpes simplex virus type 2 is the leading cause of genital ulcers among women in sub-Saharan Africa and was highly prevalent in this cohort of pregnant women receiving prophylactic zidovudine. After adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, genital ulcers were associated with increased risk of intrapartum HIV-1 transmission. These data suggest that management of HSV-2 during pregnancy may enhance mother-to-child HIV-1 prevention efforts. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II. PMID: 17267842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, FLORENCE DRMURILA, C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Pattern of use of skin care products in children with and without eczematous skin lesions. East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):645-50. Wamalwa DC, Wafula EM, Munyao TM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):645-50. Wasonga, C, Sheila O. Okoth, Joseph C. Mukuria and Charles C.O.A.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare the pattern of use of skin care products between children with eczematous skin lesions and those without. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Two well baby clinics at the Kenyatta National Hospital and the Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty nine infants with eczematous skin lesions and 89 age and sex matched controls without skin lesions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence and severity of skin lesions related to the type of skin care products used by the child. RESULTS: Exposure to various products was not significantly different between infants with skin lesions and those without. However, more mothers whose children had a skin rash had made a change in the type of soap and or skin cream used for their child (p<0.0001). The principal reason for changing products was skin rash in the baby and most mothers made changes away from scented baby soap products. CONCLUSION: The study found no significant difference between the cases and controls regarding the type of skin care products used.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Morbidity among HIV-1-infected mothers in Kenya: prevalence and correlates of illness during 2-year postpartum follow-up. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Oct 1; 46 ( 2 ): 208-15 . PMID: 17667334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Walson JL, Brown ER, Otien.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Oct 1; 46 ( 2 ): 208-15 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. walson@u.washington.edu BACKGROUND: Much of the burden of morbidity affecting women of childbearing age in sub-Saharan Africa occurs in the context of HIV-1 infection. Understanding patterns of illness and determinants of disease in HIV-1-infected mothers may guide effective interventions to improve maternal health in this setting. METHODS: We describe the incidence and cofactors of comorbidities affecting peripartum and postpartum HIV-1-infected women in Kenya. Women were evaluated by clinical examination and standardized questionnaires during pregnancy and for up to 2 years after delivery. RESULTS: Five hundred thirty-five women were enrolled in the cohort (median CD4 count of 433 cells/mm) and accrued 7736 person-months of follow-up. During 1-year follow-up, the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections was 161 per 100 person-years, incidence of pneumonia was 33 per 100 person-years, incidence of tuberculosis (TB) was 11 per 100 person-years, and incidence of diarrhea was 63 per 100 person-years. Immunosuppression and HIV-1 RNA levels were predictive for pneumonia, oral thrush, and TB but not for diarrhea; CD4 counts <200 cells/mm(3) were associated with pneumonia (relative risk [RR] = 2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.71 to 4.83), TB (RR = 7.14, 95% CI: 2.93 to 17.40) and thrush. The risk of diarrhea was significantly associated with crowding (RR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.92) and breast-feeding (RR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.44). Less than 10% of women reported hospitalization during 2-year follow-up; mortality risk in the cohort was 1.9% and 4.8% for 1 and 2 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers with HIV-1, although generally healthy, have substantial morbidity as a result of common infections, some of which are predicted by immune status or by socioeconomic factors. Enhanced attention to maternal health is increasingly important as HIV-1-infected mothers transition from programs targeting the prevention of mother-to-child transmission to HIV care clinics. PMID: 17667334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Herpes simplex virus type 2 and risk of intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Obstet Gynecol . 2007 Feb; 109 ( 2 Pt 1 ): 403-9 . Erratum in: Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1002-3. PMID: 17267842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Drake AL, J.". In: Obstet Gynecol . 2007 Feb; 109 ( 2 Pt 1 ): 403-9 . Erratum in: Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1002-3. Wasonga, C, Sheila O. Okoth, Joseph C. Mukuria and Charles C.O.A.; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was associated with risk of intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and to define correlates of HSV-2 infection among HIV-1-seropositive pregnant women. METHODS: We performed a nested case control study within a perinatal cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus and the presence of genital ulcers were ascertained at 32 weeks of gestation. Maternal cervical and plasma HIV-1 RNA and cervical HSV DNA were measured at delivery. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two (87%) of 175 HIV-1-infected mothers were HSV-2-seropositive. Among the 152 HSV-2-seropositive women, nine (6%) had genital ulcers at 32 weeks of gestation, and 13 (9%) were shedding HSV in cervical secretions. Genital ulcers were associated with increased plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P=.02) and an increased risk of intrapartum HIV-1 transmission (16% of transmitters versus 3% of nontransmitters had ulcers; P = .003), an association which was maintained in multivariable analysis adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P=.04). We found a borderline association for higher plasma HIV-1 RNA among women shedding HSV (P=.07) and no association between cervical HSV shedding and either cervical HIV-1 RNA levels or intrapartum HIV-1 transmission (P=.4 and P=.5, [corrected] respectively). CONCLUSION: Herpes simplex virus type 2 is the leading cause of genital ulcers among women in sub-Saharan Africa and was highly prevalent in this cohort of pregnant women receiving prophylactic zidovudine. After adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, genital ulcers were associated with increased risk of intrapartum HIV-1 transmission. These data suggest that management of HSV-2 during pregnancy may enhance mother-to-child HIV-1 prevention efforts. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II

C. KD, M. OF, Kimenju, J.W, M. H, E.M A. "Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - publication." International Journal of Horticulture and Crop Science Research. 2013;3(1):1-18.monitor_passionfruit_orchards.pdf
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Morbidity among HIV-1-infected mothers in Kenya: prevalence and correlates of illness during 2-year postpartum follow-up. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Oct 1; 46 ( 2 ): 208-15 . PMID: 17667334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Walson JL, Brown ER, Otien.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Oct 1; 46 ( 2 ): 208-15 . Wasonga, C, Sheila O. Okoth, Joseph C. Mukuria and Charles C.O.A.; 2007. Abstract
Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. walson@u.washington.edu BACKGROUND: Much of the burden of morbidity affecting women of childbearing age in sub-Saharan Africa occurs in the context of HIV-1 infection. Understanding patterns of illness and determinants of disease in HIV-1-infected mothers may guide effective interventions to improve maternal health in this setting. METHODS: We describe the incidence and cofactors of comorbidities affecting peripartum and postpartum HIV-1-infected women in Kenya. Women were evaluated by clinical examination and standardized questionnaires during pregnancy and for up to 2 years after delivery. RESULTS: Five hundred thirty-five women were enrolled in the cohort (median CD4 count of 433 cells/mm) and accrued 7736 person-months of follow-up. During 1-year follow-up, the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections was 161 per 100 person-years, incidence of pneumonia was 33 per 100 person-years, incidence of tuberculosis (TB) was 11 per 100 person-years, and incidence of diarrhea was 63 per 100 person-years. Immunosuppression and HIV-1 RNA levels were predictive for pneumonia, oral thrush, and TB but not for diarrhea; CD4 counts <200 cells/mm(3) were associated with pneumonia (relative risk [RR] = 2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.71 to 4.83), TB (RR = 7.14, 95% CI: 2.93 to 17.40) and thrush. The risk of diarrhea was significantly associated with crowding (RR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.92) and breast-feeding (RR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.44). Less than 10% of women reported hospitalization during 2-year follow-up; mortality risk in the cohort was 1.9% and 4.8% for 1 and 2 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers with HIV-1, although generally healthy, have substantial morbidity as a result of common infections, some of which are predicted by immune status or by socioeconomic factors. Enhanced attention to maternal health is increasingly important as HIV-1-infected mothers transition from programs targeting the prevention of mother-to-child transmission to HIV care clinics. PMID: 17667334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
C. R, K. MS, K. NH, I. N’ang’aS, S.O. M, P.I O, S. G, P.C. K. "A Demand Analysis for Sahiwal Breeding Animals from the National Sahiwal Stud (NSS) Between 1971-2007." International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences. 2012;1(12):29-43.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 exposed uninfected post-neonatal infants at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J . 2005 Sep; 82 ( 9 ): 447-51 . PMID: 16619717 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Gichuhi C, Obimbo E, Mbori-Ngacha D, Mwatha A.". In: East Afr Med J . 2005 Sep; 82 ( 9 ): 447-51 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
{ Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To identify potential predictors of mortality, to determine mortality rate and to identify prevalent causes of death in a cohort of HIV-1 exposed uninfected infants. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and fifty one HIV-1 exposed uninfected post-neonatal infants who survived to one year of age. RESULTS: Sixteen infants died (post-neonatal mortality rate of 47/1000 live births), 14 (88%) before six months of age. The most frequently identified medical conditions at death included bronchopneumonia, diarrhoea and failure to thrive. In multivariate analysis, prematurity (RR=10.5, 95%CI 3.8-29.1, p<0.001), teenage motherhood (RR=3.6, Cl 1.0-13.2
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "High uptake of postpartum hormonal contraception among HIV-1-seropositive women in Kenya. Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Balkus J, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Schiff MA, Wamalwa D, G.". In: Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA. jbalkus@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and not using contraception. CONCLUSIONS: Using existing the healthcare infrastructure, it is possible to achieve high levels of postpartum hormonal contraceptive utilization among HIV-1-seropositive women. PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Morbidity among HIV-1-infected mothers in Kenya: prevalence and correlates of illness during 2-year postpartum follow-up. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Oct 1; 46 ( 2 ): 208-15 . PMID: 17667334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Walson JL, Brown ER, Otien.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Oct 1; 46 ( 2 ): 208-15 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2007. Abstractmorbidity_among_hiv-1-infected_mothers_in_kenya.pdf

Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. walson@u.washington.edu
BACKGROUND: Much of the burden of morbidity affecting women of childbearing age in sub-Saharan Africa occurs in the context of HIV-1 infection. Understanding patterns of illness and determinants of disease in HIV-1-infected mothers may guide effective interventions to improve maternal health in this setting. METHODS: We describe the incidence and cofactors of comorbidities affecting peripartum and postpartum HIV-1-infected women in Kenya. Women were evaluated by clinical examination and standardized questionnaires during pregnancy and for up to 2 years after delivery. RESULTS: Five hundred thirty-five women were enrolled in the cohort (median CD4 count of 433 cells/mm) and accrued 7736 person-months of follow-up. During 1-year follow-up, the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections was 161 per 100 person-years, incidence of pneumonia was 33 per 100 person-years, incidence of tuberculosis (TB) was 11 per 100 person-years, and incidence of diarrhea was 63 per 100 person-years. Immunosuppression and HIV-1 RNA levels were predictive for pneumonia, oral thrush, and TB but not for diarrhea; CD4 counts <200 cells/mm(3) were associated with pneumonia (relative risk [RR] = 2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.71 to 4.83), TB (RR = 7.14, 95% CI: 2.93 to 17.40) and thrush. The risk of diarrhea was significantly associated with crowding (RR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.92) and breast-feeding (RR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.44). Less than 10% of women reported hospitalization during 2-year follow-up; mortality risk in the cohort was 1.9% and 4.8% for 1 and 2 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers with HIV-1, although generally healthy, have substantial morbidity as a result of common infections, some of which are predicted by immune status or by socioeconomic factors. Enhanced attention to maternal health is increasingly important as HIV-1-infected mothers transition from programs targeting the prevention of mother-to-child transmission to HIV care clinics.
PMID: 17667334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

C. ONYIM, M. WANJARE, J. OOKO, OLUOCH M F. "Corporate Governance Practices and Financial Performance of Deposit Taking Saccos in Western Kenya." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017;4(3):195-212.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Early response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Jul 1; 45 ( 3 ): 311-7 . PMID: 17356470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Jul 1; 45 ( 3 ): 311-7 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. DESIGN: Observational prospective cohort. METHODS: HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. RESULTS: Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 children, the median height for age z score and weight for age z score rose from -2.54 to -2.17 (P<0.001) and from -2.30 to -1.67 (P=0.001), respectively, after 6 months of HAART. Hospitalization rates were significantly reduced after 6 months of HAART (17% vs. 58%; P<0.001). The median absolute CD4 count increased from 326 to 536 cells/microL (P<0.001), the median CD4 lymphocyte percentage rose from 5.8% before treatment to 15.4% (P<0.001), and the median viral load fell from 5.9 to 2.2 log10 copies/mL after 6 months of HAART (P<0.001). Among 43 infants, 47% and 67% achieved viral suppression to less than 100 copies/mL and 400 copies/mL, respectively, after 6 months of HAART. CONCLUSION: Good early clinical and virologic response to NNRTI-based HAART was observed in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children with advanced HIV-1 disease. PMID: 17356470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "High uptake of postpartum hormonal contraception among HIV-1-seropositive women in Kenya. Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Balkus J, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Schiff MA, Wamalwa D, G.". In: Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . Wasonga, C, Sheila O. Okoth, Joseph C. Mukuria and Charles C.O.A.; 2007. Abstract
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA. jbalkus@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and not using contraception. CONCLUSIONS: Using existing the healthcare infrastructure, it is possible to achieve high levels of postpartum hormonal contraceptive utilization among HIV-1-seropositive women. PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
C. L’aho, G. C’wa, Y. F, M. H, G. P. "Genetic diversity of Kenyan potato germplasm revealed by simple sequence repeat markers." American Journal of Potato Research. 2011;88:424-434.genetic_diversity_of_kenyan_potato_germplasm_revealed.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Early response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Jul 1; 45 ( 3 ): 311-7 . PMID: 17356470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Jul 1; 45 ( 3 ): 311-7 . Wasonga, C, Sheila O. Okoth, Joseph C. Mukuria and Charles C.O.A.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. DESIGN: Observational prospective cohort. METHODS: HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. RESULTS: Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 children, the median height for age z score and weight for age z score rose from -2.54 to -2.17 (P<0.001) and from -2.30 to -1.67 (P=0.001), respectively, after 6 months of HAART. Hospitalization rates were significantly reduced after 6 months of HAART (17% vs. 58%; P<0.001). The median absolute CD4 count increased from 326 to 536 cells/microL (P<0.001), the median CD4 lymphocyte percentage rose from 5.8% before treatment to 15.4% (P<0.001), and the median viral load fell from 5.9 to 2.2 log10 copies/mL after 6 months of HAART (P<0.001). Among 43 infants, 47% and 67% achieved viral suppression to less than 100 copies/mL and 400 copies/mL, respectively, after 6 months of HAART. CONCLUSION: Good early clinical and virologic response to NNRTI-based HAART was observed in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children with advanced HIV-1 disease. PMID: 17356470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
C. R, K. NH, J OJ, I N’ang’aS, O. MS, I. OP, Kubowon PC. "Income Distribution and Livelihood Analysis among Horticulture Farming Households in Nyeri District, Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Sciences. 2012;3(19):61-69.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, FLORENCE DRMURILA, C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Pattern of use of skin care products in children with and without eczematous skin lesions. East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):645-50. Wamalwa DC, Wafula EM, Munyao TM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):645-50. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare the pattern of use of skin care products between children with eczematous skin lesions and those without. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Two well baby clinics at the Kenyatta National Hospital and the Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty nine infants with eczematous skin lesions and 89 age and sex matched controls without skin lesions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence and severity of skin lesions related to the type of skin care products used by the child. RESULTS: Exposure to various products was not significantly different between infants with skin lesions and those without. However, more mothers whose children had a skin rash had made a change in the type of soap and or skin cream used for their child (p<0.0001). The principal reason for changing products was skin rash in the baby and most mothers made changes away from scented baby soap products. CONCLUSION: The study found no significant difference between the cases and controls regarding the type of skin care products used.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 exposed uninfected post-neonatal infants at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J . 2005 Sep; 82 ( 9 ): 447-51 . PMID: 16619717 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Gichuhi C, Obimbo E, Mbori-Ngacha D, Mwatha A.". In: East Afr Med J . 2005 Sep; 82 ( 9 ): 447-51 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
{ Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To identify potential predictors of mortality, to determine mortality rate and to identify prevalent causes of death in a cohort of HIV-1 exposed uninfected infants. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and fifty one HIV-1 exposed uninfected post-neonatal infants who survived to one year of age. RESULTS: Sixteen infants died (post-neonatal mortality rate of 47/1000 live births), 14 (88%) before six months of age. The most frequently identified medical conditions at death included bronchopneumonia, diarrhoea and failure to thrive. In multivariate analysis, prematurity (RR=10.5, 95%CI 3.8-29.1, p<0.001), teenage motherhood (RR=3.6, Cl 1.0-13.2
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Early response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Jul 1; 45 ( 3 ): 311-7 . PMID: 17356470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2007 Jul 1; 45 ( 3 ): 311-7 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2007. Abstractearly_response_to_highly_active_antiretroviral_therapy.pdf

OBJECTIVES: To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. DESIGN: Observational prospective cohort. METHODS: HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. RESULTS: Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 children, the median height for age z score and weight for age z score rose from -2.54 to -2.17 (P<0.001) and from -2.30 to -1.67 (P=0.001), respectively, after 6 months of HAART. Hospitalization rates were significantly reduced after 6 months of HAART (17% vs. 58%; P<0.001). The median absolute CD4 count increased from 326 to 536 cells/microL (P<0.001), the median CD4 lymphocyte percentage rose from 5.8% before treatment to 15.4% (P<0.001), and the median viral load fell from 5.9 to 2.2 log10 copies/mL after 6 months of HAART (P<0.001). Among 43 infants, 47% and 67% achieved viral suppression to less than 100 copies/mL and 400 copies/mL, respectively, after 6 months of HAART. CONCLUSION: Good early clinical and virologic response to NNRTI-based HAART was observed in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children with advanced HIV-1 disease.
PMID: 17356470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

C. IBALAI, J. OOKO, OLUOCH M F, J. WANJARE. "NEGLECTED FIRM EFFECT AND STOCK RETURNS AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce Vol. 2. 2017;2(4):42-70.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Breast milk alpha-defensins are associated with HIV type 1 RNA and CC chemokines in breast milk but not vertical HIV type 1 transmission. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses . 2007 Feb; 23 ( 2 ): 198-203 . PMID: 17331027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bosire R, Joh.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses . 2007 Feb; 23 ( 2 ): 198-203 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
{ Department of Pediatrics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Alpha-defensins are proteins exhibiting in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity that may protect against mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 via breast milk. Correlates of alpha-defensins in breast milk and transmission risk were determined in a cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Nairobi followed for 12 months postpartum with their infants. Maternal blood was collected antenatally and at delivery for HIV-1 viral load and infant HIV-1 infection status was determined < 48 h after birth and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Breast milk specimens collected at month 1 were assayed for alpha-defensins, HIV-1 RNA, subclinical mastitis, and CC and CXC chemokines. We detected alpha-defensins in breast milk specimens from 108 (42%) of 260 HIV-1-infected women. Women with detectable alpha-defensins (> or =50 pg/ml) had a median concentration of 320 pg/ml and significantly higher mean breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels than women with undetectable alpha-defensins (2.9 log(10) copies/ml versus 2.5 log(10) copies/ml
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 exposed uninfected post-neonatal infants at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J . 2005 Sep; 82 ( 9 ): 447-51 . PMID: 16619717 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Gichuhi C, Obimbo E, Mbori-Ngacha D, Mwatha A.". In: East Afr Med J . 2005 Sep; 82 ( 9 ): 447-51 . Wasonga, C, Sheila O. Okoth, Joseph C. Mukuria and Charles C.O.A.; 2005. Abstract
{ Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To identify potential predictors of mortality, to determine mortality rate and to identify prevalent causes of death in a cohort of HIV-1 exposed uninfected infants. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and fifty one HIV-1 exposed uninfected post-neonatal infants who survived to one year of age. RESULTS: Sixteen infants died (post-neonatal mortality rate of 47/1000 live births), 14 (88%) before six months of age. The most frequently identified medical conditions at death included bronchopneumonia, diarrhoea and failure to thrive. In multivariate analysis, prematurity (RR=10.5, 95%CI 3.8-29.1, p<0.001), teenage motherhood (RR=3.6, Cl 1.0-13.2
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Breast milk alpha-defensins are associated with HIV type 1 RNA and CC chemokines in breast milk but not vertical HIV type 1 transmission. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses . 2007 Feb; 23 ( 2 ): 198-203 . PMID: 17331027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bosire R, Joh.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses . 2007 Feb; 23 ( 2 ): 198-203 . Wasonga, C, Sheila O. Okoth, Joseph C. Mukuria and Charles C.O.A.; 2007. Abstract
{ Department of Pediatrics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Alpha-defensins are proteins exhibiting in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity that may protect against mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 via breast milk. Correlates of alpha-defensins in breast milk and transmission risk were determined in a cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Nairobi followed for 12 months postpartum with their infants. Maternal blood was collected antenatally and at delivery for HIV-1 viral load and infant HIV-1 infection status was determined < 48 h after birth and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Breast milk specimens collected at month 1 were assayed for alpha-defensins, HIV-1 RNA, subclinical mastitis, and CC and CXC chemokines. We detected alpha-defensins in breast milk specimens from 108 (42%) of 260 HIV-1-infected women. Women with detectable alpha-defensins (> or =50 pg/ml) had a median concentration of 320 pg/ml and significantly higher mean breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels than women with undetectable alpha-defensins (2.9 log(10) copies/ml versus 2.5 log(10) copies/ml
C. A. Mumma-Martinon. "This Is The Time: Make Peace Happen." Peace Builders, International Peace Support Training . 2010;(01 July – 31 September, 7. ).18._make_peace_happen.pdf
C. A. Mumma-Martinon. "). Kenya: Examining The Real Issues At Stake In Post-Elections Crisis." Catholic Information Service In Africa (Cisa): Networking The Church In Africa And The World. (2008).21._examininig_the_real_issues_at_stake.pdf
C. A. Mumma-Martinon. "Women In Conflict Management: How Traditional Roles And Perceptions Have Been A Hindrance." Hakimani Jesuit Journal Of Social Justice In Eastern Africa. . 2009;(01/09, ):34-40. 9.__women_in_conflicttraditional_roles.pdf
C. CHEMUTAI., Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko J. "Effect of fertilizers and harvesting method on yield of cowpea." African Journal of Rural Development,. 2019;3(2):779-785.
C. Herzog, A. Belaidi, and A. Ogacho, Th. Dittrich. "Inorganic Solid State Solar Cell with Ultra-thin Nanocomposite Absorber based on Nanoporous TiO2 and In2S3." Energy and Environmental Science. 2009;2:962-964.
C. Ludia Mattakwa, Oliech PJ, Owillah F. Symptomatic and Uroflometry Outcomes Of Tamsulosin and Dutasteride Combination In Management of Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy in the Black Race . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Objective: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) incidence and progression has been shown to vary by race, geography and ethnicity with African-Americans having a more aggressive disease than other races. Combination drug therapy has been shown to be a favorable option for medical therapy of symptomatic BPH but data is lacking on the effects of this therapy in black race patients locally. This study aims to assess the early (six months) response, by both International-Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and peak urinary flow rate (QMax), to combination drug therapy of Tamsulosin and Dutasteride for management of symptomatic BPH in a predominantly African black race population cohort as a pilot study.
Patients and Methods: Dutasteride 0.5mg and Tamsulosin 0.4mg once daily were administered orally to 52 patients aged 45years and above of black race with confirmed BPH for six months. The main outcome measures of change in mean QMax and IPSS were assessed at three months and six months. Secondary outcome measures were mean Total Prostate Specific Antigen (tPSA) and Prostate Volume (PV) changes. Drug compliance by Modified Morisky Scores (1) and adverse/side effects reported were documented. Paired sample t test and Pearson correlation as well as ANOVA were used to analyze the data.
Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant increase in mean QMax by 13.3ml/sec and decrease in mean IPSS by 14.5 points at six months. There was a fairly rapid reduction in mean Total PSA of 0.9ng/ml as early as two months and a slower fall in mean PV of 10.224mls most evident at the last follow-up. Safety and tolerability of the drugs was consistent with previous experience and majority of the patients portrayed an excellent drug compliance profile.
Conclusion: These results suggest the efficacy of combination drug therapy of Dutasteride and Tamsulosin for moderate-to-severe BPH in the black race. These patients seem to have a more drastic and rapid mean IPSS, QMax and PV response to therapy than reported for other races but their mean total PSA decrease was less. Combination drug therapy is therefore recommended as a useful alternative to surgery in management of BPH in the black race.
Key Words: Benign Prostatic Enlargement, Urinary flow rate, Prostate Specific Antigen, IPSS
Corresponding Author: Professor J.S. Oliech Professor of General Surgery/Urology
Department Of Surgery, University Of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.Email:

and C. Lung’aho, G. Chemining’wa SHSM. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2012;7(17):2701-2712.Dynamics_of_on-farm_management_of_potato
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Lung’aho C, C. Lung’aho, Chemining’wa G, G. Chemining’wa, Chemining’wa G, Shibairo S, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M, Hutchinson. M. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2012;7(17):2701-2712.dynamics_of_on-farm_management_of_potato_solanum_tuberosum_cultivars_in_central_kenya.
C
and C. Muiva SMSJM. Properties of Spray Pyrolysed In2Se3 Chalcogenide Glass Thin Films. Johannesburg, South Africa, 4-8 October 2010; 2010.
C. O. Ayieko, Musembi RJ, Ogacho AA, Aduda BO, Muthoka BM, Jain PK. "Optical Characterization of TiO2-bound (CuFeMnO4) Absorber Paint for Solar Thermal Applications ." American Journal of Energy Research. 2016;4(1):11-15. Abstract

A composite thin film consisting of TiO2 (binder), uniformly mixed CuFeMnO4 paint (solar absorber) was coated on textured aluminum sheets by dip coating. The film’s elemental analysis was done using energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) and the surface of the film characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Optical properties of the TiO2/CuFeMnO4 composite film were also studied using computerized double beam solid-spec 3700 DUV Shimadzu Spectrophotometer. Reflectance was obtained by spectrophotometric measurements, and thermal emmittance was determined using heat flux- based technique respectively. Reflectance measurement values less than 0.03 in the solar wavelength (290 nm < λ < 2500 nm) and low thermal emmittance less than 0.016 for temperatures between 24°C and 100°C were obtained.

C. O. Mito, G. Laneve, and Castronuovo MM. "Derivation of land surface temperatures from MODIS data using general split-window technique.". In: Recent Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing,. Valencia: Servicio de Publicaciones. Universitat de Valencia; 2002.
C. O. Mito, Laneve G, and Castronuovo MM. A general split window algorithm for land surface temperature estimation. France; 2001.
C. O. Mito, Boiyo RK, and Laneve G. "A simple algorithm to estimate sensible heat flux from remotely sensed MODIS data." International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2012;33(19):6109-6121.
C. O. Mito, G. Laneve, Castronuovo MM, and Ulivieri C. "Derivation of land surface temperatures from MODIS data using the general split-window technique." International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2006;27(12-14):2541-2552.
C. W. Hungu, P. K. Gathumbi, Maingi N, Ng’ang’a CJ. "Production characteristics and constraints of rabbit farming in Central, Nairobi and Rift-valley provinces in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2013;25.1_hungu_et_al_2013.pdf
C.A. M-M. Social Bi-annual Report, July 2013 - February 2014. Nairobi: Total Exploration and Production Kenya ction Kenya; 2014.
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