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ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "You, Yourself and Your Portfolio.". In: Faculty of ADD, University of Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract

Designers, architects and artists have invariably relied on their portfolios to record their work and to exhibit their capabilities. Unfortunately there is very little reference from which to draw tips on how to effectively utilize a portfolio. Sometimes the attention given to the production of the work is not complemented with strong oral and visual, presentations. The continued failure to pay due attention to portfolio has led to loss of job opportunities. The portfolio can open doors and close them with equal speed. To people shopping for jobs, it's a calling card, the advance guard, the marketing tool, often the only opportunity to make an impression. Many companies do not hire people but rather hire portfolios. When a prospective employer requests for a portfolio it is because they are seeking certain attributes or traits that may be of service to them. Typically, the employer will say they are looking for somebody "creative". How does your portfolio show that you are creative? Is it in the way it is organized? The work you have put in it? Or is it the bag/booklet? The answer to this is "all of the above". It does not do good work justice if it's put together in a tattered envelope. Neither can a very expensive bag/booklet camouflage bad work. There must be a sense of your presence in the work you do, the way you do it, the way you present it and what you want to do with it. And, not to forget, what you want the work to do for you.

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "The Entrepreneur and Entrepreneurship.". In: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract

This research examines the relationship between commercial banks (CBs) and the small enterprise sector (SES) and identifies constraints' which impede the flow of financial assistance from the commercial banks to the latter in Kenya. The variables that were examined included; requirements for successful loan application, lending levels, degree of risk attached to small enterprise lending, levels of economic impact and stages in business development at which banks become willing to support. For the small enterprises, the study sought to profile the business and its owner and, to examine its financing. The sampling units were drawn from CBs and SES within Nairobi. In data collection, questionnaires, interview and document review was employed. The study found that high interest rates and long processing procedures kept small businesses away from banks. The study established that, on the part of the banks, the entrepreneurs lacked business management skills and did not keep proper records. Moreover, the banks experienced general reproach from the small business owners, based upon conventional beliefs.

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "Risk Preference and Optimal Crop Combinations in Kahuro Division of Murang.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Voices: The British Council Nairobi.". In: The British Council. ISCTRC; 1996. Abstract
The culture, values and standard of living of people is reflected in their art and design, and, for centuries art has been used to communicate and reflect the lives and times of people. Somewhere along the line, however, there has developed a belief that art and design parted ways with "people". On one hand, "people" have developed % belief that design is the preserve of a talented few, while, on the other hand, designer* claim that "...people do not understand us". Yet, design can only thrive where the community or people, is more artistic. Because of technological developments, the world around, has become one big homestead, the global village. The development of these high technologies is attributed to and spearheaded by the more developed countries. The rate of development of these technologies has been so high such that many of the less developed countries (LDCs) are left breathless and beaten. The United Nations (UN) in its concern for sustainable global development has in recent years sought to re-examine ways of pulling the LDCs into the mainstream of global development. The World Commission on Culture and Development (WCCD) that was established in 1992 provided 1jie framework to extend the development paradigm beyond economic criteria. Among other things, the WCCD "...explores many dimensions of culture and development -as well as their interactions -in an increasingly complex and interconnected and rapidly changing world". In the case of Africa, this has led to the wider special initiative for Africa. This initiative is deeply rooted in the belief that Africa has something to contribute to global development. The initiative seeks to identify aspects of Africa, be they cultural, environmental, craft or anything else, develop and package or repackage them and avail them to the rest of the world. UNESCO, has set out to intervene, initially, in the areas of Industrial, Textile and Graphic Design, Photography and Music. Textile and Graphic Design workshop was therefore, the first of these high level interaction of African artists in Development.
ADHIAMBO DRROGENAEMILY. "J Accid Emerg Med. 2000 Nov;17(6):421-2. Non-penetrating chest blows and sudden death in the young.Thakore S, Johnston M, Rogena E, Peng Z, Sadler D.". In: J Accid Emerg Med. 2000 Nov;17(6):421-2. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2000. Abstract
Sudden death in the young after low energy anterior chest wall impact is an under-recognised phenomenon in this country. Review of the literature yields several American references to commotio cordis, mainly in the context of sporting events. Two cases are reported of sudden death in young men as a result of blunt impact anterior chest wall trauma. It is suggested that these cases draw attention to a lethal condition of which many practitioners are unaware.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Kaloli Letterforms; Registered by the International Typeface Corporation (ITC).". In: Makerere University and University of Nairobi, FADD. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract

Design has, over the years been a reflection of creative individuals who seek to foster a style. In the early part of the 21st Century designers experimented with free form and looked for relationships with the environment particularly nature. Designers examined the things that nature provided such as seeds the stars, animals and the clouds and combined these with their innermost selves in order to conceive creative form. Then, as it is now, the early chemistry worked to produce design that touches the depths of the viewer's sout while reflecting the designer's own perceptions of visual experience. This concept is manifested and reflected in the development of Kaloli letterfbrms that were developed after an intensive creativity workshop that brought together Africa's artists and designers. In order to appreciate this letterform, this paper outlines the motivation, aesthetic and artistic qualities and7 the functional capacity of Kaloli letterfbrms. Design has a unique relationship with nature and it has been stated that design is a reflection of nature. This implies that design is a custodian of nature and, has the duty to protect, reflect and enhance the position of nature in human life. Paul Klee (1879-1933), one of the greatest architect and designer, stated that, '...artistic form without direct connection to natural form was inconceivable.' If we examine the design around us. we can say that it is inspired by the flora and fauna, the birds and the bees, the things that infer good feelings, in the process, the things that infer bad or unpleasant or dangerous feelings become secondary. Kaloli is not dangerous, but, as a source of inspiration for letterforms. it was as unlikely as any dangerous snake.

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Application of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) in Product Design within Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Mozambique and Kenya.". In: Mozambique. ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract

Designers, architects and artists have invariably relied on their portfolios to record their work and to exhibit their capabilities. Unfortunately there is very little reference from which to draw tips on how to effectively utilize a portfolio. Sometimes the attention given to the production of the work is not complemented with strong oral and visual, presentations. The continued failure to pay due attention to portfolio has led to loss of job opportunities. The portfolio can open doors and close them with equal speed. To people shopping for jobs, it's a calling card, the advance guard, the marketing tool, often the only opportunity to make an impression. Many companies do not hire people but rather hire portfolios. When a prospective employer requests for a portfolio it is because they are seeking certain attributes or traits that may be of service to them. Typically, the employer will say they are looking for somebody "creative". How does your portfolio show that you are creative? Is it in the way it is organized? The work you have put in it? Or is it the bag/booklet? The answer to this is "all of the above". It does not do good work justice if it's put together in a tattered envelope. Neither can a very expensive bag/booklet camouflage bad work. There must be a sense of your presence in the work you do, the way you do it, the way you present it and what you want to do with it. And, not to forget, what you want the work to do for you.

Adholla M-, Ruigu G. "The Development of Coffee Production in K enya."; 1978.
Admani AA, Gakuya EM. "ANTERIOR SUPERIOR DISLOCATION OF THE HIP JOINT: A REPORT OF 3 CASES AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2014. Abstract

Traumatic anterior dislocation of the hip forms approximately 11% of hip dislocations and is divided into
superior and inferior types. Anterior superior hip dislocation accounts for 10% of anterior hip dislocations.
The clinical appearance of anterior superior hip dislocation resembles that of a fracture of the femoral neck,
whereas the radiological appearance resembles that of posterior hip dislocation.The objective of this article is to use three cases to describe the management of this condition and highlight pitfalls in the same. The article also points out unusual mechanisms causing this injury. Key words: Anterior dislocation, Hip joint, Open reduction, Iliofemoral ligament

Admani B, Macharia WM WF. "Seroprevalence of varicella zoster antibodies among children with malnutrition, malignancies and HIV infection." East Afr Med J. 2008 Oct;85(10):480-6.. 2008. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the seroprevalence of varicella zoster in paediatric patients at a high risk of developing complications.
DESIGN:
A cross-sectional study.
SETTING:
Paediatric general wards at Kenyatta National Hospital.
SUBJECTS:
Children with malignancies, severe malnutrition and were HIV positive.
INTERVENTIONS:
The sample size was calculated at 147 subjects. Venous samples were tested for varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibodies using enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique at Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) laboratories, The data were analysed using the SPSS software and presented in form of tables and graphs. The prevalence of VZV antibodies was determined and 95% confidence interval computed.
RESULTS:
The overall seroprevalence of VZV antibodies in the three groups of children studied was 23.6% (95% CI = 17.4, 29.8). The seroprevalence of VZV antibodies in those with malignancies and severe malnutrition was 24.1 and 25.0% respectively. About 22% of HIV positive children had protective levels of VZV antibodies. Though the seroprevalence increased with age, it was not significantly associated with area of residence, size of residence, family size or income.
CONCLUSIONS:
The low prevalence of protective VZV antibodies among children with severe malnutrition, malignancies and HIV infection children at Kenyatta National Hospital warrants routine immunisation of the high-risk population

Admani B, F. E. "Successful resuscitation of a three month old child with intralipid infusion, presumed to have bupivacaine induced seizures and cardiovascular complications: case report." East Afr Med J. 2010 Aug;87(8):354-6.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Anaesthetic agents used locally can be toxic especially if given as an inappropriate dose or route. Lipid infusion has been demonstrated in several animal models to successfully resuscitate bupivacaine induced toxicity. We present a case of successful use of 26% lipid infusion to resuscitate a paediatric patient with a presumed subcutaneous injection of bupivacaine and lignocaine which led to neurological and cardiologic consequences.

Admire Mhlaba MM. An Integrated Internet of Things Based System for Tracking and Monitoring Assets – the case of the Central University of Technology . Lilongwe, Malawi: ist-africa.org; 2015. Abstract

Abstract: The asset security systems in place at the Central University of Technology, Free State are disjointed; they do not talk to each other, nor do they instantaneously and intelligently send real time security breach messages to security personnel. Technological advancements have resulted in the now famous Internet of Things paradigm; one of its applications is tracking and monitoring and it could therefore be used to solve asset insecurity problems. This is the focus of this paper; it presents a functioning laptop tracking and monitoring system that integrates four technologies: wireless sensors, RFID tags and readers, fingerprint readers and mobile phone. The system prototype was preceded by the design of a generic integration architecture that enables dynamic integration of any object/thing. A series of experiments conducted using the resulting system prototype proved the hypothesis that a real-life application built over a generic Internet of Things architecture is feasible. Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT); asset tracking and monitoring system; IoT integration architecture

Admire Mhlaba MM. "Implementation of middleware for internet of things in asset tracking applications: in-lining approach.". In: 2015 IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN) . Cambridge, UK : IEEE; 2015. Abstract

Asset tracking systems developed around the Internet of Things paradigm are composed of a collection of various objects interconnected by different communication technologies. Each of these devices function through local and/or remote interaction with the real world or other devices and systems. The problem of ensuring a dependable and responsive middleware that is capable of handling and servicing such devices, process voluminous data without compromising responsiveness is still eminent. In this paper, we present a solution that was designed using in-lining approach to deliver a middleware that acts as an insulator for hiding the internal workings of the asset tracking system prototype by providing homogenous and abstract environment to the highest layers. In order to evaluate the middleware, a laptop tracking and monitoring system that integrates various internet of things components (at least 4 components: RFIDs, wireless sensors, mobile phones and biometric readers) was implemented and tested within a university environment

Adolf W, Seip EH, Dossaji SF, Hecker E. "Irritant Principles of Mezereon Family (Thymeleaceae), New skin irritants and tumour promoters of the daphnane and 1, 2-alkyldaphnane type from Synaptolepis kirkii and S. Retusa." Journal of Natural Products. 1988;51(4):662-674. Abstract

—Seventeen mostly new, skin irtitant diterpene esters (DTE) of the daphnane
and la-alkyldaphnane types were isolated from roots of Synaptolepis kirkii and Synaptolepis retusa.
The parent alcohols of the daphnane types are shown to be 5(J-hydroxyresiniferonol-6a,7o:- oxide [ 1 ] and 5p\e [2]. Ten of the daphnane types are 9,13,14-otthoesters and three ate conventional esters involving tertiary or secondary hydroxyl groups at C-13 or C-14, respectively. The latter may be considered immediate precursors of corresponding orthoesters. The four la-alkyldaphnane types are intramolecular 9,13, l4-ortho-(2- hexadecenoic acid)-esters in which, formally, the second to last C atom of the orthoester moiety
is linked covalently to C-lct of the diterpene parent alcohols 1 or 2. Thus, in the new structure,
a macrocyclic ring bridges the ct side of the diterpene moiety in an "ansa" type manner.
The irritancies on the mouse ear of the DTE obtained cover a wide range ( I 2 4 = 0.05-670
nmole- ). Some of them are considerably more irritant than the daphnane type standard simplexin.
Structure/activity investigations reveal that an ester group instead of a free hydroxyl group
at C-20 ("cryptic types"), or presence of a hydroxy or an acetoxy group in position 12 diminishes
the irritancies of the daphnane types isolated, similar to what is known in corresponding tigliane
types. In the standardized initiation/promotion protocol on the back skin of mice, some of the
irritant DTE exhibit tumot-promoting activities higher than that of simplexin

Adolf W, Dossaji SF, Seip EH, Hecker E. "Skin irritant deterpene orthoesters of the daphanane type fropm Peddiea africana and P. Volkensii,." Phytochemistry. 1985;24:2047-2049. AbstractWebsite

From roots of Peddiea volkensii (Thymelaeaceae) the irritant factors and and from roots of P. africana
the irritant factor Aj were isolated. Their structures are the 9,13,14-ort/io-(2,4,6-decatrienoates) of 5/8-
hydroxyresiniferonol-6a,7a-oxide (Vi) and of 5^,12iS-dihydroxyresiniferonol-6a,7a-oxide (Aj) and the 12-0-acetate of the latter (Vj). Factors V i and do not exhibit tumour-promoting activity in the standard initiation-promotion protocol on mouse skin, although is a moderate irritant.

Adolwa IS, Okoth PF, Mulwa RM, Esilaba AO, Mairura FS, Nambiro E. "Analysis of Communication and Dissemination Channels Influencing the Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Western Kenya." The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. 2012;18(1):71-86.
Adoyo FO, Mwea SK. "INVESTIGATION OF INTERIOR STRESS RELATIONSHIPS ON RIGID PAVEMENTS ALONG MBAGATHI ROAD, KENYA." Icastor Journal of Engineering. 2013;Vol. 6(No. 2):pp 53-63.
Adoyo Laji, Fatuma Daudi JACM(2017). "The Dual Pathways In The Process of Urban development and Their Influence on Flood Damage In Kisumu City, Kenya. ." Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2017;7, (10)(ISSN 2250):PP 332-340.
Adrogué HJ, Lederer ED, Suki WN, Eknoyan G. "Determinants of plasma potassium levels in diabetic ketoacidosis." Medicine. 1986;65:163-172. Abstract

The classic proposal of intracellular K+ for extracellular H+ exchange as responsible for the hyperkalemia of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been questioned because experimentally induced organic anion acidosis fails to produce hyperkalemia. It has been suggested, instead, that the elevated serum [K+] of DKA might be the result of the compromised renal function, secondary to volume depletion, that usually accompanies DKA. However, several metabolic derangements other than volume depletion and acidosis, which are known to alter potassium metabolism, also develop in DKA. This study of 142 admissions for DKA examines the possible role of alterations in plasma pH, bicarbonate, glucose (G), osmolality, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma anion gap (AG) on the levels of [K+]p on admission. Significant (p less than 0.01) correlations of [K+]p with each of these parameters were found that could individually account for 8 to 15 percent of the observed variance in the plasma potassium levels; however, the effects of some or all of these parameters on the [K+]p could be independent and therefore physiologically additive. Since the parameters under study are themselves interrelated, having statistically significant correlations with each other, their possible independent role on [K+]p was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Only plasma pH, glucose and AG emerged as having a definite independent effect on [K+]p, with no independent role found for bicarbonate, BUN and osmolality. The equation that best describes [K+]p on admission for DKA was: [K+]p = 25.4 - 3.02 pH + 0.001 G + 0.028 AG, (r = 0.515). These results indicate that the endogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia observed in DKA, which result primarily from insulin deficit, are the main determinants of increased [K+]p. Since exogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia in the otherwise normal experimental animal do not increase [K+]p, it is postulated that insulin deficit itself may be the major initiating cause of the hyperkalemia that develops in DKA. Renal dysfunction by enhancing hyperglycemia and reducing potassium excretion also contributes to hyperkalemia.

Adu-Gyamfi R, Asongu S, Mmusi TS, Wamalwa H, Mangori M. A comparative study of export processing zones in the wake of the Sustainable Development Goals. WIDER Working Paper 2020/64. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER; 2020.
ADUDA JO. "MARKET REACTION TO STOCK SPLITS Empirical Evidence from the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2010.market_reaction_to_stock_split.pdf
Aduda BO, Jain PK, Ayieko CO, Musembi RJ, Waita SM. "Performance of TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy Composite ETA Solar Cell Fabricated from Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Thin Film Window Layer." International Journal of Materials Engineering. 2013;3(2):11-16. Abstractpublished_paper21.pdf

In this work, Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis and thermally annealed at 400℃. The films were characterized as deposited (no annealing) as well as after annealing. Optical studies showed that the energy band gap of the films was lowered from 3.25 eV to 2.90 eV on Nitrogen (N2) doping. The reduction in energy band gap was attributed to the introduction of N2 impurity states on the bands (conduction band and or valence band). The effect of N2 doping of Titanium Dioxide window layer on the efficiency of the ETA TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy solar cell was investigated using a conventional current-voltage (I-V) technique. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (η) increased from 1.06% for the solar cell with undoped films to 1.32% for the solar cell with N2-doped films. The increase in photovoltaic conversion efficiency on doping was attributed to increased light absorption due to the Nitrogen doping.

Aduda BO, Opiyo N(ed.). "African Journal of Science and Technology.". 2000.Website
ADUDA JO. "The Relationship between Credit Risk Management and Profitability among the Commercial Banks in Kenya.". In: Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing. David Publishing Company; 2011.
Aduda BO. "Status of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Kenya.". In: International Workshop on Nanotechnology: Present Status and Future Prospects in Developing Countries. Kashan, Iran; 2009. Abstract

Nanoscience and nanotechnology deal with the study, manipulation, and the design of materials and devices at the atomic scale. Whereas nanoscience focuses on the new properties, nanotechnology focuses on new devices. The nanoscale science and technology is multidisciplinary and trans-disciplinary. We thus see that nanoscience and nanotechnology bridge the gap between molecular scale and the macroscale. It is now recognized that science founded on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale is the new basis for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration.
Given the current and anticipated impacts of nanotechnology in work efficiency, ways of life and the environment, national (e.g. Kenya’s) efforts should be focused on how nanotechnology can improve efficiency in manufacturing, energy resources and utilization, reduce environmental impacts of industry and transportation, enhance healthcare, produce better pharmaceuticals, improve agriculture and food production, and expand the capabilities of information technologies. This requires synergistic relationships amongst all the stakeholders right from the beginning of the research and development processes.
A study of the Kenya’s situation reveals minimal understanding of what nanoscience and nanotechnology, and what their potential benefits are. The teaching of and research in these areas and the accompanying infrastructure are weak and disjointed. Moreover, there are almost nonexistent/weak specific regulatory tools and policies governing this important but emerging technology and discipline. Gaps presently exist in our scientific knowledge, and coupled with inadvertent outcomes witnessed in other technological advances there are reasons enough for nanotechnology industries and relevant government agencies to invest in understanding possible risks and neutralize them prior to putting the products into the market.

Aduda B, Robinson Musembi, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Martha L-S. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Aduda BO, Boccaccini AR. "Velocity of elastic waves in porous ceramic materials: influence of pore structure." British Ceramic Transactions. 2003;102(3):103-108. Abstract

A review of recently published ultrasonic velocity-porosity data on a variety of porous ceramic materials,
which included information on the pore structure, has been undertaken. These experimental data have been
compared with those calculated using a spheroidal pore model that incorporates information on pore volume
fraction, shape and orientation. Good agreement, especially when fractional porosity is less than ~ 0.25,
between the experimental and calculated values is obtained even when a single ‘effective’ pore shape is
employed in the calculation. The agreement improves if the pore shape at each particular porosity level (the
point-by-point analysis) is used. The predictive ability of the spheroidal pore model is therefore demonstrated.

ADUDA JO, Musyoka LM. " The Relationship between Executive Compensation and Firm Performance in the Kenyan Banking Industry." Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2011;3(6): 130-139.Website
Aduda J, Chogii R, Murayi MT. "The Effect of Capital Market Deepening on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Applied Finance & Banking. 2014;4(1):141-159. Abstractthe_effect_of_capital_market_deepening_on_economic_growth_in_kenya.pdf

The capital market is important since it connects the financial sector with other non-financial sectors of the economy. This study examines the effect of Capital Market Deepening on economic growth in Kenya. Controversy exists among researchers on the role of deep capital markets in growth. The finance growth nexus forms the basis of the research with the capital markets assumed to have a supply leading effect on economic growth. This study aimed at addressing the issue by incorporating a measure of bond market turnover. The research objective was to determine the effect of capital market deepening on economic growth in Kenya. The study used data from the Nairobi Securities Exchange from 1992-2011 and GDP data from The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. The study therefore concludes that Capital Market Deepening has a positive effect on GDP growth in Kenya and therefore lends support to the finance growth nexus. The Capital market plays an important role in economic growth and therefore the study recommends the government should take policy initiatives to foster growth of the capital market and especially so the bond market which is instrumental in providing finance for development of the Vision 2030 socio economic blue print.

Aduda BO, Ravirajan P, Choy KL, Nelson J. "Effect of morphology on electron drift mobility in porous TiO2.". 2004.Website
Aduda BOC, Egbe PDDDAM, Musembi RJ, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Kaduki KA, Simiyu J, Agacho A, Nyongesa F. "ANSOLE Mini-Symposium in Kenya (AMSK 2013).". Submitted. Abstract
n/a
Aduda BO. "REVIEW OF THE CURRENT STATE OF NANOTECHNOLOGIES RESEARCH AND POLICY MAKING IN KENYA.". In: Nanotechnologies for Kenya’s Development: Questions of Knowledge Brokerage and Risk Governance Workshop. Silversprings Hotel, Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

The study, manipulation and design of materials and devices at level approaching atomic sizes has given rise to nanoscience and nanotechnology, with the former being concerned more with the new properties whereas the latter - nanotechnology focuses on new devices. The nanoscale science and technology involves and cuts across different disciplines. It is now recognized that science founded on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale is the new basis for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration, and therefore receiving heightened attention world over.

Arising from the current and potential impacts of nanoscience and nanotechnology in all facets of humanity – way of life, health and the environment, it is imperative that any country takes stock of the status of the two intertwined disciplines. For example, it is known that nanotechnology can improve efficiency in manufacturing, energy resources and utilization, reduce environmental impacts of industry and transportation, enhance healthcare, produce better pharmaceuticals, improve agriculture and food production, and expand the capabilities of information technologies. The level of preparedness of a country to create new knowledge, exploit it or absorb such, it will be seen depends on the synergistic relationships amongst all the stakeholders right from the beginning of the research, product development processes, and policy and legislative frameworks that protect the workers producing and consumers of such products.

A study of the Kenya’s situation reveals that so far there minimal understanding or appreciation of what nanoscience and nanotechnology are amongst the key stakeholders, and what their potential benefits are or would be. The teaching of and research in these areas and the accompanying infrastructure are weak and uncoordinated. The regulatory frameworks and policies governing, particularly the manufacturing processes of or nanoscale products are either nonexistent or very weak/inadequate.

Aduda BO. Nanotechnologies for Kenya’s Development. Silversprings Hotel, Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

The study, manipulation and design of materials and devices at level approaching atomic sizes has given rise to nanoscience and nanotechnology, with the former being concerned more with the new properties whereas the latter - nanotechnology focuses on new devices. The nanoscale science and technology involves and cuts across different disciplines. It is now recognized that science founded on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale is the new basis for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration, and therefore receiving heightened attention world over.

Arising from the current and potential impacts of nanoscience and nanotechnology in all facets of humanity – way of life, health and the environment, it is imperative that any country takes stock of the status of the two intertwined disciplines. For example, it is known that nanotechnology can improve efficiency in manufacturing, energy resources and utilization, reduce environmental impacts of industry and transportation, enhance healthcare, produce better pharmaceuticals, improve agriculture and food production, and expand the capabilities of information technologies. The level of preparedness of a country to create new knowledge, exploit it or absorb such, it will be seen depends on the synergistic relationships amongst all the stakeholders right from the beginning of the research, product development processes, and policy and legislative frameworks that protect the workers producing and consumers of such products.

A study of the Kenya’s situation reveals that so far there minimal understanding or appreciation of what nanoscience and nanotechnology are amongst the key stakeholders, and what their potential benefits are or would be. The teaching of and research in these areas and the accompanying infrastructure are weak and uncoordinated. The regulatory frameworks and policies governing, particularly the manufacturing processes of or nanoscale products are either nonexistent or very weak/inadequate.

Key words: Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, Research, Policies, Kenya

Aduda BO, Opiyo N(ed.). "African Journal of Science and Technology.". 2000.Website
ADUDA JO. "THE APPLICABILITY OF CONSTANT DIVIDEND MODEL An Empirical Test of Applicability of the Model by Companies Listed At the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2010. Abstractthe_applicability_of_the_constant_dividend_model_for_companies_listed_at_the_nairobi_stock_exchange.pdf

The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

ADUDA JO. "Investment Practices among Savings and Credit Co-operative Societies (SACCOs) in Nairobi.". In: Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing. David Publishing Company; 2011.
Aduda BO. "ENERGY DEMAND, USAGE AND CONSEQUENCES: THE KENYAN CASE.". In: Conclave of Afro Asia Young Scientists. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research; Jakukur, Bangalore-560 64, India; 2010. Abstract

Kenya is a developing country aspiring to gain the status of an industrialized country by the year 2030. In pursuit of this political goal various policies and targets are being proposed and pursued. It has thus become very apparent that the stated goal would not be achieved unless there is sufficient exploitable energy available to meet the anticipated demand. To this end various options such as nuclear energy, exploration of oil, exploitation of the geothermal energy reservoirs, building of windmills for energy generation, solar energy, and biofuels are proposed. We discuss Kenya’s present situation and preparedness with respect to the stated goal and how these present and proposed sources of energy have impacted/will impact on the environment and climate and development.

ADUDA JO. "The Applicability of the Constant Dividend Model for Companies Listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: Journal of Financial Studies & Research. IBIMA Publishing; 2011.
Aduda J, Kiragu P, Ndwiga JM. "The Relationship between Agency Banking and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2014;2(4):97-117. Abstractthe_relationship_between_agency_banking_and_financial__performance_of_commercial_banks_in_kenya.pdf

Banking agents are usually equipped with a combination of point-of-sale (POS)card reader, mobile phone, barcode scanner to scan bills for bill payment transactions, Personal Identification Number(PIN) pads, and sometimes personal computers (PCs) that connect with the bank’s server using a personal dial-up or other data connection. This research used the descriptive design method using secondary data gathered from the commercial banks in Kenya that had adopted agency banking in Kenya. The population of the study was the 10 commercial banks in Kenya that had adopted agency banking by the end of 2012 namely Equity Bank, Co-operative Bank, KCB Bank, Post Bank, Family Bank, Chase Bank ,Consolidated Bank, Diamond Trust Bank, Citibank and NIC Bank. Annual reports on individual banks’ financial performance were used to extract financial performance indicators. CBK’s annual report and supervisory reports were also used to establish the number of agents registered and the total transactional value conducted through the agents. The variable of interests were the cash withdrawal and deposit transactions done through agents, number of active agents, return on assets, cost to income ratio and staff cost to revenue ratio. JEL classification numbers: G24
Keywords: Agency Banking, Financial Performance and Kenya.

Aduda BO. "Material Science." Promotion of Science and Technology . 2006;XII(1):19-22. Abstract

In this short article we discuss what Material Science is, its scope, relevance to technological development, its present status in Kenya, and finally propose a way forward. Materials science has been defined as that study that focuses on the material property-structure relationship. It is concerned with how the nano- or micro- or macrostructure determines the various functional properties of the materials desired or of interest. Materials science thus deals with, in an interactive manner, processing, structure, properties, and performance of materials, a relationship which has been summarized as the Materials Science Tetrahedron. It is a multi-and transdisciplinary subject as it is intimately related to basic science subjects like applied physics, chemistry, biology and to various engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical, or civil, engineering.

Aduda BO. "Performance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells fabricated from Obliquely DC Sputtered." Africa Jnl. of Science and Technology, Series. 2006;7(2):125-139.waita_et_al_ajst_-_2006.pdf
Aduda J, Chogii R, Magutu PO. "AN EMPIRICAL TEST OF COMPETING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE THEORIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FIRMS LISTED AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." European Scientific Journal. 2013;9(13). Abstractan_empirical_test_of_competing_corporate_governance_theories_on_the_performance_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

The focus of this study was on linking these variables to the contrasting and competing theories of Corporate Governance such as Agency Theory, Stewardship Theory, and Resource Dependence Theory, among others. The role of the Board as a corporate governance tool is widely acknowledged in much of the literature on Corporate Governance. Scholars and practitioners have sought to understand the relationship between various board composition variables and some measure of performance as a means of establishing what the significant board composition variables are and the likely effect of adding or dropping some of these variables in the process of establishing effective boards. This study investigated significance of the board composition variables of size of the board, proportion of outside directors, proportion of inside directors, and the role of CEO duality on firm performance. This study found that the overall regression models for firm performance for both the Return on Assets and Tobin Q ratio are significant. This means that the board composition variables cited above are important predictors of firm performance. The study also found that the significance of the individual variables in the overall specification models have differing significant variables on the basis of the measure of performance selected for the firm. For example, when firm performance is measured by the Return on Assets, the significant variable in the model is the size of the board. Under the Tobin Q ratio firm performance measure, on the other hand, proportion of outside directors is the significant variable. These results imply that under the ROA, there seems to be a dominance of the Resource Dependence Theory while under the Tobin Q ratio, the Agency Theory dominates. The study also found that most surveyed firms tended to favour outside directorships over inside directorships. The prevalence of outside directorships was twice as much as for inside directorships and is in favour of the Agency Theory. The study also found that surveyed firms tended to favour having different persons occupying the two positions of CEO and that of the Chairman of the Board which is in line with the Agency Theory.
Keywords: Corporate Governance, Firm Performance, Listed Firms, Nairobi Securities Exchange & Kenya

ADUDA JO. "The Distribution of Financial Ratios of Companies Quoted at the Nairobi Stock Exchange: An Empirical Evidence.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2006. Abstract

The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

Aduda J, Weke P, Ngare P, Mwaniki J. "Financial time series modeling of trends and patterns in the energy markets." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2016;7(2):64-68. AbstractWebsite

Precise recognition of a time series path is important to policymakers, statisticians, economists, traders, hedgers and speculators alike. The correct time series path is also a key ingredient in pricing models. This study uses daily futures prices of crude oil and other distillate fuels. This paper considers the statistical properties of energy futures and spot prices and investigates the trends that underlie the price dynamics in order to gain further insights into possible nuances of price discovery and energy market dynamics. The family of ARMA-GARCH models was explored.
The trends depict time-varying variability and persistence of oil price shocks. The return series conform to a constant mean model with GARCH variance.

ADUDA JO. "Test for Investor Rationality for Companies Listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, Vol 7, No. 8, 827-840. David Publishing Company; 2011.test_for_investor_rationality_for_companies_listed_at_the_nse.pdf
Aduda, J, Ndaita SB. "Management Accounting changes and Practices adopted by Large Manufacturing Companies in Nairobi, Kenya." The Operations Research Society of Eastern African Journal,. 2013;3(2).
Aduda BO. "Solar Energy.". In: National Symposium on “Science, Technology, Innovation and Society: The African Perspectives and Experiences. Lenana House Nairobi; 2006. Abstract

Energy is important to life, and the amount of energy consumed per capita by a country is indicative of the level of development of that nation. There exist different sources of energy with solar energy as the primary source on our planet. The sun’s energy is inexhaustible, unlimited (by geographical boundaries), and non-polluting. Tapping and utilizing this energy efficiently- even with 10 to 20% efficiency- can solve the threat of climate change caused by the global warming, and also contribute towards the easing of the demand for fossil-fuel. In the developing countries a large proportion of the population is poor and not connected to the national electricity grid. This group of people is weighed down with the high cost, high risks and low benefits of the traditional fuels, candles, paraffin, and dry battery cells. Addressing their energy needs, particularly with clean energy from the renewable sources, will not only result in tangible developmental benefits but also social and environmental benefits. In this article we consider only the direct energy from the sun, and its conversion to heat or electrical forms- the energy carriers of choice.

Aduda J, Chogii R, Magutu PO. "AN EMPIRICAL TEST OF COMPETING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE THEORIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FIRMS LISTED AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." European Scientific Journal. 2013;9(14). Abstractan_empirical_test_of_competing_corporate_governance_theories_on_the_performance_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

The focus of this study was on linking these variables to the contrasting and competing theories of Corporate Governance such as Agency Theory, Stewardship Theory, and Resource Dependence Theory, among others. The role of the Board as a corporate governance tool is widely acknowledged in much of the literature on Corporate Governance. Scholars and practitioners have sought to understand the relationship between various board composition variables and some measure of performance as a means of establishing what the significant board composition variables are and the likely effect of adding or dropping some of these variables in the process of establishing effective boards. This study investigated significance of the board composition variables of size of the board, proportion of outside directors, proportion of inside directors, and the role of CEO duality on firm performance. This study found that the overall regression models for firm performance for both the Return on Assets and Tobin Q ratio are significant. This means that the board composition variables cited above are important predictors of firm performance. The study also found that the significance of the individual variables in the overall specification models have differing significant variables on the basis of the measure of performance selected for the firm. For example, when firm performance is measured by the Return on Assets, the significant variable in the model is the size of the board. Under the Tobin Q ratio firm performance measure, on the other hand, proportion of outside directors is the significant variable. These results imply that under the ROA, there seems to be a dominance of the Resource Dependence Theory while under the Tobin Q ratio, the Agency Theory dominates. The study also found that most surveyed firms tended to favour outside directorships over inside directorships. The prevalence of outside directorships was twice as much as for inside directorships and is in favour of the Agency Theory. The study also found that surveyed firms tended to favour having different persons occupying the two positions of CEO and that of the Chairman of the Board which is in line with the Agency Theory.
Keywords: Corporate Governance, Firm Performance, Listed Firms, Nairobi Securities Exchange & Kenya

Aduda JA. "A Comparison of the Classical Black-Scholes Model and the GARCH Option Pricing Model for Currency Options." ICASTOR Journal of Mathematical Sciences. 2011;5(2):267-284. Abstract

This paper looks at the consequences of introducing heteroscedasticity in option pricing. The analysis shows that introducing heteroscedasticity results in a better fitting of the empirical distribution of foreign exchange rates than in the Brownian model. In the Black-Scholes world the assumption is that the variance is constant, which is definitely not the case when looking at financial time series data. In this study, we therefore price a European call option under a GARCH Model Framework using the Locally Risk Neutral Valuation Relationship. Option prices for different spot prices are calculated using simulations. We use the non-linear in mean GARCH model in analyzing the Kenyan foreign exchange market.

ADUDA JO. "Corporate Governance Practices, and the Relationship between Corporate Governance and Financial Performance among Broadcasting Stations in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Business and Management. Nairobi: AJBUMA publishing; 2012.
ADUDA JO. "Foreign Exchange Reserves Risks and Management Strategies adopted by the Central Bank of Kenya.". In: African Journal of Business and Management. AJBUMA publishing; 2012.
Aduda B. O., S.M W, Ogacho A. A., J.M. M, R.J. M, Simiyu J. "Columnar and passivated nanoporous TiO2 based excitonic solar cell.". In: Paper presented at the US/Africa workshop on frontiers in Material Science. Abuja, Nigeria; 2007. Abstract

Excitonic solar cells which include organic, hybrid organic–inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSSCs) promise inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion devices. We report on the charge transport (electron drift mobility) sputter deposited TiO2 and surface photovoltage and photocurrent transients of alumina-passivated TiO2, and on the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized cells whose photoelectrodes are sputtered.

Aduma MM, Ouma G, Said MY, Wayumba GO, Omondi PA, Njino LW. "Potential Impacts of Temperature Projections on Selected Large Herbivores in Savanna Ecosystem of Kenya." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(1):5-26. Abstractpotential_impacts_of_temperature_projections_on_selected_large_herbivores_in_savanna_ecosystem_of_kenya.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Due to global land surface warming, severe temperature events are expected to occur more frequently and more extremely causing changes in biodiversity and altering movement and survival of large herbivores. There are increasing observations of escalating wildlife range losses worldwide. In this study, we investigated 15 large wild herbivores (4 migratory, 1 dispersing and 10 residents) and their potential range changes in relation to projected temperatures changes based on three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Previous studies of Kenyan savannah have shown that increases in temperature can reduce the densities of wildlife significantly and after certain thresholds the species can be lost in those landscapes. The range maps of the 15 species were developed from aerial censuses that have been conducted in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. We analysed temperature changes for the three RCPs for the periods 2030s, 2050s and 2070s. And based on the temperature threshold for each of the 15 species we analysed which wildlife range areas will be lost. Our results project that for the RCP 2.6, 3 out of the 15 species are projected to lose more than 50% of their range by the year 2030s, and 5 out 15 by 2050s and 4 of 15 by 2070s. The second climate scenario of RCP 4.5 projects that by 2030s, 3 species will lose more than 50% of their range, and in 2050s and 2070s 5 species. The RCP 8.5 which is the extreme scenario of temperature changes projects 5 species to lose their range by 50% in 2030s, 7 species by 2050s and 10 species by 2070s. The extent of range loss was different among species but was severe for buffalo, Thomson’s gazelle, waterbuck, and wildebeest which are also water dependent species.
However, the elephant, gerenuk, hartebeest, lesser kudu, and oryx are expected to retain most of their range in all the RCPs scenarios. These range contractions raise serious concerns about the future of wildlife in Kenyan savannah based on projected climate changes. And therefore, it is imperative the wildlife sector develops climate policies and plans that take into account the projected climate scenarios.

Adungo NI, Mahadevan S, Situbi AP, Khamala CPM, Mwangi RW, Oloo AJ. The importance of anopheles funestus in the transmission of malaria in Western Kenya.; 1992.
ADWATI SM, Edalia LG, Gathece L. "EFFECT OF PAST DENTAL EXPERIENCE ON PATIENTS ATTITUDES FOLLOW UP ORAL HEALTH CARE INTERVENTION." EAMJ. 2021;VOL 98 NO2 PG 3529-3537:VOL 98 NO2 PG 3529-3537.
Adwet WM, Pant HJ, MANGALA MJ,... "Evaluation of hydraulic performance of an anaerobic pond using radiotracer technique." Applied Radiation and …. 2019. AbstractWebsite

A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a wastewater stabilization pond using radiotracer technique. Residence time distribution (RTD) of wastewater was measured using Iodine-131 as a radiotracer. The measured RTD was treated and mean residence time …

Adwok JA. "Treatment of thyroid cancer.". 1994. Abstract

The management of differentiated thyroid cancer remains controversial. A consecutive series of 234 thyroidectomies done by one surgeon in various Nairobi Hospitals from July 1990 to June 1993 were studied. 18 patients were operated on for thyroid cancer. The procedures ranged from lobectomy to total thyroidectomy. Young adults from 20-40 years of age were mainly affected, with a male/female sex ratio of 8:1. The immediate and subsequent morbidity of the operation of total thyroidectomy, in our opinion, overweighs its advantages of improved disease control. This is particularly so when low socio-economic standards lead to lack of compliance with replacement therapy.

Adwok J;, Wolskee P. "Health psychology and health care interventions in sub-Saharan African countries.". 2012. Abstract

This paper examines the specialty of health psychology which is concerned with individual behaviours and lifestyles affecting physical health. The beneficial role of health psychology interventions in ameliorating the impact of emerging health care issues, in particular, the increasing prevalence of 'Western' diseases in Africans, is presented. The effect of behaviour and lifestyle on chronic illnesses such as cancer and hypertension, and the benefits of health psychology interventions on these illnesses, are discussed.

Adwok J, Gichangi P, Otieno H. "Appendectomy at the Nairobi Hospital." Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. 1998;2:135-147.
Adwok JA. Stricture Of The Urethra. The Disease As Seen At The Kenyatta National Hospital Over A One Year Period, 1982 - 1983.; 1984. Abstract

A prospective study of seventy seven patients with urethral
strictures treated at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a period
of twelve months (1982-1983) was done. The age, tribal, and
aetiological incidencies were investigated. Various aspects of the
clinical presentation, investigation and treatment were also looked
at;
Post-inflammatory strictures were significantly more than
post-traumatic and iatrogenic strictures. However, post-prostatectomy
strictures were not included with the later.
The lapse period following post-inflammatory strictures was,
about 5years on the avereqe , Orno-Dore quotes 18 years for a
Nigerian study done two decades ago for post-gonococcal strictures.
It was not possible to determine the initial cause of urethritis in this
study due to the fact that most patients had no cultures for the
organisms done at the time of infection. Some were treated at
dispensaries and previous medical records were unobtainable.
Data on tribal incidence could not be critically analysed
without bias due to the uneven distribution of the tribes around the
Nairobi area. Others live a few kilometers away and others hundreds

of kilometers.
Half of the urine cultures done were negative. The rest grew
gram negative organisms, mainly E. coli. No gonococci were isolated.
B.U.N. was elevated above normal in about one third of the patients;
Intravenous pyelograms were normal in four-fifths of the patients
investigated. Micturatingure throqrcmcdone in eleven patients showed
the majority of strictures to be in the posterior urethra.
Seventy-three percent of the patients were managed with
intermittent dilatations with good results. Urethroplasty was done in
23% and urethrotomy in 4% of the patients - urethroplasty was offered
more to the younger age group.
The need for proper health education to the public about this
'disease and its causes is emphasized. Suggestions for better management
of these patients are forwarded. Special stress on the benefits of
urethrotomy under vision for suitable patients is made. A critical review
of the various types of urethroplasty is also presented.

Adwok JA, Githaiga JW. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

AE R, GO A, PF AM, S HL, C J, M L, Y G, H G, W Z, A E, EM G, J L, O T, N I, H S, X X. "Molecular detection and genetic characterization of pathogenic Theileria, Anaplasma and 2 Ehrlichia species amongst apparently healthy sheep in central and western Kenya." Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2019;86(1).
AE Kurth, I Inwani WNONACOKCKARMF. "The Gender Context of HIV Risk and Pregnancy Goals in Western Kenya.". 2015.
AEO Otedo, GO Oyoo JOOCFOEOO. "Pyomyositis in HIV: A Series of 12 Cases." East African Medical Journal Vol.. 2013;90(12). AbstractWebsite

Background: Pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the large skeletal muscles presenting with muscle pain and swelling. It is commonly seen in the tropics but is being recognised more in end-stage HIV/AIDS. In HIV-associated pyomyositis, leukocytosis and bacteraemia is rare due to deranged immune response. Surgical drainage, antibiotic treatment and HAART are the mainstay of treatment.
Objective: To describe pyomyositis in HIV positive patients, their CD4+ cell counts, clinical stages of pyomyositis and anatomical sites affected.
Design: Cross sectional, prospective, descriptive, consecutive entry study.
Setting: Kisumu District Hospital and Nairobi Rheumatology Clinic between January 2002 to December 2007.
Subjects: Twelve patients with HIV infection and pyomyositis.
Main Outcome Measures: CD4+ cell counts, clinical stage and site of pyomyositis.
Results: Twelve patients (six males and six females) were enrolled with mean age of 39.3 years (24-52). Pyomyositis was localised in the following regions:two each in gluteal and calf, six in the thigh and one each in the right arm and abdominal wall. CD4+ cell counts were low with a mean of 166.8 cells/µl (1.0-433) (normal range is 355-1600 cells/µl), indicating severe immunosuppression. They also had leucocytopaenia with a mean white blood cell count of 3.67 ~ 103/µl (1.5-7.1 ~ 103/µl) with a mean neutrophil count of 62.7% (43-78). Random blood sugar and creatine kinase levels were all normal. The co-morbidities comprised one case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and five of oral candidiasis. Pus swab grew Staphylococcous aureus in eight instances and Streptococcous pyogenes in four.
Conclusion: Pyomyositis in HIV positive patients tends to occur at low CD4+ cell counts. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative organism.

Affokpon A, Coosemans J, Kimenju JW. "Suppression of root-knot nematodes in tomato and cucumber using biological control agents.". 2010. Abstract

Antagonistic fungi are continuously attracting a lot of attention as alternatives to chemical control of root-knot nematodes. The egg-pathogenic fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus, particularly strain 251 has shown promising potential as a biological control agent against various plant-parasitic nematodes. Strain 251 of P. lilacinus (PL251) and Arthrobotrys conoides (Melodogone) were tested for their efficacy against Meloidogyne spp. in tomato and cucumber under greenhouse conditions. The study aimed at determining the application rates and timing of application of the fungi. Both pre-planting and at planting application of PL251 were found to reduce nematode populations and root galling in both tomato and cucumber. Pre-planting soil treatment (0.4g/10 L of soil) reduced final nematode populations by 69% and 73% in the roots and soil, respectively, compared to the non-inoculated control in tomato. However, soil treatment at planting recorded reduction level of 54% and 74% in the roots and soil, respectively. Use of A. conoides showed lower nematode control in cucumber. Only 28% and 21% reduction levels were recorded in the roots and soil when the fungus was applied at planting, respectively. This study has demonstrated that PL251 has a promising potential that could be exploited in the management of Meloidogyne spp. in vegetable production systems.

Afran L, Garcia Knight M, Nduati E, Urban BC, Heyderman RS, Rowland-Jones SL. "HIV-exposed uninfected children: a growing population with a vulnerable immune system?" Clin. Exp. Immunol.. 2014;176(1):11-22. Abstract

Through the successful implementation of policies to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 infection, children born to HIV-1-infected mothers are now much less likely to acquire HIV-1 infection than previously. Nevertheless, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU) children have substantially increased morbidity and mortality compared with children born to uninfected mothers (unexposed uninfected, UU), predominantly from infectious causes. Moreover, a range of phenotypical and functional immunological differences between HEU and UU children has been reported. As the number of HEU children continues to increase worldwide, two questions with clear public health importance need to be addressed: first, does exposure to HIV-1 and/or ART in utero or during infancy have direct immunological consequences, or are these poor outcomes simply attributable to the obvious disadvantages of being born into an HIV-affected household? Secondly, can we expect improved maternal care and ART regimens during and after pregnancy, together with optimized infant immunization schedules, to reduce the excess morbidity and mortality of HEU children?

Aftab Z, Wladis A. "Skandalakis' {Surgical} {Anatomy}." Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal. 2008;8:97-98. AbstractWebsite
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Aganda AA. Temperature profiles in a wood packed bed heated by hot combustion gases .; 2001. Abstract

Axial and radial temperature profiles are presented for the initial sensible heating stage of wood carbonisation process in a packed bed. These profiles are important in promoting greater understanding of the heat transfer processes during the sensible heating stage and the mechanics of the gas flow through the bed. These data are also useful as an aid to the design of wood carbonisation retorts. Gas temperatures were measured in a cylindrical retort within which a randomly packed bed of green wood was heated by hot inert combustion gases. The bed dimensions were 0.62m in diameter and 1.28m in height. The temperatures were measured by thermocouples mounted at 0.46m, 0.8Sm and 1.28m heights and transversed across the bed diameter. The bed was heated by combustion gases fed from a charcoal combustion chamber. It was discovered that gas temperature drops through the bed were as much as 86% of the inlet temperature, and that the most significant temperature gradients occurred in the first one third of the bed; this has significant implications in the retort design. Other interesting features observed were that there was a strong local variation in temperature throughout a given horizontal section of the bed and a symmetrical radial temperature profiles across the bed. Furthermore, gas temperatures were significantly lower close to the retort wall than the centre. These phenomena were explained in terms of gas channelling and a wall effect which increased the resistance to flow there. A two-phase mathematical model was used to predict axial temperature variation, while an empirical equation was fitted to the radial temperatures. This same model although a one-dimensional axial one, was used with a number of simplifying assumptions, to estimate the radial temperature profiles. In general there was good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results. The maximum deviation was -20% but 90% of the predictions were within t7.SX. This good agreement implies that the mathematical nodel is physically sound, a significant finding since there is no evidence in the literature to suggest that a two-phase model exists that can predict both axial and radial temperature profiles simultaneously in a packed bed.

Agandaa AA, Coneyb JER, Sheppard CGW. "Airflow maldistribution and the performance of a packaged air conditioning unit evaporator.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

The performance of an evaporator for a packaged air conditioning unit has been investigated. A heat transfer program ACOL5 validated in an earlier study, was used to predict the performance. Non-uniform velocity distribution measurements taken in a typical air conditioning unit were employed in the prediction of the evaporator performance. It was found that this maldistribution reduced the performance of an evaporator circuit, as compared to uniform flow. Circuits at the edges of the evaporator, where the velocity was low, did not perform well. With the refrigerants controlled by one thermostatic valve, the worst performing circuit affected the performance of the whole evaporator, the evaporator performance being reduced by as much as 35%. The performance of the evaporator, where the circuits had different numbers of passes, depended on the position of the circuit in the evaporator.

Agathocleous M, Harris WA. "From {Progenitors} to {Differentiated} {Cells} in the {Vertebrate} {Retina}." Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 2009;25:45-69. AbstractWebsite
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Agathocleous M, Harris WA. "From progenitors to differentiated cells in the vertebrate retina." Annual review of cell and developmental biology. 2009;25:45-69. Abstract

Multipotent retinal progenitors undergo a varied number of divisions to produce clones of heterogeneous sizes and cell types. We describe the transition from a proliferating progenitor to a differentiated postmitotic cell and discuss how controls of proliferation operate within individual cells as well as in the whole tissue. We discuss how extracellular and intracellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, cell cycle kinetics, interkinetic nuclear migration, orientation of cell division, and epigenetic modifications all interact to regulate a progenitor's transition from division to differentiation. We also propose some directions for future research.

Agathocleous M, Harris WA. "From progenitors to differentiated cells in the vertebrate retina." Annual review of cell and developmental biology. 2009;25:45-69. Abstract

Multipotent retinal progenitors undergo a varied number of divisions to produce clones of heterogeneous sizes and cell types. We describe the transition from a proliferating progenitor to a differentiated postmitotic cell and discuss how controls of proliferation operate within individual cells as well as in the whole tissue. We discuss how extracellular and intracellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, cell cycle kinetics, interkinetic nuclear migration, orientation of cell division, and epigenetic modifications all interact to regulate a progenitor's transition from division to differentiation. We also propose some directions for future research.

Agesa BL, Onyango CM, M KV, Onwonga RN, GN K. "Climate Change Effects on Crop Production in Yatta sub-County: Farmer Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(1):14010-14042.
Aggarwal NK, Lam P, Castillo EG, Weiss MG, Diaz E, Alarcón RD, van Dijk R, Rohlof H, Ndetei DM, Scalco M, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Bassiri K, Deshpande S, Groen S, Jadhav S, Kirmayer LJ, Paralikar V, Westermeyer J, Santos F, Vega-Dienstmaier J, Anez L, Boiler M, Nicasio AV, Lewis-Fernández R. "How Do Clinicians Prefer Cultural Competence Training? Findings from the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview Field Trial." Acad Psychiatry. 2016;40(4):584-91. Abstract

This study's objective is to analyze training methods clinicians reported as most and least helpful during the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview field trial, reasons why, and associations between demographic characteristics and method preferences.

Aghov T, Sumbera R, Pialek Lır, Mikula Orej, McDonough MM, Lavrenchenko LA, Meheretu Y, Mbau JS, Bryja J. "Multilocus phylogeny of East African gerbils (Rodentia, Gerbilliscus) illuminates the history of the Somali-Masai savanna." Journal of Biogeography. 2017:1-13.aghov-_et_al-2017-journal_of_biogeography.pdf
Agnes Njoki Mwaura, Betty Nyambura Mbatia EKMPWO. "Screening and Characterization of Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria Isolated from Oil-contaminated Soils from Auto Garages." International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2018;3:11-24. Abstract
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Agot KE, Kiarie JN, Nguyen HQ, Odhiambo JO, Onyango TM, Weiss NS. "Male circumcision in Siaya and Bondo Districts, Kenya: prospective cohort study to assess behavioral disinhibition following circumcision." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2007;44(1):66-70. Abstract

Evidence for efficacy of male circumcision as an HIV prevention measure is increasing, but there is serious concern that men who are circumcised may subsequently adopt more risky sexual behaviors.

Agoya-Wotsuna C. "The Role of Indigenous Languages in Kenya. A Case for Using them as Languages of Instruction throughout Primary School”. ." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2012;Vol. 2: 89-105.
Agullo JO, Marenya MO. "Airflow resistance of parchment Arabica coffee." Biosystems Engineering. 2005;91(2):149-156.
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Marenya MO. "Resistance to airflow of bulk clean parchment Arabica coffee.". In: Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers (KSAE), Annual International Conference. Nairobi; 2000.
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Aguttu, J.M KNJM & LM. "Principals’ Support of Peer Education and Prevalence of Drug and Substance Abuse in Public Secondary Schools in Busia County, Kenya. ." Journal of African Interdisciplinary Studies . 2019;2(11):79-95.
Agutu PO. THE IMPACT OF ISO 9000 CERTIFICATION ON INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

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THE IMPACT OF ISO 9000 CERTIFICATION ON INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI BY PATRICK OBONYO AGUTU A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SCHOOL OF BUSINESS UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI SEPTEMBER 2011
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ii DECLARATION This research project is my original work and has not been presented for examination in any other University Signature……………………………. Date……………………………….. PATRICK OBONYO AGUTU D61/75210/2009 This research project has been submitted for examination with my approval as University Supervisor. Signature……………………………. Date……………………………….. DR. JOHN YABS DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SCHOOL OF BUSINESS UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
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iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Research Project has been made possible through the collective efforts of all my Lecturers at the University of Nairobi and my classmates with whom we have travelled in the continuing search for knowledge. I hereby acknowledge all their contributions. Special acknowledgement goes to my Supervisor Dr. John Yabs for his guidance and commitment for the completion of this project. I also acknowledge the Moderator Mr. E. Mududa and all the project Evaluators. I also acknowledge members of the University staff who provided valuable input to make the study possible. Special mention goes to Professor A. Mitema, Director, Centre for International Programs and Links, University of Nairobi.
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iv DEDICATION To my entire family for support and encouragement even when their social time had to be invested in this study.
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v ABSTRACT This study looks at the contribution of ISO 9000 in the Internalization process of the University of Nairobi. A case study approach was employed to gather data and provide the required information. ISO 9000 Certification continues to gain worldwide acceptance with over one million certifications to date. It has been described as representing a world consensus on standards with international participation of member bodies from countries all over the world. Implementation requires the commitment of resources in terms of personnel, finances and materials required to implement and sustain the quality management system. As resources are scarce with competing demands it is important to establish the accruing gains from implementing the system. The University of Nairobi obtained ISO Certification in the year 2008 and was subsequently recertified in July 2011 on completion of the initial three year certification period. As an institution that continues to undergo internationalization process as is the case with higher education institutions internationally, the contribution of quality standards to this process is important. In this study it was found that ISO 9000 is important especially with respect to Quality control, Corporate branding and image, International Grants funding, International programs and linkages and international student enrolment.

Agwanda A. Population Dynamics of Kenya. 2009 census analytical volume. Kenya national Bureau of Statistics; 2011.
Agwanda AO, Magadi M. " Determinants of transitions to first sex, marriage and pregnancy: Evidence from South Nyanza, Kenya.". In: Published African Population studies. E Afr Med J; 2005. Abstract

African Journal of Reproductive Health   (Accepted)

Agwanda A, Odipo G. " The Issue of non-numeric Responses to Questions on Desired family Size.". In: Population Association of Kenya. Garden Hotel Machakos Kenya: E Afr Med J; 2002. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda, A; Bocquier KOP; A; S. "A Socio-Demographic Survey Of Nairobi."; 2009.
Agwanda A. "Status of Urbanization Research in Kenya.". In: Panel Discussion paper at launch of the State of World Population report. Kenyatta International Conference Centre (KICC) Nairobi, Kenya; 2007.
Agwanda A, and BP, Kahasakhala A, Owuor S. "The effect of economic crisis on youth precariousness in Nairobi: An analysis of itinerary to adulthood of three generations of men and women in Nairobi .". In: at Union of African Population Studies Conference. Tunis, Tunisia: E Afr Med J; 2003. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda A. Research Methodology and Communication: Participants Course book and Trainers Manual. Kenya Institute for Research and Policy Analysis; 2004.
Agwanda A, Owino W, Obunga C, Okundi B. "Access to Family Planning among the poor: What are the policy options?". In: Third EQUINET Regional Conference on equity in health in East and Central Africa. Speke Conference Center, Munyonyo, Kampala Uganda; 2009.
Agwanda A. : Kenya Country Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Needs Assessment Report on Child health, Maternal health and Health Systems. . Ministry of Planning and National Development, Government of Kenya and UNDP; 2004.
Agwanda AO. "Determinants of transitions to first sex, marriage and pregnancy: Evidence from South Nyanza, Kenya.". In: Under review, International Family Planning Perspectives. E Afr Med J; 2004. Abstract

African Population Studies 19 (2): 42-62

Agwanda A, A K. "Age schedules of Out Migrants and their implications for County development.". In: Rural Urban Migration and Urban Rural Linkages: The case of Western Kenya. Nairobi: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung ; 2016.
Agwanda A. Household Dynamics of Kenya 2009 census analytical volume. Kenya national Bureau of Statistics; 2011.
Agwanda A, Bocquier. "To What Extent did Economic Downturn in Kenya influence Entry into Parenthood in Nairobi City? .". In: at Union of African Population Studies Conference . Tunis, Tunisia; 2003.
Agwanda A. "Status of Migration Research in Kenya.". In: State of World Population 2006 Panel Discussion. 6th Kenyatta International Conference Centre (KICC) Nairobi, Kenya ; 2006.
Agwanda A, and MM, Omollo D. "Early Teenage Pregnancy in South Nyanza.". In: Population of Association of America Annual Meeting . Minneopolis USA: E Afr Med J; 2003. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda A. Harmonization of Household and Family variables in the 1989 and 1999 Kenyan Censuses. . Minnesota University Population Center, International Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). The report and spreadsheet prepared for the IPUMS project on Census Data Use. The report formed part of the meta- data; 2001.
Agwanda A, Akoya KA. Improving Adolescent Reproductive Health Programmes in Africa: Lessons from Kenya.. Regal Press (K) Ltd: Centre for the study of Adolescence; 2003. AbstractWebsite

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda A. "Analysis of family building patterns when fertility has stalled in Kenya.". In: the 5th African Population Conference . Arusha International Conference centre ; 2007.
Agwanda A. Chapter 6: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey: Other Proximate Determinants of Fertility: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003 Report. Calverton, Maryland: . Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Ministry of Health (MOH) and ORC MACRO ; 2004.
Agwanda AO. "The effect of economic crisis on youth precariousness in Nairobi: An analysis of itinerary to adulthood of three generations of men and women.". In: Document De Travail DT/2004/04 Development et insertion Internationale (DIAL) http://www.dial.prd.fr/dial . E Afr Med J; 2004. Abstract

African Population Studies 19 (2): 42-62

Agwanda A. Youth Dialogue Tool submitted to Ministry of Youth Affairs . Kenya Country Office: UNFPA ; 2011.
Agwanda A. "Household and Family Demography in Kenya: An exploratory Essay.". In: Population Association of Kenya. Garden Hotel Machakos Kenya: E Afr Med J; 2002. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda A. Determinants of Unmet Need for Contraception in Kenya. Dakar: Union of African Population Studies; 2000.
Agwanda A. Kenya Country Needs Assessment of Progress Towards the Achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and the International Conference on Population and Development Goals . Partners In Development – South to South Initiative to be used for preparing the 2005-2015 Strategic Plan; 2004.
Agwanda A. "Available Options for Estimating Basic Fertility Indicators for the 2010 Round of Censuses.". In: The conference on Needs assessment on census analysis. Dakar Senegal; 2010.
Agwanda A. Maternal health and well being in Kenya. 8-10th December 2004: Society for International Development (SID). Round table meeting on Maternal Health and Well being in Eastern Africa. Strategies for Meeting the Millennium Development Goals; 2005.
Agwanda" "A, Bocquier' "P, Khasakhala" "A, Owuor" "S. A Socio-Demographic Survey of Nairobi. Dakar, Senegal: CODESSRIA; 2009.
Agwanda" "A, Muganda" "R, Khasakhala" "AA, Rae" "G. Improving Adolescent Reproductive Health Programmes in Africa: Lessons from Kenya. Nairobi: Centre for the Study of Adolescence; 2003.
Agwata JF. "Water Resources Utilization, Conflicts and Interventions in the Tana Basin of Kenya.". Forsch, G., Thiemann, S. & Winnege, R. (Editors), ; 2005. Abstract
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Agwata JF. "Implications of Climate Change on Water Resources in Kenya and Adaptation Options.". Boga, H. I., Obudho, P. A., Agwata, J. F., et al., (Editors), The Principle of Sustainability: An Interdisciplinary View, Kenya DAAD Scholars Association, Nairobi. PP 196-201, ISBN 9966-923-41-1; 2007. Abstract
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Agwata JF, Nyaoro W. "Drought Coping Strategies at the Local Level: The Case of Masinga Division of Machakos District, Kenya.". The KDSA Annual Conference Workshop, Egerton University, Njoro, 17th-19th Oct., 2007; 2007. Abstract
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Agwata, J. F. WWN, Ondieki CM. "Regionalization of the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya using Stream flow Records.". Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice, Vol 4, No 2 (www.ajol.info/journals/jcerp); 2007. Abstract
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Agwata JF, Abwao P. "Socioeconomic and Environmental Concerns of Water Resources Management in Kenya with Particular focus on the Tana Basin.". Waswa, F., Otor, S., Olukoye, G. & Mugendi, D. (Editors), Environment and Sustainable Development: A Guide for Higher Education in Kenya, Volume II, School of Environmental Studies and Human Sciences, Kenyatta University. PP 209-223, ISBN 9966-776-34-6; 2007. Abstract
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Agwata JF. "Spatial Characteristics of Drought Duration and Severity in the Upper Tana Basin, Kenya." International Research Journal of Environment Sciences. 2014;Vol. 3(4), 18-26. Abstract4.isca-irjevs-2014-37-spatial_characteristics_of_drought_duration_and_severity_in_the_upper_tana_basin_kenya.pdf

Drought is a recurring hazard in many countries of Africa, and Kenya is thus no exception. In the majority of the countries
in the continent, drought affects agriculture, since it is predominantly rain-fed and is the mainstay of the economies in
these countries. Various socioeconomic activities are highly prone to the impacts of drought. Since drought will always
occur, there is and will always be need for understanding its various manifestations to ensure that the effects associated
with its occurrence are managed in a sustainable manner. This study examined the spatial characteristics of drought
duration and severity in the Upper Tana Basin (UTB) of Kenya using discharge records from twenty two river gauge
stations (RGSs) in the basin. Drought duration and severity data were extracted from the discharge records using the runs
analysis technique and the data series subjected to principal components analysis (PCA) from which common factors for
the two drought events were examined. Results showed that drought duration and severity had distinct spatial patterns in
the basin. The two drought events were explained using four significant principal factors that cumulatively explained
nearly 59 percent variance for drought duration and 56 percent of variance for drought severity in the basin. The spatial
patterns of the factor loadings for drought duration showed large meridional patterns with anomalies confined to the
eastern and southeast parts of the basin. For drought severity, the spatial patterns of the factor loadings portrayed a zonal
pattern reflecting differences in the relief features between the western and eastern parts of the basin. The spatial
characteristics of the drought events may be used to plan for different land use activities in the basin.

Agwata JF. "Potential implications of climate change on the attainment of the millennium development goals in Kenya.". Proceedings of the 8th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop, Mombasa Beach Hotel, 11-14 September, 2007; 2007. Abstract
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Agwata JF, Wamicha WN, Ondieki CM. "Modelling of Hydrological Drought Events in the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya." Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. 2014;Volume 11, (Issue 1 Ver. III):41-48. Abstractmodelling_of_hydrological_drought_events.pdfWebsite

Drought is a recurring hazard which affects many parts of Kenya. In most countries in Sub-Saharan
Africa, agriculture which is predominantly rain-fed is the main stay of the economies is highly prone to the
impacts of drought which, whenever it occurs, leads to serious socioeconomic challenges at various levels. The
study of drought duration, magnitude and severity have relevance in many areas such as waste load allocations,
issuance of pollution discharge permits, location of treatment plants and sanitary landfills, determination of
allowable water transfers and withdrawals both within, between and outside the affected areas and
determination of minimum downstream release requirements for hydropower water supply, cooling plants and
other facilities. Knowledge of the frequency distribution of the drought events is useful as it contributes to the
assessment of drought risks which have implications on the long term ecological, economic and social well
being of the biological and human communities that make use of water from the various streams in a basin. In
this study five frequency distributions were fitted to drought duration and severity as determined from discharge
data from representative river gauge stations in the upper Tana Basin of Kenya. The frequency distributions
fitted to the two drought events were the Generalized Normal (GN) or 3-parameter Lognormal, Generalized
Extreme Value (GEV) or the Extreme Value Type III, Generalized Pareto (GPA), Pearson Type III (P3) and
Generalized Logistic (GL). The distributions of best fit for the drought events were identified using the Z value
obtained from the average L-moment statistics of a particular candidate distribution and the average L-moment
statistics. The Z value for each homogenous region was determined from sample estimates of Lcv , Lcs and Lck that
were determined from probability weighted moment estimators and the weighted means of Lcv, Lcs and Lck using
records from the river gauging stations representing each hydrologically homogenous region. A frequency
distribution of best fit was selected if ׀ZDis׀ ≤ 1.64 and the one with the lowest ׀ZDis׀ value selected as the distribution
of best fit. Results showed that the frequency distribution of best fit for duration and severity was the Generalized
Normal while the Pearson Type III distribution was the distribution of worst fit for both duration and severity.
Key words: hydrological drought, drought events, frequency distribution, modeling

Agwata JF. "A Review of Some Indices used for Drought Studies." Civil and Environmental Research. 2014;Vol.6, No.2. Abstract10842-13144-1-pb.pdf

Droughts are serious extreme events that have adverse effects on the physical environment and water resource
systems in both developed and developing countries. Consequently, there is need for adequate measures for
responding to and mitigating various impacts arising from drought occurrence. The design and implementation
of drought mitigation and response strategies requires an understanding of the various indices that are used to
examine drought both at single site and in an area. In the case of water resources management during critical
drought periods for instance, a means of objectively identifying drought events in terms time and duration of
occurrence, magnitude and severity is required. This is possible only using various indices to characterize
drought. In this paper, some of the key drought indices are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses
identified.

Agwata JF. "Causes of Forest loss and Suggestions on Forest Conservation and Protection in Kenya." First Joint Environmental Research Seminar, Stanley Hotel, Nairobi, 12th June 2006; 2006. Abstract
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Agwata JF. "Water Management in the Tana Basin of Kenya: Potential Conflicts and Interventions.". Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, Vol., 2(2): 69-74. ISSN 0972-9860; 2005. Abstract
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Agweyu A, Kibore M, Digolo L, Kosgei C, Maina V, Mugane S, Muma S, Wachira J, Waiyego M, Maleche-Obimbo E. "Prevalence and correlates of treatment failure among Kenyan children hospitalised with severe community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study of the clinical effectiveness of WHO pneumonia case management guidelines." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2014;19(11):1310-20. Abstract

To determine the extent and pattern of treatment failure (TF) among children hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia at a large tertiary hospital in Kenya.

Ahangar S, Zaz M, Shah M, Wani SN. "Perforated subhepatic appendix presenting as gas under diaphragm." Indian Journal of Surgery. 2010;72:273-274. AbstractWebsite
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Ahmad J, Thomson S, Taylor M, Scoffield J. "A reminder of the classical biochemical sequelae of adult gastric outlet obstruction." BMJ Case Reports. 2011;2011. AbstractWebsite

The commonest cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is pyloric stenosis secondary to peptic ulcer disease or gastric carcinoma. Patients with GOO have unique metabolic sequelae, namely hypochloraemic, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis with paradoxical aciduria and hypocalcaemia. A case of a patient presenting as GOO is discussed. The aim of this report is to highlight the metabolic abnormalities and management in patients with GOO.

Ahmed I, Asgeirsson KS, Beckingham IJ, Lobo DN. "The position of the vermiform appendix at laparoscopy." Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2007;29:165-168. AbstractWebsite

Background The vermiform appendix has no constant position and the data on the variations in its position are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the various positions of the appendix at laparoscopy. Methods Patients undergoing emergency or elective laparoscopy at a university teaching hospital between April and September 2004 were studied prospectively. The positions of the appendix and the caecum were determined after insertion of the laparoscope, prior to any other procedure and the relative frequencies calculated. Results A total of 303 (102 males and 201 females) patients with a median age of 52 years (range 18–93 years) were studied. An emergency appendicectomy was performed in 67 patients, 49 had a diagnostic laparoscopy, 179 underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and eight had other procedures. The caecum was at McBurney’s point in 245 (80.9%) patients, pelvic in 45 (14.9%) and high lying in 13 (4.3%). The appendix was pelvic in 155 (51.2%) patients, pre-ileal in 9 (3.0%), para-caecal in 11 (3.6%), post-ileal in 67 (22.1%) and retrocaecal in 61 (20.1%) patients. Conclusion Contrary to the common belief the appendix is more often found in the pelvic rather than the retrocaecal position. There is also considerable variation in the position of the caecum.

Ahoya CO, Ogollah K. "Influence of Information Technology Innovations on Performance of Kenya Commercial Banks ltd." International journal of innovative Reaserch & studies. 2014;3(4).ahoya_and_ogollah_2014.pdf
Ahramjian L, Carson A, Collins P, Kirloss R, Lang J, Makunda C, Moses Z, Oh SJ, Reinhardt J, Service E, Smith M, Styger K, Vagen K. The Philadelphia Public Space Project. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania; 2008.
Ahuya CO;, Okeyo AM;, Peacock C. "Development of dairy goat industry in Kenya: A case study."; 2004.
Ahuya, CO; Okeyo AM; MFM. Productivity of cross-bred goats under smallholder production systems in the Eastern highlands of Kenya1.; 2005. Abstract

Dairy goats have become increasingly popular among smallholder mixed crop-livestock farmers. Their profitability will determine their growth within smallholder production systems. A survey was carried out in 114 farmer groups, representing 435 goat herds and 1676 goats. Data on reproductive and growth performance, milk production and flock dynamics (deaths, births, and sales) were collected between October 2001 and September 2003. The genotypes involved were the local East African goat, pure Toggenburg (T) and their crosses (F1) and 3/4T. Using the Livestock Productivity Efficiency Calculator (LPEC) as an input framework, herd structure, gross margins and herd growth were calculated based on feed efficiency. The parameter used was the annual total value of off- take per carrying capacity unit (CCU), which was defined as a standard livestock unit consuming 100 Mega joules of metabolisable energy (ME) per day. The goat enterprise proved to be profitable Annual gross margins of over US $259 were recorded indicating that dairy goat enterprises under smallholder production systems can be profitable,(the USD exchange rate at March 2005 was 77 Kenya shillings to US $1)

Ahuya CO;, Okeyo, A.M; Hendy. C, Hendy. C. "Community-based Livestock Improvement: A Case Study Of The Farm-africa."; 2001.
Ahuya CO;, Cartwright TC;, Ruvuna F;, Okeyo AM. "Additive and heterotic effects from crossbreeding goats in Kenya."; 1987.
AI K, Gachago MM, LO N, JM N. The Quality Of Life Of Primary Caregivers Of Children With Retinoblastoma At Kenyatta National Hospital. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Aila FO, Nyangara CA, Ojera PB, Owaga EE, Odera O, Ogutu M. "The Future Of Organizations: Musings Of A Manager." ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES AND EDUCATION. 2013;2(2). Abstractthe_future_of_organizations_musings_of_a_manager.pdf

Dominant forces of the last century, developments in science and technology, the presence of ideological rigidities and the complexity of organizational environment will continually shape the future. Developments in human skills can readily catapult organizations to their future. Four views of the future highlighted include: the future is an extension of the past; the future is new; the future is now; and the future is somewhat “past”. In our attempt to (re)invent the future, we need a leadership skill that will propel the organization to its future.
Keywords: Future organizations, leadership, environment

AJ W, C S, JL A. "Oral herpes simplex virus type 1 infection following cadaveric renal transplantation in a young type 1 diabetic female. The role of acyclovir: a case report." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(12):709-11. Abstract

Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

AJ A, DO O, GO O, Oriaso, Nanyingi MO, Nyamongo IK, B.A. B, Estambale BA. "Sensitivity of Vegetation to Climate Variability and its Implications for Malaria Risk in Baringo, Kenya." PLoS One. 2018;13(7).
AJ W, A M, A T, R R, CD M, R G. "Netilmycin and vancomycin in the treatment of peritonitis in CAPD patients." Clin Nephrol.. 1992;37(4):209-13. Abstract

This study was undertaken to evaluate: 1. The efficacy of netilmycin and vancomycin as combined first line antimicrobial regime, compared to cefuroxime, in the treatment of peritonitis. 2. To measure the levels of netilmycin and vancomycin in the serum and dialysate. 3. To report on the use of this combination over a one year period and compare it with that of cefuroxime used during the previous one year.

AJ RODRIGUES, CA MOTURI. Training of information analysts at the Institute of Computer Science, University of Nairobi. New Delhi, India : Tata McGraw Publishing Company ; 1992. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

AJ RODRIGUES, GP P, CA MOTURI. Reviews of Logistic Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology. University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; 1994.
AJ H, AJ W, HF B, EB M, I L, R. G. "Hypercalcaemia, hypermagnesaemia, hyperphosphataemia and hyperaluminaemia in CAPD: improvement in serum biochemistry by reduction in dialysate calcium and magnesium concentrations." Nephron. . 1996;72(1):52-8. Abstract

Phosphate binders are necessary to control hyperphosphataemia in the majority of dialysis patients. Whilst aluminium salts are efficient phosphate binders, their use is associated with toxic side effects. Calcium salts are a widely used alternative, but hypercalcaemia is a common side effect, limiting their use and raising concern about metastatic calcification. Reduction of the dialysis fluid calcium concentration has been shown to reduce hypercalcaemia in haemodialysis patients, with an associated decrease in serum PTH. We analysed the effect of reduced calcium/magnesium (1.25/0.25 mmol/l), 40 mmol/l lactate, PD fluid (PD4) on 11 CAPD patients with uncontrollable hypercalcaemia (> 2.65 mmol/l) and hyperphosphataemia (> 1.80 mmol/l). Only 1 patient remained hypercalcaemic, while phosphate fell in 6 patients (2.23 +/- 0.16 on no binder, to 1.68 +/- 0.08 mmol/l at 6 months (p < 0.05), but was unchanged in 5 (2.10 +/- 0.15 to 2.48 +/- 0.14 mmol/l [p = NS]). Overall mean calcium x phosphate product changed little. However, in a subgroup it fell significantly (p < 0.05). Geometric mean iPTH rose, but not significantly. The subgroup of patients whose calcium x phosphate product fell, exhibited a much smaller rise in iPTH than the others (57.3-73.2 vs. 52.8-167.1 pg/ml). 1.25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 was subnormal in all patients. Mean serum magnesium fell from 1.24 +/- 0.06 to 0.89 +/- 0.04 mmol/l (p < 0.001), whilst mean serum bicarbonate rose significantly (25.2 +/- 0.4 to 28.9 +/- 1.2 mmol/l; p < 0.01). Withdrawal of aluminium-containing phosphate binders resulted in mean serum aluminium falling significantly from 31.1 +/- 5.7 at start of PD4 to 15.4 +/- 2.7 mu g/l at 6 months (p < 0.05). In summary, in around 50% of CAPD patients with persistent hypercalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia, reduction in PD fluid calcium can produce significant improvement in phosphate, reduction of calcium x phosphate product, and enable avoidance of aluminium-containing phosphate binders. Patients whose calcium and phosphate control remains poor, still benefit from the reduction, or cessation, of oral aluminium intake.

AJ O’o, Z Q, M O. "Infection in pregnancy; understanding impact on placental microenvironment and preterm birth: a review." JOGECA . 2018;29(1). Abstract

Background: Pregnancy increases susceptibility to and severity of infections caused by certain microbes and
parasites. The presence of these infectious agents at the maternofetal interface may lead to adverse pregnancy
outcomes including preterm birth either via direct action of the microbes or indirectly via alteration of the placental
microenvironment.
Objective: To summarize the literature regarding the role of various infectious agents in alteration of placental
microenvironment and predisposition to preterm birth.
Method: A review search using Google scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Trip database was conducted at the
University of California San Francisco. A total of 880 abstracts were reviewed and a total of 95 studies were included.
Studies were included if they reported any information on infection during pregnancy, effect on placenta or fetal
membranes or risk of preterm birth.
Results: The current evidence indicates that various infectious agents affect pregnancy and alter placental
microenvironment at the maternofetal interface. Severity of these infections increases with gestation. Additionally,
these infections are associated with the risk of adverse obstetric outcomes including preterm birth.
Conclusion: Prevention, early detection and treatment of these infections including those that are asymptomatic is
important in maintaining integrity of the placenta and in reducing the burden of preterm births.

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