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2018
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwong’a, R., Mureithi, S.M., and Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Pasture enclosures increase soil carbon dioxide flux rate in Semiarid Rangeland, Kenya." Carbon balance and management. 2018;13(1):24.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwong’a, R., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Pasture enclosures increase soil carbon dioxide flux rate in Semiarid Rangeland, Kenya. ." Carbon balance and management. 2018;13(1):24.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwong’a, R., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Pasture enclosures increase soil carbon dioxide flux rate in Semiarid Rangeland, Kenya. Carbon balance and management, 13(1), p.24." Carbon balance and management. 2018;13(1):24.
Ouma DO, Cyril NO, Mutave RJ. "Pathological Findings on Dental Panoramic Tomograms of Edentulous Patients Seen at a University Hospital." Journal of Oral Health and Craniofacial Science. 2018;3:025-028.
Wetendea E, Olago D, Ogarac W. "Perceptions of climate change variability and adaptation strategies on smallholder dairy farming systems: Insights from Siaya Sub-County of Western Kenya." Environmental Development. 2018;27:14-25. AbstractWebsite

Climate change and variability is bound to impact Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems as a result of overreliance on rainfed fodder production; yet climate models project increased frequencies of droughts that have a bearing on the Length of Growing Period. Similarly higher environmental temperatures are partly attributed to biome-range shifts, implying a likelihood of emerging and re-emergence of livestock and fodder diseases and pests. Nonetheless not much is documented of perceptions and adaptation strategies employed by Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems geared towards resilience to climatie shocks. By employing a mixed method approach that included household surveys, focused group discussions and statistical data analysis using SPSS package, this study aimed to bridge some of the existing gaps in adaptation strategies on Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems in Siaya Sub-County of Western Kenya. Survey results obtained from 100 households and Focused Group Discussions revealed that the climate of the study location was perceived to have changed, with droughts singled out as the most frequent. These perceptions were consistent with long-term climate data analysis which affirmed that all seasons, i.e. MAM, JJA, and DJF with the exception of SON showed longterm drying trends. Similarly, environmental temperature showed upward trends in both maximum and minimum temperatures that were perceived to be the cause of proliferation of noxious weeds previously associated with hotter areas of the Sub-County. Typologies of adaptation strategies used in the study showed that adaptation options were limited since these were viewed through a narrow lens of disease control by regular spraying and maize stovers as supplementary livestock feed during fodder dearth periods. This study recommends that besides awareness creation of adverse impacts of climate change and variability, facilitation for ease of access to technologies that ameliorate its adverse effects ought to be put in place. Additionally, empirical studies on consequences of biome range shifts on pasture and fodder productivity, and future possible impacts of diseases on Bos taurus breeds associated with climate change and variability should be undertaken.

Robinson A, Busula AO, Voets MA, Beshir KB, Caulfield JC, Powers SJ, Niels O Verhulst, Winskill P, Muwanguzi J, Birkett MA, Renate C Smallegange, Masiga DK, Mukabana RW, Sauerwe RW. "Plasmodium-associated changes in human odor attract mosquitoes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(18):E4209-E4218.
Okoth C, Opanga S, Okalebo F, Oluka M, Kurdi AB, Godman B. "Point prevalence survey of antibiotic use and resistance at a referral hospital in Kenya: findings and implications. ." Hospital Practice. 2018.
Dzupire NC, Ngare P, Odongo L. "A Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data." Journal of Probability and Statistics. 2018;2018(1012647). AbstractA Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data

Rainfall modeling is significant for prediction and forecasting purposes in agriculture, weather derivatives, hydrology, and risk and disaster preparedness. Normally two models are used to model the rainfall process as a chain dependent process representing the occurrence and intensity of rainfall. Such two models help in understanding the physical features and dynamics of rainfall process. However rainfall data is zero inflated and exhibits overdispersion which is always underestimated by such models. In this study we have modeled the two processes simultaneously as a compound Poisson process. The rainfall events are modeled as a Poisson process while the intensity of each rainfall event is Gamma distributed. We minimize overdispersion by introducing the dispersion parameter in the model implemented through Tweedie distributions. Simulated rainfall data from the model shows a resemblance of the actual rainfall data in terms of seasonal variation, means, variance, and magnitude. The model also provides mechanisms for small but important properties of the rainfall process. The model developed can be used in forecasting and predicting rainfall amounts and occurrences which is important in weather derivatives, agriculture, hydrology, and prediction of drought and flood occurrences.

and Timammy JHR. "Politeness among the Swahili of Mombasa: A family perspective." Mwanga wa Lugha - Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha nyingine za Kiafrika Chuo Kikuu cha Moi . 2018;2(2412-6993):35-53 .
Aduma MM, Ouma G, Said MY, Wayumba GO, Omondi PA, Njino LW. "Potential Impacts of Temperature Projections on Selected Large Herbivores in Savanna Ecosystem of Kenya." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(1):5-26. Abstractpotential_impacts_of_temperature_projections_on_selected_large_herbivores_in_savanna_ecosystem_of_kenya.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Due to global land surface warming, severe temperature events are expected to occur more frequently and more extremely causing changes in biodiversity and altering movement and survival of large herbivores. There are increasing observations of escalating wildlife range losses worldwide. In this study, we investigated 15 large wild herbivores (4 migratory, 1 dispersing and 10 residents) and their potential range changes in relation to projected temperatures changes based on three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Previous studies of Kenyan savannah have shown that increases in temperature can reduce the densities of wildlife significantly and after certain thresholds the species can be lost in those landscapes. The range maps of the 15 species were developed from aerial censuses that have been conducted in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. We analysed temperature changes for the three RCPs for the periods 2030s, 2050s and 2070s. And based on the temperature threshold for each of the 15 species we analysed which wildlife range areas will be lost. Our results project that for the RCP 2.6, 3 out of the 15 species are projected to lose more than 50% of their range by the year 2030s, and 5 out 15 by 2050s and 4 of 15 by 2070s. The second climate scenario of RCP 4.5 projects that by 2030s, 3 species will lose more than 50% of their range, and in 2050s and 2070s 5 species. The RCP 8.5 which is the extreme scenario of temperature changes projects 5 species to lose their range by 50% in 2030s, 7 species by 2050s and 10 species by 2070s. The extent of range loss was different among species but was severe for buffalo, Thomson’s gazelle, waterbuck, and wildebeest which are also water dependent species.
However, the elephant, gerenuk, hartebeest, lesser kudu, and oryx are expected to retain most of their range in all the RCPs scenarios. These range contractions raise serious concerns about the future of wildlife in Kenyan savannah based on projected climate changes. And therefore, it is imperative the wildlife sector develops climate policies and plans that take into account the projected climate scenarios.

R. Cherogony, Maru SM, Ndwigah SN. "Pre-formulation Study on Enhancing the Solubility of Albendazole. ." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2018;21:10-15.
Ongeso A, Omoni G. "Predisposing factors that lead to HIV seropositivity during pregnancy among women in Kakamega and Nairobi county Hospitals." International Journal for Science and Technology.. 2018;3 No 1(ISSN: 2415-6566). Abstract

In Kenya, there is limited empirical data on determinants of seropositivity in late pregnancy due to low uptake of HIV retesting in late pregnancy despite there being a policy directive to do so. Study objective was to determine the predisposing factors that lead to HIV seropositivity during pregnancy among women in Kakamega and Nairobi county Hospitals. A ten month longitudinal study was conducted employing both qualitative and quantitative design whereby 1,156 HIV positive and negative women were recruited in early pregnancy and followed up through pregnancy; they were interviewed, and retested.
Results showed that having multiple sex partners was associated with seropositivity. Cultural belief of men not having sex spouses in pregnancy encouraged extra marital affairs leading to seropositivity. In conclusion HIV seropositivity in pregnancy was mainly due to the risky sexual behavior. There is therefore need for behavior change to reverse retrogressive cultural beliefs and practices.

Key words Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Initial testing HIV Seropositivity HIV seroconversion Retesting

and Odundo Paul Amollo GKLNB. "Preparation and Management of Teaching Practice Process at University of Nairobi, Kenya: Appropriateness of Methods and Resource. ." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research . 2018;5(17).
Leasher JL, Braithwaite T, Furtado JM, Flaxman SR, Lansingh VC, Silva JC, S R, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." The British journal of ophthalmology. 2018. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment for distance and near in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in 2015 and to forecast trends to 2020.

METHODS: A meta-analysis from a global systematic review of 283 cross-sectional, population-representative studies from published and unpublished sources from 1980 to 2014 in the Global Vision Database included 17 published and 6 unpublished studies from LAC.

RESULTS: In 2015, across LAC, age-standardised prevalence was 0.38% in all ages and 1.56% in those over age 50 for blindness; 2.06% in all ages and 7.86% in those over age 50 for moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI); 1.89% in all ages and 6.93% in those over age 50 for mild vision impairment and 39.59% in all ages and 45.27% in those over 50 for near vision impairment (NVI). In 2015, 117.86 million persons were vision impaired; of those 2.34 million blind, 12.46 million with MSVI, 11.34 million mildly impaired and 91.72 million had NVI. Cataract is the most common cause of blindness. Undercorrected refractive-error is the most common cause of vision impairment.

CONCLUSIONS: These prevalence estimates indicate that one in five persons across LAC had some degree of vision loss in 2015. We predict that from 2015 to 2020, the absolute numbers of persons with vision loss will increase by 12% to 132.33 million, while the all-age age-standardised prevalence will decrease for blindness by 15% and for other distance vision impairment by 8%. All countries need epidemiologic research to establish accurate national estimates and trends. Universal eye health services must be included in universal health coverage reforms to address disparities, fragmentation and segmentation of healthcare.

Odongo DO, Tiampati CM, Mulinge E, Mbae CK, Bishop RP, Zeyhle E, Magambo J, Wasserman M, Kern P, Romig T. "Prevalence and genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus in sheep in Narok County, Kenya." Parasitology research. 2018;117(7):2065-2073.
LM. M, Ombui JN, FK M. "Prevalence and risk factors for campylobacter infection of chicken in peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya. ." J. Dairy, Veterinary and Animal Research . 2018;7: (1)00184.((1)):00184.
Nyirakanani C, Chibvongodze R, Habtu M, Masika M, Mukoko D, Njunwa KJ. "Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria among under-five children in Huye District, Southern Rwanda." Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2018;20(1). AbstractWebsite

Background: Enhanced malaria control has resulted in its reduction in some areas of Sub Saharan Africa including Rwanda. However, asymptomatic hosts serve as a reservoir for the malaria parasite for communities. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasites and risk factors associated with malaria infection among children underfive years in Huye district, Rwanda.

Methods: This community-based cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2016 among underfive years children. Asymptomatic children underfive years of age were randomly selected from 13 villages. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared from each child for malaria parasite diagnosis. Interviews with parents or guardians were conducted to collect data on malaria associated risk factors. Observations were made of the presence of mosquito breeding sites near and around the homestead.

Results: A total of 222 children were included in the study. Nearly a third (28.8%) of the children were within the age of 25-36 months. The majority (54%) of the children were females. Most of the parents/guardians were married (95.9%), nearly all (99.5%) had attended primary school and most (97.3%) were peasants. The overall Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in children was 12.2%. Children aged 1 to 12 months were 3.5 times more likely to have malaria parasites than children aged 13 to 59 months [AOR=3.56; 95%CI=1.18-10.71; p=0.024]. Children who were not sleeping under insecticide treated nets were 15 times more likely to be infected with malaria parasites compared to those who were sleeping under nets [AOR=15.27; 95%CI=4.42-52.82; p<0.001].

Conclusion: Malaria parasite prevalence in under-five year children in Huye District, Rwanda is moderate. The asymptomatic infections in the community forms a reservoir for transmission in the area. Young age of the child and not sleeping under mosquito net were associated with malaria parasite infection. The continuing use of mosquito nets needs to be emphasized.

Habib A, Odhiambo A, Othieno-Abinya N, Maina JMD. "Prevalence of Deep Venous Thrombosis in Cancer Patients Admitted to the Medical Wards at the Kenyatta National Hospital." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies. 2018;2(2):50-56. Abstract

ABSTRACT
The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of DVT in cancer patients at KNH medical and oncology wards, to describe patient characteristics of those with DVT vs those without and compare rates of DVT in different types of cancer. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital general medical wards and oncology wards. Patients were interviewed and examined. Patients’ records were perused for information relevant to the study. Patients with history and physical examination findings suggestive of a thrombotic event were screened by compression sonography to confirm a DVT. A total of 266 patients with a diagnosis of cancer were studied, 29 (10.9%) had DVT. Among the patients who were found to have DVT, 13 (44.8%) had gynaecological cancers, 3 (10.3%) breast cancer, 3(10.3%) prostate cancer, 3(10.3%) gastric cancer, 2(6.9%) patients had lymphoma and a patient (3.4%) each in the multiple myeloma, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer groups. Some significant patient characteristics in the patients who had a DVT were female sex (P value 0.014), presence of comorbidities (P 0.004) and ECOG scores of 3 and 4 (P 0.04, 0.001). Some common risk factors known for DVT were analysed and some were found to be significant in our patient group. Of the significant risk factors,
presence of comorbid condition, female sex and higher ECOG scores were noted. Keywords: DVT, VTE, ECOG, Comorbidities, Kenyatta National Hospital
Venous thromboembolic events in cancer are quite common and are a leading cause of morbidity, delays in care and death. As cancer is a heterogeneous disease, the risk of DVT depends on cancer types and stages, treatment
measures, and patient-related factors

Wambui A, ODHIAMBO A, Achieng L, Otieno CF, Bhatt SM. "Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Adult Human 
Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Persons at District Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2018;17(3):70-75.vitamin_d_deficiency_in_hiv.pdf
Chebet J, Waruiru RM, Ogola KO, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Wanyoike M, Aboge GO. "Prevalence, control and risk factors associated with rabbit mange in Kiambu and Nyeri counties, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2018;30(6).rmwa301081_2.pdf
Kalai JM, Kingi PM. "Principals’ influence on Participatory Discipline Management in Secondary Schools, Kenya,." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;5(2):168-175.
Wachege PN, Mulunda JB. "Problems between Migrant Ethnic Groups and Indigenous Agikuyu Community in Ruaka, Kiambu County." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2018;23(1):76-87.wachege_and_bukokhes_2018_article.pdf
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Profesa Mohamed Hassan Abdulaziz: Mwanaisimu, Mwandishi na Mwalimu wa Walimu.". In: Isimu na Fasihi ya Lugha za Kiafrika. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2018.
"Profile of amblyopia at Sabatia Eye Hospital." Journal of Eastern central and southern college of Ophthalmology. 2018;22(1):24-30.profile_of_amblyopia_in_sabatia.pdf
Oluoch KR, Okanya PW, HATTI-KAUL RAJNI, MATTIASSON BO, Mulaa FJ. "Protease-, Pectinase- and Amylase- Producing Bacteria from a Kenyan Soda Lake." The Open Biotechnology Journal. 2018;12:33-45.
Shihembetsa DLU. "Provision of Low-Income Housing through National Cooperative Housing Union (NACHU) in Kenya: An appraisal of the Project Delivery Structures." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies (IJCRS). . 2018;Volume-2, (, Issue-8, August 2018):(66-80).
x James Karenge GGWM &. "Public Policy Marketing Practices and Performance of Poverty Reduction Projects in the Agricultural Sector in Central Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Humanities . 2018;4(2).
Obosi OJOO& A. "Public Private Partnerships as a redistributive strategy in in University Education in Kenya." International Journal Of Innovative Knowledge and Research . 2018;3(9):44-55.
Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "The quality of anti-malarial medicines in Embu County, Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2018;17:330. Abstract

Background:
Malaria is a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa where over 90% of the world’s malaria cases occur. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization as first-line and second-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, there are a growing number of reports of sub-standard and falsified anti-malarial medicines in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Embu County, Kenya on the quality of anti-malarial medicines available in public and private facilities. Sampling of anti-malarial medicines from public and private hospitals, health centers and pharmacies was conducted between May and June 2014. Quality control tests were performed at the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, University of Nairobi, using ultraviolet spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. A test for microbial load was also conducted for suspension formulations.

Results:
A total of 39 samples were collected from public and private facilities across the Embu County. A visual inspection of the medicines showed no signs of sub-standard or falsification. All ACT passed identification, assay and dissolution tests. Of 11 suspension samples collected, none failed the microbial load test although one sample had 50 colony forming units (cfu). No oral artemisinin monotherapy medicines were encountered during the survey. Amodiaquine and chloroquine monotherapy products accounted for 5% of the collected samples, despite their ban in Kenya. Two herbal anti-malarial formulations were collected during the survey. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) was also found to be available use for malaria treatment, not in accordance with malaria treatment guidelines.

Conclusion:
All the anti-malarial drugs analysed in this study passed the quality control tests. This is encouraging given the high malaria burden in Kenya. Regulatory actions are required to counter SP and herbal products for malaria treatment.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "The quality of anti-malarial medicines in Embu County, Kenya." Malaria Journal . 2018;17:30.
Mutundi AN, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM, Leley PK, Nzuve FM. "Quality of farm saved maize (zea mays l.) Seeds and its effect on field establishment." International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences. 2018;5(6):2348-3997.
Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Quantification of carbon stocks in Mount Marsabit Forest Reserve, a sub-humid montane forest in northern Kenya under anthropogenic disturbance." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14. AbstractWebsite

The quantification of carbon stocks is vital for decision making in forest management, carbon stock change assessment and scientific applications. We applied the land degradation surveillance framework (LDSF) method with a sentinel site of (10 km × 10 km) to assess carbon stock levels and tree diversity in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR). The above ground (ABG) carbon stock was estimated at 12.42 t/ha, while soil organic carbon (SOC) was 12.51 t/ha, with SOC densities increasing with increasing depth. The mean ABG carbon and SOC densities were higher in the least disturbed strata than the disturbed strata. The estimated ABG carbon and SOC stocks were significantly lower than the range observed in a typical dry tropical forest. Twenty-one tree species were recorded belonging to twelve families with the disturbed areas recording nine tree species while the least disturbed recording twelve species. Rubiaceae and Rutaceae were the richest families with four species each while Boraginaceae, Capparaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Tiliaceae, Violaceae, and Ochnaceae the least frequent with one species each. The most common tree species were, Croton megalocarpus, Drypetes gerrardii, Ochna insculpta, Strychnos henningsii and Vangueria madagascariensis. The forest recorded a basal diameter of 14.09 ± 12.15 cm, basal area of 0.016 m 2/ha with a mean height of 8.69 m. The basal size class distribution declined monotonically indicative of a stable population. Livestock grazing, selective logging, and firewood collection were the primary forms of anthropogenic activities recorded in the MFR despite the moratorium imposed on consumptive utilisation of forest products by the Marsabit County security committee. The Pearson correlation coefficient returned an inverse relationship between forest disturbance with SOC and ABG carbon in the disturbed strata suggesting that anthropogenic activities reduced carbon stocks in the MFR. Concerted efforts to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on the MFR could significantly increase its terrestrial carbon sequestration potential and the provision of critical ecosystem goods and services.

Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Quantification of carbon stocks in Mount Marsabit Forest Reserve, a sub-humid montane forest in northern Kenya under anthropogenic disturbance." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;14. AbstractFull Text

The quantification of carbon stocks is vital for decision making in forest management, carbon stock change assessment and scientific applications. We applied the land degradation surveillance framework (LDSF) method with a sentinel site of (10 km × 10 km) to assess carbon stock levels and tree diversity in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR). The above ground (ABG) carbon stock was estimated at 12.42 t/ha, while soil organic carbon (SOC) was 12.51 t/ha, with SOC densities increasing with increasing depth. The mean ABG carbon and SOC densities were higher in the least disturbed strata than the disturbed strata. The estimated ABG carbon and SOC stocks were significantly lower than the range observed in a typical dry tropical forest. Twenty-one tree species were recorded belonging to twelve families with the disturbed areas recording nine tree species while the least disturbed recording twelve species. Rubiaceae and Rutaceae were the richest families with four species each while Boraginaceae, Capparaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Tiliaceae, Violaceae, and Ochnaceae the least frequent with one species each. The most common tree species were, Croton megalocarpus, Drypetes gerrardii, Ochna insculpta, Strychnos henningsii and Vangueria madagascariensis. The forest recorded a basal diameter of 14.09 ± 12.15 cm, basal area of 0.016 m 2/ha with a mean height of 8.69 m. The basal size class distribution declined monotonically indicative of a stable population. Livestock grazing, selective logging, and firewood collection were the primary forms of anthropogenic activities recorded in the MFR despite the moratorium imposed on consumptive utilisation of forest products by the Marsabit County security committee. The Pearson correlation coefficient returned an inverse relationship between forest disturbance with SOC and ABG carbon in the disturbed strata suggesting that anthropogenic activities reduced carbon stocks in the MFR. Concerted efforts to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on the MFR could significantly increase its terrestrial carbon sequestration potential and the provision of critical ecosystem goods and services.

Kaniu MI, Angeyo HK, Darby IG, Muia LM. "Rapid in-situ radiometric assessment of the Mrima-Kiruku high background radiation anomaly complex of Kenya." J. Environ. Radioact.. 2018;188:47-57. Abstract

n/a

Angeyo KH, Bhatt B, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via machine-learning-enabled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).". 2018;(Published Online: 03 June 2019). Abstract

Nuclear forensics (NF) is an analytical methodology that involves analysis of intercepted nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) so as to establish their nuclear attribution. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid, minimally invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to overcome these limitations with the aid of machine-learning (ML) techniques. In this paper, we report the development of ML-enabled LIBS methodology for rapid NF analysis and attribution in support of nuclear security. The atomic uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm, and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures of uranium for rapid qualitative detection of trace uranium concealed in organic binders and uranium-bearing mineral ores. The limit of detection of uranium using LIBS was determined to be 34 ppm. A multivariate calibration strategy for the quantification of trace uranium in cellulose and uranium-bearing mineral ores was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN, a feed forward back-propagation algorithm) and spectral feature selection: (1) uranium lines (348 nm to 455 nm), (2) uranium lines (380 nm to 388 nm), and (3) subtle uranium peaks (UV range). The model utilizing category 2 was able to predict the 48 ppm of uranium with a relative error prediction (REP) of 10%. The calibration model utilizing subtle uranium peaks, that is, category 3, could predict uranium in the pellets prepared from certified reference material (CRM) IAEA-RGU-1, with an REP of 6%. This demonstrates the power of ANN to model noisy LIBS spectra for trace quantitative analysis. The calibration model we developed predicted uranium concentrations in the uranium-bearing mineral ores in the range of 54–677 ppm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the LIBS spectra (200–980 nm) utilizing feature selection of the uranium-bearing samples collected from different regions of Kenya clustered into groups related to their geographic origins. The PCA loading spectrum revealed that the groupings of these samples were mainly due to rare earth elements, namely, cerium, dysprosium, praseodymium, promethium, neodymium, and samarium. ML-enabled LIBS therefore has utility in field NF analysis and attribution of uranium in NRM under concealed conditions.

Bulinda DM. "Reflections on management ethics and managemen integrityin Higher education management ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10).
Amuti TM, Butt F, Otieno BO, Ogeng'o JA. "The relation of the extracranial spinal accessory nerve to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the internal jugular vein. Cranial Maxillofac Trauma Reconstruction." Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction. 2018;12(2):108-111. Abstract

The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) exhibits variant anatomy in its relation to the internal jugular vein (IJV) as well as the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). These variations are important in locating the nerve during surgical neck procedures to avoid its inadvertent injury. These variations, however, are not conserved among different populations and data from the Kenyan setting are partly elucidated. This study, therefore, aims to determine the variant anatomical relationship of the SAN to the SCM and IJV in a select Kenyan population. Forty cadaveric necks were studied bilaterally during routine dissection and the data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Means and modes were calculated for the point of entry of the SAN into the posterior triangle of the neck as well as for its relation to the SCM. Side variations for both of these were analyzed using Student's t -test. Data relating the SAN to the IJV were represented in percentages and side variations were analyzed using the chi-square test. The SAN point of entry into the posterior triangle of the neck was 5.38 cm (3.501-8.008 cm) on the left side and 5.637 cm (3.504-9.173 cm) on the right side ( p  = 0.785) from the mastoid process. The nerve perforated the SCM in four cases (10%) on the left side and in eight cases (20%) on the right ( p  = 0.253). The SAN lay predominantly medial to the IJV on both sides of the neck, 87.5% on the left side of the neck versus 82.5% on the right ( p  = 0.831). In conclusion, the variant relation of the SAN to the IJV and SCM as observed in this setting is an important consideration during radical neck procedures and node biopsies.

C.M. MM; GR;WO; HG &. "Relationship between Age Diversity and Employee Performance of Public Universities in Western Kenya. ." International Journal of Academic Research in Business & Social Sciences . 2018;8(11).
Kalai JM. "Relationship between administrative service quality and students’ satisfaction in public universities in Kenya. ." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;6(1):20-30.
Kinuthia JW, Odiemo L. "RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADULT EDUCATION AND SELF-ESTEEM OF WOMEN IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Social Science and Technology . 2018;3(3):39-53.joyce_kinuthia-adult_education_and_self-esteem4._may_2018.pdf
Katembu MS, Okunya LO. "Relationship between Alcohol Use Disorder and Expression Suppression among Youth Seeking Help in Rehabilitation Centers in Kiambu County, Kenya ." Triple A Research Journal of Social Science and Humanity . 2018;2(2).
Oketch-Oboth JWB, Okunya LO. "The Relationship Between Levels of Stress and Academic Performance Among University of Nairobi Students ." International Journal of Learning and Development . 2018;8(4):1-20.oketch-_adjustment_ijessr_01_92-1.pdf
Ogilo Fredrick, Omwoyo Jeremiah ZO3. "The Relationship between Liquidity Risk and Failure of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Universal Journal of Accounting and Finance . 2018;6(1)(2018):7-13.
Oketch-Oboth JWB, Okunya LO. "THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRESS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT AMONG UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI STUDENTS ." International Journal of Education and Social Science Research . 2018;1(6).oketch-_adjustment_ijessr_01_92-1.pdf
Kalai, J.M.& Kara AM. "Relationship between teaching quality and students’ satisfaction in public universities in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;6(1):63-78.
Asingo PO. "Relative Deprivation, Protests and Voting in Kenya." Commonwealth and Comparative Politics . 2018;56(1):65-83.Relative Deprivation
and Ganira Khavugwi Lilian, Odundo Paul Amollo GJMJNC. "Relevance of Social Studies Curriculum Content for Enhancing Responsibility among Preschool Children in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Education and Training. 2018.
Muriithi GM, Olago DO, Ouma GO, Oriaso SO. "Reliability of Indigenous Traditional Knowledge and Conventional Weather Forecasting in the Face of Climate Change and Variability in Baringo County, Kenya." . International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 2018;9(7):28136-28141. Abstract10674-a-2018.pdfWebsite

The research study evaluated the reliability of Indigenous Traditional Knowledge (ITK) and conventional weather forecasts in the face of climate change and variability in Baringo County, Kenya. Systematic sampling technique was applied in drawing a sample size of 454 pastoralists and agro-pastoralists interviewed. Majority (68%) of the respondents have not been aware of blend/mixture of ITK and scientific forecasting techniques. Majority (78% ,77 %,74%, 61%,73%,73% and 71%) of the respondents perceived that conventional weather forecast approach is reliable on predicting short-rains season, long-rain season, rainfall intensity, landslide, thunder storm, expected rainfall onset and cessation, and El-Nino respectively. The majority (71%, 69%, 75% and 64%) of the pastoralists and agro-pastoralists professed that ITK weather forecast approach is reliable on predicting floods, seasonal rain distribution, temperatures and La-Nina respectively. None of the two weather forecasts approaches could exhaustively forecast the climate/weather events alone. The integration of the two approaches is ultimate for effective reliability.

Mwinzi JM. "Religion Escalates Social and Ethical Diversity in Kenya." European Journal of Education Studies. 2018;4(1):323-343.
Wambu EW, Attahiru S, Shiundu PM, wabomba J. "Removal of heavy-metals from wastewater using a hydrous alumino-silicate mineral from Kenya." Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. 2018;32(1):39-51. AbstractAJOL Journal

Description

Heavy metals’ discharge into the environment continues to pose grave concerns around the world. The efficacy of a hydrous alumino-silicate clay (AlSiM) coming obtained from some regions of Kenya to sorb heavy-metal ions from water has been evaluated in batch tests taking into account changes in adsorbent dose, pH, contact time, and temperature. Complete metal removals, from water containing up to 66 mg/L of Pb (II) was achieved using this material at pH value of 5 over a temperature range of 289–333 K. The adsorption data fitted both the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms with R 2> 0.99. The DR adsorption energy (− 11.7 kJ/mol) indicated that chemisorption was the primary reaction in the adsorption process and the derived∆ G 0 value (− 7.45 kJ/mol) was consistent with the spontaneity of the adsorption process. The kinetic analyses indicated a film-diffusion and surface-chemisorption controlled process. Verification of the initial results on heavy metals-containing wastewaters obtained from a tannery and a leather processing industries revealed excellent adsorption efficacies of AlSiM for Cr 3+(99− 100%), Fe 3+(96− 98%), Mn 2+(85− 97%) and Zn 2+(78− 86%). The use of AlSiM as a plausible low-cost adsorbent for heavy-metal decontamination of industrial effluents has therefore been demonstrated.

Nemerimana M, Chege M, Odhiambo EA. "Risk Factors Associated with Severity of Nongenetic Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) among Children Aged 2–18 Years Attending Kenyatta National Hospital." Neurology Research International. 2018. Abstract

Many of the nongenetic causal risk factors of intellectual disability (ID) can be prevented if they are identified early.
There is paucity on information regarding potential risk factors associated with this condition in Kenya.This study aimed to establish
risk factors associated with severity of nongenetic intellectual disability (ID) among children presenting with this condition at
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted over the period between March
and June 2017 in pediatric and child/youth mental health departments of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. It included
children aged 2–18 years diagnosed with ID without underlying known genetic cause. Results. Of 97 patients with nongenetic
ID, 24% had mild ID, 40% moderate, 23% severe-profound, and 10% unspecified ID. The mean age of children was 5.6 (±3.6)
years. Male children were predominant (62%). Three independent factors including “labor complications” [AOR = 9.45, 95% CI =
1.23–113.29,

Wanjeri JK, Kinoti M, Olewe THAM. "Risk factors for burn injuries and fire safety awareness among patients hospitalized at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: A case control study." Burns. 2018;Jan 29(pii: S0305-4179(17)):Burns. 2018 30611-3. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2017.11.007.
Kariuki PM, Onyango CM, Lukhoba CW, Njoka JT. "The Role of Indigenous Knowledge on Use and Conservation of Wild Medicinal Food Plants in Loita Sub-county, Narok County." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 2018;28(2):1-9.
Kariuki PM, Cecilia M Onyango, Catherine W Lukhoba JNT. "The Role of Indigenous Knowledge on Use and Conservation of Wild Medicinal Food Plants in Loita Sub-county, Narok County." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 2018:1-9.
Muricho DN, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W. "The role of pastoralists’ indigenous knowledge and practices in reducing household food insecurity in West Pokot, Kenya: A binary probit analysis. ." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics (JDAE). 2018;10(7)(ISSN: 2006-9774):236-245.
Mutekhele B; Rambo, C.M; Ongati NO; RO. "Routine Program Monitoring and Performance of Educational Building Infrastructural Projects: A Case of Bungoma County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2018;5(9).
EK G, GO O, A G, KM B, B M, FO O, RG C. "Sarcocystosis: a rare polymyositis mimic." Afr J Rheumatol . 2018;6(1):18-19.sarcocystosis.pdf
Mwangi, E.W.& Okoth UA. "School Based Factors Influencing Pupils’ Discipline in Complimentary Primary Schools in Makadara Sub-County, Nairobi, Kenya." The International Journal of Science & Technoledge. 2018;6(4):78-83 .
Onyambu1* CK, Tharamba2 NM. "Screening for congenital fetal anomalies in low risk pregnancy: the Kenyatta National Hospital experience." BMC pregnancy and child birth. 2018;18(180):1-9.
M.E Y, Kimani PM, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Muthomi JW. "Screening Upland Rice Genotypes for Grain Yield and Grain Quality in Kenya." Research journali’s Journal of Agriculture. 2018;5(7):1-15.
Birithia R, Subramanian S, Muthomi JW, Narla RD. "Seasonal dynamics and alternate hosts of thrips transmitted Iris yellow spot virus in Kenya." African Crop Science Journal . 2018;26(3):365-376.
Hashim S Mohamed, Agnes Muthumbi, John Githaiga JO. "Sediment macro- and meiobenthic fauna distribution along the Kenyan continental shelf." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2018;17(2):103-116.
Hashim S Mohamed, Agnes Muthumbi, John Githaiga JO. "Sediment macro- and meiobenthic fauna distribution along the Kenyan continental shelf." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2018;17(2):103-116.
Mumia BI, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nyongesa MW, Olubayo FM. "Seed Potato Production Practices and Quality of Farm Saved Seed Potato in Kiambu and Nyandarua Counties in Kenya." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;6(1):20-30.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(7):e0199357.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya.; 2018. Abstractjournal.pone_.0199357.pdfWebsite

The global increase in vector borne diseases has been linked to climate change. Seasonal vegetation changes are known to influence disease vector population. However, the relationship is more theoretical than quantitatively defined. There is a growing demand for understanding and prediction of climate sensitive vector borne disease risks especially in regions where meteorological data are lacking. This study aimed at analyzing and quantitatively assessing the seasonal and year-to-year association between climatic factors (rainfall and temperature) and vegetation cover, and its implications for malaria risks in Baringo County, Kenya. Remotely sensed temperature, rainfall, and vegetation data for the period 2004–2015 were used. Poisson regression was used to model the association between malaria cases and climatic and environmental factors for the period 2009–2012, this being the period for which all datasets overlapped. A strong positive relationship was observed between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and monthly total precipitation. There was a strong negative relationship between NDVI and minimum temperature. The total monthly rainfall (between 94 -181mm), average monthly minimum temperatures (between 16–21°C) and mean monthly NDVI values lower than 0.35 were significantly associated with malaria incidence rates. Results suggests that a combination of climatic and vegetation greenness thresholds need to be met for malaria incidence to be significantly increased in the county. Planning for malaria control can therefore be enhanced by incorporating these factors in malaria risk mapping.

Oyiro P, Mwanda W, Odhiambo A, Ogutu E, Otieno CF, Abdalla F. "Serum Ferritin Levels In Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia at the Kenyatta National Hospital." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2018;17(3):31-40.serum_ferritin_sickle_cell_knh.pdf
Ogeng’o JA, Muthoka JM, Hassanali J, Malek AA, Mandela P. "Sex differences in histomorphology of the human carotid body." MOJ Anat & Physiol.. 2018;5(2):74-78. Abstractsex_differences_in_histomorphology_of_the_human_carotid_body.pdfmedcrave

Knowledge of sex differences in the histomorphology of the carotid body is important in understanding observed differences in respiratory function and disorders. There are few studies on sex differences in the carotid body. This study therefore aimed at describing these differences in the histomorphology features of the human carotid body.
Thirty six random carotid bodies from cardiovascular disease free individuals (20 male, 16 female) obtained during autopsy at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi were studied. Specimens obtained within 48 hours of death were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and processed routinely for paraffin embedding. Seven micron thick serial sections were stained with H&E, Mason’s trichrome and examined with light microscope. Stereology was done to determine area occupied by parenchyma, stroma and vasculature. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0. The student’s t test was used to compare sex differences. The data are represented using tables and macrographs.
The human carotid body is highly cellular with two varieties of cells namely; chief and sustentacular. It is heavily vascularised and densely innervated. Females showed higher concentration of chief cells, more profuse vascularization and denser innervation when compared with their aged matched male counterparts. The aging changes characterized by fibrosis, cellular degeneration vascular and neural attenuation are less severe in females.
Sex histomorphological differences in the human carotid body characterized by higher population of chief cells, density of vascularity, innervation and blunted age related morphological attenuation underpin differences in its function and disease.
Keywords: gender differences, carotid body, cells, vascularization

Kaoga J, Ouma G, Olago D, Ouma G. "The shrinking grazing fields of the Maasai land under the changing climate system in Kajiado County, Kenya. International Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development.". 2018. Abstract137075-327682-1-pb.pdfWebsite

The Maasai pastoralists have in the last decade experienced disruptions in their economies and livelihoods following climate shifts. For instance, they have been losing up to 30 % of their herd annually to drought related disasters, yet information on the various land uses is still fragmented. This has been worsened by the shortening famine cycles which has impacted pastoral livelihood system as they highly depend on natural resource. Yet, these key resources have been dwindling over the past 30 years compromising their ability to meet basic need such as food. To address this gap, the study focused on long term evaluation of land use. The study’s objective was to determine land use transformations and their impacts particularly on the pastoral livelihood system.

Wanjohi LM, Moturi CA. "Smartphones Supporting Monitoring Functions: Experiences from Sweet Potato Vine Distribution in sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Digital Technologies for Agricultural and Rural Development in the Global South. Oxfordshire: CAB International; 2018.
Muia D, Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Social Capital as a Coping Mechanism for Women Small Scale Traders in the Informal Economy in Nairobi, Kenya ." Journal of Social Welfare and Human Rights . 2018;6(1):13-20.
Ngugi J, Kimotho S, Muturi S. "Social Media Use By The Deaf In Business At Nairobi, Kenya." AJBUMA JOURNAL. 2018;4(3). Abstractdeaf_use_of_social_media_in_21st_century_business.pdfWebsite

Social media for business is the new frontier for deaf Kenyans, due to the information gap they often experience as they navigate a largely speaking and hearing world. This case studyon the use of social media platforms for business by the deaf in Nairobi includes a special emphasis on the convergence of their natural visual language, sign language with video technology. The research is important to boost socio economic livelihoods of deaf Kenyans for equality in development as well as integrate the Kenyan business industry with the innovation and creativity introduced by the signing „genre‟ of business communication. The results of the study indicate that the dialectical gap between the deaf and hearing is significantly reduced as sign language users can informally interact and exchange ideas, information and updates on business. In addition, the general boost in vocabulary originating from deaf people‟ interest in on-line communication in Kenya is highlighted. It is recommended that the recent immersion of the Kenyan deaf community in the use of smartphones and dissemination of instant messaging needs to be enhanced, as it may yield answers to societal inclusion, while also highlighting deaf cultural pride proponents of the deaf business people‟ creativity.
KeyWords:Deaf, social media, business, Kenya

P Gottesfeld, Were FH, Adogame L, Gharbid S, D. San, Nota MM, Kuepouo G. "Soil Contamination from Lead Battery Manufacturing and Recycling in Seven African Countries." Environmental Research. 2018;161:609-614. Abstract

Lead battery recycling is a growing hazardous industry throughout Africa. We investigated potential
soil con-
tamination inside and outside formal sector recycling plants in seven countries. We collected 118
soil samples at 15 recycling plants and one battery manufacturing site and analyzed them for total
lead. Lead levels in soils ranged from < 40–140,000 mg/kg. Overall mean lead concentrations were
~23,200 mg/kg but, average lead levels were 22-fold greater for soil samples from inside plant
sites than from those collected outside these facilities. Arithmetic mean lead concentrations in
soil samples from communities surrounding these plants were
~2600 mg/kg. As the lead battery industry in Africa continues to expand, it is expected that the
number and size of lead battery recycling plants will grow to meet the forecasted demand. There is
an immediate need to address ongoing exposures in surrounding communities, emissions from this
industry and to regulate site closure financing procedures to ensure that we do not leave behind a
legacy of lead contamination that will impact
millions in communities throughout Africa.

Rotich HK, Onwonga R, Mbau JS, Koech OK. "Soil Organic Carbon Content and Stocks in Relation to Grazing Management in Semi-Arid Grasslands of Kenya." . Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(2).
Chebet E, Mbui D, Kibet J, Kamau G. "The Speciation of Selected Trace Metals in Nairobi River Water, Kenya." Eurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2018;13(4):1-11. AbstractEurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry

Description
Metal ions form complexes with naturally occurring ligands released from industrial effluent. The complexes are transported and enter the environment and biological system leading to environmental degradation and health problems. This contribution investigates the speciation of trace metals in water samples collected from Nairobi River. Heavy metals (Pb, Mn, Cu, Fe, Cr and Zn) were determined using spectroscopic techniques whereas sulfaver 4 method, diazotization, and titration methods were used to determine the concentration of SO42+, NO2-, F-and Cl-respectively. It was found that~ 69.8% of total iron was in oxidation state III; the dominant species being Fe2+, Fe (OH) SO4,[FeF4]-, FeSO4, Fe2+ and [Fe (OH) 2]+ during both the dry and wet seasons. Manganese was found exclusively in oxidation state II (100%) in which some of its major chemical forms were Mn2+ and [MnF6] 4-. Copper was present mostly in oxidation state II (Cu2+) while lead and zinc existed chiefly as ([Zn (SO4) 4] 6-and [Pb (SO4) 3] 4-) complexes. Chromium was trivalent with its main complexes being [Cr4 (OH) 6] 6+ and Cr (OH)(SO4)). Traces of free metal ions (Cu, Fe and Mn) were found in Lenana section of Nairobi River. Traces of free metal ions are the most aggressive water toxicants due to their high solubility in biological systems.

Isaboke PA, Njomo N, Onyatta JO. "Spectroscopic Determination of Heavy Metals in Plant Tissues in Kisii County." International Journal of Recent Development in Engineering and Technology. 2018;7(11):45-47.
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Square wave Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin V in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate containing Media on Glassy Carbon Electrode." international journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;40(1):220-233.
Laban U. Shihembetsa K’AOA. "Stakeholder analysis for slum upgrading in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Global Research in Education and Social Science. . 2018;Volume-12(1): (1-18, 2018. ISSN: 2454-1834).
and Timammy JHR. "The State of Kiswahili in Kenya and Challenges of Its Implementation as an Official Language." Asian Journal of African Studies, Institute of African Studies, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies . 2018;44(2466-1821):47-65 .
Hadullo K, Oboko R, Omwenga E. "Status of e-learning Quality in Kenya: Case of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Postgraduate Students." The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. 2018;19(1). AbstractFull text Link

There is a substantial increase in the use of learning management systems (LMSs) to support e-learning in higher education institutions, particularly in developing countries. This has been done with some measures of success and failure as well. There is evidence from literature that the provision of e-learning faces several quality issues relating to course design, content support, social support, administrative support, course assessment, learner characteristics, instructor characteristics, and institutional factors. It is clear that developing countries still remain behind in the great revolution of e-learning in Higher Education. Accordingly, further investigation into e-learning use in Kenya is required in order to fill in this gap of research, and extend the body of existing literature by highlighting major quality determinants in the application of e-learning for teaching and learning in developing countries. By using a case study of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), the study establishes the status of e-learning system quality in Kenya based on these determinants and then concludes with a discussion and recommendation of the constructs and indicators that are required to support qualify teaching and learning practices

Kiuru CW, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Mwangangi J, Kamau L, Muhia-Matoke D. "Status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Kwale County, Coastal Kenya." Malaria journal. 2018;17(1):3.kiuru_et_al_2018.pdf
Kiuru CW, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Mwangangi J, Kamau L, Muhia-Matoke D. "Status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Kwale County, Coastal Kenya." Malaria journal. 2018;17(1):3.
Akala, W. J. C& PK. "Status of Technical and Vocational Education and Training TVET) in Post-secondary Education in Kenya." Journal of Popular Education in Africa. 2018;2(7):15-25.
Wilson Karibe, Catherine Kunyanga JI. "Storability and Physico-Chemical Quality of Ready to Eat Bovine Tripe Rolls under Different Storage Conditions." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(8):370-382.
Antonine Obiero, Jeremiah Kalai UO. "Strategies Used in Maintaining Students' discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research (IJSSER). . 2018;3(11):6346-6366.
Obiero, A. KOJM & UA. "Strategies used in maintaining students’ discipline in Public secondary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya, ." , International journal of social science and economic research. 2018;3(11).
Bulinda DM. Supervision and Inspection practice in Educational Administration. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
Ondiek TO, ODOCK SO. "Supply chain quality management practices, complementary firm assets, competitive advantage and firm performance." International Journal of Managerial Studies. 2018;6(2):18-28.
Cheruiyot I.K, Kipkorir V, Henry B.M, Munguti J, Cirocchi R, Odula P.O, Wong L.M, B O, J.A W. "Surgical anatomy of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve: a systematic review and meta-analysis." angenbecks Archives of Surgery. 2018;10.1007/:s00423-018-1723-9.
Kimeu M. "Sustainable Design Strategies for Tropical Climates." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2018;Volume 12( Issue 1, June 2018):ISSN: 2519-7851.
Makunda CS. "Sustainable Housing Through Sustainable Planning Practices: Challenges and Opportunities for Formal Housing Provision in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Lifelong Learning and Education in Healthy and Sustainable Cities. World Sustainability Series . Cham: Springer; 2018.
Josyline K, Philip N, Lucy I, Paul N, Johnstone I, Osero B, Libendi D, Christopher A. "Synergistic effects of lambacyhalothrin incorporated into 1,4-dichlorobenzene for the control of sand fly and mosquito vectors in Baringo and Kirinyaga Counties, Kenya." Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences. 2018;7(1):21-27.
Kingi PM. "Teachers’ Participation in Management of Financial resources and Motivation." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(4):1331-1338.
Kingi PM. "Teachers’ Participation in Management of Financial resources and Motivation." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(4):1331-1338.
Sakwa JM, Okunya LO. "Teachers’ Understanding of Menstrual Cycle in Navakholo Sub-County, Kakamega County, Kenya ." International Journal of Learning and Development . 2018;8(4):1-18.sakwa__ijld_08201.pdf
Djurfeldt AA, Dzanku FM, Isinika AC. "Technology Use, Gender, and Impact of Non-Farm Income on Agricultural Investment: An Empirical Analysis of Maize Production in Two Regions of Kenya.". In: Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press; 2018.
Wambugu SK, Karugia JT, Oluoch-Kosura W. "Technology Use, Gender, and Impact of Non-Farm Income on Agricultural Investment: An Empirical Analysis of Maize Production in Two Regions of Kenya." Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries. 2018;978-0-19-879928-3(ISBN):978-0-19-879928-3.
Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on cowpea." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata …." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Saini P, E NYENZE, M J, A G, Kaguri S.K. "Terson’s Syndrome: Intraocular Hemorrhage in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage." The Kenya Journal of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine and Critical . 2018;04(1):15-16.
Bulinda DM. The theoretical narrative in Educational Administration. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
Nzogong RT, Nganou BK, Tedonkeu AT, Awouafack MD, Tene M, Ito T, Tane P, Morita H. "Three New Abietane-Type Diterpenoids from Plectranthus africanus and Their Antibacterial Activities." Planta medica. 2018;84(01):59-64.
S. Awino, Modisa M. ATJOAP. "Time SeriesAnalysis Of Impulsive Noise In Power Line Communication (PLC) Networks." Trans. SAIEE. 2018;Vol.107 (4) (4):237-243.
Mungania BG, Schroeder H. "Topic, focus, and word order in the Kiswahili clause." The University of Nairobi Journal of language and linguistics. 2018;Vol. 7 (2018):114-138.
Ngaina JN, Muthama NJ, Mwalichi IJ, Owuor OA. "Towards Mapping Suitable Areas for Weather Modification in East Africa Community." Journal of Climatology & Weather Forecasting. 2018;6(1). AbstractOMICS International

In order to map suitable areas for weather modification in East Africa Community (EAC), investigations were performed to determine spatio-temporal variability and relationship of aerosol, clouds and precipitation during March- April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND). Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) and Multivariate Regression Analysis (MRA) were used. Identification of near homogeneous zones of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Fine Mode Fraction (FMF), Cloud Top and 3B42 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) yielded 13 (14), 20 (18), 11 (10) and 16 (17) significant Principal Components (PCs) for MAM (OND) with explained variance greater than 57%. Aerosols and clouds had positive relationship with precipitation in areas with strong factor loadings. MRA indicated independence of variables used and normality in the model residuals. Backward trajectory analysis indicated differences in origins of transported particles in the atmosphere with strong vertical mixing inlands with mixed aerosols resulting due to mountain blocking systems accounted for enhanced rainfall. Enhanced rainfall was attributed to highly varied AOD and unaffected FMF in the atmosphere. Locations east and west EAC with mean temperatures greater than -10°C were unsuitable for cloud seeding while central EAC region along the great rift-valley and coastal Tanzania exhibited optimal temperatures suitable for cloud seeding. Successful precipitation enhancement will increase available fresh water sources and thus alleviate existing and projected water stress.

Ondieki EO. "Tracing Vulnerability: An Assessment of the Impact of Interventions in Housing and Road Infrastructures in Nairobi, Kenya." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2018;Vol:12 - 2018(Issue 2, 2018):SBE Publication- UoN. (Page 1401-1420).
Paschalia Mbutu, Dr. Wanjiru Gichuhi DGN. "Traditional Birth Attendants and Childbirth in Kenya: A Case of Kitui West Sub County." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2018;6(5):1-18.
Onyango LSMOU. "Transformation of Formal Urban Housing in Kenya: Rationale and Process." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge.. 2018;Volume-3(August-2018 (8-19). ISSN:2213-135).
Gitau W, Camberlin P, Ogallo L, Bosire E. "Trends of Intraseasonal Descriptors of Wet and Dry Spells over Equatorial Eastern Africa." International Journal of Climatology. 2018;38(3):1189-1200. AbstractRoyal Meteorological Society

Many African countries whose economies are largely based on weather/climate sensitive sectors are vulnerable to long‐term changes in weather and climate. This study is aimed at assessing whether the recent decades have observed any significant trend in the intraseasonal descriptors (ISDs) of wet and dry spells at local and sub‐regional levels at seasonal and monthly timescales over equatorial eastern Africa (EEA). Daily rainfall observations over 36 stations and spanning a period of 51 years (1962–2012) were used.

The study has expanded on previous results that showed contrasting trends on seasonal totals between the two rainfall seasons by demonstrating that this also affects the ISDs. At the local level, it was observed that during the long rainfall season, a given ISD would have a significant trend over several neighbouring locations, which was not the case during the short rainfall season. Secondly, for the short rainfall season, a given location would have significant trend in several ISDs. Finally, when a given ISD had a significant trend at seasonal timescale during the long rainfall season, the same ISD would have significant trends in the second and third months of the season and rarely in the first month. Such a feature was not observed for the short rainfall season. Binomial probability distribution assessment confirmed that the significant trends in the various ISDs during the long rainfall season did not occur by mere chance.

Gaitho D, Kumar M, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Wambua GN, R. N. "Understanding mental health difficulties and associated psychosocial outcomes in adolescents in the HIV clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2018;10;(17:):29.
Raphael Lotira Arasio, Brigitte Kaufmann DJOOVW. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. 2018;Vol. 119(No. 2).
Arasio RL, Kaufman B, Otieno DJ, Wasonga OV. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya. ." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (JARTS). 2018;119(2)(ISSN 2363-6033):53-66.
Muthuwatta L, Sood A, McCartney M, Silva NS, Opere A. "Understanding the Impacts of Climate Change in the Tana River Basin, Kenya." Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. 2018;379:37-42. Abstractunderstanding_the_impacts_of_climate_change_in_the_tana_river_basin_kenya.pdfProceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences

In the Tana River Basin in Kenya, six Regional Circulation Models (RCMs) simulating two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) (i.e., 4.5 and 8.5) were used as input to the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to determine the possible implications for the hydrology and water resources of the basin. Four hydrological characteristics – water yield, groundwater recharge, base flow and flow regulation – were determined and mapped throughout the basin for three 30-year time periods: 2020–2049, 2040–2069 and 2070–2099. Results were compared with a baseline period, 1983–2011. All four hydrological characteristics show steady increases under both RCPs for the entire basin but with considerable spatial heterogeneity and greater increases under RCP 8.5 than RCP 4.5. The results have important implications for the way water resources in the basin are managed. It is imperative that water managers and policy makers take into account the additional challenges imposed by climate change in operating built infrastructure.

R. TRBO &. "UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SLUM DWELLER: A case of Korogocho slum in Nairobi, Kenya." http://ijirk.com/issue-details/365. 2018;Vol. 3, (12).
Ooko JO, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO, Guto PM. "Use of Accelerated Tests to Estimate Rate of Corrosion of Roofing Sheets." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2018;37(3):1-8.
Ooko JO, J.O. O, A.O. Y, P.M. G. "Use of accelerated tests to estimate corrosion rates of roofing sheets." International Journal of Sciences. 2018;37(3):1-8.publication_juspher_onyatta_yusuf_guto.pdf
Mary Taabu, F Nyongesa, Birech Z, Aduda B. Use of Diatomaceous Earth Wastes and Plant derived Binders in Water Purification Systems. NAIROBI, KENYA: MSSEESA; 2018.
Kamweru AK. "Using Public Health Regulations to Build Resilience Cities in Kenya: Utafiti News Issue No. 6." Utafiti News Issue 6, January 2019 (2018):15.
M SM, AA A, CK O, IM M, TM M. "Utility of Sonohysterography in Evaluation of Patients with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding." Obstet Gynecol Rep. 2018;2(2):1-7.Website
Mohamed SM1, Anyona AA2, Onyambu CK2*, IM2 M, TM2 M. "Utility of sonohysterography in evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding." Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports. 2018;2(2):1-7.ogr-2-127-1.pdf
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaura FB. "Utilization of rumen fluid in production of bio–energy from market waste using microbial fuel cells technology." J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng. 2018;5(4):227-231. Abstract

Description
Environmental Protection Agency classifies slaughter house waste as one of the most toxic environmental pollutants due to high pathogen content. Composting and anaerobic digestion are among the most common methods used for its disposal. In this study, utilization of rumen fluid as bio–catalyst in microbial fuel cells is investigated. Different market wastes were converted to electricity by loading them in anodic anaerobic chamber and then adding rumen fluid from Dagoretti slaughterhouse. 0.584 V was obtained on day 19 from avocado fruit waste while the maximum voltage for tomato waste was 0.701 V on day 20. Water melon and fruits mixture produced the least voltage. The maximum power from the tested substrate was obtained from tomato wastes. The power and current density were in the range of 1.825 to 60.041 mW/m2 and 6.762 and 99.174 mA/m2 respectively for tomato wastes. A maximum voltage of 0.584 V was obtained from tomato wastes when 500ml rumen fluid was used while 0.248 Vwas obtained for avocado fruit waste with the same amount of rumen fluid. Electrode surface area of 0.006666 m2 gave the highest voltage and power amongst 0.00399 m2 and 0.01331 m2. When the influence of external resistors was investigated, power, voltage and current obtained across a 45kΩ were 0.385 V, 0.038 Ma and 0.01463 mW on day 7 respectively for tomato wastes.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Utilization of rumen fluid in production of bio–energy from market waste using microbial fuel cells technology." J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng. 2018;5(4):227-231. AbstractJ Appl Biotechnol Bioeng

Description
Environmental Protection Agency classifies slaughter house waste as one of the most toxic environmental pollutants due to high pathogen content. Composting and anaerobic digestion are among the most common methods used for its disposal. In this study, utilization of rumen fluid as bio–catalyst in microbial fuel cells is investigated. Different market wastes were converted to electricity by loading them in anodic anaerobic chamber and then adding rumen fluid from Dagoretti slaughterhouse. 0.584 V was obtained on day 19 from avocado fruit waste while the maximum voltage for tomato waste was 0.701 V on day 20. Water melon and fruits mixture produced the least voltage. The maximum power from the tested substrate was obtained from tomato wastes. The power and current density were in the range of 1.825 to 60.041 mW/m2 and 6.762 and 99.174 mA/m2 respectively for tomato wastes. A maximum voltage of 0.584 V was obtained from tomato wastes when 500ml rumen fluid was used while 0.248 Vwas obtained for avocado fruit waste with the same amount of rumen fluid. Electrode surface area of 0.006666 m2 gave the highest voltage and power amongst 0.00399 m2 and 0.01331 m2. When the influence of external resistors was investigated, power, voltage and current obtained across a 45kΩ were 0.385 V, 0.038 Ma and 0.01463 mW on day 7 respectively for tomato wastes.

Muloi D., Pablo A, Ombui JN., Ngeiywa JK., Abdullahi B, Muinde, P, Karani MK., Jonathan R, Fevre E. "Value chain analysis and sanitary risks of the camel milk system supplying Nairobi city, Kenya." Prev. Vet. Med.. 2018;159: 203-210:203-210.
Muloi D., Pablo A, Ombui JN., Ngeiywa JK., Abdullahi B, Muinde, P, Karani MK., Jonathan R, Fevre E. "Value chain analysis and sanitary risks of the camel milk system supplying Nairobi city, Kenya." Prev. Vet. Med.. 2018;159: 203-210:203-210.
Muloi D., Pablo A, Ombui JN., Ngeiywa JK., Abdullahi B, Muinde, P, Karani MK., Jonathan R, Fevre E. "Value chain analysis and sanitary risks of the camel milk system supplying Nairobi city, Kenya." Prev. Vet. Med.. 2018;159: 203-210:203-210.
Muloi D., Pablo A, Ombui JN., Ngeiywa JK., Abdullahi B, Muinde, P, Karani MK., Jonathan R, Fevre E. "Value chain analysis and sanitary risks of the camel milk system supplying Nairobi city, Kenya." Prev. Vet. Med.. 2018;159: 203-210:203-210.
and H. Indangasi MOAM. "Value Creating Education in Kenya: Building a Humane Society." Kenya Literature Bureau. 2018.
Ondicho TG. "Violence against women in Kenya: a public health problem." International Journal of Development and |Sustainability. 2018;7(6):2030-2047.ijds-v7n6-19.pdf
Mwangi HN, Onyango, Omosa LK, Mulaa F. "Virtual Screening and Validation of Potential Lead Compound from the Malaria Box against Plasmodium Falciparum S7 and S19 Proteins." Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018;2(2).
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin G in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/Acetet Buffer Media on Glassy carbon Electrode." international journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;42(4):144-155.
Foster C, Graham M, Mann L, Waema T, Friederici N. "Who controls the digital? Value chains and the challenges of connectivity for East African firms." Economic Geography. 2018;94(1):68-86. AbstractFull text link

In recent years, Internet connectivity has greatly improved across the African continent. This article examines the consequences that this shift has had for East African firms that are part of global value chains (GVCs). Prior work yielded contradictory expectations: firms might benefit from connectivity through increased efficiencies and improved access to markets, although they might also be further marginalized through increasing control of lead firms. Drawing on extensive qualitative research in Kenya and Rwanda,including 264 interviews, we examine 3 sectors (tea, tourism, and business process outsourcing) exploring overarching, cross-cutting themes. The findings support more pessimistic expectations: small African producers are only thinly digitally integrated in GVCs. Moreover, shifting modes of value chain governance, supported by lead firms and facilitated by digital information platforms and data standards are leading to new challenges for firms looking to digitally integrate. Nevertheless, we also find examples in these sectors of opportunities where small firms are able to cater to emerging niche customers, and local or regional markets. Overall, the study shows that improving connectivity does not inherently benefit African firms in GVCs without support for complementary capacity and competitive advantages.

Mungania BG. Word order in the Kiswahili clause: a Minimalist approach. Schroeder H, Okombo O, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Odundo Paul Amolloh, Wanjiru KG, Lilian GK. "Work-based Learning, Procedural Knowledge and Teacher Trainee Preparedness towards Teaching Practice at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. ." The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. . 2018;17(3):96-110.
m, m. "’The Relevance of Odera Oruka’s Parental Earth Ethics as an Eco-Philosophy .". In: Odera Oruka in the Twenty-first Century Kenyan Philosophical Studies, II. Washington, D.C: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy; 2018.
SWALEH AMIRI. "“Kosa la Nani?”.". In: “Kosa la Nani?” Na Hadithi Nyingine . Nairobi: Vide-Muwa; 2018.
Kunyanga C. "“This is how Agriculture can drive Vision 2030”." The Standard (2018).
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "“We don’t want our clothes to smell smoke”: changing malaria control practices and opportunities for integrated community-based management in Baringo, Kenya." BMC public health. 2018;18(1):609. AbstractFull Text

Background

The decline in global malaria cases is attributed to intensified utilization of primary vector control interventions and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These strategies are inadequate in many rural areas, thus adopting locally appropriate integrated malaria control strategies is imperative in these heterogeneous settings. This study aimed at investigating trends and local knowledge on malaria and to develop a framework for malaria control for communities in Baringo, Kenya.

Methods

Clinical malaria cases obtained from four health facilities in the riverine and lowland zones were used to analyse malaria trends for the 2005–2014 period. A mixed method approach integrating eight focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews, 300 survey questionnaires and two stakeholders’ consultative forums were used to assess local knowledge on malaria risk and develop a framework for malaria reduction.

Results

Malaria cases increased significantly during the 2005–2014 period (tau = 0.352; p < 0.001) in the riverine zone. March, April, May, June and October showed significant increases compared to other months. Misconceptions about the cause and mode of malaria transmission existed. Gender-segregated outdoor occupation such as social drinking, farm activities, herding, and circumcision events increased the risk of mosquito bites. A positive relationship occurred between education level and opinion on exposure to malaria risk after dusk (χ2 = 2.70, p < 0.05). There was over-reliance on bed nets, yet only 68% (204/300) of respondents owned at least one net. Complementary malaria control measures were under-utilized, with 90% of respondents denying having used either sprays, repellents or burnt cow dung or plant leaves over the last one year before the study was conducted. Baraza, radios, and mobile phone messages were identified as effective media for malaria information exchange. Supplementary strategies identified included unblocking canals, clearing Prosopis bushes, and use of community volunteers and school clubs to promote social behaviour change.

Conclusions

The knowledge gap on malaria transmission should be addressed to minimize the impacts and enhance uptake of appropriate malaria management mechanisms. Implementing community-based framework can support significant reductions in malaria prevalence by minimizing both indoor and outdoor malaria transmissions.

Keywords

Local knowledgeMalaria trendsCommunity-based strategiesFramework

Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae, Shalo P. "肯尼亚地区对玉米中霉菌毒素引起的健康风险的管理和降低." Food Quality and Safety. 2018;1(4):268-274.
Kibugi R. "Common but differentiated responsibilities in a North-South context: assessment of the evolving practice under climate change treaties.". In: Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited; 2018:. Abstract
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Ouko C, Mulwa R, Kibugi R, Owuor M, Zaehringer J, Oguge N. "Community Perceptions of Ecosystem Services and the Management of Mt. Marsabit Forest in Northern Kenya." Environments. 2018;5(11):121. Abstract
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Omollo EO, Wasonga OV, Elhadi MY, Mnene WN. "Determinants of pastoral and agro-pastoral households." Pastoralism. 2018;8:9. Abstract
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Kalambuka Angeyo H. "Developing Kenya." International Journal of Nuclear Security. 2018;4:2. Abstract
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NALYANYA KM, Ronald ROPK, ONYUKA A, Birech Z, SASIA A. "Effect of crusting operations on the mechanical properties of leather." Revista de Pielarie Incaltaminte. 2018;18:283. Abstract
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