Publications

Found 50489 results

Sort by: Author Title [ Type  (Asc)] Year
Thesis
Gitau AN. Mechanical Behaviour of a Hardsetting Luvisol soil . Nairobi: Univeristy of Nairobi; 2004.
Gitau, A.N., Ayub, Njoroge; Gumbe P(S)LO. Mechanical behaviour of a hardsetting luvisol soil Gitau, Ayub, Njoroge; Gumbe, L.O Prof. (Supervisor) .; 2004. Abstract

The study applies critical state soil mechanics to model the mechanical behavior of luvisol soils. Field work involved sampling and soil physical characterization to obtain undisturbed and disturbed specimens

Okemwa MP. Patterns of injuries in road traffic accident fatalities seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2004. Abstract

Few people can be ignorant of or unmoved b~ the enormous increase in the mortality and the
morbidity caused by trauma caused by RTAs. The number of road traffic accidents has
increased in recent years to pandemic proportions. The health, medical and legal problems
posed affect all branches of surgery and medicine and fatal results are particularly relevant to
the pathologist.
In Kenya, it is estimated that over 13,000 accidents occur annually, killing 2,600 people and
seriously injuring another 11,000. In terms of economic losses up to 14 billion shillings are
lost annually not withstanding the human and emotional suffering (32).
This study was carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital. It was a descriptive cross
sectional study that attempted to document the patterns of injuries, determine the cause of
death, correlate the fatalities as seen in pedestrians, drivers and passengers, determine the
proportion of those who die on the spot and those that die while undergoing treatment; and
determine injury severity scores.
One hundred (100) autopsies were performed after obtaining an informed consent over a
period of 25 weeks.
The study involved 81 males and 19 females with an age range of 4-80 years and a median
age of33.5 years. 45% arrived at casualty dead while 55% were admitted for a period
,
ranging between 1-730 days with a mean of 14 days.
Vulnerable groups were Pedestrians 62%, passengers 24%, drivers 9%, cyclists 4% and one
case was not specified.
Head injuries were commonest accounting for 76%, followed by chest injuries 70%,
abdominal injuries 60%, lower limb injuries 57%, upper limb injuries 35%, neck injuries
29% and pelvic injuries 16%.
The commonest cause of mortality was head injury 57%, followed by chest injury 33%,
abdominal injuries 17%, other secondary injuries 8% and lower limb injuries was least
accounting for 5%.
Majority 48% had a severe injury severity score (ISS) ranging 50-75, 44% had moderate
score of between 25-49 and 8% mild scores of up to 24.

Lore T. Studies on the microflora in suusac, a Kenyan traditional fermented camel milk product. K. MS, J. W, eds. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine the lactic acid bacteria (LAB)and yeasts
associated with the traditional fermented camel milk product (suusac) of the Somali
community in Kenya. The traditional method of suusac production was studied by use
of questionnaire and documented. The microbial content profile and changes during
fermentation were then determined.
From 15 samples of traditionally fermented suusac, 45 LABand 30 yeast strains were
isolated ~d identified using API 50 CHL and API 20C AUXidentification systems,
respectively. The total viable microorganisms, LAB,coliforms, and yeasts and molds
were enumerated. The isolates were investigated for their functional roles in the
fermentation process, namely, acidification, flavour/aroma production and proteolytic
activity. Fermentation trials with single and mixed strain cultures were investigated to
assess their acidification and flavour-producing properties.
The traditional production of suusac involves spontaneous fermentation of camel milk
in smoked gourds at ambient temperature for 1-2 days. The milk is not subjected to
heat treatment prior to fermentation. The isolated LAB species were identified as
Lactobacillus curvatus (8% of total isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (16%), Lactobacillus
soliuarius (8%), Lactococcus raffinolactis (4%) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp.
mesenteroides (24%). The isolated yeasts were Candida krusei (20%), Geotrichum
penicillatum (12%) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (8%). In traditional suusac, LAB
counts averaged 6.77 logrocfu Zml, while yeast counts were relatively lower (2.05
log.ocfuZml]. Low coliform numbers were encountered « 1 log cfu /rnl].
The LAB produced considerable acidity and majority (60%) were homofermentative.
The primary functional role of the LAB was fermentation of lactose to lactic acid,
resulting in acidity levels ranging from 0.46-0.67% lactic acid equivalent. All the LAB
isolates recorded high proteolytic activity, except for L. raffinolactis, which did not
exhibit any proteolytic activity. The LAB showed varying degrees of diacetyl
production. Of the LAB, L. curvatus recorded the highest diacetyl flavour score,
corresponding to >30 mg diacetyl/ 100 ml of milk.
The yeast isolates showed limited carbohydrate-assimilating capabilities, but played a
role in flavour development and proteolysis. G. penicillatum produced diacetyl (3.1-10
mg/lOO ml), although it did not exhibit any proteolytic activity. C. krusei exhibited
some proteolytic activity, although its diacetyl-producing capacity in camel milk was
minimal (0.5-3 mg/ 100 ml).
C. krusei also played a role in mixed starter fermentation of camel milk by increasing
the activity of the LAB cultures and improving product flavour. The use of C. krusei +
1. plantarum (1: 1) and C. krusei + L. curvatus (1: 1) reduced the fermentation time by
half as compared to the use of the cultures individually.

Kiarie GW. A Study To Determine The Prevalence Of Familial Clustering Of Cancer In Two Tertiary Care Hospitals In Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract

Familial clustering of cancer has been documented in the Western World. Familial
cancer syndromes have been described..' Genetic testing has demonstrated family
member positive for certain genes are at risk of these familial cancers.
No studies have been done in Africa to look into this and familial clustering is still
anecdotal. Evidence of familial clustering of cancer will lead to identification of
susceptibility genes in our setup, counseling affected individuals and instituting targeted
surveillance for early diagnosis and prophylaxis. Early diagnosis of cancer saves cost
and there is a reduction in mortality and morbidity .

Muyila W. Traditional African communalism and the neocomunal spirit in Africa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2004.
Chaga H. 2. ‘Dismal performance in Kiswahili at Holy Cross Secondary School’ . Nairobi: Kenyatta University ; 2003.
Syagga PM. Burnt Clay - An Alternative Pozzolana Cement For Kenyan Building Industry. .; 2003. Abstract

Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the Cly to Portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housin

Odula CA. Case records and commmentaries in Obstetrics and Gynaecology.; 2003. Abstract

Objective of the Study: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of Osteoporosis and osteopenia in three different racial groups of women over 40 years of age, attending the Aga Khan Hospital Nairobi outpatient clinics.
Methodology: This was a cross sectional clinical study involving a sample of 170 outpatient clinic attendants. Measurements of BMD were done using 10 QCT bone densitometry in the radiology department. This was complemented by a self-administered questionnaire to capture the associated variables.
Result: The quantitative analysis in the comparative results of Bone Mineral Densitometry among the three study groups indicated a significant difference in the levels of Bone Mineral Density, osteoporosis and osteopenia. Based on three levels of measurement of Low, Medium and high the study confirmed that the mean values of the measurements of osteoporosis and osteopenia amongst the African woman were found to be the lowest, followed by the Asian woman and highest amongst the Caucasians. These findings influenced the mean values of the BMD in the sample, which were found to be highest amongst the African, followed by the Asian and Lowest in the Caucasian woman.
TIle findings indicate that the BMD in the African woman seemed to be better despite the presence of the known influencing factors. The critica I varia bles that influence BMD studied included; parity, nutrition and dietary habits, physical activity, use of alcohol or tobacco. Other variables observed and documented in the study included the commonest menopausal signs and symptoms.
Conclusion: This study brings a significant difference amongst the three racial groups studied. There exists variations in the known factors influencing bone density in women and this observation needs further in-depth research.

MANDE JOHNDEMESI. Clinical and Pathological features of Osteoarthritis of the Hip Joints in German Shepherd Dogs in Kenya”. MBITHI PETERFELIXMULWA, ed. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2003.
Sheikh MA. Colostomy closure as seen at kenyatta national hospital both retrospective and prospective study.; 2003. Abstract

This is both a prospective study of thirty patients from March 2002 to February 2003 and a
retrospective study of eighty-five patients from January 1999 to February 2002 who underwent colostomy closure at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There was no significant difference in the
results of the two groups.
The main objective of the study was to analyse variables that determine outcome of colostomy
closure. All patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study.
The average age of patients in the prospective group was 34 (range, 15-85) years and 35 (range
16-87) years in the retrospective group. There were more males than females in the study with a
male to female ratio of 5:1 and 4.3:1 in the prospective and retrospective groups respectively.
The common indications for colostomy were colon injury and colon obstruction accounting for
more than eighty five percent (85%) of the patients.
Hartman's colostomy was the commonest type of colostomy fashioned accounting for fifty
percent (50%) and 44.7% of the colostomies in the prospective and retrospective studies
'respectively. Seventy percent (70%) of the colostomies in the prospective group and 58.8% of
those in the retrospective group were sited at the sigmoid colon. Mean time until colostomy
closure was 7.6 (range, 0.82 to 91) months in the prospective group and 5.3 (range, 0.79 to 29) ,
months in the retrospective group.
All the patients had mechanical bowel preparation. Seventy three percent (73%) in the
prospective group and 63.3% in the retrospective group had prophylactic systemic antibiotics.
All the patients had intraperitoneal closure of the colostomy. About ninety percent (90%) of the
patients in the study had two-layer anastomosis of the colon. About sixty percent (60%) of the
patients in the study had their colostomies closed in less than two hours. The average hospital
stay for patients in the prospective group was 7.1 (range, 2 to 18) days and 9.8 (range, 4 to 61)
days in the retrospective group.
The rate of developing early complications was 16.7% in the prospective group of which 13.4%
had wound infection and 15.3% in the retrospective group of which 11.8% had wound infection.
There was no death. There was a trend of increasing morbidity in patients who had colon
obstruction, colostomies sited at the sigmoid colon, Hartman's colostomy, operations lasting
more than two hours and those operated by Registrars.

Odada EO, Olago D, Kulindwa KAA, Bugenyi, F; West K, Ntiba M. Global International Waters Assessment East African Rift Valley Lakes, GIWA Regional assessment 47.; 2003.
Odada EO, Olago, D; Kulindwa KAA, Bugenyi, F; West K, M; Karimumuryango J. Global International Waters Assessment East African Rift Valley Lakes, GIWA Regional assessment 47.; 2003.
Odada, E. O; Olago D, Kulindwa, K. A. A; Bugenyi F, West, K; Ntiba M. Global International Waters Assessment East African Rift Valley Lakes, GIWA Regional assessment 47.; 2003.
Kimengu EK. Impact of computers in Printing Industry. Nairobi: Technical University of Kenya; 2003.
Wagacha PW. Induction of Decision Trees.; 2003.
Bosire KO. An investigation of a traditional herbal therapy used to treat malaria in Kisii.; 2003. Abstract

The plant Rhamnus prinoides L. Herit (Rhamnaceae) IS used in
traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria among other diseases
by the Kisii community. By using column chromatographic methods,
geshoidin was isolated and tentatively identified. Other isolates were also
obtained but were not identified.
Allextracts were found to have in vitro antimalarial activity. The highest
activitywas in the hexane and dichloromethane extracts with ICso values
of 19.9 /lgjml and 30.3 /lgjml,respectively. None of the extracts showed
toxicityin the brine shrimp test.
This study provides scientific basis for the use of the plant part in the
treatment ofmalaria by the herbalist in Kisii

Oburu E. Non Metabolic Causes Of Pathological Fractures In Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2003. Abstract

This was a prospective study over a period of 10 months from the month of April 2002 to
January 2003. The purpose of the study was to determine the pattern of non metabolic
causes of pathological fractures in Kenyatta National Hospital. The study assessed the
causes, sites, presentation and management of non metabolic causes of pathological
fractures at the hospital.
Methodology: Patients with non metabolic causes of pathological fractures admitted to
the orthopaedic wards were recruited into the study. Demographic data, data on the cause
of the fracture, site of the fracture, presentation and management of the patient was
collected. This data was analysed and presented in tables, charts and graphs.
Results: Thirty eight patients with 53 fractures were recruited into the study. The age
range was between 1 to 74 years with a peak age in the sixth decade, the male to female
ratio was 1:1. The prevalence of non metabolic pathological fractures among patients
with fractures was 2.62%. Te most common causes of these fractures were malignant
causes which formed 47% of the fractures followed by infection with 31% of the
fractures. Osteomyelitis formed 100% of all the peadiatric pathological fractures. The
lower limb was the most common site of pathological fractures in which 47% of these
fractures were located followed by the spine with 43%. Patients with spinal fractures
presented with two main complaints, that of back pain and difficulty in walking. Trivial
trauma was the most common complaint of patients with appendicular skeleton fractures,
found in 45% of these patients. The management of these fractures was mainly
conservative.
Conclusions: While there are some differences in the causes of these fractures from what
is documented in literature, the sites and presentations concur. The most common cause
of non metabolic pathological fractures was malignancy and osteomyelitis was
established as the most common cause of pathological fracture in children.
Recommendations: Studies should be carried out to assess the management outcomes of
the individual causes of pathological fractures especially those due to malignancy and
osteomyelitis. Another study should also be carried out on all the causes of pathological
fractures including metabolic bone disease in order to establish the complete picture of
these fractures.

Hussein A. Oral health status among children with and without cleft lip and palate seen in Nairobi, Kenya.; 2003. Abstract

Clefts of the lip and palate (CLP) are amongst the commonest craniofacial anomalies
encountered by clinicians. Compared to many other anomalies, CLP is easily diagnosed
and described. Due to this, it has been one of the most intensively studied congenital
malformation worldwide. Anomalies of the face give rise to considerable morbidity
which is psychologically traumatic to the parents. Thus the need to study the oral health
status of children with cleft lip/palate (CLP) in a section of a Kenyan population.
Type of study: A descriptive comparative cross-sectional study.
Methods: A total of 89 children were clinically examined, 49 formed the study group
(children with clefts) and 40 were the control group (children without clefts) ; age range,
2 to 15 years. Factors such as plaque, gingivitis, caries, missing teeth and stage of the
dentition were recorded.
Setting: Nairobi, Kenya.
Results: Out of the 49 children in the study group, 55% had CLP and 33% had CLA
while 6%had isolated CL. The prevalence of plaque was 96.27% in the 'study group while
among the control group this was lower at 89.5% (p<0.05). This was reflected by the
significant difference observed in the frequency of tooth brushing (x211.564 l df
p=O.OOI). Children with clefts had a significantly increased number of units with
gingivitis ranging from 79.2% for tooth 16 (p=0.04) to 51.6% for tooth 52 (p =0.264),
although not statistically significant in the latter.
The prevalence of caries in the study group was 11.8% (95% CI; 9.8%-13.8%) and the
control group was 8% (95% CI; 6.2%-9.8%). This difference was significant (p<0.05).
These children also showed an increased number of carious teeth in the posterior
segments ranging from 16.7% for tooth 16 (p>O.05) to 41.2% for tooth 46 (p>O.05),
while in the deciduous dentition it ranged from 22.6% for tooth 61 (p>O.05) to 36.7% for
tooth75 ( p>O.05)and was not significant. The children with clefts also showed generally
delayed eruption in both the permanent and the deciduous dentitions. This was significant
for the lateral incisors in the deciduous dentition (pO.05).
Conclusions: Children with clefts had generally poor oral hygiene and gingival health
with an increased number of carious teeth compared to children without clefts. These
children should be considered to have an increased risk of developing dental diseases and
therefore,will require stringent oral hygiene instructions and regular reviews by dental
professionals. Their treatment should involve preventive and curative services in order to
maintain healthy primary and permanent dentitions.

Obosi JO. The provincial administration and the Democratisation of development process In kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstractmath.pdfma_thesis.pdf

This study is an attempt to investigate the emergence of the new actors such as Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and (Peoples Organizations) POs in the development space and their impact on the developmental role of the Provincial Administration in Kenya. The following objectives were formulated: First, to investigate the nature of the relationship between the civil society (NGOs and POs) as new actors in the development process, and the Provincial Administration (PA). Second, to examine the current development tasks of the Provincial Administration. Thirdly, to examine the impact of the democratization of the development process on PA with specific reference to the development activities of a given locality, and fourth, to investigate the impact of the emergence of the new actors (NGOs and POs) in the development space on popular participation.
This was done within the theoretical framework of development theories including statism and public or political choice. The study did not however lose sight of the fact that development still attracts both academic and policy debates that definitely have a bearing on the formulation of both development theory and/or policy in the light of the shifting world development thinking.

The study used both secondary data, and primary data obtained from surveys conducted in Nyamira, Nairobi and Migori districts in Kenya. The sample survey comprised a total of seventy-two respondents from all the three districts. The secondary data was analysed by use of content analysis. The survey data was coded and analyzed through cross tabulations of the frequencies and the results presented in table statistics form.

The main findings of the study were as follows: First, the increased democratization of the development process has called for a greater role for the Provincial Administration in development activities, especially in areas of security, advisory and mobilization of the local public. Secondly, it was found that an enhanced level of co-ordination of various project activities in the locality, liaison with other governmental agencies on behalf of local POs and NGOs are some of the new roles of the Provincial Administration. This is besides the traditional routine law and order roles of provision of security and mobilization of local population. Thirdly, the level of involvement of Provincial Administration is directly proportional to the level of popular participation in the development activities. Finally, the study found out that the level of involvement of civil society in the development activities is directly proportional to the level of popular participation in the development process provided the necessary level of party affiliation and involvement of Provincial Administration is sustained.

Finally, the study has recommended further research on the policy implementation consequences of liberalization of security arrangements and the role to be played by the Provincial Administration, and the need to investigate the impact of significant rise in the number of political parties on popular participation. The study recommended to the policy makers, especially government to consider: the training and retraining of Provincial Administrators to attain the required standards of professionalism; initiate and support policies to make development a shared responsibility of the PA and POs as the key players at the local level, and finally to formulate development policies tailored to different areas reflecting the socio-economic structural forms, wishes and needs of all the local stakeholders.

zipporah Onsomu. The Relationship between the Capital structure and the value of the firm. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003.
Mbuya TO. studies on the microstructure and mechanical properties of recycled cast aluminium scrap .; 2003. Abstract

The aluminium casting industry in Kenya is strongly dependent on aluminium scrap recycling. There is, however, little organised information on appropriate recycling procedures and the expected chemical composition of the resulting secondary alloys. Furthermore. little is also , known on the expected mechanical properties of castings produced from the secondary alloys . under different processing conditions. Consequently, the quality of locally produced castings is poor compared to their imported counterparts as most Kenyan foundries rely on chance to make good castings. The main objectives of this preliminary study were: (a) to determine the chemical composition of the secondary alloys obtained from recycling various cast aluminium scrap components available in Kenya; and (b) to determine the microstructure, tensile strength. percent elongation and hardness obtainable from these alloys using both green sand and permanent mould casting processes and under different process conditions. The process parameters for both green sand and permanent mould casting processes, whose influence on the said properties was investigated . are: the type of mould filling system, melt handling and pouring temperature. The influence of the thickness and initial temperature of permanent moulds on these properties was also investigated. It was found in this study that the common types of scrap components available in Kenya are automotive engine parts. Most of these components were found to be pistons, cylinder heads, gearbox housings and to a lesser extent, rear axle housings. Pistons and cylinder heads were classified as individual groups while gearbox and rear axle housings were grouped together. The rest of the scrap items, most of which could not be identified, were lumped together to form another separate group. Samples were randomly picked from these scrap groups and • individually remelted to obtain secondary alloys. Other secondary alloys were also prepared by • blending the above scrap groups in predetermined proportions. • The resulting secondary alloys from these groups of scrap •c9mponents were all hypoeutectic aluminium-silicon-copper (AI-Si-Cu) based alloys. The samples in similar scrap groups were v \. < fairly equivalent in chemical composition although some minor variations were observed. Some samples from different groups were also found to be fairly equivalent In their chemical composition. Furthermore, all the samples were also fairly equivalent. In their chemical composition, to several common commercial hypoeutectic AI-Si-Cu based alloys. Permanent mould casting resulted in castings with higher tensile strength, percent elongation and hardness compared to green sand casting in all scrap samples tested. Both quiescent melt handling and quiescent bottom filled mould systems yielded castings with higher aforementioned properties than turbulent melt handling and turbulent top filled mould systems . . respectively. In addition, these mechanical properties were found to decrease with increasing pouring temperature and mould preheat. Increasing the mould thickness was, however, found to increase these mechanical properties. Heat treatment of some of the alloys to the T6 condition increased their tensile strength and hardness, but decreased their percent elongation. The microstructure of all the recycled alloys was typically similar and contained cc-aluminium matrix, eutectic silicon particles, iron-bearing and copper-bearing intermetallics. The tensile strength and percent elongation of the recycled alloys did not correlate well with those of their respective commercial counterparts. This was particularly so with top filled green sand castings. The mechanical properties of bottom filled samples were. however. closer to those of their commercial counterparts albeit falling on the lower end in the range of reported . mechanical properties of their respective equivalent commercial alloys. The hardness values of the samples, however, correlated well with those of their commercial counterparts. It is inferred from the results of this study that using the type of scrap component as the sorting criterion is of limited usefulness because some samples cast from different scrap components were fairly equivalent in their chemical composition. Furthermore. some scrap items are either too few to recycle separately and/or difficult to identify. However, in the absence of appropriate facilities to determine the alloy chemistry on-line and make appropriate melt corrections. this sorting criterion together with the chemical compositions of the samples studied in this study can be a useful guide. Also inferred is that blending scrap samples is not useful because no . definite trend in the chemical composition was observed with blending. Finally the processing conditions strongly influenced the mechanical properties of the samples . . It is therefore important to choose the right casting process and to closely control the mould design, molten metal processing and other process parameters like pouring temperature and initial mould temperatures in permanent mould casting. In particular. permanent mould casting should be preferred to green sand casting if maximising mechanical properties is the major factor for process selection. In addition, mould filling systems should be skilfully designed to quiescently introduce molten metal into the mould cavity preferably via bottom filling. The pouring temperature should also be as low as possible.

E. T. Enhancing Web Information Search Using Meta-Searching and Web Automatons. Brussels: VUB; 2002. Abstract

The Web has emerged as a crucial information propagation medium in the information
age. As a consequence, availability of information on the Web has exploded. Equipping
consumers with better Web search tools is therefore becoming a matter of priority for
Web researchers.

Standard Web search engines have remained popular and, indeed, are very essential tools
for Web users to search for useful information. However, users often are faced with the
limitations of these search engines. These limitations include presence of obsolete data in
their databases, limited coverage of the WWW, vulnerability to keyword spamming and
inaccurate ranking of search results.

This study is founded on an attempt to demonstrate alternative approach to Web
searching, which can improve upon traditional approaches to Web searching. A tool was
developed, which combine meta-searching and use of Web automatons to process user
queries and produce higher quality results than individual regular search engines.

Wasamba P. Gender Perspectives in the Creative Works of Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye.. Chesaina PC, Wendo DS, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.abstract.pdf
Oyamo GO. Identification by saturation mutagenesis of a single residue involved in the a-galactosidase agab regioselectivity.; 2002. Abstract

a-Galactosidase AgaB from Bacillus stearothermophilus displays a major a(1~6) and a minor a(1~3) regioselectivity in hydrolysis and transglycosylation. Its corresponding gene, agaB, was subjected to saturation mutagenesis at codon 442 in order to change its regioselectivity. The mutant genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using pBTac2 as vector. The regioselective activity of the mutants was determined using thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A single point mutation, G442R, resulted in a mutant displaying an a(1~2) regioselectivity. Other amino acid substitutions at this site also gave mutants with altered regioselectivity and transglycosylation profiles. This is the first demonstration that single point mutations can lead to a strong modification of the regioselectivity of a glycosyl hydrolase. The kinetic parameters of the enzyme variants were determined and a preliminary investigation of possible substrates for condensation reactions conducted.

Osawa F. Management outcome of adult urinary fistulae at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) (1994 -1998).; 2002. Abstract

The study was carried out between January 1994 and December 1998. This was a retrospective
study in which data was retrieved from the patient's files at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) medical records department. The results were analyzed and various indices established. Ninety
patients were considered. Females were more than males with a ratios M:F 1:2 Seventy
percent of the fistulae involved the bladder. Most of the patients (54.44%) were from a low
socioeconomic set up and were referrals from rural centres in Kenya.
The commonest mode of clinical presentation was leakage of urine in 80% of the patients and
diagnosis was mainly clinical (74.44%). Obstetric fistulae were 53.33% and therefore were the
majority. Surgery was the preferred option of treatment. Only 12.2% of the patients were
managed conservatively.
The outcome of treatment was found to be significantly influenced by urmary or faecal
diversion and the duration of urethral cartheterization. However the aetiology of the fistulae
and the interval between injury time and treatment did not influence the outcome.

Boniface N. Mathematics Homework Practices in Kenya Secondary Schools.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
Omuto CT. Rapid Mapping of Hydraulic Conductivity in a Tropical Watershed . NaIROBI: Univeristy of Nairobi; 2002.
Jaoko W. Studies on the immunoepidemiology of bancroftian filariasis in East Africa.; 2002. Abstract

This study assessed the effect of transmission intensity on the patterns of
infection, disease and specific antibody response in bancroftian filariasis, by
comparing observed patterns of infection, disease and specific 19G1, 19G2, 19G3,
19G4and 19E profiles in two communities with high and low Wuchereria bancrofti
endemicity. The communities were Masaika in Tanga Region, Tanzania, which
was highly endemic for bancroftian filariasis, and Kingwede in Kwale District of
Kenya, which had low endemicity. Detailed analyses of specific antibody
responses were carried out in relation to infection and clinical status, age and
gender. An additional smaller part of the study investigated if seasonal variation in
transmission intensity influenced the stability of infection and specific antibody
responses.
The larger part of the study was cross-sectional and included all consenting
individuals aged 12 months and over. From each individual, demographic
information and medical history was obtained, followed by clinical examination and
blood sampling. Finger-prick samples were examined for microfilarie (mf) by
counting chamber method, and venous samples were analysed for circulating filarial
antigen (CFA) by the Trop Bio commercial kit for detecting W. bancrofti circulating
antigen in serum, and for filaria-specific antibodies (1gGl, 19G2, 19G3, 19G4 and
19E) using ELISA technique. Mean intensities of mf, CFA and filaria-specific
antibodies were all calculatedas geometric means.
Overall, mf and CFA prevalence and mean intensities were significantly higher
in Masaika than in Kingwede.In Masaika but not in Kingwede, mf and CFA mean
intensities were significantlyhigher in males than in females. This was mainly due
to gender differences in the 15-39 year age group. In both communities, infection
prevalence was higher, although not significantly, in children of infected parents
than in children of non-infectedparents.
Chronic filarial disease manifestations (hydrocele and elephantiasis) among
adults were more prevalent and presented earlier in Masaika than in Kingwede.
The proportion of individuals reporting having experienced acute
adenolymphangitis attacks during the one-year period preceding the survey was
also significantly higher in Masaika than in Kingwede, and was higher in adults
than in children, although this difference was statistically significant only in
Masaika.
Overall, prevalence and mean intensities of 19G1, 19G2, 19G4 and 19E were
significantly higher in Masaika than in Kingwede. The opposite pattern was seen
for 19G3.
Antibody profiles were analysed in relation to clinical and infection status of the
individuals in Masaika, but not in Kingwede where individuals with chronic disease
were too few for such analysis. The profiles were similar in asymptomatic and
chronic disease individuals. There was a highly significant association between
antibody profiles of all the measured antibodies and infection status. 19G1 and 19G2
were more associated with mf status than with CFA status and 19G3 and 19G4 were
more associated with CFA status than with mf status, while 19E was associated with

both mf and CFA status. These associations were not significantly influenced by
clinical status.
Due to few chronic filarial disease cases in Kingwede, inter-community antibody
profile comparison was restricted to asymptomatic individuals. In Masaika, IgG1
prevalence and intensity were significantly higher among mf negative individuals
than among mf positive individuals. The opposite pattern was seen in Kingwede
where both IgGI parameters were highest among the mf and CFA positive and
lowest among the mf and CFA negative. In Masaika, IgG3 profiles were associated
with both mf and CFA, while in Kingwede they were more associated with mf than
CFA. Furthermore, although in Masaika IgG2 and IgE were significantly associated
with mf status, in Kingwede their profiles were uniform in all infection groups. Only
IgG4 profiles were similar in the two communities, being highest among CFA
positive individuals and lowest among CFA negative individuals.
Age-specific antibody intensity patterns for IgGI, IgG4 and IgE were similar in
both communities. IgG1 and IgE decreased with age while IgG4 increased with age.
IgG2 and IgG3 profiles differed between the communities. IgG2 intensity decreased
with age in Masaika, but increased with age in Kingwede. IgG3 intensity remained
uniformlylow with age in Masaika but increased with age in Kingwede.
Despite clear gender differences in mf and CFA intensities in Masaika in the
female reproductive age group, there were no clear gender differences in antibody
intensities in this age group. IgG3 intensities were in general significantly higher
among mf or CFA positive females than among their male counterparts. The
oppositewas seen for IgG4 intensities.
Overall, mean IgG4/IgE ratio was significantly higher in Masaika than in
Kingwede. In Masaika, the ratios were higher among the chronic diseased than the
asymptomatic individuals in each infection group. These findings contrast what is
expected if this ratio indicates infection resistance level and if IgE mediates chronic
filarial disease pathogenesis, as has been suggested.
These results suggest that transmission intensity influences levels and patterns of
infection, disease and specific antibodies, and the association between infection
intensity and gender, and that antibody responses are more associated with infection
status than disease status. The study further suggests that the measured specific
antibodies are not the basis for the observed gender differences in infection
intensities in the female reproductive age group.
The last part of the study was longitudinal. A selected population of 37 CFA
positive males aged 20 to 40 years participated. Blood samples from each individual
were examined for mf, CFA and specific IgGI, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgE
antibodies at the beginning of the study, and at 6 and 12 months later. The time
points corresponded to high, low and high transmission seasons, respectively.
Transmission intensity during the study year was assessed entomologically by
catching, dissecting and examining mosquito vectors for infective larvae.

W. bancrofti transmission was found to be seasonal, with highest intensities
during the rainy season and lowest during the dry season in concert with mosquito
vectors abundance. Despite the marked seasonal variation in transmission potential,
no statistically significant variation was observed in the mf, CFA, measured filariaspecific
antibody levels or IgG4/IgE ratios, suggesting that seasonal transmission
may not result in seasonal fluctuations in the levels of infection, measured immune
responses or resistance to infection.

Oduor JAN. A Study of Syllable Weight and its Effects on Dholuo Phonology. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
B.W.K W.  Effects of herbicides and Kikuyu grass on yield and yield quality of pyrethrum. . Ariga ES, P.O A, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
MUTUKU AK. Analysis of birth intervals in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2001.
and Oranga, J.O. AKGAMW. A Comparative Analysis of Political Journalism and Humour Journalism: the Case of Philip Ochieng' and Wahome Mutahi. Odhiambo LO, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2001.
Nyabul PO. Critique of Aristotle's Conception of Eudaimonia. Nyasani PJ, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2001.
Ndetei DM. Drug abuse in Kenya: Information, needs, resources and analysis (INRA) project for Kenya.; 2001. Abstract

This is a report of Information, Needs and Resources Analysis, (fNRA) survey carried
out in Kenya in July 200 1. The survey team comprised a Professor of Psychiatry, David
Ndetei from the Nairobi Psychotherapy Services and Institute (NPSI), Dr. Donald A.
Kokonya, Francisca A. Ongecha, Mr. Leonidas Msafiri and Mr. Abel Ndumbu and Ms.
Victoria Mutiso. The UNDep team comprised Dr. Rebecca McKetin and Mr. Mathew
Warner-Smith who provided facilitative support. This survey sought to establish
Kenya's capacity for collecting information on drug abuse. INRA is primarily focussed
on assessment of existing information and sources on drug abuse and the identification
of key needs. It is also expected to propose a development strategy for establishing an
integrated drug information system for monitoring drug abuse trends and associated
problems in Kenya. The purpose of such a drug information system is to provide a
database which can be used to formulate policy and institute intervention programmes
on drug abuse. The information contained in this report was obtained by interviewing a
cross-section of leaders of a number of relevant institutions in Government, the Private
and NGO sectors as well as individual persons - all of whom are stakeholders in matters
of drug abuse. The survey covered Nairobi and its environs only and aimed at providing
a starting point for similar work throughout the country.
The information gathered indicated that drug abuse has been the subject of study for a
number of academic theses, but operational research on the subject has been mute. The
existing information shows that the most abused drugs in Kenya are alcohol and
Cannabis sativa (bhang) which is grown in a few isolated parts of the country. But there
are reports of somewhat isolated cases of cocaine, heroin, mandrax, hallucinogens,
amphetamines and solvents. Khat (miraa) which contains a banned psychotropic
substance (cathinone) is widely consl1med among certain sections of the Kenyan
community has become a major export crop to Somalia and further afield. There have
also been cases of addiction to prescribed analgesics and sedatives. In recent years,
Kenya has become a transit 'zone' (mainly from Pakistan to the west) for traffickers as a
result of its long and porous boundaries; Nairobi being a major communication city and
with a relatively low demand for local consumption.
The survey team identified a number of existing sources of information on illicit drugs
which can make valuable contributions to an integrated drug information system. These
range from treatment data from the national and teaching hospital - Mathari Hospital to
alcohol and drug rehabilitation and detoxification centres run by NGOs and private
companies as well as advocacy agencies involved in counselling and Information,
Education and Communication (lEC) activities. The Central Bureau of Statistics would
be the source of information on drug abuse in its household survey. The Central Bureau
of Statistics is, upon request by NACADA, planning for a national baseline survey to
establish drug abuse prevalence in Kenya. A household survey will follow thereafter.
As elsewhere existing sources of data need to be supplemented with specialized drug
abuse surveys in order to obtain a more comprehensive and reliable assessment of the
situation particularly as regards the abuse of drugs in educational institutions.
Kenya has a very strong manpower base as regards research and studies on drug abuse
information systems. Administratively, Kenya has created a central agency responsible
for coordination of activities on drug abuse - NACADA, the National Agency for the
Campaign Against Drug Abuse. A steering committee for a network on drug abuse has
already been established and is working towards the formation of the network which
will playa supportive role to NACADA.

Extraction of vernonia oil from vernonia galamensis seeds and its aminolysis to vernolamides.; 2001. Abstract

Vernonia galamensis grows as a common weed and is widely distributed in Africa,
and its center of diversity is found in East Africa. The dry seeds of Vernonia galamensis
contains a naturally epoxidized oil that is rich in trivernolin, which constitutes about 80% of
the seeds oil. The vernonia oil has a unique structure that makes it attractive for the
preparation of novel and useful products.
This study reports on the extraction of vernonia oil and its conversion to vernolamides
with higher added value. The oil was extracted from the seeds of Vernonia galamensis ssp.
nairobensis using soxhlet extraction. About 31.6% of crude oil was obtained which after
refining gave about 25.2% of oil. The oil was then reacted with 1,6-diaminohexane, 1,8-
diaminooctane, 2-aminopyridine, 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine and 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine to
give the corresponding vernolamides under two varied conditions, temperature (25,70 and
80°C) and solvents (neat, chloroform, dichloromethane and dimethylformamide). In all
~
reactions a mole ratio of vernonia oil to amine (1 :3) was used at the reaction time of 12 h.
!
In all cases, highest yields of the vernolamides (4l.2-72.3%) were obtained at 70°C in
chloroform, while the lowest yields (21-53.3%) were recorded at 80°C. The reactions at 25°C
gave reasonably high yields (17-62.8%), thus aminolysis proceeds even at room temperature.
Aminolysis carried under neat conditions also gave relatively high yields (41-64.2%).
The vernolamides were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), infrared (IR),
electron impact mass spe~ctroscopy (ElMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
spectroscopic techniques.
The antimicrobial activities of the products were investigated at concentrations of
~
100)..lg, 50)..lg and 25)..lg by the disc diffusion method. The vernolamides exhibited only
antibacterial activity and was greater against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) than in gramIX
negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. There was no antifungal activity shown on all the fungi
that were investigated.

Kanoti JR. THE GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY ASSOCIATED WITH MAFIC AND ULTRAMAFIC INTRUSIVES OF THE MOZAMBIQUE BELT IN MBEERE AND THARAKA-NITHI DISTRICTS, EASTERN KENYA. Nairobi - Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed geology, the geochemistry and the mineralogy associated with the mafic and the ultramafic intrusives of the Mozambique Belt, eastern Kenya. To achieve this, a detailed geological mapping and sampling of the intrusives was done followed by laboratory analysis. The significance of the study was to highlight the nature, relative age and genesis of the intrusives and the potential for economic mineralization.

This study has revealed that the intrusive rocks and the regional foliation trends are inter-related suggesting that the intrusives developed in vertical structures during regional metamorphism. The elongated shapes of the bodies and their alignment with the enclosing regional structural grain of the gneisses suggest compressional deformation during the regional Mozambique Belt Orogeny. This is considered as evidence for at least a synorogenic emplacement of these intrusive rock bodies.
The mafic and the ultramafic rocks represent a range of differentiated rocks from fairly primitive magma (Mg-number = 79) to highly fractionated magma (Mg-number = 36). However, the fact that the rocks are intrusive brings out the possibility that none of them may represent parental magma composition. The magmas have undergone modification by crystal fractionation processes either in high-level magma chambers or during ascent from their mantle source regions. The gradual composition change in the feldspars, olivine and the pyroxenes is from high- to low-temperature members of their respective solid-solution series. This outlines the crystallization sequence.

The whole rock chemical analysis shows that rocks rich in magnesium oxide are also rich in chromium and nickel and those rich in potassium oxide are also rich in rubidium and barium in conformity with the rules of partitioning. This implies that they originated from one parent magma. The rocks show iron enrichment trend and have high nickel and low aluminium oxide contents. This chemical evidence supports a tholeiitic magma affinity for the intrusive rocks.
An attempt is made to construct the mineralogy of the gabbros based on the mineral chemistry. This has revealed that they are composed of magnesium-rich olivine (chrysolite) with approximately 80% forsterite. The pyroxene is both magnesium and calcium rich and has an enstatite molecular percentage of about 18%. It is an orthopyroxene (bronzite) in the enstatite-ferrosilite solid-solution series. The plagioclase feldspars show a range of composition from about 90-20% anorthite. This
range shows that the magma crystallized slowly. Crystallization over a wide temperature has resulted in the formation of alkali feldspars and other minor constituents.

Economically, the area has the potential for base metals. Chromium and nickel are present in concentrations higher than that found in average igneous rocks. Further geophysical work is recommended to reveal some more information in terms of the possibilities of economic deposits in this project area. Some of the pegmatite, particularly those near Muthanthara contains small needles of beryl. The beryl is blue green in colour but not of gem quality.

Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Kiplagat S. PhD Thesis on the Psychology of Natural Disasters. Guildford: University of Surrey; 2001.
Karimi KIARIECAROLINE. The role of savings and credit cooperative societies in facilitating rural financing in Kenya (a case study of Embu County).; 2001. Abstractkiarie_the_role_of_savings_and_credit_cooperative_societies_in_facilitating_rural_financing_in_kenya.pdf

Rural financing is one of the critical factors to promote productivity and ensure an improved social and economic development for a country like Kenya, whose population of about 80% is rural-based and dominantly depending on agriculture. Like in many other developing countries, access to financial services in most parts of Kenya, particularly the rural areas, is very limited.The specific objective of the study was to assess the role of Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOs) in facilitating rural financing; it analyzed the type of financial services and products offered by the SACCOS and assessed the extent to which SACCOS are effective in facilitating rural financing. Data were collected through questionnaires. The study used a sample size of 35 respondents, which comprised SACCOs members and SACCOs board members. In data presentation, tables, charts, percentages and graphs were used.The study found that a majority of SACCOs offers Credit and saving facilities only while money transfer, insurance and deposit products are not offered. A number of SACCOs were found experiencing poor management, low membership, and a low level of knowledge on the part ofmembers.The study concluded that if SACCOs are managed sustainably, they can play a critical role in facilitating rural financing. The researcher further recommended that in order to improve sustainability and ensure provision of knowledge for best practices, the government should put in place reliable mechanisms to the SACCOs

Mwea, Sixtus K;, Gichaga FP(S). Studies of flexible road and airport pavements in Kenya .; 2001.
Aganda AA. Temperature profiles in a wood packed bed heated by hot combustion gases .; 2001. Abstract

Axial and radial temperature profiles are presented for the initial sensible heating stage of wood carbonisation process in a packed bed. These profiles are important in promoting greater understanding of the heat transfer processes during the sensible heating stage and the mechanics of the gas flow through the bed. These data are also useful as an aid to the design of wood carbonisation retorts. Gas temperatures were measured in a cylindrical retort within which a randomly packed bed of green wood was heated by hot inert combustion gases. The bed dimensions were 0.62m in diameter and 1.28m in height. The temperatures were measured by thermocouples mounted at 0.46m, 0.8Sm and 1.28m heights and transversed across the bed diameter. The bed was heated by combustion gases fed from a charcoal combustion chamber. It was discovered that gas temperature drops through the bed were as much as 86% of the inlet temperature, and that the most significant temperature gradients occurred in the first one third of the bed; this has significant implications in the retort design. Other interesting features observed were that there was a strong local variation in temperature throughout a given horizontal section of the bed and a symmetrical radial temperature profiles across the bed. Furthermore, gas temperatures were significantly lower close to the retort wall than the centre. These phenomena were explained in terms of gas channelling and a wall effect which increased the resistance to flow there. A two-phase mathematical model was used to predict axial temperature variation, while an empirical equation was fitted to the radial temperatures. This same model although a one-dimensional axial one, was used with a number of simplifying assumptions, to estimate the radial temperature profiles. In general there was good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results. The maximum deviation was -20% but 90% of the predictions were within t7.SX. This good agreement implies that the mathematical nodel is physically sound, a significant finding since there is no evidence in the literature to suggest that a two-phase model exists that can predict both axial and radial temperature profiles simultaneously in a packed bed.

Otieno I. Truth Maintenance Systems. Manderick PB, ed. Brussels: Vrije Universiteit Brussels; 2001.abstract.pdf
NW M. Causes of increased drop out in primary school in Nyandarua District, Kenya’.. F A, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Ayuke FO. Diversity, abundance and function of soil invertebrate fauna in relation to quality of organic residues. Eldoret, Kenya: Moi University; 2000. Abstract

Although the role of soil invertebrate fauna in decomposition of organic residues and thus nutrient release, soil structure and soil-water relations is well recognized, the scope for their manipulation to derive the potential benefits is little understood. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the diversity, abundance and function of soil fauna are related to quality of organic residues used.
The study was conducted during the 1997 short rains (Oct 1997Feb 1998) on farm in western Kenya with the following treatments: (1) control without any input, (2) fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha1, (3) tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsely) A. Grey) biomass and (4) senna (Senna spectabilis D.C & H.S. Irwin) biomass. The organic residues were applied in fresh condition at 5 t ha1 dry weight. The treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. Macro- and meso-fauna diversity and abundance were monitored in soil monoliths (25 x 25 x 30 cm) and soil cores (10 cm diameter and 30 cm depth), respectively, at the beginning of the season, six weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest.
A satellite experiment was conducted simultaneously to quantify the role of soil fauna in the decomposition of organic residues, using senna foliage (5 t ha1) as the test material and maize as a test crop. Two treatments, with and without soil fauna, were evaluated replicated six times. Fauna were eliminated by treating the soil with furadan at 40 kg ha1at the start of the study, 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks after crop sowing. The standard litterbag technique was used to monitor litter decomposition at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks and N, P and K concentration in the undecomposed material at each of these sampling periods was determined. First order exponential equations were fitted between undecomposed material or nutrients contained therein (y) and time (t), and decomposition constants (k) worked out.
Diversity and populations of soil fauna were found to be low in the arable land use system under study. Macrofauna constituted 90% of the total fauna recovered, while mesofauna constituted only 10%. Termites were the most abundant of the fauna (55%) followed by earthworms (31%). Although the two organic residues did not affect faunal diversity, addition of senna increased total population by 200% and tithonia by 140% over the no input control. Fertilizer use did not change either diversity or total population.
Soil fauna enhanced decomposition of organic residues. While only 45% of the material decomposed by two weeks in the absence of fauna, 60% material decomposed in the presence of fauna in the same period. After 8 weeks, hardly any material was recovered in the presence of fauna compared with 9 to 12% material recovered in the absence of fauna. Nutrient release was not influenced by fauna probably because of the nature of material used. As the secondary compounds were lower than the critical level (<4% polyphenol and <15% lignin), nutrient release progressed rapidly with the microbial action and fauna did not play a significant role.
Fertilizer use increased maize grain yield by 63% over the control. Although tithonia biomass increased maize grain yield by 38% over the control and did not differ significantly from fertilizer treatment, senna increased maize yield by only 6% over the no input control. Higher yield with tithonia than senna was partly because of higher nutrient concentration and hence greater amounts of nutrients added for the same quantity of material applied. Despite less faunal activity compared with that under senna, tithonia decomposed and released nutrients faster than senna probably because of increased microbial activity. The study indicates that (1) the relative effect of soil fauna on decomposition to that of soil microbes is small, (2) several parameters have to be considered in determining the quality of organic residues, (3) organic residues can be used to manipulate soil fauna and (4) high quality residues can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields.

ODHIAMBO ODONGOSETH. THE EFFECT OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHIES ON STUDENT SATISFACTION IN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES AND THE NON-EVANGELICAL PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

The study addressed the effect of marketing management philosophies on student satisfaction in Public Universities and the non-evangelical private universities in Kenya and was motivated by the observed phenomenal disparities that seemed to characterize the two sets of universities.

Whereas the private Universities seemed to remain relatively calm, devoid of student unrests and the ability to complete programmes in time, Public Universities stood on the opposite end with frequent institutional shut down due to unrests resulting into failure to complete programmes as scheduled.

In spite of this observed phenomenal challenge, the researched was not aware of any study that had been conducted in this area that seemed to point to the significant of the marketing management philosophy in practice and the resultant effect on student satisfaction, and therefore saw the need to conduct the research to generate information that would fill the then prevailing information gap.

The study was an exploratory census survey of 11 accredited Universities in which 173 respondents were interviewed from the ranks of the senior administrative staff corroborated with the participation of significant number of students. The primary data was collected using questionnaires consisting of six sections, each pertaining to the major dimension of the respective marketing management philosophies.

Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics which entailed means, percentages and standard deviation .T-statistics and chi-squares were also used in the analysis and from the findings, it emerged that there were indeed significant differences in the marketing management philosophies practiced by the two sets of universities. Private universities were found to practice with marketing and societal marketing concepts as opposed to public universities whose practices seemed to point the direction of production and product concepts.

The study concluded that there is a direct relationship between the level of student satisfaction and the marketing management philosophy practiced and consequently recommended to the public universities to consider using the modern and more robust marketing management philosophies which identifies and take into consideration the interests and desires of students as it designs its academic and operational programmes.

Omangi HG. FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE LEVEL OF MOTIVATION AMONG NON-ACADEMIC UNIONISABLE EMPLOYEES (A CASEOF UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI). Nairobi: Kenya Institute of Management; 2000. Abstract

This study investigates factors that affect the level of motivation and therefore performance among non-academic unionisable staff of the University of Nairobi, with a view of recommending strategies that will motivate them to become performers to improve the institution’s productivity, efficiency and effectiveness. Research has shown that observable non performance of said staff emanates from lack of motivation resulting from some unmet needs. The study tries to identify these unmet needs, their motivational level, and strategies that can possibly meet these needs and motivate them. Within the framework of the Herzeberg’s two factor theory (1959) the study examines how motivation which encompasses forces from within and from without can be improved among the said workers. Herzberg proposes two sets of factors that affect behavior: maintenance (concerned with the job environment) and motivators (concerned with the job content).

OLUOCH KEVINRAYMOND. Identification of schizont cDNAs located on a subtelomeric fragment of the Theileria parva genome. Nene DV, Mulaa PFJ, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Ejore P. influence of cattle rustling in education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Muasya CK, Wafula EM KTOMND. Knowledge Attitudes and Practices (KAP) of parents and guardians of children with epilepsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of parents and guardians of children with epilepsy regarding the illness.
DESIGN: cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Paediatric Neurology Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
RESULTS: 116 parents and guardians were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Focused group discussions (FGDs) were also carried out on 42 other parents and guardians. More than 77% of the parents/ guardians (P/G) had some knowledge on the type of illness their children were suffering from, the features of a convulsion, the alerting features before convulsions, the type of antiepileptic drug treatment their children were receiving and the potential hazards to an epileptic child during a convulsion. Many P/G did not know the causes of epilepsy, alerting features prior to a convulsion or the complications of epilepsy. 60% of the P/G administered some recommended first aid measures to their epileptic children during a fit, but many of them combined these with potentially harmful first aid measures. 40% of the epileptic children of school going age in this study were not attending school because of problems which should not have interfered with school. Spiritual healing, and to a lesser extent traditional herbal medicine were perceived to be important components of therapy for epilepsy when used in conjunction with western treatment. A higher level of formal education of the P/G had a positive influence on their KAP towards epilepsy. The findings of the FGD’s corroborated those of the questionnaire interviews.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Health Education should be given at all levels of contact with P/G, to enhance their KAP towards epilepsy, as this was likely to impact positively on the care accorded the children living with epilepsy.

Muasya C;, Wafula EM. Knowledge Attitudes and Practices (KAP) of parents and guardians of children with epilepsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya..; 2000. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of parents and guardians of children with epilepsy regarding the illness.
DESIGN: cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Paediatric Neurology Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
RESULTS: 116 parents and guardians were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Focused group discussions (FGDs) were also carried out on 42 other parents and guardians. More than 77% of the parents/ guardians (P/G) had some knowledge on the type of illness their children were suffering from, the features of a convulsion, the alerting features before convulsions, the type of antiepileptic drug treatment their children were receiving and the potential hazards to an epileptic child during a convulsion. Many P/G did not know the causes of epilepsy, alerting features prior to a convulsion or the complications of epilepsy. 60% of the P/G administered some recommended first aid measures to their epileptic children during a fit, but many of them combined these with potentially harmful first aid measures. 40% of the epileptic children of school going age in this study were not attending school because of problems which should not have interfered with school. Spiritual healing, and to a lesser extent traditional herbal medicine were perceived to be important components of therapy for epilepsy when used in conjunction with western treatment. A higher level of formal education of the P/G had a positive influence on their KAP towards epilepsy. The findings of the FGD’s corroborated those of the questionnaire interviews.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Health Education should be given at all levels of contact with P/G, to enhance their KAP towards epilepsy, as this was likely to impact positively on the care accorded the children living with epilepsy.

Narrative Techniques in Wole Soyinka's The Interpreters. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Opijah FJ. Numerical Simulation of the Impact of Urbanization on the Microclimate over Nairobi Area. Ng'ang'a JK, Mukabana JR, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2000.phd.doc
Kimani NM. Pattern of female pelvic disease as shown at ultrasonography at Kenyatta National Hospital. IKUNDU GK, ed. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2000.
Okalebo FA. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of clematis brachiata thunberg.; 2000. Abstract

The leaves, stem and roots of Clematis brachiata Thunberg
(Ranunculaceae) tested positive for anthraquinones, alkaloids,
saponins, coumarins, sterols, carotenoids and flavanoids and
cardenolides. Only the stem and leaves had tannins. The root had the
highest amounts of alkaloids and anthraquinones
The stem Soxhlet methanol extract yielded 13.2 mg (0.029 % of the
dried stem powder) of quercetrin (3-0-beta-L- rhamnosyl, 3', 4', 5, 7
tetrahydroxyl flavone). In addition the extract yielded 6400 mg
(1.3 % of dried stem powder) of a precipitate, FAO-FRS. It was
composed of a mixture of non-aromatic compounds.
The roots yielded 170 mg (0.068 % of dried root powder) of a nonaromatic
unsaturated lactone.
The Soxhlet methanol extracts of the leaves and stem had very good
activity against brine shrimps (LDso66.5 ug/ml and 365.6 ug/ml
respectively). An ethyl acetate ffaction of the stem Soxhlet extract,
FES, had the greatest activity against the-shrimps (LDso= 23.08
ug/ml).
The cold methanol extract of the root showed good in vitro
antimalarial activity (LDso = 39.9 ug/ml) against highly chloroquine
resistant isolate, Plasmodium falciparum VliS.
The leaf and stem extracts showed low in vitro antimalarial activity.
Quercetrin is known to have in vivo antimalarial activity.
None of the isolates and plant extracts showed significant
antimicrobial activity.
FAO-FRS, the cold methanol extracts of the leaf and stem showed
antinociceptive and local anesthetic effects.
The cold methanol extracts of the leaf, stem and roots caused
relaxation of the isolated rabbit ileum. At low concentrations, FAOFRS
caused relaxation of the isolated rabbit ileum and at high
concentration it had a dose dependent contractile effect.
The traditional use the leaves and stems of C. brachiata Thunb as
analgesics, local anesthetics, antimalarial agents and spasmolytics,
seems tv have sound scientific rationale. The traditional use of the roots for the management of malaria and as a purgative seems to have
scientific rationale.

Victor N. The State of Social Marketing in the Banking Sector in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Kamau IN. Trace Gas Emissions for Biomass Cookstoves in Kiambu and Bungoma Districts. (A Pilot Study). Wandiga PS, Kithinji DJ, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Chaga MH. Ulinganishi wa mofofonolojia ya Kiswahili na Kidawida. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2000.
Bulimo WD. The Role of UBCv1 Enzyme of African Swine Fever Virus. Vol. PhD. Hartfield: University of Hertfordshire; 1999. Abstractthesis_abstract_bulimo.pdfthesis_abstract_bulimo.pdf

The aim of the project was to define the function of the African swine fever virus (ASFV)-encoded ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (UBCv 1). Two alternative approaches were taken to construct recombinant ASF in which either (i) a functional UBCv1 was not expressed or (ii) the UBCv1 gene was controlled by an inducible promoter so that its expression could be regulated. It was anticipated that the regulated gene approach would produce viable recombinant viruses even if the UBCv 1 gene was essential for infection.First, a replacement plasmid was made to delete the wild-type gene from the ASFV genome. Then, an inducible ASFV promoter containing the lac operator was cloned upstream of the UBCv1 gene and expression of UBCV1 was shown to be regulated by IPTG when co-transfected in infected cells with another plasmid expressing the lac repressor. Transfer plasmids were constructed to recombine this inducible UBCv1 gene into either the wiId-type UBCv 1 locus or, as a second copy into a non-essential locus in the genome. None of these approaches produced viable recombinant viruses, suggesting that UBCv 1 is an essential gene whose level and timing of expression are important for the viability of ASFV.To identify possible substrates for the UBCv1, the gene was used as bait to screen a pig macrophage cDNA Iibrary using the yeast two-hybrid system. Six clones encoding prateins which interacted specifically with the UBCv1 protein were isolated. Sequencing of the inserts in these clones showed that three encoded ubiquitin. This was expected since adenylated ubiquitin is a common substrate for all UBC enzymes with which they interact as they transfer the ubiquitin to substrate proteins. One interesting UBCv1-interacting protein was contained in a clone encoding part of a protein named SMCp which was very similar to the N-terminal region of the mammalian SMC and retinoblastoma binding protein-2 (RBP2) genes. The RBP2 protein is thought to have an important role in regulating cell division by regulating the function of the tetinoblastama protein. In vivo binding studies confirmed that UBCv 1 binds GST-SMCp but does not bind GST. Immunofluorescence studies showed that UBCv 1 was present in the nucleus in some cells and cytoplasm in others suggesting it shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The specific interaction of UBCvl with SMCp and the subcellular localisation UBCv1 suggest that SMCp may be a substrate in vivo for the enzyme. The possible significance of this is discussed.

Karimurio J. Costs and productivity of cataract surgery in different eye care settings in Kenya. London: London; 1999. Abstract

Introduction

Cataract which is defined as opacity of the crystalline lens of the eye is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness inKenyaand in the whole world in general. Majority of cataracts are age related. Resources allocated for the treatment of cataract inKenyalike in other developing nations, are not only scarce but have also been shrinking with time. Surgical removal of the opaque lens and correction with an intraocular lens implant are the only treatment options available inKenya. Prioritisation during planning and resource allocation should be done for the benefit of the majority. This can only be possible if we are aware of the costs incurred in cataract surgery and the ways by which costs can be contained. When the cost of cataract surgery is known, it is easy to estimate how much service user charges (cost recovery and cost sharing) to charge the patients. Overcharging lowers utilisation while undercharging threatens sustainability of the heath services. It is also possible to identify the costs of each cataract surgical item (or procedure) and plan how to contain the costs without compromising the quality. The exact cost per unit service (in this case cataract surgery) should thus be reviewed regularly.

Aim

To describe the costs and productivity of cataract surgery in the different Eye Care delivery settings inKenya.

Objectives :

To estimate and compare the costs of consumables used in cataract surgery in different eye care settings.

To estimate and compare the productivity of cataract surgery in different eye care settings.

Methods

Three Eye Units representing three unique Eye Care delivery settings inKenyawere selected for the study. Kikuyu Eye Unit represented the typical Kenyan NGDO setting, Lions Eye Unit a service club setting and Nakuru Eye Unit the Government Eye Care delivery setting. The productivity of cataract surgery was calculated from the information extracted from the Eye Units monthly returns and annual reports. The information was further counterchecked with the theatre registers and the data from the National Eye Health Information Office. The cost of each of the consumable items used for cataract surgery was calculated separately using the information gathered from hospital store records and from the surgeons and other theatre staff using the data collection form. The costs of all the items were finally summed up to get the unit cost of consumables used in a single cataract operation. The data were finally entered into summary tables. The productivity and costs of consumables for the three Eye Units were compared and conclusions made.

Results

Kikuyu performed 53%, Lions 9% and Nakuru 4% of all the 9495 cataract operations reported in the 1998 annual report of the Kenya Ophthalmic Programme.

Kikuyu Eye Unit theatre did 100, Lions 17 and Nakuru 7 cataract operations per week.

In one theatre day, Kikuyu operated on 20, Lions 9 and Nakuru 4 cataracts.

Cataract operations per surgeon per week was 13 at Kikuyu, 9 at Lions and 2 at Nakuru. None of the three Eye Units in the study had a waiting list for cataract surgery.

The unit cost of consumable items used in a single cataract operation was US$ 11.2 at Lions US$ 14.6 at Kikuyu Eye Units and US$ 23.5 at Nakuru.

The IOL and the corneal suture were the most expensive items. The two accounted for 40 %, 61 % and 63 % of the total cost of consumable items used in a single cataract operation at Lions, Kikuyu and Nakuru respectively.

Conclusions

None of the three Units had realised its full potential in productivity of cataract surgery. The IOL was the single most expensive consumable item used for cataract surgery at Kikuyu and Lions Eye Units. At Nakuru, it was the corneal suture.

Kikuyu Eye Unit which represented the typical Kenyan NGDO Eye Care delivery setting had the highest productivity of cataract surgery at the cost of US$ 14.6 per one unit of consumable.

Lions Eye Unit which represented an NGO Eye Care setting whereby the sponsoring NGDO also managed the day to day running of the unit it was sponsoring performed cataract operation at the lowest cost per unit of consumables (US$ 11.2). The unit had low productivity of cataract surgery when compared to Kikuyu.

Nakuru Eye Unit represented the Government of Eye Care delivery setting. The unit had the lowest productivity of cataract surgery and the highest cost of a unit cost of consumables (US$ 23.5).

Recommendations

- Improve cataract surgical services through Social Marketing.

- Monitor productivity and cost of cataract surgery regularly.

Oludhe C. Homogenious Climatic Zoning.; 1999.
Musyoka SM. A model for a four-dimensional integrated regional geodetic network. Karlsruhe: University of Karlsruhe; 1999.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD. On Decomposition of Operators in Hilbert Spaces. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract

The almost-similar and similar relations between operators on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are investigated. It is shown that almost-similar operators share some properties with some other classes of operators. Various results on almost-similarity and similarity are proved. An attempt is made to classify those operators where almost-similarity implies similarity. We investigate some properties of corresponding parts of operators which enjoy these equivalence relations.

Karari EM. Prevalence of helicobacter pylori in chronic renal failure patients with dyspepsia.; 1999. Abstract

Background:The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of H.
pylori in dyspeptic patients with chronic renal failure.
Methods: One hundred and fifty four patients with dyspepsia, in two groups
of seventy-seven patients each were studied. The patients were divided on
the basis of presence or absence of CRF. H. pylori was tested for using the
biopsyurease test and histology. Patients were considered to have H. pylori
if theytested positive on both tests.
Results: The prevalence of H. pylori in CRF was 53.2%. There was no
statistically significant difference between the prevalence of H. pylori in
CRF patients from that observed in the controls. Patients with
endoscopicallyproven PUD had a very high prevalence of H. pylori (87.30/0)
regardlessof their renal function.
Conclusion: Dyspepsia in patients with or without CRF is due to multiple
causes and just over 500/0 is attributable to H. pylori. The prevalence of H.
pylori in dyspeptic CRF patients is similar to that in dyspeptic patients with
normal renal function. We recommend that all patients with dyspesia should
routinely undergo endoscopy and H. pylori studies before treatment for the
dyspepsiais started.

Odiemo LO. The Rhetoric of Positivistic Science and Professional Education for Teachers. Bergen, Norway: Norwegian Teacher Academy,; 1999.
Dr. Joshua Okumbe, Dr. Gerald Kimani (Eds.). A study of factors which influence performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in selected public secondary schools in Nairobi and Central Provinces.. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1999. Abstract

The Purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination in selected secondary schools in Nairobi and Central Provinces. The research was intended to find out whether good academic performance could be attributed to specific factors that are present in the schools performing relatively better. The major factor considered in this study KCSE performance. The literature review was divided into four subheadings: effect of school-related factors on academic performance, effect of non-school factors on academic performance, effect of student-related factors on performance and effect of motivational factors on performance. From the literature review, a conceptual framework was designed. The conceptual framework showed variables (inputs) and their expected directional effect on each other on the outputs (performance). The study used expost facto research design. The sample consisted of 32 headteachers, 575 teachers and 773 students. The data was analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics and the chi-square statistical test which was accompanied by a contingency coefficient. The study revealed that there was a significant relationship between the condition of school facilities, as perceived by headteachers, and students’ academic performance in KCSE. The study also revealed that students’ KCPE entry marks, headteachers’ frequency of holding staff meetings, students’ socioeconomic background, teachers academic qualification, teachers’ workload, involvement of teachers in administrative decision-making, method used to solve teachers’ problems, headteachers’ frequency of holding meetings with parents, frequency of headteachers’ meetings with form four students, teachers’ attendance of in-service training and promptness of school fees payment were significant in determining KCSE performance. The factors that were not found to be statistically significant in determining KCSE performance were teaching of extra hours and reinforcement by parents on their children. Based on these findings it was recommended that there is need for headteachers to hold frequent staff meetings in which problems and progress of the school could be discussed. It was also recommended that there is need to encourage bursary schemes to cater for students who come from low socioeconomic background. Finally it was recommended that there is need for headteachers to involve parents in school activities and need to convert day schools into boarding schools.

G.N. M. The value of pediatric upper gastrointestinal studies. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1999.
Gichuki NN. Wetlands: Our common property.; 1999.
Nyangoma JFA. Death and the Law.; 1998.
Nyangoma JFA. Death and the Law.; 1998.
K MJ, E.N.M N, Lerna KN. Effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on Mammalian host glucose metabolism. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.munyua_files_2.png
Absaloms HO. Genetic Algorithm Application to Image Processing Optimization Problems. Atsugi, Japan: Kanagawa Institute of Technology; 1998.
Wasamba P. Languange in Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’s Fiction. Chesaina PC, Odari M, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.abstract.pdf
Mwashando AH. Occurance of Anemia in Msambweni Division. Mombassa: Mombasa Poly University College; 1998.athumani-_diploma_project.pdf
Munyua JK, Njagi ENM, Mark AG. Physicochemical characterization of oils from Kenyan plants.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.munyua_files_1.png
Gichuki NN, Oyieke HA, Ndiritu GG, Handa C. Wetland biodiversity in Kajiado District.; 1998.
Wangoh J. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk Nr. 12295. Farah Z, Puhan Z, eds. Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; 1997.
Gichuki N. Computer Contracts in Kenya: Proposals for Regulatory Reform. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1997.
Amolo M. D ivination among the Luo community . Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 1997.
Barasa JL. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY INTO THE PASS RATES IN KASNEB CPA EXAMINATIONS. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract

The study aimed at determining factors that influence performance in CPA examinations conducted by KASNEB. Two approaches were used: First, approach examined factors that influence completion period of CPA examinations. A sample of 190 qualified students was randomly selected from a population of 1865 candidates who had qualified as at December 1996. Second approach examined factors which determine whether a student would pass the CPA Section 6 or not. A sample of 112 candidates who sat the December, 1995 and June 1996 examinations and passed was examined alongside a sample of 146 candidates drawn from a total population of 1007 candidates who sat and did not pass in the two sittings.
For each of the approaches, correlation, multiple regression analysis, stepwise regression, stepwise discriminate multiple discriminate analyses were conducted. In both cases, mode of study, educational background and occupation were found to be very significant variables. Age appeared also but with least significance. Analysis two identified Kenya College of Accountancy as a college that positively influenced passing. Analysis one gave emphasis on the manner of attempting the examination. English and Mathematics at “o” level also a positive association with completion period.
Regression analysis revealed that variables identified explained 80% of the reasons influencing completion period. Descriminant analysis showed that the same variables constituted over 90% of the discriminating attributes between those candidates who finished the course within a short time and those who take a long time to complete. Variables covered in influencing passing however, could only account for 30% of the reasons for passing or not passing under regression analysis and had only 35% discriminating ability between those candidates who fail and those who pass. This means that over 70% of the reasons for passing or not passing were not captured in this set of variables. Consequently, there is need to search and establish the factors that constitute the remaining 70% in all the analyses, regression and discriminant analyses strongly agreed on the findings.

Rukwaro RW. Kenyan maasai architecture in a changing culture .; 1997. Abstract

The Kenyan Maasai traditional built form in Kajiado District is changing. It is being replaced by the newly developed homesteads and houses which are inadequately planned, designed and lacking in symbolism. The latter are inconsistent with social arrangements and cultural needs of the contemporary Maasai lifestyle. It was the hypothesis of this study that the culture of the Maasai influences the architecture of their built forms. Multiple research tools were used in the collection of data. These included Observation, Focus Group Discussion, Questionnaires and Interviews. Among the techniques used in analysing the data are the chi-square statistics and qualitative analytical procedures based on the material collected through cluster sampling of 92 homesteads which were presented graphically. It is clear that the architectural conditions of Maasai buildings are a result of culture change variables identified as occupation, religion, rituals, education, family set-up and land tenure which have consistently evolved cultural values such as social status, independence, privacy and sedentary lifestyle. The study concludes that, in view of the changed culture of the maasai, the new built form is satifactory in the incorporating the emerging architectural design concepts such as nuclear family house, linearity, divisibility and permanence in response to emerging spaces and artifacts. These concepts symbolise the changing Maasai culture in the built form.

Njagi JW. The Kikuyu Determiner Phrase.; 1997.
Onyatta JO. Kinetics and Equilibria of Cadmium in Selected kenyan Soils. Huang PM, ed. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan; 1997.abstract_thesis.pdf
Manda DK. Labour Supply, Returns to Education, and The Effect of Firm Size on Wages: The Case of Kenya. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Sweden; 1997.
Makunda CS. Mother and child: The domestic approach in the design of institutional homes. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 1997.
Ndegwa PN. Studies on ecology and epidemiological significance of Glossina swynnertoni Austen in Masai Mara, Kenya. Mihok S, Oyieke F, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1997.
Ngesa PO. “A History of African Women Traders in Nairobi, 1899-1952”. Nirobi: University of Nairobi; 1996.
Mumbi JN, Mulli TK, Kamundia R. Association between periodontal diseases and tobacco use among adult males in Nairobi. Macigo FG, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Ikamari LDE. 'Factors Affecting Child Survival in Kenya’. The Australian National University; 1996.
Munyua JK, Njagi ENM, Mangara MJ, Kinyua AM. Heavy metal analysis of Local - and Imported Pica Soils.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1996.

UoN Websites Search