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Dharmadhikary VM. Analysis of microstrip-patch antennas incorporating arbitrarily-shaped apertures.; 2012. Abstract

Microstrip antennas have received extensive attention as they have many attractive features, such as lightweight, small size, low profile and ease of fabrication. One of the inherent limitations when using these antennas is their limited bandwidth. Aperture coupling has proven to be a reliable and a robust feeding technique for these antennas as they are suitable for wide-bandwidth designs. A microstrip patch antenna that is coupled to a Microstrip-line by an aperture in the intervening ground plane has been designed and implemented in this work. Arbitrarily shaped coupling slots have been considered by investigating their contributing effect on the radiation characteristics of the antenna. Aperture shape and size are the crucial parameters that are considered for the aperture-coupled microstrip antennas. Our publications [109-110] have been based on a hybrid formulation combining the Method of Moments (MOM) and the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) for which, as a student, I take credit. It should also be taken as a contribution that the ingenuity of interfacing one kind of basis functions, Rao- Glitton-Wilson (RWG) for the surface with another type, the volume function for FDTD for the cavity. The aim of this work was to look for an aperture shape that gives significantly improved coupling of the radiated power from the feed-line to the resonant patch element and at the same time giving lower back-lobe radiation level from the slot. Rectangular, Circular, Bowtie and H-shaped apertures were of Micros investigated and it was found that the H-shaped aperture coupled antennas provide higher coupling and reduced backward radiation levels as compared to the other aperture shapes. The numerical analysis carried out employed the Electric Field Integral Equation technique with the Moment Method using the software called FEKOᆴ, which employs the triangular patch modelling scheme as the basis function. The antenna characteristics such as the radiation pattern, S-parameters, and input impedance were simulated for the various shapes of coupling apertures. The antenna prototypes utilizing each of these aperture shapes were constructed and tested in the laboratory and the experimental results compared with the simulated ones. The obtained results were found to be in good correlation.

Kitonde CK. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of three selected medicinal plants used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening in Kenya. The majority of the sick are
seeking herbal remedies in search of effective, safe, and affordable treatments. This study
investigated the antimicrobial activity and presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, sapogenins,
flavonoids and quinones in different parts of Vernonia glabra, Senna didymobotrya, and
Kigelia africana. Traditionally, these medicinal plants are used to treat microbial infections in
Kenya. The plants were selected based on the available traditional medical knowledge and
literature and collected in January 2010 in Machakos and Kisumu Counties. Different parts
were dried at room temperature under shade, ground into powder and extracted in
dichloromethane: methanol (1:1) and water. The crude extracts were tested against
Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive), Escherichia coli (gram negative) bacteria, Candida
albicans (yeast fungus), and Aspergillus niger (filamentous fungus) for antimicrobial activity
and Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) determined using disc diffusion technique
under sterile conditions. Discs impregnated with standard antibiotics (Streptomycin for
bacteria and Nystatin for fungi) were used as positive controls while the extraction solvents
were used as negative controls. Antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the
diameter of the clear inhibition zones around the paper discs using a transparent ruler (cm)
after 24 to 48 hours for bacteria and yeast fungus, and up to 72 hours for filamentous fungus.
Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was used to determine the chemical compounds present
in selected active crude extracts. Results showed that, organic extracts of V. glabra leaf
(Mean inhibition zone of 1.85 cm) and flower (MIZ of 1.78 cm) recorded the highest activity
against S. aureus than the standard antibiotic (Streptomycin MIZ of 1.30 cm). Organic extract
of V. glabra flower showed significant activity only against S. aureus, with the lowest MIC
of 1.5625 mg/100 mL compared to streptomycin at high MIC of 6.25 mg/100 mL. Qualitative
spray reagents on TLC plates, showed the V. glabra and S. didymobotrya flavonoids highly
present; terpenoids, sapogenins and quinones sufficiently present and V. glabra flower
alkaloids greatly present. The results of this study suggest that the three plants have
significant antimicrobial properties and justify their use in traditional herbal medicine for the
management of microbial based diseases. The presence of chemical compounds in most
extracts of V. glabra indicates its potential to produce novel compounds. Bioassay-guided
fractionations are recommended to identify the compounds responsible for antimicrobial
activity. Cytotoxicity assays are highly recommended for V. glabra in order to verify,
validate and document its safety in medicine.
Key words: Microbial infections, Vernonia glabra, Senna didymobotrya, Kigelia africa


In Civil Engineering and Construction Industry, crushed stones are known as aggregates and are the basic materials in modern construction work. The current methods for crushing stones to produce aggregates are characterized by the use of large, expensive and centralised crushing plants, which are beyond the reach of small scale entrepreneurs. In addition, such centralized plants are often located too far away from the point of use of aggregates leading to prohibitively high cost of the same.
On the other hand there is widespread practice of manual “hammer and anvil” stone crushing especially in rural areas. Though, the practice is hazardous, laborious and hardly profitable, the technology is common in Kenya. It is against this background that the proposed research work has been formulated in order to study the crushing characteristics of various stones and to subsequently come up with an optimum, dynamical ad structural design of a small stone crusher for small scale entrepreneurs. The study will contribute to the body of knowledge in the domain of innovative development of Engineering products; the case in point being a small- mechanised stone crusher that is cost effective, environmentally and user friendly. Further, the study will generate information on stone characteristics that are relevant in aggregate formation.

Gatheru AP. Blood requests, crossmatch and transfusion practices for elective surgery in Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2012. Abstract

This study was carried out over a period of ten weeks between June and August 2011 at the KNH theatres. A total of 370 patients scheduled for elective surgery whose blood had been crossmatched prior to being taken to theatre were recruited into the study. Majority of requests in the study period were requests for whole blood while requests for other blood products were rarely made. Most surgical teams made requests for two units of blood for the adults for most surgical procedures. Cross-matching of one unit of blood per patient however predominated followed by cross-matching of two units per patient. Single unit transfusions for adult patients were the most common despite requests for two units being the majority. However in the category of children the average blood volume transfused was 18.9mllKg. The overall Cross-match to Transfusion ratio during the study period was 1.42. Most of the blood that was cross-matched (64.8%) was transfused of the patients was transfused to them. The mean estimated duration blood products were kept out of the cold chain was 17 minutes. The methods mainly used to reduce the need for pre-operative blood transfusions included use of diathermy, pre-operative hemodilution and use of hypotensive anesthesia. The main transfusion triggers were estimated blood loss, conjuctival pallour and change in haemodynamic status. In the study subjects above 14 years, the mean estimated blood loss triggering transfusion was 750 mls. The study established that all patients received peri-operative fluids with crystalloid infusions predominating. There was a highly significant relationship( P

Mukuwa M, Njeru A, Martin Inyimili. Car Hire and Tracking Management System. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Uninersity of Agriculture and Technology; 2012. Abstract

By Mary Mukuwa, Ambrose Njeru,Martin Inyimili

Nowadays, there are online car reservations which give much benefit to user. The existence of this online system can overcome the problem of availability and provide convenience to the user in renting, car yet users still need more convenience system such as helping them in recommending car to be rent based on car specific requirements.
The user selects their preferred car from the car catalogue. Reservation can be done through online and users have to come to the service center to make payment and pick the reserved car. This system is functioned in retrieving, creating, updating and deleting the data or information depends on the security level and allows the organization to search user information from the database based on their identification card number. Besides that, this system may produce reports such as payment receipt, renting information and statistics of car renting by year, month, or week. The finding of this project is the web-based car rental system with recommended car to be rent and the output that will produce the information by following the user requirements. In conclusion, the system may need some enhancement and improvement in the future BMK. Challenges Faced By Kenya Sugar Board In Implementing Strategy On Service Delivery To Sugar Cane Millers In Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstractchallenges_faced_by_kenya_sugar_board_in_implementing_strategy_on_service_delivery_to_sugar_cane_millers_in_kenya.pdf

A company's strategy is management's action plan for running the business and conducting its operations. Strategy on service delivery is thus an important element of this management process. For global business market acceleration, business must respond to customers faster than ever with value added products and services, while they struggle to maintain temporary competitive advantage. The study was guided by the main objective which was to identify the challenges of implementation of strategy on service delivery by Kenya Sugar Board to Sugar Millers and to determine possible solutions to these Challenges. It utilized a case study on the Kenya Sugar Board. The target population was the managerial personnel at KSB and a total of eight representatives (one from eight sugar factories). Primary data was collected by the use of interview guide.

Mwiti BK. Deception in advertising: a case study of fruit juices in the local Kenyan market .; 2012. Abstract

Deception in advertising is an ongoing moral, and in some cases, controversial issue. What may appear to be a harmless advertisement to one person or group may be very misleading to another. With the increase in technology and the ever-increasing use of the Internet, consumers remain prime targets for advertising and marketing practices that are deceptive. The research thesis first gives background information on deception in advertising and describes different types of deception. It then examines what makes an advertisement deceptive, or what kind of advertisement would be defined 'as containing information that is deceptive and what role the designer plays in the advertising process/chain. It also gives information about juices and studies done on the production of juices, being that the case study revolves around fruit juices and the deception that occurs in their marketing. A field research was conducted to establish just how much deception there is in advertising, using fruit juices sold in the local Kenyan market as a case study. From the findings I was able to determine the level of deception the consumer is exposed to and the likely effects. Within the research were sought views of designers on why, if at all, they use deception in the adverts they produce. Discussions with designers, marketers and advertisers were heldto understand the point at which deceptive information was incorporated as part of the advertising process. Consumers were also interviewed to get an in-depth into what influences their purchasing powers. Retailers came n handy when informing me as to whether advertising was crucial in purchases made in their shopping outlets. The results from the field research proved that deception does exist and led me to conclude that advertising ought to be a moral concern & thus the need to inform consumers of this so that they can make more informed decisions about their purchases; and the need for designers to be held responsible for advertisements they create to market products and services.


This study explored the relationship between transformational leadership characteristics of secondary school principals’ and students’ academic performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). Although transformational leadership had been linked with academic performance in developed countries, the study attempted to investigate which specific characteristics could be attributed to improved academic performance in Kenya. The study was carried out in Nairobi County, Kenya. Stratified sampling process was used to ensure that both public and private schools in Nairobi were captured in the study. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”) (Kouzes & Posner, 1993). Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between transformational leadership characteristics and academic performance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test if a relationship existed between selected demographic characteristics and the interaction of leadership characteristics of principals’ and students’ academic performance. To test relationships between principals’ ratings and teachers’ ratings, ratings of male principals and female principals, t-test was used. Results indicated a positive correlation of “Inspiring a shared vision”, “Encouraging the heart” and “Challenging the process” characteristics and academic performance. There was however, a weak but not statistically significant correlation between “Modeling the way” and “Enabling others to act” characteristics and academic performance. It was recommended that secondary school principals should exhibit transformational leadership characteristics in order to succeed in today’s changing world of educational leadership. Suggestions made for further studies included a replication of the study in more counties.

Awiti J. Essays on Health Determinants in Kenya. University of Nairobi.; 2012.
Wambugu CW. Factors Influencing Employees’ Job Satisfaction: A Case of University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services (UNES). EBS PDM, ed. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

he purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing employee’s job satisfaction at
University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services (UNES) which is the commercial arm of the
University of Nairobi created to facilitate efficient use of institutional resources, including those
represented by human capacity within the ranks of academia. To achieve this objective, the study
explored four independent variables of job satisfaction, namely, training, remuneration,
motivation and work environment while the dependent variable is job satisfaction among UNES
The rationale for the study was derived from the observation that some employees of UNES seem
better adjusted and happy at work and are able to cope well with the demands of the company
while others are not. Another observation was the management's new challenge at UNES to
maintain a workforce that performs concertedly to achieve the company goals. \ •
This study, is based on a qualitative methodology. Data was collected using a questionnaire
containing Likert scale type questions which were administered to staff members, where the
researcher dropped and picked them after three days to allow the respondents' time to fill them.
These questionnaires where then edited and the data collected analyzed using the SPSS computer
The major findings of this investigation were that four factors, namely training, remuneration,
motivation and work environment directly contribute towards employee’s job satisfaction.
The study recommends that interventions should be carried out to increase levels of job
satisfaction among UNES employees this is important as job satisfaction has a strong correlation
with job performance. It also recommends on how management can eliminate low motivation and
job dissatisfaction amongst employees by reinforcing relevant human resources policies,
improving working conditions and compensation.

(Phd) DRNAOMIGIKONYOWM. Factors Influencing University Managers’ Participation in Distance Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Njoroge SN. Factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the internal Audit function as a corporate governance mechanism in public Universities in Kenya: (a case study of the university of Nairobi). Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

The purpose of the study was to establish the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the
internal audit function as a corporate governance mechanism in public universities in Kenya. The
study set to provide an understanding and appreciation of the factors that are necessary for the
Internal Audit Function to be effective, and how best the function could be made to contribute to
the promotion of Good Corporate Governance in public institutions in Kenyan. A case study
design was adopted, and the UON was chosen for the study. To address this purpose, the study
sought to answer the following research question: what is the perception of the internal auditors
at the UON on the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the internal audit function. The
target population for the study was all the Internal Audit staff in the internal audit department of
the UON. A total of 40 respondents were targeted.
The dependent variable was the Effectiveness of the Internal Audit Function, while the
independent variables were: Professional Proficiency of Internal Auditors, Quality of Audit
Work, Organizational Independence, Career and Advancement, and Top Management Support.
The researcher analyzed the collected data using descriptive statistics and presented the
presented the data in terms of percentages, frequency distribution and charts.
The findings from the study were that various factors contribute to the effectiveness of the
internal audit function as a corporate governance mechanism in public universities. These factors
range from professional proficiency of internal auditors, quality of audit work, organizational
independence, career and advancement and top management support. The study findings were
similar with those in existing literature reviewed; hence the conclusion that an effective internal
audit function contributes to corporate governance to a great extent. The research findings
indicated that there was a positive relationship between the variables, and that the effectiveness
in internal audit function in public universities can be explained by the identified factors.
The study recommended that there was need to invest in the internal audit function of
organizations, as this was bound to contribute to the enhancement of the corporate governance
structures. The study suggested that future research should focus on all public universities in
Kenya, and that a broad based study on role of Internal Audit on organizational performance in
both private and public organizations should also be carried out in future.

DO Gisiora, Mburu S. A framework for implementation of information security management in government ministries, a case study of Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Not only is Inlormation Security Strategy crucial to protect information systems, but it is central to organization survival. Ioday's organizations depend on information for their survival. Specifically, organizations depend on the systems and controls in place that provide for the ongoing confidentiality, integrity, and availability of their data and information. Many organizations are ill-equipped to define their security goals, let alone
to make an explicit connection between their security goals and the strategic drivers of
the organization. Threats to organizational information and information systems are
increasing in occurrence and in complexity and this emphasizes the urgency for
organizations to learn how to better protect their information and information systems
Information security is subjective and contextual therefore, every organization's approach
to a security strategy should be different and customized accordingly, because each
organization has its own threats, risks, business drivers, and industry compliance
requirements .
To improve the governance of IT and comply with regulatory demands, organizations are
using best practice frameworks implement information security. One of these IT
governance frameworks is COBIT (The Control Objectives for Inlormation and related
Technology). COBIT provides guidance on what could be done within an IT organization
in terms of controls, activities, measuring and documentation. This framework is however
generic and require specific knowledge in order to enable customization and use in a
local scenario.
The research methodology that was adopted was a case study. I he population of interest
was officers in the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports working at the headquarters.
Random sampling was used with targeted interviews to the olficers in ICT department
who are the custodians of Information systems in the ministry and the administration
which provide policy guidelines for the ministry. Data was analyzed by the use of
descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution tables, percentages, bar charts and pie
I he research established that the ministry faces a number of challenges in relation to
implementing information security in today's environment. In as much as the ministry’s
top officials expressed firm commitment to implementing security in the ministry, there
seemed to be no co-ordination between ministry staff and IT staff on the role of
information which indicates a communication deficit.
The key recommendations include the need for management to fully recognize that
Information Communication Technologies are a critical asset and which should be
restricted to authorized/legal use only; Information Communication Technology is a
Business Issue - not a technology issue and need to be aligned with priorities, industryprudent
practices and government regulations, and Information Communication
Technologies are enterprise-wide business with associated risks, and therefore all staff
should be involved in securing them. An implementation framework, The Control
Objectives for Government Information Technologies (COGIT) was developed which the
researcher recommended to government ministries as a reference model to Information
security management.

Matanji P. In-House indexing of Periodical literature: A study of University Libraries in Kenya.. Pretoria: University of South Africa; 2012.
Otieno SO. An investigation into the practice corporate social responsibility in the construction industry in Kenya: a case of contractors, Nairobi .; 2012. Abstract

The construction industry in Kenya is very important since it contributes greatly to the growth of the economy. Despite its very significant contribution to the economy, one finds that its operations diversely affect the society and environment in which most of its works are carried out in. Due to this reason, construction companies are required to go beyond the basic requirements of meeting projects' basic objectives by considering socio- economic, as well as sustainable environment issues. One of the ways in which this can be achieved is through the practice of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in a firm's operations. It is on this premise that the study was carried out with the main aim of investigating the practice of CSR by Kenyan construction companies. The study sought to establish the prevalence of CSR practice in the Kenyan construction industry, together with the various impacts encountered as a result of embracing the practice by various contractors. Other objectives of the study included formulation of a practical CSR model which could be adopted by contractors in Kenya for future use and also to recommend a way forward. A survey approach was adopted for the study and data was collected from the chosen sample group of 'Class A' construction firms. Data was analysed using statistical software's and procedures, and inferences made from the data outputs. Responses from the survey request were used to inform the study findings, conclusions and recommendations. The results of the survey indicate that most of the construction firms are aware of the concept of CSR and that those who had embraced the practice had encountered various positive impacts highlighted the study. This was despite some of the challenges they had faced in implementation of the concept. The study highlighted pertinent concepts on how construction firms can improve their outputs and work relationships by embracing the practice of CSR. The study recommends that CSR practice .should be adopted by all practicing contracting firms in Kenya for purposes of enjoying the inherent benefits that comes with its practice. This can be done through the formulation of relevant and practical legal and institutional frameworks that will ensure mandatory practice, as it has been done in other developed countries. The study further recommends a simple CSR model which can be adopted by the various construction firms for purposes of improving their businesses.


Lean supply chain management thinking and practices is considered as one of the ways
recognized to achieve timely supplies and to create greater values. The application of lean supply
management principles is meant to lead to improved performance of managers of the supply
chain. The Changing consumer needs and business environment has necessitated Public
Universities in Kenya to adopt lean supply chain management practices in order to survive thus
minimizing operational costs and maximizing profits. The increased change of customer needs
and the emergence of new technologies have resulted into Public Universities adapting to those
changes so as to remain relevant and competitive.
The objectives of the study sought to; (i) determine the extent that the human resource practices
linked to the supply chain management at the Public Universities in Kenya were consistent with
lean supply chain management, (ii) determine the extent that the information Technology linked
to the supply chain management at the Public Universities in Kenya were consistent with
reference to lean supply chain management and (iii)determine the extent to which the supplier
relations linked to the supply chain management at the Public Universities in Kenya were
consistent with the reference of lean supply chain management.
The study used a descriptive survey research design to assess the application of lean supply
chain management practices at the Public Universities in Kenya. The survey was used to
describe the Lean Supply chains Management practices which are successfully applied in the
Public Universities so as to enhance their service delivery. The survey was a census study that
included all the Seven Public Universities in Kenya, namely; University of Nairobi, Moi
University, Egerton University, Kenyatta University, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture
and Technology, Maseno University and Masinde Muliro University. The main instruments for
data collection were structured questionnaires with both closed and open ended questions. It was
administered to the respondents through personal interviews and by dropping and picking the
questionnaires at the business premises.
The data collected was analyzed using measures of central tendency including the mean scores
and percentages and measures of dispersion. Findings were then interpreted, conclusions made
and recommendations. The study established that rigid organizational culture and resistance to
change among Public Universities is a major obstacle to successful implementation of lean
supply chain management practices in Public Universities.
The study recommends that employees of Public Universities in Kenya be involved in decision
making and be sensitized on lean supply chain management practices in order to understand the
value and the changing business environment. The study established that human resource
practices among Public Universities have not been full linked to lean supply chain management
practices due to inappropriate policies of Public Universities to develop their new and existing
staff through training on the value of lean supply chain management practices. Therefore, the
study recommends the formulation of policies by the public universities that embrace lean supply
chain management practices for competitive advantage. The study established that, integration
of information technology in every department of Public Universities in Kenya enhances
efficiency and effectiveness thus customer satisfaction. The study established that unclear
procurement policies in Public Universities in Kenya hinder efficient and effective lean supply
chain management practices and results into poor performance of Public Universities due to
increased costs associated with supply chain activities.

Wairimu J. Mathematical analysis and dynamical systems : modeling Highland malaria in western Kenya.; 2012. Abstract

The objective of this thesis is to model highland malaria in western Kenya using dynamical systems. Two mathematical models are formulated ; one, on differentiated susceptibility and differentiated infectivity in a metapopulation setting with age structure, the other, a saturated vector feeding rate model with disease induced deaths and varying host and vector populations. In the first model, we consider the different ecosystems identified as malaria hotspots in the western Kenya highlands and consider the ecosystems as different patches. The population in each patch is classified as, either child or, adult. The model will aid in examining the role of ecosystem heterogeneity and age structure to the persistent malaria epidemics in the highlands. We formulate the differentiated susceptibility and infectivity model that extend to multiple patches the well known epidemiological models in one patch. Classifying the hot spots as n patches, we give its mathematical analysis using the theory of triangular system, monotone non-linear dynamical systems, and Lyapunov-Lasalle invariance principle techniques. Key to our analysis is the definition of a reproductive number, Ro, the number of new infections caused by one individual in an otherwise fully susceptible population throughout the duration of the infectious period. The existence and stability of disease-free and endemic equilibrium is established. We prove that the disease free state of the systems is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number Ro<1, and when Ro>1 an endemic equilibrium is established which is locally and globally asymptotically stable. The model shows that the age structuring reduces the magnitude of infection. Using relevant data we did some simulation, to demonstrate the role played by metapopulation and age structuring on the incidence and Ro. In the second part we formulate a model for malaria with saturation on the vector feeding rates that lead to a nonlinear function in the infection term. The vector feeding rate is assumed, as in the predator prey models, to rise linearly as a function of the host-vector ratio until it reaches a threshold Qv, after which the vector feeds freely at its desired rate. The two populations are variable and drive malaria transmission, such that when the vectors are fewer than hosts, the rate of feeding is determined by the vectors feeding desire, whereas, when the hosts are more than the vectors, the feeding rate is limited by host availability and other feeding sources may have to be sought by the vector. Malaria induced deaths are introduced in the host population, while the vector is assumed to survive with the parasite till its death. We prove that the Disease Free Equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable if Ro<1 and when Ro>1, an endemic equilibrium emerges, which is unique, locally and globally asymptotically stable. The role of the saturated mosquito feeding rate is explored with simulation showing the crucial role it plays especially on the basic reproduction number

Thuo JW. Media Framing of Women Politicians in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Omwansa TK. Modelling adoption of mobile money by the poo in Nairobi, Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Njaanake HK. Morbidity patterns, spatial distribution and treatment of schistosoma haematobium and soil transmitted helminthes in primary school children in the tana delta of Kenya.; 2012. Abstract

Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infections are important public health problems in Kenya but their prevalence, intensities and the resultant morbidity vary widely from one endemic focus to another in the country. There is, therefore, an urgent need for investigations on the extent of disease burden, risk factors associated with the infections and effects of treatment from different endemic settings as a background for designing and implementing programs for successful control of these infections.
Objective: To assess morbidity patterns, response to treatment and spatial distribution of S. haematobium and STH infections in school-going children of the Tana Delta District, coastal Kenya.
Methods: At baseline, urine samples were collected from primary school children and examined for S. haematobium eggs, haematuria, and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and selected cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)- γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10] levels. Stool samples were also collected and examined for soil-transmitted helminth eggs, ECP and eosinophil protein X (EPX) levels. One sample of venous blood was taken from each child and tested for haemoglobin level, serum IL-6, TNF-α, IFN- γ and IL-10 levels. Height and weight of each child were taken and each child was subjected to ultrasound examination of the urinary tract for S. haematobium infection-related morbidity. The children were interviewed on their behaviour in relation to infection with S. haematobium and STH, related symptoms. At the end of the baseline survey each child was treated with praziquantel (40 mg/ kg body weight) and albendazole (400 mg).
During the follow-up survey, 3 months after treatment, stool and urine samples were examined for S. haematobium and STH eggs and haematuria as in the baseline. The weight of each child was also recorded. A household survey was conducted during which parents were interviewed to elucidate the socio-economic conditions which would predispose to infections. Geographical co-ordinates of the main houses in the households and the local water contact points were also recorded. p-values less than 0.05 were considered significant in all statistical tests.

Omucheni DL. Multispectral Imaging of Human Blood Media Applied to Malaria Diagnostics. Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Bulimo WD, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Sarguta R. On the Construction of Mixed Poisson Distributions. Ottieno JAM, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Buyinza D. Phytochemical investigation of Zanthoxylum holstzianum for antimicrobial principles. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

As a response to the worldwide alarm of increased resistance of microbes to readily available antibiotics, the stem bark of Zanthoxylum holstzianum (Rutaceae) with no prior phytochemical report was investigated so as to isolate, and elucidate secondary metabolites with likely antimicrobial activities. The plant material was collected from Diani Veminant forest (coastal province of Kenya), dried at room temperature under shade, pulverised and extracted using acetone. The crude extract was subjected to fractionation and purification using a range of separation techniques including, partitioning, Column Chromatography (CC), Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (PTLC) and crystallization. The structure of the isolated compounds was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques such as UV, MS, and NMR.
In total seven compounds were isolated, of these, three were benzophenanthridine alkaloids dihydrochelerythrine (2), 8-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (5) and 8oxochelerythrine (7)], one canthin-6-one alkaloid [N-methylflindersine (3)], a flavanone
[hesperidine (1)], a fatty acid [hexadecanoic acid (6)], and an amide (2E,4E)-Nisobutyltetradeca-2,4-dienamide (4)]. This is the first report of the occurrence of (2E,4E)N-isobutyltetradeca-2,4-dienamide (4), hexadecanoic acid (6) and hesperidin (1) from the genus Zanthoxylum. A summary of the isolated compounds is shown in figure 1. The crude extract and isolated compounds were screened against four microbial
pathogens, namely: Escherichia coli NC 35218 (Bacterium), Staphylococcus aureus
ATCC 259213 (Bacterium), Candida albicans SC 5314 (Yeast fungus), and Aspergillus
niger ATCC 16404 (Filamentous fungus) using the disc diffusion technique as
recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2012).
Dihydrochelerythrine (2), N-methylflindersine (3), (2E, 4E)-N-isobutyltetradeca-2,4dienamide (5) and the crude extract, each had minimum inhibition concentration (MIC)
of 6.25 μg/disc against Staphylococcus aureus. The crude had MIC of 62.5 μg/disc
against Candida albicans and the essential oils showed a MIC of 12.5 μg/disc against
both Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.

Tirop LJ. Polymer-surfactant stabilised drug nanoparticles. London: King's College London; 2012.
Osanjo L. Product Design Practice within Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Mulli TK. Proteomic investigation of salivary biomarkers in periodontal diseases. Hughes FJ, Ide M, eds. London: King's College London; 2012.
Kalai JM. School principals’ preparation and development.. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic publishers. ISSBN-978-3-8465.; 2012.
IRAYA MWANGICYRUS. Socially responsible investments and portfolio performance: A critical literature review. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Since its introduction in the early 1970s, socially responsible investment (SRI) has gained prominence as both a rival and a complement to conventional investment. SRI is the philosophy and practice of making strategic investment decisions by integrating financial and non-financial considerations, including personal values, societal demands, environmental concerns and corporate governance issues. One of the major concerns in socially responsible investing is whether there is a difference between the performance of socially screened portfolios and that of conventional funds.

This study is a literature review of socially responsible investment and portfolio performance. The objectives of the study are to establish the documented relationship between socially responsible investment (SRI) and portfolio performance; to investigate, from the literature, whether investor demographic characteristics moderate the relationship between socially responsible investment and portfolio performance, to examine whether the relationship between SRI and portfolio performance is intervened by portfolio management process, to identify and document research gaps in socially responsible investment and lastly to establish researchable issues in socially responsible investment. The study presents a conceptual model guided by the modern portfolio theory, the stakeholders’ theory, the institutional theory and the new social movement theory.

Literature reviewed on the performance of SRI mutual funds has been inconclusive with three schools of thought emerging: SRI under-performs, over-performs or performs as well as conventional mutual funds. The paper concludes that the conflicting results are caused by the fact that the relationship between SRI and portfolio performances is not direct but is intervened by other variables such as the portfolio management process. Five factors in the portfolio management process that are affected by SRI have been identified (Havemann and Webster, 1999). These are the portfolio diversification process, the size and structure of the investable universe, concentration and the research costs incurred in monitoring the investee companies. Another explanation into the conflicting results is that the relationship between SRI and portfolio performances may be moderated by the investors’ demographic characteristics such age, gender, level of education and amount of funds under management (Nilsson, 2008; Nilsson, 2009; Junkus and Berry, 2010).

A number of research gaps arise from the analysis of the issues examined in this paper. These include: Firstly, lack of consensus on why SRI occurs even when empirical evidence on the impact of SRI on portfolio performance is inconclusive. Secondly, difficulties in assessment of non-financial risk and return created by SRI especially given the inability to quantify social, ethical, governance, moral and environmental issues. Thirdly, most studies have not controlled for any intervening or moderating variable affecting the relationship between SRI and portfolio performance. Variables such as differences in demographic characteristics of the fund managers and portfolio management process may affect the relationship between SRI and portfolio performance.

Arising from the research gaps identified, several areas of further study have been suggested. These include: Firstly, a research instrument be developed to empirically test the variables that impact on socially responsible investment including the moderating and intervening variables. Secondly, a study can be undertaken to investigate the heterogeneity among investor clienteles and its implications for understanding the effects of social values on asset prices. Thirdly, given that investors have different reasons for investing in SRI profiled mutual funds, future research with regard to this segmentation would be to find out the reasons why investors belong to certain groups. Fourthly, further research can be done focusing on the type of mutual funds that could be marketed to the different investors’ segments and finally, an index can be developed to quantify the non-financial risk and returns existing in SRI mutual funds.

Chege MN. A study of how commercial sex workers care for and arrange for future support to their children: case of Kibera, Nairobi.; 2012. Abstract

Childcare is necessary for child survival growth and development. It is influenced by certain factors such as the maternal health status and resource availability. It has been estimated that 50-80% of Kenya's commercial sex workers are HIV positive. They are the primary caregivers for their children. Yet while considerable body of research in Kenya has focused on commercial sex workers as a high-risk group for the fatal HIV/AIDS and on their role in relation to HIV epidemic, no data were available on how they care and plan for future support for their children. This descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out among 385 commercial sex workers in Kibera Slum in Nairobi Kenya, between July and December 2000. The aim of this study was to evaluate the commercial sex workers' childcare practices and how they plan for future support of their children. The study respondents were women aged between 18 and 19 years. They all had children whose age groups included the 0-18 years. Data were collected over a period of 18 weeks, using a structured questionnaire, observations of the under five years old children, verification of child health card and focus group discussions. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results indicated that 81.2% of the study population lived with their children despite the fact that 74.1% practiced prostitution at home. In this study 89.9% of the study population had taken their children to school. However continuous education was undermined by lack of school fees (52.5% and truancy (46.6%) with more of the illiterate mothers (65%) reporting school dropouts. A larger proportion (42.2%) of the respondents who practiced prostitution at home (42.2%) reported more school dropouts of their children than those who practiced elsewhere. Results of health promotion indicated that 96.8% of the under five years old children were fully immunized. More respondents who knew their HIV status discussed HIV/STDs with their children than those that did not know 25.3, p < 0.001). Focus group discussions showed that, health-seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by use of alcohol by the mothers and to some extent, health care cost. Health seeking behaviour for the mothers was significantly associated with respondent's knowledge of own HIV status 6.1, p < 0.05). Support for commercial sex workers in bringing up their children, was minimal. Only 43.9% received support from extended families. The illiterate mothers were less likely to be supported by relative (OR 2.64, p < 0.01). Possession of assets was positively associated with having an extra income generating activity 17.8, p < 0.001). Those respondents with secondary education were more likely to possess assets for future support of their children compared to those without (OR 1.9, p < 0.05). Generally, the commercial sex workers of Kibera slums made no provisions for future support of their children. Alcohol consumption and low education undermined their efforts to provide better care to their children and to secure resources. This underlines the need for continuous health education among commercial sex workers and establishment of systems that will assist them to invest in the education of their children.

G.H.N. N. supervision to Asiko, Grace Pollinating of Strawberries by stingless bees in Kenya . Nairobi, Kenya.: University of Nairobi.; 2012.
C. Ludia Mattakwa, Oliech PJ, Owillah F. Symptomatic and Uroflometry Outcomes Of Tamsulosin and Dutasteride Combination In Management of Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy in the Black Race . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Objective: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) incidence and progression has been shown to vary by race, geography and ethnicity with African-Americans having a more aggressive disease than other races. Combination drug therapy has been shown to be a favorable option for medical therapy of symptomatic BPH but data is lacking on the effects of this therapy in black race patients locally. This study aims to assess the early (six months) response, by both International-Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and peak urinary flow rate (QMax), to combination drug therapy of Tamsulosin and Dutasteride for management of symptomatic BPH in a predominantly African black race population cohort as a pilot study.
Patients and Methods: Dutasteride 0.5mg and Tamsulosin 0.4mg once daily were administered orally to 52 patients aged 45years and above of black race with confirmed BPH for six months. The main outcome measures of change in mean QMax and IPSS were assessed at three months and six months. Secondary outcome measures were mean Total Prostate Specific Antigen (tPSA) and Prostate Volume (PV) changes. Drug compliance by Modified Morisky Scores (1) and adverse/side effects reported were documented. Paired sample t test and Pearson correlation as well as ANOVA were used to analyze the data.
Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant increase in mean QMax by 13.3ml/sec and decrease in mean IPSS by 14.5 points at six months. There was a fairly rapid reduction in mean Total PSA of 0.9ng/ml as early as two months and a slower fall in mean PV of 10.224mls most evident at the last follow-up. Safety and tolerability of the drugs was consistent with previous experience and majority of the patients portrayed an excellent drug compliance profile.
Conclusion: These results suggest the efficacy of combination drug therapy of Dutasteride and Tamsulosin for moderate-to-severe BPH in the black race. These patients seem to have a more drastic and rapid mean IPSS, QMax and PV response to therapy than reported for other races but their mean total PSA decrease was less. Combination drug therapy is therefore recommended as a useful alternative to surgery in management of BPH in the black race.
Key Words: Benign Prostatic Enlargement, Urinary flow rate, Prostate Specific Antigen, IPSS
Corresponding Author: Professor J.S. Oliech Professor of General Surgery/Urology
Department Of Surgery, University Of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.Email:

Kanduma E, Francis Gakuyab, Naftaly Githakaa, Saori Suzukia, Edward Kariukib, Hirohisa Mekataa, Satoru Konnaia, Tomohiro Okagawaa, Shirai T, Ikenakad Y, Ishizuka M, Murata S, Ohashi K. Transcriptional profiling of inflammatory cytokine genes in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) infected with Theileria parva. Vol. IX. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2012.
Juma G, Thiongo M, Dutaur L, Rharrabe K, Marion-Poll F, Ru LB, Magoma G, Silvain J-F, Calatayud P-A. Two sugar isomers influence host plant acceptance by a cereal caterpillar pest. PO Box 62000 Nairobi, Kenya:: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, ; 2012.abstracts_juma.pdf
Orwa OD. User-Centric ICT Adoption Model for Rural Farming Communities in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Were E. “Fani katika tamthilia ya Kiswahili: Uchanganuzi wa kilio cha Haki na Kijiba cha Moyo” . Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Karimurio J. The “segment knockout” survey method for large trachoma-endemic districts. Melbourne: Melbourne; 2012. Abstract

Prevalence surveys are mandatory before new trachoma control projects are funded and existing ones continued. When a large administrative district with >200,000 people is surveyed as one trachoma intervention unit, the survey clusters are widely spaced and it is difficult to establish the distribution of the disease at the sub-district level with certainty. As a result, some trachoma-endemic areas in Kenya have been missed out and non-endemic areas included in mass antibiotic treatment. The other challenge is the large sample size required in standard trachomatous trichiasis (TT) surveys that include participants aged >15 years. The main objective of this study was to develop an effective and efficient survey method to justify administration of mass antibiotic treatment for active trachoma. The other objective was to establish the optimum lower age limit of TT survey participants, to ensure that the time required to complete a TT survey was the same as the time required to complete a TF survey, while ensuring that the sample was adequately representative of the TT backlog. The costs of surveys and administration of mass antibiotic treatment were determined for comparison of the standard and new survey methods. Data sets for previous surveys were re-analysed to calculate the optimum lower age limit of TT survey participants and correction factors to extrapolate the total backlog of TT.

A “Trachoma Survey by Segment” (TSS) method was developed to justify and reduce the cost of mass antibiotic treatment. It was tested in Turkana, a large hyper-endemic district with 543,199 people and Narok, a meso-endemic district with 576,388 people. Each district was divided into five geographical areas (segments). A segment had a population of 100,000–200,000 people. Areas with similar risk of trachoma were aggregated in the same segment. The segments with <10% prevalence of TF in children 1-9 years were excluded (knocked-out) from mass treatment, 10%-30% treated for 3 years and >30% treated for 5 years.

An efficient TT40 survey method was also developed where the backlog of TT was estimated in people >40 years old and correction factors used to extrapolate the total backlog. A TT40 survey required a smaller survey sample than a standard TT survey. The backlog correction factor for the lower age limit of 40 years was 1.1.

In Turkana district 3,962 children aged 1-9 years were examined and the prevalence of TF in the whole district was 38.0% (95%CI: 32.2%-43.9%). If the survey was conducted using the standard survey by administrative district method the whole population would have been treated for 5 years. However, the TSS method revealed that two segments needed treatment for 3 years and three segments for 5 years. After mass treatment the areas will be re-surveyed to justify further treatment.

In Narok district 3,998 children aged 1-9 years were examined and the prevalence of TF was 11.0% (95%CI: 8.0%-14.0%). The entire district had received three rounds of mass antibiotic treatment prior to this study. If this study was conducted by administrative district method, the whole population could have been treated for another three years. The TSS method identified three non-endemic segments which were excluded (knocked-out) from further treatment.

In Turkana district 2,962 people >40 years were examined and 7.8% (95%CI: 6.8%-8.8%) had TT while in Narok 2,996 people >40 years were examined and 2.9% (95%CI: 2.2%-3.6%) had TT. All the segments in both districts needed TT surgical services.

The cost of a survey by the administrative district method was $15,726 to $28,905, while by the TSS method it was $31,917 to $40,610 ($6,383 to $8,122 per segment). In 2009, the unit cost of administration of mass treatment was $0.20 to $0.42 per person treated. In Turkana district (hyper-endemic setting), the total cost of a survey and administration of mass treatment by the TSS method was $11,705 (1.7%) more expensive that by the administrative district method. In Narok district (meso-endemic setting with clustered trachoma) the survey by TSS method and administration of mass treatment was cheaper by $168,275 (53.2%).

It was concluded that the TSS is an effective trachoma survey method to identify the areas that need mass antibiotic treatment. For short term (<3 years) mass treatment in a hyper-endemic district like Turkana, the TSS method has no advantage over the administrative district method. For long term treatment, the TSS method is recommended because some segments may not require treatment for >3 years. The TT40 is an efficient trachoma survey method to determine the backlog of people with TT.

Muhanda HB. ''Nafasi ya dini katika ndoa: tathmini ya Utengano na Paradiso'' U. Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Mulama. SJ. : “Usimulizi katika Utenzi wa Siri Li Asirali’’. K.W. PW, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Ilovi CS, GN.Lule, Irimu H, Obel AO. Correlation of WHO clinical staging with CD4 counts in adult HIV/AIDS patients at KNH.; 2011. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of correlation between the WHO clinical staging and CD4 T cell counts in HIV / AIDS adults at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETIING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: 152 newly diagnosed HIV patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were first staged using the 2005 WHO clinical staging and then blood drawn for CD4 count. RESULTS: The mean age in the study was 35 years, with females comprising 56.2% of the study group. The mean CD4 counts were 455, 420, 203 and 92 for WHO Stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The sensitivity of the WHO clinical staging to predict CD4 counts of >350cells/lJl was 63% with a specificity of 82%. The commonest HIV clinical events were bacterial infections(33%), severe weight loss(28%) and tuberculosis(27%). CONCLUSIONS: There was correlation between the WHO clinical staging and expected CD4 T cell count. However, the sensitivity was low and missed over a third of the patients in need of HAART. Majority of the patients presented in severe disease in need of HAART at the onset of their HIV diagnosis with 107 (70.3%) of the patients with Stage 3 or 4 disease and 114 (75%) of patients with CD4 counts of <350 cells/pl. KEY WORDS: HIV, AIDS, CD4 counts, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi

MR GITAU WILSON. Diagnosis and Predictability of Intraseasonal characteristics of wet and dry spells over Equatorial East Africa. PROF OGALLO LABAN, PROF CAMBERLIN PIERRE, DR OKOOLA RAPHAEL, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Wayua FO. Evaporative Cooling and Solar Pasteurization technologies for value addition of Camel (Camelus dromedaries) Milk in Marsabit and Isiolo Counties of Northern Kenya. Okoth MW, Wangoh J, eds. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

The potential for evaporative cooling and solar pasteurisation technologies for value addition
of camel milk in Marsabit and Isiolo counties of northern Kenya was investigated. To find
out existing postharvest handling and preservation practices, a survey was conducted using a
semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 167 came l milk producers, 50
primary and 50 secondary milk traders. Results showed that the camel milk chain was
characterised by poor milk handling infrastructure, including poor roads and lack of cooling
facilities. Camel milk was marketed raw under unhygienic conditions with minimal value
addition, and spoilage was a major problem. Milk traders occasionally boiled milk using
firewood as a means of temporary preservation during times when transport was unavailable.
Provision of appropriate cooling facilities and utilisation of renewable energy technologies
such as solar energy for milk processing were identified as possible intervention strategies to
enhance marketing.
Therefore, a low-cost charcoal evaporative cooler was developed and tested for the storage
of camel milk. The cooler, 0.75 m3 in capacity, was made of galvanised angle iron (25 mm x
25 mm x 4 mm) frame with 10 cm wide charcoal walls which were moistened through a drip
system. Temperature of camel milk inside the cooler did not significantly (p>0.05) change
after storage for 10 hours. However, temperature of control milk at ambient conditions
significantly increased (p=0.05) over the same period, from 22.6 ± 0.08°C to 28.1 ± 0.08°C.
Milk inside the cooler was also significantly cooler (p=0.05) than control milk in the
evening, with a net temperature reduction of 27.0%. Total bacterial count changed from
31.4±2.1 x 104 colony forming units per ml (–1) to 43.1±1.9 x 104 and 1638±81 x 104–1 for milk inside the cooler and that at ambient conditions, respectively, after storage
for 10 hours. The cooler’s performance was modelled using artificial neural networks
(ANN), with inputs being ambient dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, wind speed
and temperature of drip water. The outputs were cooled milk temperature and cooling
efficiency. The ANN predictions agreed well with experimental values with mean squared
error (MSE) of 10.2, mean relative error (MRE) of 4.02% and correlation coefficients (R2) in
the range of 0.86-0.93.
The development of the solar milk pasteuriser started with thermal performance testing of
four water heating flat plate solar collectors available in Kenya with the objective of
selecting a suitable one to be used to provide process heat for batch pasteurisation. The
collectors included three commercial solar collectors purchased from local shops in Nairobi,
Kenya and one prototype collector designed and fabricated by the author. The three
commercial solar collectors had effective areas of 1.67, 1.87 and 1.83 m2 while the self-made
collector had an effective area of 1.60 m2. Thermal performance of the collectors was
determined in terms of the Hottel-Whillier-Bliss equation. The FR(ta )e values, obtained
using the effective collector areas and the inlet water temperature, were 0.76, 0.75, 0.73, and
0.82, respectively, for the commercial collectors and the self -made collector. The FRUL
values were 8.33, 12.01, 9.80 and 13.77 W.m–2.°C–1, respectively. The solar collector with
the lowest FRUL value had a black chrome selective absorber surface and was the most cost
effective for delivering temperatures of about 80°C at an efficiency of 15%. It was used to
develop a low -cost batch solar milk pasteuriser consisting of the collector and a cylindrical
milk vat. The milk vat had a 50 mm-wide hot water jacket and an outer layer of 38 mm thick
fibre glass insulation. The water jacket held approximately 30 litres of water, whereas the
milk tank had a capacity of 80 litres. The hot water produced by the collector was used for
pasteurising milk. The optimum quantity of milk which could be pasteurised by this device
under the study conditions was 40 litres, which was pasteurised in approximately 1.3±0. 5
hours at an average insolation and ambient temperature of 22.5±0.9 MJ.m––1 and
29.8±0.1°C, respectively. The average temperature difference between hot water and milk
being pasteurised was 8.1±0.6°C. Total bacterial counts in pasteurised milk were less than 10–1 while coliform counts were negative.
The solar milk pasteuriser was modelled using ANN as described for the cooler. The inputs
of the model were ambient air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, temperature of hot
water, and water flow rate through the collector, whereas the output was temperature of milk
being pasteurised. The ANN predictions agreed well with experimental values , with MSE,
MRE and R2 of 5.22°C, 3.71% and 0.89, respectively.
It has thus been established that there is both the need and potential for evaporative cooling
and solar pasteurisation along the camel milk value chain in Kenya. The two technologies
augment each other in increasing the quantity and quality of marketed camel milk from
scattered pastoral production sites in Kenya. The devices are of low cost and can be locally
fabricated by village artisans using locally available materials , and their performance can be
successfully modelled using ANNs, which helps to design an appropriate system for any

Dr Gathece LW. Impact of health education on oral heal threlated Quality of life of people living with Hiv/aids in nairobi..; 2011. Abstract

background Oraldiseases and conditions affect every race worldwide. The prevalence of the
twomajor oral diseases namely periodontal diseases and dental caries has been
foundto vary from region to region among the general population. Studies have
found that the prevalence and severity of these diseases and other oral
conditionsis higher among People Living with the Acquired Immuno-Deficiency
Syndrome (PLWHA) than HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) seronegative
persons.The PLWHA also tend to suffer from other types of oral diseases which
are either very rare or do not occur in the oral cavity among seronegative
individuals. Studies have found to a large extent, that oral diseases can be
effectively prevented by oral health education among the general population.
However, the impact of oral health education on oral diseases and conditions
amongPLWHA is unknown in Kenya.
To determine the impact of oral health education on the oral health status and
Oral Health-Related quality (OHRQoL) of life among PLWHA.
Study Design: This was a quasi-experimental study
Study sites: The study was conducted at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)
(intervention group) and Mbagathi District Hospital (MDH) (non-intervention
group) Comprehensive Care Centers (CCC).


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ii DECLARATION This research project is my original work and has not been presented for examination in any other University Signature……………………………. Date……………………………….. PATRICK OBONYO AGUTU D61/75210/2009 This research project has been submitted for examination with my approval as University Supervisor. Signature……………………………. Date……………………………….. DR. JOHN YABS DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SCHOOL OF BUSINESS UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
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iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Research Project has been made possible through the collective efforts of all my Lecturers at the University of Nairobi and my classmates with whom we have travelled in the continuing search for knowledge. I hereby acknowledge all their contributions. Special acknowledgement goes to my Supervisor Dr. John Yabs for his guidance and commitment for the completion of this project. I also acknowledge the Moderator Mr. E. Mududa and all the project Evaluators. I also acknowledge members of the University staff who provided valuable input to make the study possible. Special mention goes to Professor A. Mitema, Director, Centre for International Programs and Links, University of Nairobi.
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iv DEDICATION To my entire family for support and encouragement even when their social time had to be invested in this study.
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v ABSTRACT This study looks at the contribution of ISO 9000 in the Internalization process of the University of Nairobi. A case study approach was employed to gather data and provide the required information. ISO 9000 Certification continues to gain worldwide acceptance with over one million certifications to date. It has been described as representing a world consensus on standards with international participation of member bodies from countries all over the world. Implementation requires the commitment of resources in terms of personnel, finances and materials required to implement and sustain the quality management system. As resources are scarce with competing demands it is important to establish the accruing gains from implementing the system. The University of Nairobi obtained ISO Certification in the year 2008 and was subsequently recertified in July 2011 on completion of the initial three year certification period. As an institution that continues to undergo internationalization process as is the case with higher education institutions internationally, the contribution of quality standards to this process is important. In this study it was found that ISO 9000 is important especially with respect to Quality control, Corporate branding and image, International Grants funding, International programs and linkages and international student enrolment.

Andollo AA. Influence of Quality Management Systems on Service Provision in the University of Nairobi, Kenya. C.M. DR, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Mulwa JK. Integrated geophysical study of Lake Bogoria basin, Kenya: Implications for geothermal energy prospecting. Mulwa JK, of Prof. Justus Barongo(University of Nairobi DG), of Prof. Jayanti Patel(University of Nairobi DP), Prof. Derek Fairhead(Leeds University and MD GETECH), of and Prof. Greg Houseman(Leeds University IGT), Dr Nicholas Mariita(Kenya Electricity Generating Company OGP), eds. Nairobi/Leeds: University of Nairobi/Leeds University; 2011. Abstract

The Lake Bogoria basin, herein referred to as ‘the study area’, is located in the greater Baringo-Bogoria basin (BBB), about 250 km from the city of Nairobi on the floor of Kenya Rift Valley (KRV). It is bound by latitudes 0o 00’ and 0o 30’N and longitudes 35o45’E and 36o15’E within the rift graben. The study area is characterised by geothermal surface manifestations which include hot springs, spouting geysers, fumaroles/steam jets and mud pools. The area is overlain by Miocene lavas mainly basalts and phonolites, and Pliocene to Recent sediments and pyroclastics such as tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, superficial deposits, volcanic soils, alluvium and lacustrine silts. The terrain is characterized by extensive faulting which forms numerous N-S ridges and fault scarps.

Gravity and magnetotelluric (MT) surveys were undertaken in the area in order to determine the heat source and evaluate the geothermal resource potential of the basin for generation of geothermal power. The gravity data used was from the University of Texas at El Paso and Leicester University gravity data bases. New gravity measurements’ comprising 260 data points was undertaken for the purpose of this study. In addition, magnetotelluric data comprising about fourty sites was also acquired in the study area.

Gravity survey results indicate Bouguer anomaly having an amplitude of ~40 mGals aligned in a north-south direction and this has been interpreted to be due to a series of dyke injections and hence the heat source in the basin. The dyke injections occur at depths of 3-6 km on average, but at 1 km depth at the shallowest. The gravity models show a north-south gradual variation in thickness of the uppermost low density layer comprising rift-fill volcanics from 1-4 km on average. The variation in thickness of this layer from south-north suggests that these volcanic deposits are as a result of volcanic eruption(s) outside Lake Bogoria basin such as Menengai to the south.

The MT survey results show three distinct relatively thick layers in the basin. The first of these layers, which is overlain by high resistivity (50-1000 m) thin (100-500 m) layers, is ~3 km thick and has resistivities ranging between 4-30 -m. This layer is interpreted as the geothermal reservoir and the low resistivities are due to a combination of circulating hot mineralized geothermal fluids, hydrothermal alteration and saline sediments. The second layer is ~10 km thick and resistivity values range between 85-2500 -m and is interpreted to be a fractured and hydrothermally altered basement metamorphic rock. The relatively high degree of fracturing has considerably enhanced circulation of water which gets heated by the underlying dyke injections and thus inducing convective heat transport to the geothermal reservoir. The substratum is characterized by resistivities ranging between 0.5-47 -m and is interpreted as hot dyke injections at depths of about 6-12 km, which are the heat sources for the geothermal system.

Consequently, a heat source and a geothermal reservoir exist in Lake Bogoria basin. The heat source(s) is/are due to cooling dyke injections occurring at depths of 3-6 km on average, but 1 km depth at the shallowest near Arus where steam jets and fumaroles occur. The magnetotelluric method, however, favours depths of 6-12 km for the heat source and this may be attributed to lack of significant resistivity contrast between the dyke injections and the basement rocks where the former have intruded the latter rocks.
More gravity data is warranted so as to precisely define the geometry and areal extent of the heat source in Lake Bogoria basin. However, based on the results of this study, it is recommended that:- 1) exploratory drilling be undertaken in the area near Arus steam jets, 2) even though the study area is not prone to any pre-historic eruptions, microgravity and seismic monitoring be undertaken so as to help in tracking possible magma migration and variations in magma input. Such data could, in turn, play an important role in predicting future eruptive events in Lake Bogoria basin.

Wabomba JN. Kinetics and equilibrium studies of single and multi-component metal ion sorption on a micaceous mineral of kenyan origin.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

Water pollution by Chemicals is of great public concern. Improvements in the quality and availability of water are often possible at relatively low costs. The objective of this work was to test the efficacy and applicability of a Micaceous mineral of Kenyan origin (herein referred to as Mica-K or the mineral) in the removal of toxic divalent heavy metal ions from water and wastewater systems. Mica-K was characterized and utilized in study of single and multi-component removal of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions from aqueous solution over wide range of initial metal ion concentrations (25 mglL to 500 mg/L), contact duration (0-3hrs), sorbent dose (0.5-10 gl25ml or 20-400glL), pH (1.5 to 7.5), and temperature (293 to 333 K). The sorption pattern of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions onto the micaceous mineral followed Langmuir, Freundlich, and DubininKaganer-Radushkevich isotherms. The dependence of heavy metal adsorption on pH was different for each metal ion. The removal of Zn2+ was about 0% at pH 2 and it increased to 93% at pH 7.4. For Cu2+, 72% was removed at pH 2.5 and it increased to 98% at pH 7.4. Cd2+, removal increased with increasing pH from 45% at pH 1.5 to 93% at pH 7.4. In all cases, over 93% of all the three metals were removed at pH 7.4. Metal ion removal was however, considerably affected by the presence of competing metal ions in solution. • 0 0 0 2-"- 2+ 2+. . Thermodynarmc parameters (iJH, iJS and iJG ) for Cu " Cd and Zn sorption onto MicaK were also determined. Kinetic modeling analysis of the Elovich, pseudo-first order, pseudosecond order, intra-particle diffusion, mass transfer and intra-particle diffusivity equations using the linear coefficient of determination R2 values showed that the pseudo-second order equation was the most appropriate model for the description of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ transport. Thus the sorption of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions can be said to follow a pseudo-second order model, with chemical sorption as its rate limiting step. Experiments were also carried out to ascertain the physico-chemical properties of Mica- K. Chemical analysis revealed that the mineral is mainly comprised of Si02, MgO, Ah03 and Fe203. Physical parameters such as specific gravity, void ratio, porosity, hydraulic conductivity (at 20°C), unit weight of dry mineral, unit weight of submerged saturated mineral, unit weight of buoyant mineral, optimum moisture content (OMC), maximum dry density(MDD), and specific surface area have also been determined and reported. Elemental analyses of Mica-K have shown that; major rock-forming mineral elements comprises of AI, Fe, K, and Mg; major ore-mineral elements present include Ba, Ca, Cr, Ni and Ti; and trace elements, are Co, Mn, Cu, P,S, Si, V, B, Hg, Li, Sr and Zn. The most abundant minerals are; feldspars, chlorites, pyrites and kaolinites with dolomites, calcites and quartz being the least abundant. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis for Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ion-equilibrated Mica-K, demonstrated that Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+_containing nodules existed on the surface of the mineral. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) studies have pointed to the possibility of formation of metal fluoride, oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and hydrogen carbonate complexes on the surface of Mica-K during metal ion adsorption. Other studies included comparative batch kinetics whereby the effects of; contact time, initial metal ion concentration, weight of mineral used, solution pH, particle size, agitation speed, temperature and nature of metal ion salt were investigated. Comparative batch equilibrium studies involved determination of the isotherms of sorption, maximum sorption level and modeling. Fixed bed experiments were performed to determine the breakthrough curves and study the sorption dynamics. The amount of Cu2+ ions adsorbed in fixed-bed experiment was greater than that of combined alkali and alkaline earth metal cations Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+ and K+ released. This indicates that ion exchange is not the only mechanism by which Cu2+ ions are removed from solution. Regeneration of sorbent for repeated use was carried out using 0.1 M HCI as the desorbing agent. The amount of copper desorbed by the acid was 27.30meq g-l (13.65 mg g") as compared to 14.26meq g-l (7.13mg g-l), copper adsorbed by Mica-K in the column. These shows that Mica-K can be regenerated effectively using weak acids. Excess amounts of acid however, can lead to the degradation of the mineral structure and thus result in the leaching of copper and other ions. Mica-K adsorbent compared quite well with a commercially available Elgalite ion exchange resin from Elga Company UK, when used to treat real water samples from different sources within Kenya and industrial effluents. It has been proven that Mica-K is a good adsorbent for both metal and non-metal ions with the amount of ion adsorbed being dependant on the type of ion, its concentration and solution pH. It is hoped that the data obtained from this research work will illustrate the importance of locally available micaceous minerals in their use as economical adsorbents of heavy metals from water and wastewater systems. It is also hoped that the results will convince the public and the decision makers of the urgent need to develop industrial and domestic uses of the locally available materials for water purification.

M.M. G. Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices Of Glaucoma Patients Attending Clinic At Kenyatta National Hospital.. M.M. K, S.A. M, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

Background: Glaucoma is a characteristic optic neuropathy which typically results in specific patterns of progressive visual field loss and who’s most important risk factor is raised intraocular pressure (IOP). It is second to cataract as a leading cause of global blindness and is the leading cause of irreversible visual loss. In Kenya it is ranked third after cataract and trachoma. Glaucoma is often diagnosed late and accompanied by poor patient compliance and follow-up as it is very slowly progressive and commonly asymptomatic until a very advanced stage of the disease is reached.
Results: We interviewed 78 patients, 47 were male and 31 were female. Age ranged from 19-89 years with a mean age of 61.1 (SD +11.5) years. Seventy nine percent of patients presented with normal visual acuity but 5 (6.4%) presented with bilateral blindness. Mean IOP at presentation was 23.85mmHg with a wide range of 9-60mmHg. Fifty three (67.9%) patients were classified as having some knowledge using a predefined classification system, having poor knowledge of risk factors and treatment options. On compliance to medication, 62 (78.7%) patients reported compliance while 54 (69.2%) reported compliance to all clinic visits. The most common challenges reported with drug use were drops falling on cheeks (41%), cost of drugs (23.1%), and side effects of drugs used (19.2%).The most common impediments to clinic attendance were forgetting (16.7%) and other incidental events (62.5%). Patients had wrong expectation of both treatment and surgery with 29.5% and 32.5% expecting cure from medical and surgical treatment respectively. Compliance to glaucoma medication was perceived to be very important in 88.5% of patients, while 89.7% of patients perceived compliance to follow-up clinics as being very important.
Conclusion: Forty four (56.4%) patients presented late with advanced disc damage and 40 (51.3%) had undergone surgery, the most common being trabeculectomy. There is still a wide gap in knowledge that exists and that needs to be addressed through counseling and further patient education. Self-reported compliance was high and patients had good attitudes towards treatment and follow-up of glaucoma.

G W. THE PREVALENCE OF INTERNET CRIMES ON STUDENTS. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Mburugu PM. The spectrum and short-term outcome of home-based injuries among children presenting to Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2011. Abstract

Background and objectives: Injuries are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, resulting in over 950,000 deaths in children annually with more than 95% of injury deaths occurring in low income and middle income countries. The home remains a significant setting for a number of deaths and a large number of non fatal injuries. Recent data on the spectrum and outcome of children presenting with home based injuries in Kenya is lacking. The primary purpose of this study was to describe the spectrum and outcomes of home based injuries among children under 18 years of age presenting to Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Methodology: This was a short longitudinal survey conducted at the National Referral Hospital KNH between March and April 2010. Children less than 18 years of age with home based injuries were enrolled. We administered a questionnaire with regard to place of occurrence. circumstances surrounding the injury, socio-demographic factors and the clinical profile. We then followed them up for a maximum of 30 days or until death or discharge whichever was shorter to ascertain the outcomes (length of hospital stay, disability or death). Results: A total of 97 cases were identified. The median age was 2 years (IQR: 1.5- 5.0 years). The largest proportion of children 68% were aged between 1 - 4 years. A male preponderance was observed (58.8%). The types of injuries included; injuries resulting from falls 37.1% (fractures 58.3%, concussion/head injury 11.1 % among others), burns 33.0% (scalds 84.4% and flames 15.6%), foreign bodies 12.4% (organic 50% and_non organic 50%), cuts/wounds 8.2%, poisoning 3.1 %, sexual assault 3.1 %, electric shock 2.1 % and bites 1.0%. Eighty six percent of children were admitted with 61.7% having residual disability at 30days and 1 % died. Conclusion: The spectrum of injuries in descending frequency included; injuries resulting from falls 37.1%, burns 33.0%, foreign bodies 12.4%, cuts/wounds 8.2%, poisoning 3.1%, sexual assault 3.1 %, electric shock 2.1 % and bites 1.0%. Adverse short term clinical outcomes included hospitalization (86.6%), prolonged hospitalization for more than 14 days (50.5%), residual disability (61.7%) and death (1%). Recommendations: The frequency, morbidity and disabilty caused by home injuries to children justifies development of possible preventive measures and evaluation of longterm consequences.

Irimu GW. Uptake of best-practice recommendations for management of acutely ill children admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital: a longitudinal study employing participatory action research in a complex environment.; 2011. Abstract

The need for improving practice in low-income settings has been demonstrated in recent research assessing the quality of hospital care. Consequently, the Ministry of Health developed clinical practice guidelines and an evidenced-based programme for their dissemination. This thesis explored what factors influence the uptake of the best-practice recommendations in a university teaching hospital. This thesis used a mixed methods research approach that utilized a before and after design and participatory action research. This approach recognizes that health recommendations are compiled for universal use, but that their successful implementation requires particular attention to the individual and complex socio-political contexts of each setting, both at the micro and -macro level, which in this case was the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). This thesis is supported by eighteen months of participant observation, based on ethnographic research methodology and action research. Patients' care was largely inconsistent with best-practice recommendations, with nine of the 17 key indicators having performance of below 10% in the pre-intervention period. The intervention had an absolute effect size of over 20% in eight of the 17 key indicators; three of which had an effect size of over 50%. The indicators that required collective efficacy achieved performance of less than 10% in the post-intervention period. The activities during the action research component failed to predict the trend in practitioners' performance, illustrating the difficulty of gaining a holistic understanding of the quantitative results using component parts of the qualitative results as the lens. The notion of professionalism provided an overarching understanding of the implementation process. There were clear gaps between the stated values espoused in the ideal of professionalism and the observed actions of professionals in KNH. Gaps spanned knowledge management, expertise and skills, teamwork, conscientiousness and patient centeredness. I attributed the gaps in professionalism to complexity of professional development.

Were FH. Use of human nails as a bio-indicator of heavy metals overload in children. Njue W, Murungi J, Wanjau R, eds. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 2011. Abstract

Metal pollution and its health effects present a challenge currently facing developing countries. Hair and nail were suggested as more attractive biomarkers among various biopsy materials (teeth, bone, urine, blood and other body fluids) in assessing human metal environmental exposure especially in developing countries because the analysis is economical and not susceptible to contaminations. Recent studies have indicated increasing levels of Pb and Cd in urban and agricultural areas. Studies have identified children as a special risk group as absorption and toxicity of toxic metals is inversely proportional to the age. Absorption of these metals in their gastrointestinal tract also depends on nutritional factors and interaction with other dietary components such as those of Zn, Fe and Ca. This study was therefore set to evaluate the concentration of Pb, Ca, Zn, Cd and Fe in the nails of children (n=200) under the age of six years as bioindicators of risk exposure. The concentrations of these metals were compared in toenails and fingernails samples of children (n=33). The sampling covered schools in both urban and rural settings. Factors that were suspected to influence the accumulation of Pb and Cd in children were obtained using a questionnaire. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of the metals. The heavy metal levels in fingernails of children in urban areas were significantly higher than those of rural areas (P < 0.05; df = 168). The mean levels in urban areas were 27.5±1.8mg/g Pb and 0.73±0.08 mg/g Cd while those of rural areas were 19.7±0.9 mg/g Pb and 0.44±0.06 mg/g Cd. The correlation results indicated that high levels of Pb in the fingernail samples negatively correlated with Zn and Fe (R = -0.256 Zn; -0.188 Fe) but not Ca levels while high levels of Cd had a negative relationship with Fe (R = -0.241) only. Other factors that were found to have significant influence were socio-economic background, dietary habits and environmental risk exposure. The results also showed that the school location had more influence on the heavy metals level than the area of residence. The children in a school near the highway were found to have a mean of 34.4±3.5 NLm/g Pb as compared to those whose residence was near the highway (31.6±2.8 mg/g Pb), implying that the contaminants are from a common source. The study established that the mean metal levels were generally higher in the toenail than in fingernail samples. However, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05), therefore either the toenail or the fingernail could be used as bio-indicator. The association of toxic metals in the nails of children with environmental exposure and nutritional factors implies that policies and strategies to reduce the heavy metal levels should be implemented and reinforced to address the health issues affecting children in this country. This could be facilitated by improving the conditions of the schools and residential areas and sensitizing the general public on nutrition and effects of heavy metals.

Reuben M. “Fani katika Utenzi wa Ayubu” . Mbuthia DE, Amiri DS, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Mulama SJ. “Usimulizi katika Utenzi wa Siri Li Asirali’. E.M. DM, K.W. PW, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Ejore P. Influence of cattle rustling in education.. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
Watuha AI. Maudhui ya waadhi katika utenzi wa adili. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2011. Abstract
Mary N. Gichure, PM. Kitala MJDJNM, Kihurani DO. A sero-epidemiological study of African Horse Sickness and associated risk factors in donkey population in Kenya.. Master of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Univesity of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
Nabulindo DSM. Assessment of preoperative evaluation of geriatric Patients by anaesthetists at the Kenyatta national hospital.; 2010. Abstract

Geriatric is a term used to refer to any patient aged 65years and above. These patients have special needs when it comes to the practice and conduct of anaesthesia. Physiological changes in various organ systems occuring with age compounded by the high incidence of comorbidities in the elderly affect the conduct of anaesthesia .Currently about 1000 geriatric patients are admitted annually into orthopedic, gynecological and general surgical wards at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and most of them require some form of surgery. Part of the preparation before surgery includes preanaesthetic evaluation by the anaesthetist who will administer anaesthesia on the day of surgery. Currently there is no anaesthetist with a subspecialization in geriatric anaesthesia at KNH. Objective. The objective of this study was to assess the practice of preanaesthetic evaluation of geriatric patients by the anaesthetists at KNH and compare it with the international guidelines formulated by the American Society of Anaesthesiologists. Methodology. The study was an observational, descriptive, cross- sectional study of preanaesthetic evaluations by anaesthetists at KNH done on 100 geriatric patients scheduled for elective surgery.The study site was the KNH general surgical, orthopedic and gynecological wards.The eligible patients who formed the basis of a preanaesthetic review and the anaesthetists were required to fill a consent form before being recruited. Data was collected using a questionnaire from the patients' medical records .The data collected included demographic information,risk assessment,whether functional/mental status was assessed,presence of co-morbidities and if preoperative optimization and medical consultation was requested for 7 Results. Data from the medical records of 100 geriatric patients scheduled for elective surgery was collected with focus on the preanaesthetic evaluation.The ages ranged from 65 - 92 years with a mean of 72.6 years.90% of the patients in the study had a preanaesthetic evaluation done by anaesthetists of different cadres. Most of the patients (81%) were evaluated on the day before surgery.57.8% of the patients were found to have at least one co-morbid condition.ASA physical status was used for risk stratification in all patients although the functional and mental status of the patients was only evaluated in 8.9% of those evaluated.Prepoerative tests were mainly used routinely without considering the patients co-morbidities or the type of surgery.Preoperative optimization of geriatric patients at KNH was requested for by anaesthetists but requests for medical consultation were made for only 11.1% of the evaluated patients. Conclusions. The preoperative evaluation of geriatric patients at KNH does not meet the international standards as per guidelines formulated by the ASA.

Ayuke FO. Biodiversity of soil macrofauna functional groups and their effects on soil structure in West and East African cropping systems, as related to organic resource management, crop rotation and tillage. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen University; 2010. Abstract

Soil macrofauna, especially earthworms and termites are important components of the soil ecosystem and, as ecosystem engineers, they influence formation and maintenance of the soil structure and regulate soil processes. Despite advances made in understanding the links between soil macrofauna and agricultural productivity, this component of biodiversity is still very much a “black box”. In this thesis, I proposed to link soil biodiversity to soil functioning through the diversity of the soil structures produced by ‘ecosystem engineers’ like earthworms and termites, i.e. organisms, which physically modify and create habitats for other soil organisms and plant roots. This study aimed at providing an understanding of the link between soil macrofauna and crop management practices on soil aggregation and soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics as this is key to the improvement and the management of infertile or degrading soils.
The methodological approach used in this study involved assessment of:
1. How agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across sub-humid to semi-arid tropical zones.
2. The influence of soil macrofauna on soil aggregation and SOM dynamics in agro-ecosystems of sub-Saharan Africa as influenced by management practices.
3. How management practices (e.g. tillage and use of organic inputs) influence macrofauna-induced biogenic structures in East and West African soils.
4. Disclosing farmers’ knowledge and perception on the roles of termites in Western Kenya.

In chapter 2, I examined how agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across sub-humid to semi-arid tropical zones. This study, conducted in 12 long-term agricultural field trials of Eastern and Western Africa, provides new insights on diversity of earthworms and termites in SSA, since it is the first time that a study like this is done on this scale. In each trial, treatments with high and low soil organic C were chosen to represent contrasts in long-term soil management effects, including tillage intensity, organic matter and nutrient management and crop rotations. High soil C was considered to reflect relatively favorable conditions, and low soil C less favourable conditions for soil macrofauna. For each trial, a fallow representing a relatively undisturbed reference was also sampled.
I have shown that earthworm and termite diversity and abundance were low in fallow, high-C and low-C agricultural treatments in 12 long-term trial fields across the sub-humid to semi-arid tropical zones in Eastern and Western Africa. This is in contrast to most typical native or undisturbed forest ecosystems of the tropical zones. Environmental variables contributed 42% and 25% of variation observed in earthworm and termite taxonomic abundance, respectively. Earthworm and termite taxa were less abundant in the relatively cooler, wetter and more clayey sites characteristic of Eastern Africa, compared to the warmer, drier and more sandy sites in West Africa. Continuous crop production has significant negative effects on earthworm-, but little effect on termite diversity, as compared to long-term fallow, and agricultural management resulting in high soil C increases earthworm and termite diversity as compared to low-C soil. I conclude that fewer species of earthworms and termites are favored under agricultural management that leads to lower soil C. Results indicate that soil disturbance that goes with continuous crop production is more detrimental to earthworms than to termites as compared to fallow.

In chapter 3, a broad regional study was conducted to examine how management intensity affects soil macrofauna, and how macrofauna in turn influence soil aggregation in agro-ecosystems of sub-Saharan Africa.
My study has shown that macrofauna, especially earthworms, and to a smaller extent termites, are important drivers of stable soil aggregation, in conjunction with climate, soil organic C content and soil texture in sub-Saharan agroecosystems. However, the beneficial impact of earthworms and termites on soil aggregation is reduced with increasing management intensity and associated soil disturbance due to cultivation. I suggest that this knowledge is important in designing agricultural management systems aimed at increasing long-term soil fertility in sub-Saharan Africa.

In chapter 4, a long-term trial at Kabete, Kenya was selected to examine in detail the interactive effects of organic and inorganic fertilizerson soil macrofauna diversity and soil aggregation and SOM dynamics in arable cropping systems. Differently managed arable systems were compared to a long-term green fallow system representing a relatively undisturbed reference.
Application of manure in combination with fertilizer significantly improved aggregate stability and C and N stabilization in arable soil. Furthermore, manure-fertilizer application enhanced earthworm diversity and biomass. Significant correlations between the amount and C and N contents of aggregate fractions and whole soil C and N were observed with earthworm parameters (Shannon diversity index, abundance and biomass), but not with termite parameters. Factor and regression analyses showed that earthworms had a profound effect on aggregation, C and N stabilization in whole soil and in aggregate fractions, whereas contributions of termites were limited. Therefore, my results indicate that long-term application of manure in combination with fertilizer result in higher earthworm Shannon diversity and biomass, which leads to improved soil aggregation and enhanced C and N stabilization within this more stable soil structure. These practices therefore result in the dual benefits of improving soil physical and chemical properties. In contrast, no significant improvements in soil aggregation and C and N stabilization were found when organic inputs were applied in the form of maize stover as compared to the no-input control, irrespective of fertilizer addition. Under the conditions studied, earthworms were more important drivers of aggregate stability and C and N stabilization in aggregate fractions, but termites less so.

In chapter 5, a micromorphological approach was used to describe and quantify macrofauna-induced biogenic structures in undisturbed soil samples (i.e. thin sections) from long-term field experiments in East and West Africa. Management systems differing in tillage intensity and with or without organic amendments (manure/crop residue) were compared.
My study has shown the soil management practices tillage type and addition of organic inputs influence soil fauna activities with a significant impact on soil structure and hence soil physical properties. Among the management practices assessed across two agroecological zones, fallowing, conservation tillage plus residue application (in East Africa) and hand-hoeing plus manure (in West Africa) enhanced biogenic soil structure formation, resulting in a well developed soil structure and a continuous pore system through many faunal channels. By contrast, intensive tillage and absence of organic inputs resulted in soil with less biogenic soil structural features and was, therefore, prone to slaking.

Chapter 6 describes farmers’ knowledge on the occurrence and behavior of termites, their perception of the importance of termites in their cropping systems and the management of termite activities in their farm fields in Nyabeda, Western Kenya. Being the main actors in environmental conservation or degradation, farmers’ knowledge and perception can enrich scientific understanding of the ecology and sustainable management of termites under different agroecological conditions.
My research has shown that farmers in Nyabeda were aware of the existence of termites, their activities and nesting habits and had local names for termites that they frequently encountered. Geographic location explained 23% of the variance in farmers’ perception and management of termites, whereas socio-economic variables explained only 5%. Ninety percent of the farmers perceived termites as pests and maize was rated as the most susceptible crop to termite attack, especially during the flowering/tasseling stage and in wet periods. More than 88% of the farmers used control measures against termites, further indicating a lack of awareness or appreciation of the beneficial effects often ascribed to termites with respect to soil properties in crop production. There is an urgent need for more research to assess the trade-offs between positive and negative impacts of termites on crop yields, as well as to get an understanding of the effects of different termite control strategies used by farmers on agroecosystem functions.

Sigana DOA. The biology of the mullets (Pisces: Mugilidae) from Kilifi, a tropical mangrove creek on the Kenya coast. Mavuti KM, Ruwa RK, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Koech OK. Effects of Prosopis juliflora Seedpod Meal Supplement on Weight gain of Weaner Galla goats. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2010. Abstractkoech_oscar_thesis.pdf

This study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora
seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess
the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production
system. The study further sought to evaluate the economic viability of supplementing goats with
Prosopis seed pods and establish the optimum supplementation level for improved performance.
The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg)
which were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No
Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4
(400g /goat /day Prosopis). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective
portions of Prosopis seedpod meal in the morning before the grass hay was offered. The animals
were weighed on weekly basis and the average weight gains calculated as the difference between
that weeks’ weight and the previous week’s weight divided by five. The experiment lasted for 70
days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1
(control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences
were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences
in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Overall, treatment T3 exhibited highest total
weight gain (3.96kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment
(-0.009kgs). The cost benefit analysis indicated that it is profitable to supplement the goats with
200g/goat/day, which was the most cost effective with a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.50. T2 was
also cost effective, but at a lower level (RBC=1.47). Treatment T4 was not cost effective BCR
(0.57). It is therefore recommended that supplementation at optimum level of Prosopis seedpods
increases growth rates.

Alasow KB. Efficiency of light curing units in Dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.; 2010. Abstract

Background: To achieve adequate cure, a resin composite restoration must be
exposed for a specified duration of time to a light of sufficient intensity and the right
wavelength. However, some commonly used light curing units (LCUs) may yield
inadequately cured restorations due to their insufficient light intensity output.
Furthermore, the efficiency of light curing units in dental clinics and the extent to which
dentists practice the recommended maintenance techniques is largely unknown.
Objective: To determine the efficiency of Light Curing Units (LCUs) in dental clinics in
Nairobi, Kenya.
Study design: A laboratory-based, cross-sectional analytical study.
Study area: The study was set in private and public dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. A
total of 83 light curing units selected through a convenient sampling procedure were
Materials and methods: The light intensity output of light curing units in dental clinics
was measured using a digital dental radiometer and the result entered in a data
collection form. Each light curing unit was then used to polymerise two cylindrical resin
composite specimens made using custom-made split brass moulds; one measuring
4mm in diameter and 6mm in thickness used to determine the depth of cure (DOC) and
the other 8mm in diameter and 3mm in thickness used to determine the surface
hardness by using a Vickers Hardness tester. Within 6-7 hours of fabrication, the depth
of cure specimens were immersed in a capsule containing 99%- acetone solvent which
was then vibrated in a mixing device. The DOC was calculated from the undissolved
length of the specimen. The surface Vickers Hardness was evaluated by making three
surface indentations with a diamond indenter using a load of 200g and a dwell time of
15-seconds. A conversion table was used to convert measurements from the diamond
indentations into hardness numbers. The light intensity output and the depth of cure and
surface micro-hardness numbers of the resin composite specimens were then used to
assess the efficiency of each dental light curing unit. Three main components of the
maintenance history of the light curing units, as well as the age and type of the light
curing unit were also recorded.
The data was entered into a computer using SPSS version 12. The independent sample
t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Post Hoc test and Chi-square tests
were used for data analysis. The results were summarized in tables and figures.
Results: Of the 83 LCUs studied, 43(51.8%) were LED and 39(47.0%) were OTH and 1
(1.2%) was PAC light.
LCU type and light intensity output, DOC and hardness: Mean light intensity for OTH
and LED lights was 526.59mW/cm2 and 493.67mW/cm2 respectively (p=0.574), while
the mean DOC for OTH lights was 1.71mm and LED was 1.67mm (p=0.690). Mean
VHN for LED was 57.44 and for OTH was 44.14 (p=0.713). Light curing unit type had no
statistically significant effect on DOC, surface hardness and the intensity of the light.
Effect of age of LCU on light intensity output, hardness and DOC: Mean light intensity
for LCUs ::;5years was 596.03mW/cm2 and 363.17mW/cm2 for units> 5years old. Age
showed a significant effect on light intensity (p=O.024). The mean DOC for the two age
groups was 1.74mm and 1.57mm respectively (p=O.073). For surface micro-hardness,
the ::; 5years and > 5years age groups gave a mean VHN of 58.81 and 51.46
respectively (p=O.1)
Efficiency of the LCUs: when intensity was used to measure efficiency, 48 (57.8%)
LCUs were efficient and 35 (42.2%) were inefficient. Only the LCU age significantly
affected efficiency by light intensity output (p=O.008). Only 24 (28.9%) LCUs gave
sufficient DOC as opposed to 59 (71.1%), which gave insufficient DOC. Of the units
tested for surface micro-hardness, 15 (25.9%) had adequate surface micro-hardness
while the rest (43 or 74.1%) had inadequate surface micro-hardness. The type of LCU
and its age did not significantly influence efficiency as measured using depth of cure
and surface micro-hardness of the resin restoration.
On the whole, 11 (19%) of the LCUs which had all the three tests of efficiency done
were satisfactory in all the 3 aspects.
Conclusions: Eleven (19%) of the light curing units used in Nairobi dental clinics were
efficient when subjected to a combined light intensity, and composite resin depth of cure
and surface hardness evaluation, and that the type and maintenance history of a LCU
had no significant influence on its efficiency. Age had a significant influence on the light
intensity of the curing units - there was a decrease in light intensity output with increase
in age of the units. There was a non-linear relationship between the light intensity output
of a LCU and the depth of cure and surface micro-hardness of the cured composite.

Dr Karimi PN. Etiology, Risk Factors And Management Of Infectious Diarrhoea In Children At Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2010. Abstract

Background: Infectious diarrhea is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries.
World Health Organization attributes 3.5 million deaths a year to diarrhea, with 80 percent of these deaths
occurring in children under the age of five, and most occurring in children between six months and three
years of age. The predisposing factors are mainly due to poor hygiene and most of the cases can be
treated using drugs and supportive measures. Prevention is the main intervention strategy used to prevent
this disease.
Objective: The main objective was to assess the factors that predispose children to diarrhea. The specific
factors assessed were prevalence of bacteria, protozoa, and helminthes, antimicrobial susceptibility of
bacteria, risk factors and management of diarrhea.
Methods: A cross section research design was used and target population was children suffering from
diarrhea and accompanied by their guardians who visited KNH to seek treatment. Three hundred and
eighty four children were selected for the study using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a
questionnaire and stool specimens analyzed in microbiology and parasitology laboratories of Kenyatta
National Hospital. The analysis of data was done using SPSS and data summarized in tables and charts.
Both inferential and descriptive statistics were derived using chi square and confidence intervals.
Results: Majority of the children were between 6-12 months of age and there were more males than
females. The average duration of diarrhea was 4.55 days and majority had suffered from the disease
before. Most of the parents had a certain level of formal education. The fathers had a source of income but
most of the mothers were either self employed or not employed at all. Tap water and toilet facilities were
available to most families and about half of the children had malnutrition.
No organisms were found from the stools of 80.2% of the children. The pathogens isolated were Giardia
lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli, Cryptosporidium petvum, Entamoeba coli, Blastocystis
hominis, Endolimax nana, Chilomastix mesnili, Trichiuris trichiura, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella
paratyphi. Bacteria isolated were sensitive to Ciprofioxacin and Levofioxacin but resisted most of the other
drugs tested.
The risks found to be associated with diarrhea were overcrowding, inadequate hand washing methods,
mixed feeding, none or low level of education of the mother and administration of antibiotics. Majority of the
children had concurrent illnesses and the most common were pneumonia, meningitis, malaria, rickets and
malnutrition. Drugs were mainly prescribed to treat concurrent diseases. The most commonly prescribed
drugs were Zinc Sulphate, Paracetamol, Benzyl penicillin G, Gentamicin, Metronidazole, Multivitamin, Coamoxiclav,
Cefuroxime and Calcimax. ORS was most frequently used fluid and the intravenous ones
included Ringers lactate, Darrows solution, 5% Detrose, Hartmans solution, normal saline and Rehydration
salt for the malnourished.
Only a small proportion of diarrhea in children was caused by intestinal protozoa, helminthes or bacteria.
Majority of the cases occurred during weaning and rehydration was the comerstone of diarrhea
management Most of the drugs used were mainly for treating concurrent illnesses.
Mothers should be taught how to wean children especially on the type of food to use. They should also be
educated on proper hygienic practices especially washing of hands. Bottle feeding should be discouraged
and rational use of antibiotics encouraged

Nyaga JM. External and internal root morphology of the first Permanent molars in a Kenyan population.; 2010. Abstract

Background: A thorough knowledge of dental anatomy and its variability is
critical in clinical dentistry. It is important for the clinician to be familiar with
variations in root morphology for such variations in the roots and canals have
significancein endodontic treatment and restoration of the treated teeth.
Objective: To determine the external and internal root morphology in first
permanentmolars in a Kenyan population.
Study design: This was a cross sectional descriptive study
Study area: The study involved collection of extracted teeth from patients whom
after dental evaluation, a tooth was recommended for extraction in five dental
clinics within Nairobi;- K.N.H.-Dental clinic, U.O.N.-School of Dental Sciences, St
Mary's Hospital Dental clinic, Mbagathi District Hospital Dental clinic and Social
ServicesLeague Dental clinic.
Materials and methods: Maxillary and mandibular first permanent molars were
co~ectedfrom male and female patients aged between 10 and 40 years. The
teeth were collected from individuals who met the inclusion criteria. The teeth
were separated at the collection site based on gender and whether they were
maxillary or mandibular first molars by the researcher and trained research
assistants.After collection, the teeth were further sorted out using the inclusion
criteria.A total of 187 maxillary molars and 189 mandibular molars were studied.
Observationswere done to determine the number of roots, root fusion and the
direction of root curvature. Measurements, using an electronic vernier caliper,
were done to determine the root length in millimetres. A standard clearing
technique was applied to determine the number of canals and the canal
configurations with reference to Vertucci's classification (1984). A data collection
form was used to record the findings for each tooth after examination
Data analysis and presentation: The data collected was entered into a
computer and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)
12.1. Computation was done to determine pattern of root fusion, frequency of
root curvature in a certain direction, calculate the mean root length, number of
canals per root, frequency of various canal configurations and gender variations
in the findings. The data was presented in form of frequency tables, pie charts
and bar graphs.
Results: All the maxillary first molars had three roots while mandibular first
molars had two roots. Root fusion was observed in 3.9% of the maxillary first
molars. Root fusion between distobuccal and palatal root was more frequent
(2.8%) than the mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots (1.1%) and gender variation
in root fusion was not statistically significant. Majority of the mesiobuccal roots
63.6% were curved and of the curved, 95% curved distally. In the distobuccal
root, 49.7% of the roots were curved and majority 77.4% curved mesial. Majority
of the palatal roots were straight (65.3%). Of the curved palatal roots, 92.5%
curved in a buccal direction. In the mandibular first molars, 16.3% of the mesial
roots were straight while the rest were curved distally in both genders. Majority of
distal roots were straight. The gender variations in root curvature in both
maxillary and mandibular first permanent molars were not statistically significant.
The mean root length in palatal, mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots was
23.28mm, 20.22mm and 19.67mm respectively. While in the mandibular molars,
the mean root length was 21.97mm and 21.38mm in mesial and distal roots
respectively. Males had longer mean root length compared to females in the first
permanent molars. The gender variation in root lengths was statistically
significant (p=0.001).
Majority of the first permanent molars had 3 canals, 70.1% in maxillary and
56.0% in mandibular first molars. The mesial root of mandibular first molars had
two canals in 96.3% of the teeth in both male and females and type IV canal
configuration was most prevalent in the mandibular mesial root among males and
females. The distal root of mandibular first molar had one canal in 57.7% of the
teeth in males and females. There were significant gender variations in the
number of canals and canal configurations in the distal root. Two canals were
more prevalent in females (53.6%) compared to males (30.4%) and a single
canal was more frequent in males (69.6%) compared to females (46.4%)
(P=0.001). Canal types I, " and IV were the most frequent in mandibular distal
root. The gender variation the frequency of canal types I, " and IV in the distal
root was statistically significant (P=0.001). Most of the palatal (98.9%) and all the
distobuccal roots had one canal Vertucci type I configuration. The mesiobuccal
root had 2 canals in 29.4% of the roots in both males and females. Canal
configurations in mesiobuccal root varied widely. Canal types I, II, IV, V, VI and
VII had frequencies of 65.2%, 12.8%, 14.4%,4.3%,2.7% and 0.5% respectively
in both gender.
Conclusions: The maxillary first molars had three roots while the mandibular
ones had two roots. Root fusion occurred in 3.9% of maxillary first molars.
Palatal and distal root in maxillary and mandibular first molars respectively had
the lowest frequency of curved roots.
In the maxillary first molars, the mean palatal root length was 23.28mm,
mesiobuccal 20.22mm and distobuccal 19.67mm while in mandibular first
permanent molars, mesial root was 21.97 mm and distal 21.38mm.
The mean root lengths were higher in males as compared to females
Most of maxillary first molars 70.1% had three canals while 29.4% had four
canals. Vertucci type I canals configuration was the most prevalent in all roots.
Most of mandibular first molars had three canals 56% while 41% had four canals.
Two canals were more frequent among females 53.6% compared to males
30.4% and Canal types I, II and IV configurations were the most frequent in
mandibular distal root.
• The palatal root of maxillary and distal root of mandibular first permanent molars
are the most suitable for post placement.
• Three dimensional diagnostic techniques are essential in identification of
anatomical features
• Long and short files should be included in the endodontic armamentarium
• More attention should be directed towards searching for and locating the second
canal in the mesiobuccal and distal roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars


Buried river channels are increasing becoming the target for groundwater exploration due to the unreliability of surface river channels that have been affected by climate changes. Areas located in urban centers like Nakuru town have high population that dictates the higher demand of water. This research covered the geophysical mapping of buried river channels and other shallow structures recharging major aquifers in the upper Nakuru basin of Kenya rift and in particular the Kabatini area. The project aimed at unveiling scientific knowledge of the subsurface geology using resistivity and magnetic geophysical methods. Solving of water shortages and improvement of livelihood for the people of Nakuru and its neighbor hood through proper and more precise geophysical ground water exploration methods was of great importance. The ultimate goal of the report is to provide guidance to policy makers in decision making especially for ground water extraction in Kabatini aquifer. Geology and hydro-geology of the area have been discussed in the report. The field methods used included vertical electrical sounding, electrical resistivity tomography and magnetic survey. Data processing was done using Earth imager software, RES2DINV, and Euler. The findings of the research ascertain that Kabatini area has underground river channel that flows in the north – south direction. The research also shows that the area has some shallow structures which contain low resistivity materials in different locations. It has also been ascertained that the thickness of Kabatini aquifer is more than 150 m.

Ngare P. Indifference Pricing and Hedging for Insurance and Weather Derivatives. Linz- Austria: University of Linz; 2010.
Njage PMK. Microbial diversity, safety and role of predominant lactic acid bacteria in raw and spontaneously fermented camel milk in Kenya and Somalia. Wangoh J, Farah Z, L M, eds. University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

In Eastern Africa, where 60 % of the world camel population is held, there is a long tradition
of preparing fermented camel milk known as suusac. The fermentation is spontaneous and
results in a product whose quality varies greatly, may be risky and even dangerous for
consumer health due to unpredictable microbial inhabitants. These risk factors arise not only
from unhygienic handling of camel milk but also from zoonotic bacteria usually attributed to
producing animal mastitis. Misuse of common antibiotics in treatment of camels could also
push bacteria to develop mechanisms to evade the inhibitory power of antibotics.
There is now a major change in consumer choice with shift towards good hygienic quality
camel milk and products and also readiness to pay more for the better quality. This calls for
development of formal camel dairy to address this value addition potential and also reduce
health risks leading to improved camel milk commercialisation.
It is therefore important to understand the predominant microorganisms in raw milk and
suusac and to ascertain their potential impact safety and quality of raw camel milk and
suusac. The diversity of pathogens and yeasts in raw and spontaneously fermented camel
milk in Kenya and Somalia was studied using phenotypic and molecular techniques.
Potential pathogenic microorganisms were studied for their virulence and antibiotic
resistance profiles. Technological properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria were studied
as prerequisite to the introduction of an adapted starter culture for suusac fermentation.
A total of 235 presumptive staphylococci isolated from 105 camel milk and related samples
from five locations in Kenya and two locations in Somalia were identified and characterized
phenotypically and genotypically. PCR amplification of the genes encoding antiphagocytic
capsular polysaccharides cap5 and cap8, and staphylococcal enterotoxins SEA to SEE and
SEG to SEJ was also carried out. Secondly, the antibiotic resistance patterns of 47
Staphylococcus aureus isolates was studied using microdilution assays to determine minimal
inhibitory concentrations and disc diffusion tests. Genotyping was then done using
microarray hybridization and confirmation of antibiotic resistance genes by PCR.
Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae Pneumomia and Enterobacter cloacae which have
been implicated worldwide as producers of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were
the predominant Enterobacteriaceae in raw milk and suusac. Antibiotic resistance risk posed
by these bacterial pathogens was characterized for 95 isolates both phenotypically and
genotypically. Escherichia coli isolates were also evaluated for presence of virulence factors.
The prevalence and epidemiology of E. coli O157 and non-O157 shigatoxigenic E. coli
(STEC) along the raw and fermented camel milk marketing chain was studied in 70 samples.
Serotypes and associated virulence factors in the isolated strains were also determined.
Various selective media and immunomagnetic separation were used followed by multiplex
PCR for virulence genes stx1, stx2 and eae and for positive samples a second multiplex PCR
to type for the serotypes O157, O113 and O111. PCR-RFLP of the fliC gene also carried out
on the O157, O113 and O111STEC to elucidate the epidemiology of the serotypes.
Yeasts were identified using combination of both phenotypic and genotypic techniques.
Identification was done using API 20C AUX followed by Restriction Fragment Length
Polymorphism (RFLP) of intergenic spacers ITS1 and ITS2 using restriction endonucleases
HhaI, HinfI and HaeIII. RAPD was performed with (GTG)5, (GAC)5, (GACA)4
microsatellite primers and M13 core sequence (5'-GAG GGT GGC GGT TCT-3'). Sequence
analysis of either ITS1 and ITS2 or the 26S rRNA encoding gene was performed on selected
Finally, 95 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) consisting of Lb. helveticus, Lb. fermentum, Lc. lactis
subsp. Lactis and Str. thermophilus isolated from various camel milk and associated sources
from main camel milk production points in Kenya and Somalia were studied for acidification
and metabolic properties. Str. infantarius which is a putative human pathogen was also
studied due to its predominance amongst presumed streptococci isolated to ascertain its role
in the spontaneous fermentation. Initial screening was carried out in a microtiter assay and
LAB were then selected for fermentation in batch culture experiments using a CINAC
system which allowed continuous follow-up of pH changes during fermentation in camel
milk during incubation at 30, 35 and 40oC for 36 h. Parameters including maximal
acidification rate (Vmax), time and pH at which Vmax occurred (tmax and pHmax), lag phase (ta),
time during which the acidification rate was equal to or higher than Vmax/2 (dt50), time to
reach pH 5.0 (tpH5), final pH (pHF) and time to reach final pH (tpHF) were calculated.
Metabolites of sugars, lactose, glucose and galactose and flavour compounds, citrate, acetate,
acetaldehyde, diacetyl and ethanol, were also quantified using High Performance Liquid
Chromatography (HPLC). L(+)-/D(-)-lactic acid production was studied using an enzymatic
assay. Potential cultures were selected based on the number of desirable acidification kinetic
values for fast acidification and also flavor metabolites when compared to the other cultures.
Presumptive staphylococci increased along the market chain. There were 146 (62 %)
confirmed staphylococci isolates of which, 66 (45 %) were Staphylococcus aureus.
Coagulase positive staphylococci were predominant in raw camel milk directly obtained
from the camel (25 %), at the market level (23 %) and fermented milk (suusac) (21 %). S.
epidermidis accounted for 29 % of coagulase negative Staphyolococci (CNS) studied. The
remaining CNS were distributed among S. simulans (18 %), S. saprophyticus (11 %), S.
haemolyticus (2 %), S. hyicus (2 %), S. xylosus (2 %), S. lentus (1 %), S. carnosus (1 %) and
S. microti (1 %). Aerococcus viridans (1 %), Macrococcus caseolyticus (1 %) and M.
nishinomiyaensis (1 %) were also identified. The gene cap5 encoding antiphagocytic
capsular polysaccharide was observed for 9 (14 %) and cap8 for 16 (24 %) of the isolates.
Enterotoxin genes were observed in 47 % of the isolates with sej in 34 %, seb in 6 %, sed in
5 % and seg in 3 % of the isolates. Amongst the species enterotoxin genes were detected in
90 %, 65 %, 38 % and 22 % of the S. simulans, S. epidermidis, S. sapropyticus and S. aureus
respectively. Rep-PCR genotyping revealed diversity of the isolates though with close
similarities irrespective of the level along the market chain and sampling location indicating
ubiquity of the isolates in primary and secondary environments.
There were 11 (23 %), 12 (26 %), 5 (11 %), 6 (13 %), 3 (6 %) and 18 (38 %) isolates
resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim, fusidic acid
respectively. Amongst the multi-resistant isolates 2 were resistant to 2 antibiotics, 7 to 3
antibiotics and 6 to 4 or more antibiotics. Based on microarray, all 3 isolates tested were
positive for the β-lactamase resistant genes (blaZ), tetracycline resistance with gene tet38 and
the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene pvl. Additionally, 2 isolates harboured streptomycin
resistance gene and tetracycline resistance through the gene tet(K). PCR targeting these
genes was performed for all isolates and 6 were positive for tetK, 9 for blaZ and 2 isolates
harboured both tet(K) and blaZ genes.
Enterobacteriaceae were not detected at milking and first collection point but were present at
104- 106 CFU/ml in final market raw camel milk and 103-107 CFU/ml in suusac. The
Enterobacteriaceae belonged to 14 species and 10 genera. Predominant isolates were
Escherichia coli 1 (47), Klebsiella pneumoniae Pneumoniae (35) and Enterobacter sakazakii
(18). Salmonella arizonae, Serratia odorifera 1, Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli 1
occurred at mean cell counts greater than 8 log cfu/ml. Enterotoxin genes stx1 and stx2 were
not detected in any of the E. coli isolates with only one isolate with sequence coding for
intimin (eae) was detected.
Of the isolates, 61 (63 %) were resistant to ampicillin, of which 46 (48 %) were E. coli, 45
(46%) K. pneumoniae Pneumoniae and 16 (7%) E. cloacae. ESBLs were not phenotypically
detected in any of the isolates by double disc diffusion test. However, PCR revealed
prevalence of blaSHV, blaCTX-M-3-like and blaCTX-M-14-like genes in 37 (60 %), 25 (40 %) and
11 (18 %) of the isolates respectively. K. pneumoniae Pneumoniae not only harbored
majority of the genes (74 % of K. pneumoniae Pneumoniae), but a strain of K. pneumoniae
Pneumoniae possessed all 3 genes and 13 harbored both blaSHV and blaCTX-M-3-like genes.
Thirty six percent of the isolates harbored either single or combinations of factors stx1, stx2
and eae with 78 % being stx1 positive, 18.6 % eae positive, 3.9 % stx1 and stx2 positive and
0.78 % stx2 and eae positive. Prevalence of isolates positive for the virulence factors stx1,
stx2 and eae increased from 32.6 % at herd level to 34.2 % in first collection point and 44.3
% in the final market. Though highest percentage of presumptive E. coli isolates (57 %) were
isolated using EMB agar while the rest were from CHROMagar (23 %) and CT-SMAC (21
%), amongst the isolates harboring virulence genes, 100 %, 12 % and 39 % were isolated
from CT-SMAC, EMB agar and CHROMagar respectively. Serotypes O157, O111 and O113
represented 94 %, 2 % and 4 % of the STEC respectively. Thirty nine different restriction
endonuclease digestion profiles were revealed by the RFLP of the flic gene with O157 having
29 profiles bearing 7 clusters with common profiles.
There were low numbers of yeasts in milk at herd level but 4.4±1.4 log cfu/ml and 5 ±1.5 log
cfu/ml at the first collection point and final market respectively. Counts of up to 7.5 ± 2.5 log
cfu/ml were found in laboratory fermented suusac. Amongst the identified isolates, API
enabled the identification of 80 (47%) and resulted in either incorrect identification or
inability to identify the others. RFLP, RAPD and sequence analysis enabled complete
identification to species and some differentiation at strain level with RAPD allowing more
discrimination within species. There were 21 yeast species belonging to the genera
Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus, Candida, Saccharomyces, Trichosporon, Geotrichum and
Issatchenkia. The most frequently isolated yeasts were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (19 % of
the identified isolates), Candida inconspicua (12 %), Trichosporon mucoides (11 %),
Candida famata (11 %), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (8 %), Candida lusitaniae (6 %),
Cryptococcus laurentii (5 %), Cryptococcus albidus (5 %), Candida guilliermondii (5 %),
and Trichosporon cutaneum (5 %). Lowest viable counts for the identified yeasts were 2.4
cfu/ml for C. tropicalis and highest were 7.6 cfu/ml (range; 2.4-8.5 cfu/ml) for C. famata and
8.0 cfu/ml (range; 2.6-8.5 cfu/ml) for C. guilliermondii.
When LAB were ranked in the increasing order of mean pH from the microtiter acidification
assay, the strains were Str. infantarius (5.32 ±0.36), Lb. helveticus (5.33±0.09), Lc. lactis
subsp. lactis (5.5±0.49), Lb. fermentum (5.67±0.53) and Str. thermophilus (5.7±0.15). Lc.
lactis subsp. lactis had a short ta (145 min), tmax (424.5 min) tpH5 (535 min) and tpHF (30h),
and low pHF (4.10) during incubation at 30 oC. Moreover, at 35oC, the Vmax increased from
0.00531 to 0.006805 pH units min-1, tmax decreased from 424 to 271 min and tpHF decreased
from 30.75 to 19.00 min. Even though Str. thermophilus 150A3.1 showed short ta (183 min),
tmax (378 min) and low pHF (4.4) at 30oC, at 35oC Str. thermophilus was in the grouped with
slowest acidifiers. Str. thermophilus 150A3.1 however, produced the highest quantity of
galactose (3.8 g/l) and glucose (3.56 g/l) at 37oC. Str. thermophilus 221A11.3 performed
better at 35 than 30oC with increased Vmax (from 0.00169- 0.0063 pH units min-1) together
with shorter ta ( from 279 to 82.5 min) and tpHF (from 43 to 19.0 h). Str. thermophilus
221A11.3 also produced highest formate (2072 mg/l) at 35oC. Lb. helveticus showed second
highest Vmax (0.00937 pH units min-1), had a low pHmax (5.17), short tpH5 (705 min) and low
pHF (4.23) at 30oC. Lb. helveticus also produced highest amounts of acetaldehyde (106.7
mg/l at 37oC), ethanol (1590 mg/l at 37oC) and acetate (1540 mg/l at 35oC). However highest
quantities of D(-) lactate (1.338 g/l at 37oC) were also produced by Lb. helveticus. Mixed
cultures Lc. Lactis subsp. lactis + Str. thermophilus 150A3.1, acidifed at highest overall Vmax
(0.07999 pH units min-1) and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis + Lb. helveticus to lowest pHF (3.9). By
combining Lb. helveticus with either of Str. thermophilus 221A 11.3 and Str. thermophilus
150A3.1, they produced lactate at highest (7.62 g/l) and second highest (7 g/l) quantities
respectively at 35oC. Lb. helveticus + Str. thermophilus 221A 11.3 also reached pH 4.1
within 33.5 h at 30oC. Even though Str. infantarius had short relatively short tmax at 30oC, at
35oC it reached a lower pHmax (5.29) and acidified at a longer dt50 (1202 min) when
compared with other strains. The range in time it took to reach maximum acidification for all
the strains or their combinations was was however high (9-1204 min at 40oC incubation).
The high prevalence of toxin-producing staphylococci requires consideration for food
hygiene and safety especially regarding the aspect that the milk is consumed raw or as
fermented raw milk.
Controlled antibiotic therapy in Kenyan and Somali camels should be introduced to prevent
the increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Pastoralists should also be instructed on the use
for rapid detection mastitis tests and the best single antibiotic or their combinations that
minimize development of resistances.
Molecular methods remain the most reliable methods of choice for identification of ESBLproducing
enterobacteria isolates. The finding of a high diversity of enterobacteria in camel
milk especially at market level and suusac calls for measures to improve handling of camel
The higher prevalence of STEC in camel milk than in cases with milk from other species
indicates that this milk could be an important vehicle for transmission of STEC to humans.
Possibility of a continuous contamination with different STEC strains then distribution of
these strains during handling and storage of milk at this point was also revealed. This calls
for interventions on hygienic factors and animal health at all levels in the marketing chain.
A combination of phenotypic and molecular methods for proper yeast identification is
recommended. The high diversity and numbers of yeasts indicate their role in the
fermentation of camel milk and potential for inclusion as starter cultures.
In order to further select and adapt the starter cultures, sensory analysis, antibiotic
susceptibility tests and also survival of the cultures under different preservation methods
should be studied in order to optimize their application. The robust nature of Str. infantarius
calls for challenge tests including Str. infantarius as a contaminant to further select starter
combinations that would show competitive advantage over this predominant but potentially
pathogenic bacterium.

Mbuge DO. Predicting the Service Life of Plastic Lining using Viscoelaticity. Nairobi: Univeristy of Nairobi; 2010.
Wakibi SN. Prevalence & Predictors of Non-Adherence to free HAART in Nairobi, Kenya. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2010.
Mohamed AS;, Mohamed AS. The Prevalence Of Cardiac Arrhythjviias And Associated Risk Factors Among Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease At Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2010. Abstract

Cardiac arrhythmias are common in COPD patients and are a major cause of morbidity and
mortality, especially the persistent supraventricular and ventricular rhythm disorders.
Multiple factors such as hypoxemia! hypercapnia, acidosis. right heart failure and medication
e.g. xanthene derivatives, steroids and β2 agonists have been implicated.
Recently P wave dispersion and QTc wave dispersion have been reported to predict the
development of atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias respectively.
To determine the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias among patients with COPD, and describe
the associated factors.
Study Design
Cross-sectional descriptive study done over a period of six months prospectively
Outpatient Chest clinic and chest ward, Kenyatta National Hospital.
Study Population
COPD patients who met the eligibility criteria.
A total of207 patients with COPD were studied. The male to female ratio was 2.3: I. The
mean (SO) age of the study population was 66.7(8.5.) years. The median duration of COPD
diagnosis was 1 year (range-0- 6 years) and the median duration of follow-up was also 1 year
(range- 0-5 years). Past smokers accounted for 99.8% while only 1% were current
smokers.The main occupation sited was agriculture at 72.9%.Most of the patients(97.1%)
were on medication with majority (35.7%) on a combination of LAB A, SABA, oral
theophylline, and inhaled steroids. A minority (21.6%) used the medications regularly; 'the
rest intermittently.
The prevalence of arrhythmia was 14% (95%C1 9.3-18.7). The commonest arrhythmia was
VPB (51.7%). Atrial fibrillation accounted for 24%. Atrial fib +VPB accounted for 10.3%,
while 13.8% had 3° heart block. Majority (96%) of those with arrhythmias were in stage III &
A higher COPD stage, Hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, and
longer QTc & P-wave dispersion was significantly associated with arrhythmias (p

Akweya BA. Prevalence of streptococcus agalactiae and staphylococcus aureus in camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk in Garissa and Wajir districts of Kenya, their sensitivity to antibiotics and acceptability of camel milk and its products. Wangoh J, Gitau P, eds. University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Camel milk is commonly consumed raw by pastoralists in arid areas who may
be unaware of the risks posed by such milk. It was therefore very important to
determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae, which are some of the most common pathogens in such milk.
Camel milk samples from Garissa and Wajir were analyzed to determine the
prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The
antibiotic resistance of the bacteria was also studied. Milk samples (n =207)
were aseptically obtained from primary marketing agents. Samples were
analyzed for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae. The confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae were subjected to diffusion sensitivity test. Resistance was
determined by measuring the diameter of the zone cleared by the antibacterial
and the isolates were reported as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant.
Questionnaires were administered to evaluate camel milk and milk product
The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in the
two districts differed with Garissa having higher percent incidence both for
Staphylococcus aureus (34.95%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (37.79%).
Wajir, had lower prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (10.58%) and
Streptococcus agalactiae (7.69%). Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae were resistant to most of the antibiotics except Gentamicin.
Although camel milk and milk products were acceptable, each had different
quality parameters that attracted customers. The most important purchasing
criterion for raw camel milk was taste (27%, 19% and 18%) for Wajir, Garissa
and Nairobi respectively. While packaging (18%, 18% and 16%) was more
important for pasteurized milk also in the same order. For yoghurt the most
important purchasing criteria were taste (18%) and aroma (19%). The taste of
sour camel milk is the most important attribute in both Garissa (30%) and
Nairobi (24%).
The results indicate the potential health risk of consuming raw camel milk and
increasing incidences of resistance of mastitis organisms to the common
antibiotics. There is need to educate camel milk producers on hygienic milk
production as well as inform the raw camel milk consumers on dangers
involved. Marketing of camel milk and products can be enhanced using the
attributes appropriate for each product in the respective district.

Charles Walter (Eds.). Sur la conjecture de la minimale résolution de l’ideal d’un arrangement general d’un grand nombre de points dans un espace projectif. Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis; 2010. Abstract

The Minimal Resolution Conjecture is known and has been verified for Projective Spaces of dimension 2 and 3. Also there many counter examples for example for 11 points in a Projective Space of dimension 6, 12 points in a Projective Spaces of dimension 7. However, for Projective Spaces of dimension 4, it is believed to be true but the complete proof has not been written up so far. F Lauze tackled part of the resolution in his thesis.

Ndiritu JM. Technical trading support system (TTSS); A Stock Market Analyst Support System. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Kivindu RM. Theoretical and Experimental study of a Multi-pass two-glass cover solar air heater under transient conditions .; 2010. Abstract

The major problems experienced with solar air heaters are their non-reliability as their operation largely depends on weather conditions which keep on changing. This study was aimed at providing and experimentally validating a transient based model for predicting the performance of multi-pass solar air heaters operating on changing weather conditions. A transient prediction model was developed by considering the thermal capacities of the collector components and the flowing air. Differential equations were developed by considering the energy interactions and balances for the various components of the collector, and then solved nUmerically. The developed model was tested with input data of insolation, ambient temperature, wind velocity and solar time and then validated experimentally by use of a single collector which was designed to accommodate all the four flow arrangements investigated ( SPM, DMPM, DTPM and TPM). The time constant of the collector constructed was determined experimentally to be 27 minutes. The theoretical collector performance results indicated a transient behavior for changing weather conditions. This was' also confirmed by the experiment carried out whose data were recorded and plotted at intervals of two minutes Based on air temperature rise and collector efficiency both the developed theoretical model and experimental set up indicated that the triple pass mode is superior to the other modes, with the single pass mode ranked the lowest in performance. The developed ~UlputaticmaI prediction model had a standard deviational error of 1.8 to 2.1 % as compared to the experimental values which had an error of2.7 to 9.6%. The TPM had the lowest error (1.8%) while the SPM had the highest (2.1%). When compared to other models and experiments, the results were in good agreement. The developed model confirmed that air temperature rise in the collector is a function of available solar insolation and prevailing weather conditions such as; cloud cover, ambient temperature and wind. It was found that, in actual sense thermal solar collectors do expenence transient conditions and the developed transient model was necessary, and is expected to reduce the day long experiments that need to' be carried out to. acquire the performance characteristics of solar air heaters under changing weather conditions.

Okeng'o GO'a. A theoretical Study of Stellar Pulsations in Young Brown Dwarfs. Lindsay PR, Olivier DE, eds. Cape Town: UWC/UCT; 2010.msc_thesis.pdf
Kimengu EK. Usage of electronic information resources in academic libraries. Nairobi: Univesity of Nairobi; 2010.
.W.Okuku M. “Uchanganuzi wa Kiisimu wa baadhi ya matini za Kiswahili: mtazamo wa Pragmatiki Leksia’’ . E.M. DM, J PH, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Nyamori JM. A 2- Year Retrospective Study On The Pattern Of Retinobh.storna In Kenya.; 2009. Abstract

Background: The national epidemiological characteristics of retinoblastoma in Kenya have not been determined. The diagnosis of this cancer is mainly clinical; histology determines tumour extent. Late diagnosis of this otherwise curable malignancy is associated with high mortality.
Aim: To determine the incidence and pattern of presentation of retinoblastoma in Kenya.
Design: A retrospective case series
Setting: All 75 eye care centres in the 8 provinces of Kenya as registered in the Ministry of health eye information system.
Methods: With permission, clinical registers at eye care centers were reviewed to identify cases of retinoblastoma that presented from 1sr January 2006 to 31st December 2007. Only centers that reported cases were visited to record patient's clinical and demographic data in a questionnaire. Cross-referred cases were analysed once to avoid double-counting.
Results: A total of 206 suspected cases presented to 46 eye care facilities but 58 cases (28.2%) were lost
after referral. Of 148 traced cases, 28.4% were self referrals and of the referred cases, most (21.6%) were
from central province. Only 63.5% of cases were finally treated at 2 teaching and referral hospitals.After
excluding 3 missing files and 13 cases that were ruled out on histology, 132 confirmed cases(166 eyes) were
subsequently analysed. The mean delay in first presentation was 6.75 months and delay after referral was
1.69 months. Leukocoria was the most common presenting complaint (91.7% cases) and sign (71.1 % eyes).
There were 25.8% bilateral cases and 78.2% unilateral cases with mean ages of 26 and 35.9 months
respectively. The male to female ratio was 1.49:1. Only 4.5% had a positive family history. Most (32.6%)
cases resided in the Rift valley province. There was no association between ethnicity and bilaterality. The annual incidence of retinoblastoma in 2007 was 1:17,030 live births.
Conclusions: A significant proportion of cases were lost after referral. The late presentation was associated with advanced disease. Leukocoria was the most common finding. Most cases resided in the Rift valley province. The incidence of retinoblastoma was similar to most countries but may be an underestimate.
Recommendations: Public education ancl screening with the red reflex test by primary health care workers would ensure early detection. Quality control measures in record keeping would ensure accuracy. A retinoblastoma registry would provide accurate estimates through register-based studies. Further research is necessary to investigate the lost cases after referral, delays in presentation and barriers to uptake of services.

Kiai W. An Analysis of Planning and Implementation of HIV and AIDS Communication Interventions by NGOs in Kenya. Prof. Siimiy Wandibba PIN, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2009.abstract.doc

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