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and Oranga, J.O. AKGAMW. A Comparative Analysis of Political Journalism and Humour Journalism: the Case of Philip Ochieng' and Wahome Mutahi. Odhiambo LO, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2001.
Nyabul PO. Critique of Aristotle's Conception of Eudaimonia. Nyasani PJ, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2001.
Ndetei DM. Drug abuse in Kenya: Information, needs, resources and analysis (INRA) project for Kenya.; 2001. Abstract

This is a report of Information, Needs and Resources Analysis, (fNRA) survey carried
out in Kenya in July 200 1. The survey team comprised a Professor of Psychiatry, David
Ndetei from the Nairobi Psychotherapy Services and Institute (NPSI), Dr. Donald A.
Kokonya, Francisca A. Ongecha, Mr. Leonidas Msafiri and Mr. Abel Ndumbu and Ms.
Victoria Mutiso. The UNDep team comprised Dr. Rebecca McKetin and Mr. Mathew
Warner-Smith who provided facilitative support. This survey sought to establish
Kenya's capacity for collecting information on drug abuse. INRA is primarily focussed
on assessment of existing information and sources on drug abuse and the identification
of key needs. It is also expected to propose a development strategy for establishing an
integrated drug information system for monitoring drug abuse trends and associated
problems in Kenya. The purpose of such a drug information system is to provide a
database which can be used to formulate policy and institute intervention programmes
on drug abuse. The information contained in this report was obtained by interviewing a
cross-section of leaders of a number of relevant institutions in Government, the Private
and NGO sectors as well as individual persons - all of whom are stakeholders in matters
of drug abuse. The survey covered Nairobi and its environs only and aimed at providing
a starting point for similar work throughout the country.
The information gathered indicated that drug abuse has been the subject of study for a
number of academic theses, but operational research on the subject has been mute. The
existing information shows that the most abused drugs in Kenya are alcohol and
Cannabis sativa (bhang) which is grown in a few isolated parts of the country. But there
are reports of somewhat isolated cases of cocaine, heroin, mandrax, hallucinogens,
amphetamines and solvents. Khat (miraa) which contains a banned psychotropic
substance (cathinone) is widely consl1med among certain sections of the Kenyan
community has become a major export crop to Somalia and further afield. There have
also been cases of addiction to prescribed analgesics and sedatives. In recent years,
Kenya has become a transit 'zone' (mainly from Pakistan to the west) for traffickers as a
result of its long and porous boundaries; Nairobi being a major communication city and
with a relatively low demand for local consumption.
The survey team identified a number of existing sources of information on illicit drugs
which can make valuable contributions to an integrated drug information system. These
range from treatment data from the national and teaching hospital - Mathari Hospital to
alcohol and drug rehabilitation and detoxification centres run by NGOs and private
companies as well as advocacy agencies involved in counselling and Information,
Education and Communication (lEC) activities. The Central Bureau of Statistics would
be the source of information on drug abuse in its household survey. The Central Bureau
of Statistics is, upon request by NACADA, planning for a national baseline survey to
establish drug abuse prevalence in Kenya. A household survey will follow thereafter.
As elsewhere existing sources of data need to be supplemented with specialized drug
abuse surveys in order to obtain a more comprehensive and reliable assessment of the
situation particularly as regards the abuse of drugs in educational institutions.
Kenya has a very strong manpower base as regards research and studies on drug abuse
information systems. Administratively, Kenya has created a central agency responsible
for coordination of activities on drug abuse - NACADA, the National Agency for the
Campaign Against Drug Abuse. A steering committee for a network on drug abuse has
already been established and is working towards the formation of the network which
will playa supportive role to NACADA.

Extraction of vernonia oil from vernonia galamensis seeds and its aminolysis to vernolamides.; 2001. Abstract

Vernonia galamensis grows as a common weed and is widely distributed in Africa,
and its center of diversity is found in East Africa. The dry seeds of Vernonia galamensis
contains a naturally epoxidized oil that is rich in trivernolin, which constitutes about 80% of
the seeds oil. The vernonia oil has a unique structure that makes it attractive for the
preparation of novel and useful products.
This study reports on the extraction of vernonia oil and its conversion to vernolamides
with higher added value. The oil was extracted from the seeds of Vernonia galamensis ssp.
nairobensis using soxhlet extraction. About 31.6% of crude oil was obtained which after
refining gave about 25.2% of oil. The oil was then reacted with 1,6-diaminohexane, 1,8-
diaminooctane, 2-aminopyridine, 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine and 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine to
give the corresponding vernolamides under two varied conditions, temperature (25,70 and
80°C) and solvents (neat, chloroform, dichloromethane and dimethylformamide). In all
~
reactions a mole ratio of vernonia oil to amine (1 :3) was used at the reaction time of 12 h.
!
In all cases, highest yields of the vernolamides (4l.2-72.3%) were obtained at 70°C in
chloroform, while the lowest yields (21-53.3%) were recorded at 80°C. The reactions at 25°C
gave reasonably high yields (17-62.8%), thus aminolysis proceeds even at room temperature.
Aminolysis carried under neat conditions also gave relatively high yields (41-64.2%).
The vernolamides were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), infrared (IR),
electron impact mass spe~ctroscopy (ElMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
spectroscopic techniques.
The antimicrobial activities of the products were investigated at concentrations of
~
100)..lg, 50)..lg and 25)..lg by the disc diffusion method. The vernolamides exhibited only
antibacterial activity and was greater against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) than in gramIX
negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. There was no antifungal activity shown on all the fungi
that were investigated.

Kanoti JR. THE GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY ASSOCIATED WITH MAFIC AND ULTRAMAFIC INTRUSIVES OF THE MOZAMBIQUE BELT IN MBEERE AND THARAKA-NITHI DISTRICTS, EASTERN KENYA. Nairobi - Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed geology, the geochemistry and the mineralogy associated with the mafic and the ultramafic intrusives of the Mozambique Belt, eastern Kenya. To achieve this, a detailed geological mapping and sampling of the intrusives was done followed by laboratory analysis. The significance of the study was to highlight the nature, relative age and genesis of the intrusives and the potential for economic mineralization.

This study has revealed that the intrusive rocks and the regional foliation trends are inter-related suggesting that the intrusives developed in vertical structures during regional metamorphism. The elongated shapes of the bodies and their alignment with the enclosing regional structural grain of the gneisses suggest compressional deformation during the regional Mozambique Belt Orogeny. This is considered as evidence for at least a synorogenic emplacement of these intrusive rock bodies.
The mafic and the ultramafic rocks represent a range of differentiated rocks from fairly primitive magma (Mg-number = 79) to highly fractionated magma (Mg-number = 36). However, the fact that the rocks are intrusive brings out the possibility that none of them may represent parental magma composition. The magmas have undergone modification by crystal fractionation processes either in high-level magma chambers or during ascent from their mantle source regions. The gradual composition change in the feldspars, olivine and the pyroxenes is from high- to low-temperature members of their respective solid-solution series. This outlines the crystallization sequence.

The whole rock chemical analysis shows that rocks rich in magnesium oxide are also rich in chromium and nickel and those rich in potassium oxide are also rich in rubidium and barium in conformity with the rules of partitioning. This implies that they originated from one parent magma. The rocks show iron enrichment trend and have high nickel and low aluminium oxide contents. This chemical evidence supports a tholeiitic magma affinity for the intrusive rocks.
An attempt is made to construct the mineralogy of the gabbros based on the mineral chemistry. This has revealed that they are composed of magnesium-rich olivine (chrysolite) with approximately 80% forsterite. The pyroxene is both magnesium and calcium rich and has an enstatite molecular percentage of about 18%. It is an orthopyroxene (bronzite) in the enstatite-ferrosilite solid-solution series. The plagioclase feldspars show a range of composition from about 90-20% anorthite. This
range shows that the magma crystallized slowly. Crystallization over a wide temperature has resulted in the formation of alkali feldspars and other minor constituents.

Economically, the area has the potential for base metals. Chromium and nickel are present in concentrations higher than that found in average igneous rocks. Further geophysical work is recommended to reveal some more information in terms of the possibilities of economic deposits in this project area. Some of the pegmatite, particularly those near Muthanthara contains small needles of beryl. The beryl is blue green in colour but not of gem quality.

Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Kiplagat S. PhD Thesis on the Psychology of Natural Disasters. Guildford: University of Surrey; 2001.
Karimi KIARIECAROLINE. The role of savings and credit cooperative societies in facilitating rural financing in Kenya (a case study of Embu County).; 2001. Abstractkiarie_the_role_of_savings_and_credit_cooperative_societies_in_facilitating_rural_financing_in_kenya.pdf

Rural financing is one of the critical factors to promote productivity and ensure an improved social and economic development for a country like Kenya, whose population of about 80% is rural-based and dominantly depending on agriculture. Like in many other developing countries, access to financial services in most parts of Kenya, particularly the rural areas, is very limited.The specific objective of the study was to assess the role of Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOs) in facilitating rural financing; it analyzed the type of financial services and products offered by the SACCOS and assessed the extent to which SACCOS are effective in facilitating rural financing. Data were collected through questionnaires. The study used a sample size of 35 respondents, which comprised SACCOs members and SACCOs board members. In data presentation, tables, charts, percentages and graphs were used.The study found that a majority of SACCOs offers Credit and saving facilities only while money transfer, insurance and deposit products are not offered. A number of SACCOs were found experiencing poor management, low membership, and a low level of knowledge on the part ofmembers.The study concluded that if SACCOs are managed sustainably, they can play a critical role in facilitating rural financing. The researcher further recommended that in order to improve sustainability and ensure provision of knowledge for best practices, the government should put in place reliable mechanisms to the SACCOs

Mwea, Sixtus K;, Gichaga FP(S). Studies of flexible road and airport pavements in Kenya .; 2001.
Aganda AA. Temperature profiles in a wood packed bed heated by hot combustion gases .; 2001. Abstract

Axial and radial temperature profiles are presented for the initial sensible heating stage of wood carbonisation process in a packed bed. These profiles are important in promoting greater understanding of the heat transfer processes during the sensible heating stage and the mechanics of the gas flow through the bed. These data are also useful as an aid to the design of wood carbonisation retorts. Gas temperatures were measured in a cylindrical retort within which a randomly packed bed of green wood was heated by hot inert combustion gases. The bed dimensions were 0.62m in diameter and 1.28m in height. The temperatures were measured by thermocouples mounted at 0.46m, 0.8Sm and 1.28m heights and transversed across the bed diameter. The bed was heated by combustion gases fed from a charcoal combustion chamber. It was discovered that gas temperature drops through the bed were as much as 86% of the inlet temperature, and that the most significant temperature gradients occurred in the first one third of the bed; this has significant implications in the retort design. Other interesting features observed were that there was a strong local variation in temperature throughout a given horizontal section of the bed and a symmetrical radial temperature profiles across the bed. Furthermore, gas temperatures were significantly lower close to the retort wall than the centre. These phenomena were explained in terms of gas channelling and a wall effect which increased the resistance to flow there. A two-phase mathematical model was used to predict axial temperature variation, while an empirical equation was fitted to the radial temperatures. This same model although a one-dimensional axial one, was used with a number of simplifying assumptions, to estimate the radial temperature profiles. In general there was good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results. The maximum deviation was -20% but 90% of the predictions were within t7.SX. This good agreement implies that the mathematical nodel is physically sound, a significant finding since there is no evidence in the literature to suggest that a two-phase model exists that can predict both axial and radial temperature profiles simultaneously in a packed bed.

Otieno I. Truth Maintenance Systems. Manderick PB, ed. Brussels: Vrije Universiteit Brussels; 2001.abstract.pdf
NW M. Causes of increased drop out in primary school in Nyandarua District, Kenya’.. F A, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Ayuke FO. Diversity, abundance and function of soil invertebrate fauna in relation to quality of organic residues. Eldoret, Kenya: Moi University; 2000. Abstract

Although the role of soil invertebrate fauna in decomposition of organic residues and thus nutrient release, soil structure and soil-water relations is well recognized, the scope for their manipulation to derive the potential benefits is little understood. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the diversity, abundance and function of soil fauna are related to quality of organic residues used.
The study was conducted during the 1997 short rains (Oct 1997Feb 1998) on farm in western Kenya with the following treatments: (1) control without any input, (2) fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha1, (3) tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsely) A. Grey) biomass and (4) senna (Senna spectabilis D.C & H.S. Irwin) biomass. The organic residues were applied in fresh condition at 5 t ha1 dry weight. The treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. Macro- and meso-fauna diversity and abundance were monitored in soil monoliths (25 x 25 x 30 cm) and soil cores (10 cm diameter and 30 cm depth), respectively, at the beginning of the season, six weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest.
A satellite experiment was conducted simultaneously to quantify the role of soil fauna in the decomposition of organic residues, using senna foliage (5 t ha1) as the test material and maize as a test crop. Two treatments, with and without soil fauna, were evaluated replicated six times. Fauna were eliminated by treating the soil with furadan at 40 kg ha1at the start of the study, 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks after crop sowing. The standard litterbag technique was used to monitor litter decomposition at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks and N, P and K concentration in the undecomposed material at each of these sampling periods was determined. First order exponential equations were fitted between undecomposed material or nutrients contained therein (y) and time (t), and decomposition constants (k) worked out.
Diversity and populations of soil fauna were found to be low in the arable land use system under study. Macrofauna constituted 90% of the total fauna recovered, while mesofauna constituted only 10%. Termites were the most abundant of the fauna (55%) followed by earthworms (31%). Although the two organic residues did not affect faunal diversity, addition of senna increased total population by 200% and tithonia by 140% over the no input control. Fertilizer use did not change either diversity or total population.
Soil fauna enhanced decomposition of organic residues. While only 45% of the material decomposed by two weeks in the absence of fauna, 60% material decomposed in the presence of fauna in the same period. After 8 weeks, hardly any material was recovered in the presence of fauna compared with 9 to 12% material recovered in the absence of fauna. Nutrient release was not influenced by fauna probably because of the nature of material used. As the secondary compounds were lower than the critical level (<4% polyphenol and <15% lignin), nutrient release progressed rapidly with the microbial action and fauna did not play a significant role.
Fertilizer use increased maize grain yield by 63% over the control. Although tithonia biomass increased maize grain yield by 38% over the control and did not differ significantly from fertilizer treatment, senna increased maize yield by only 6% over the no input control. Higher yield with tithonia than senna was partly because of higher nutrient concentration and hence greater amounts of nutrients added for the same quantity of material applied. Despite less faunal activity compared with that under senna, tithonia decomposed and released nutrients faster than senna probably because of increased microbial activity. The study indicates that (1) the relative effect of soil fauna on decomposition to that of soil microbes is small, (2) several parameters have to be considered in determining the quality of organic residues, (3) organic residues can be used to manipulate soil fauna and (4) high quality residues can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields.

ODHIAMBO ODONGOSETH. THE EFFECT OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHIES ON STUDENT SATISFACTION IN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES AND THE NON-EVANGELICAL PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

The study addressed the effect of marketing management philosophies on student satisfaction in Public Universities and the non-evangelical private universities in Kenya and was motivated by the observed phenomenal disparities that seemed to characterize the two sets of universities.

Whereas the private Universities seemed to remain relatively calm, devoid of student unrests and the ability to complete programmes in time, Public Universities stood on the opposite end with frequent institutional shut down due to unrests resulting into failure to complete programmes as scheduled.

In spite of this observed phenomenal challenge, the researched was not aware of any study that had been conducted in this area that seemed to point to the significant of the marketing management philosophy in practice and the resultant effect on student satisfaction, and therefore saw the need to conduct the research to generate information that would fill the then prevailing information gap.

The study was an exploratory census survey of 11 accredited Universities in which 173 respondents were interviewed from the ranks of the senior administrative staff corroborated with the participation of significant number of students. The primary data was collected using questionnaires consisting of six sections, each pertaining to the major dimension of the respective marketing management philosophies.

Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics which entailed means, percentages and standard deviation .T-statistics and chi-squares were also used in the analysis and from the findings, it emerged that there were indeed significant differences in the marketing management philosophies practiced by the two sets of universities. Private universities were found to practice with marketing and societal marketing concepts as opposed to public universities whose practices seemed to point the direction of production and product concepts.

The study concluded that there is a direct relationship between the level of student satisfaction and the marketing management philosophy practiced and consequently recommended to the public universities to consider using the modern and more robust marketing management philosophies which identifies and take into consideration the interests and desires of students as it designs its academic and operational programmes.

Omangi HG. FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE LEVEL OF MOTIVATION AMONG NON-ACADEMIC UNIONISABLE EMPLOYEES (A CASEOF UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI). Nairobi: Kenya Institute of Management; 2000. Abstract

This study investigates factors that affect the level of motivation and therefore performance among non-academic unionisable staff of the University of Nairobi, with a view of recommending strategies that will motivate them to become performers to improve the institution’s productivity, efficiency and effectiveness. Research has shown that observable non performance of said staff emanates from lack of motivation resulting from some unmet needs. The study tries to identify these unmet needs, their motivational level, and strategies that can possibly meet these needs and motivate them. Within the framework of the Herzeberg’s two factor theory (1959) the study examines how motivation which encompasses forces from within and from without can be improved among the said workers. Herzberg proposes two sets of factors that affect behavior: maintenance (concerned with the job environment) and motivators (concerned with the job content).

OLUOCH KEVINRAYMOND. Identification of schizont cDNAs located on a subtelomeric fragment of the Theileria parva genome. Nene DV, Mulaa PFJ, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Ejore P. influence of cattle rustling in education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Muasya CK, Wafula EM KTOMND. Knowledge Attitudes and Practices (KAP) of parents and guardians of children with epilepsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of parents and guardians of children with epilepsy regarding the illness.
DESIGN: cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Paediatric Neurology Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
RESULTS: 116 parents and guardians were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Focused group discussions (FGDs) were also carried out on 42 other parents and guardians. More than 77% of the parents/ guardians (P/G) had some knowledge on the type of illness their children were suffering from, the features of a convulsion, the alerting features before convulsions, the type of antiepileptic drug treatment their children were receiving and the potential hazards to an epileptic child during a convulsion. Many P/G did not know the causes of epilepsy, alerting features prior to a convulsion or the complications of epilepsy. 60% of the P/G administered some recommended first aid measures to their epileptic children during a fit, but many of them combined these with potentially harmful first aid measures. 40% of the epileptic children of school going age in this study were not attending school because of problems which should not have interfered with school. Spiritual healing, and to a lesser extent traditional herbal medicine were perceived to be important components of therapy for epilepsy when used in conjunction with western treatment. A higher level of formal education of the P/G had a positive influence on their KAP towards epilepsy. The findings of the FGD’s corroborated those of the questionnaire interviews.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Health Education should be given at all levels of contact with P/G, to enhance their KAP towards epilepsy, as this was likely to impact positively on the care accorded the children living with epilepsy.

Muasya C;, Wafula EM. Knowledge Attitudes and Practices (KAP) of parents and guardians of children with epilepsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya..; 2000. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of parents and guardians of children with epilepsy regarding the illness.
DESIGN: cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Paediatric Neurology Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
RESULTS: 116 parents and guardians were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Focused group discussions (FGDs) were also carried out on 42 other parents and guardians. More than 77% of the parents/ guardians (P/G) had some knowledge on the type of illness their children were suffering from, the features of a convulsion, the alerting features before convulsions, the type of antiepileptic drug treatment their children were receiving and the potential hazards to an epileptic child during a convulsion. Many P/G did not know the causes of epilepsy, alerting features prior to a convulsion or the complications of epilepsy. 60% of the P/G administered some recommended first aid measures to their epileptic children during a fit, but many of them combined these with potentially harmful first aid measures. 40% of the epileptic children of school going age in this study were not attending school because of problems which should not have interfered with school. Spiritual healing, and to a lesser extent traditional herbal medicine were perceived to be important components of therapy for epilepsy when used in conjunction with western treatment. A higher level of formal education of the P/G had a positive influence on their KAP towards epilepsy. The findings of the FGD’s corroborated those of the questionnaire interviews.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Health Education should be given at all levels of contact with P/G, to enhance their KAP towards epilepsy, as this was likely to impact positively on the care accorded the children living with epilepsy.

Narrative Techniques in Wole Soyinka's The Interpreters. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Opijah FJ. Numerical Simulation of the Impact of Urbanization on the Microclimate over Nairobi Area. Ng'ang'a JK, Mukabana JR, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2000.phd.doc
Kimani NM. Pattern of female pelvic disease as shown at ultrasonography at Kenyatta National Hospital. IKUNDU GK, ed. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2000.
Okalebo FA. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of clematis brachiata thunberg.; 2000. Abstract

The leaves, stem and roots of Clematis brachiata Thunberg
(Ranunculaceae) tested positive for anthraquinones, alkaloids,
saponins, coumarins, sterols, carotenoids and flavanoids and
cardenolides. Only the stem and leaves had tannins. The root had the
highest amounts of alkaloids and anthraquinones
The stem Soxhlet methanol extract yielded 13.2 mg (0.029 % of the
dried stem powder) of quercetrin (3-0-beta-L- rhamnosyl, 3', 4', 5, 7
tetrahydroxyl flavone). In addition the extract yielded 6400 mg
(1.3 % of dried stem powder) of a precipitate, FAO-FRS. It was
composed of a mixture of non-aromatic compounds.
The roots yielded 170 mg (0.068 % of dried root powder) of a nonaromatic
unsaturated lactone.
The Soxhlet methanol extracts of the leaves and stem had very good
activity against brine shrimps (LDso66.5 ug/ml and 365.6 ug/ml
respectively). An ethyl acetate ffaction of the stem Soxhlet extract,
FES, had the greatest activity against the-shrimps (LDso= 23.08
ug/ml).
The cold methanol extract of the root showed good in vitro
antimalarial activity (LDso = 39.9 ug/ml) against highly chloroquine
resistant isolate, Plasmodium falciparum VliS.
The leaf and stem extracts showed low in vitro antimalarial activity.
Quercetrin is known to have in vivo antimalarial activity.
None of the isolates and plant extracts showed significant
antimicrobial activity.
FAO-FRS, the cold methanol extracts of the leaf and stem showed
antinociceptive and local anesthetic effects.
The cold methanol extracts of the leaf, stem and roots caused
relaxation of the isolated rabbit ileum. At low concentrations, FAOFRS
caused relaxation of the isolated rabbit ileum and at high
concentration it had a dose dependent contractile effect.
The traditional use the leaves and stems of C. brachiata Thunb as
analgesics, local anesthetics, antimalarial agents and spasmolytics,
seems tv have sound scientific rationale. The traditional use of the roots for the management of malaria and as a purgative seems to have
scientific rationale.

Victor N. The State of Social Marketing in the Banking Sector in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Kamau IN. Trace Gas Emissions for Biomass Cookstoves in Kiambu and Bungoma Districts. (A Pilot Study). Wandiga PS, Kithinji DJ, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Chaga MH. Ulinganishi wa mofofonolojia ya Kiswahili na Kidawida. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2000.
Bulimo WD. The Role of UBCv1 Enzyme of African Swine Fever Virus. Vol. PhD. Hartfield: University of Hertfordshire; 1999. Abstractthesis_abstract_bulimo.pdfthesis_abstract_bulimo.pdf

The aim of the project was to define the function of the African swine fever virus (ASFV)-encoded ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (UBCv 1). Two alternative approaches were taken to construct recombinant ASF in which either (i) a functional UBCv1 was not expressed or (ii) the UBCv1 gene was controlled by an inducible promoter so that its expression could be regulated. It was anticipated that the regulated gene approach would produce viable recombinant viruses even if the UBCv 1 gene was essential for infection.First, a replacement plasmid was made to delete the wild-type gene from the ASFV genome. Then, an inducible ASFV promoter containing the lac operator was cloned upstream of the UBCv1 gene and expression of UBCV1 was shown to be regulated by IPTG when co-transfected in infected cells with another plasmid expressing the lac repressor. Transfer plasmids were constructed to recombine this inducible UBCv1 gene into either the wiId-type UBCv 1 locus or, as a second copy into a non-essential locus in the genome. None of these approaches produced viable recombinant viruses, suggesting that UBCv 1 is an essential gene whose level and timing of expression are important for the viability of ASFV.To identify possible substrates for the UBCv1, the gene was used as bait to screen a pig macrophage cDNA Iibrary using the yeast two-hybrid system. Six clones encoding prateins which interacted specifically with the UBCv1 protein were isolated. Sequencing of the inserts in these clones showed that three encoded ubiquitin. This was expected since adenylated ubiquitin is a common substrate for all UBC enzymes with which they interact as they transfer the ubiquitin to substrate proteins. One interesting UBCv1-interacting protein was contained in a clone encoding part of a protein named SMCp which was very similar to the N-terminal region of the mammalian SMC and retinoblastoma binding protein-2 (RBP2) genes. The RBP2 protein is thought to have an important role in regulating cell division by regulating the function of the tetinoblastama protein. In vivo binding studies confirmed that UBCv 1 binds GST-SMCp but does not bind GST. Immunofluorescence studies showed that UBCv 1 was present in the nucleus in some cells and cytoplasm in others suggesting it shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The specific interaction of UBCvl with SMCp and the subcellular localisation UBCv1 suggest that SMCp may be a substrate in vivo for the enzyme. The possible significance of this is discussed.

Karimurio J. Costs and productivity of cataract surgery in different eye care settings in Kenya. London: London; 1999. Abstract

Introduction

Cataract which is defined as opacity of the crystalline lens of the eye is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness inKenyaand in the whole world in general. Majority of cataracts are age related. Resources allocated for the treatment of cataract inKenyalike in other developing nations, are not only scarce but have also been shrinking with time. Surgical removal of the opaque lens and correction with an intraocular lens implant are the only treatment options available inKenya. Prioritisation during planning and resource allocation should be done for the benefit of the majority. This can only be possible if we are aware of the costs incurred in cataract surgery and the ways by which costs can be contained. When the cost of cataract surgery is known, it is easy to estimate how much service user charges (cost recovery and cost sharing) to charge the patients. Overcharging lowers utilisation while undercharging threatens sustainability of the heath services. It is also possible to identify the costs of each cataract surgical item (or procedure) and plan how to contain the costs without compromising the quality. The exact cost per unit service (in this case cataract surgery) should thus be reviewed regularly.

Aim

To describe the costs and productivity of cataract surgery in the different Eye Care delivery settings inKenya.

Objectives :

To estimate and compare the costs of consumables used in cataract surgery in different eye care settings.

To estimate and compare the productivity of cataract surgery in different eye care settings.

Methods

Three Eye Units representing three unique Eye Care delivery settings inKenyawere selected for the study. Kikuyu Eye Unit represented the typical Kenyan NGDO setting, Lions Eye Unit a service club setting and Nakuru Eye Unit the Government Eye Care delivery setting. The productivity of cataract surgery was calculated from the information extracted from the Eye Units monthly returns and annual reports. The information was further counterchecked with the theatre registers and the data from the National Eye Health Information Office. The cost of each of the consumable items used for cataract surgery was calculated separately using the information gathered from hospital store records and from the surgeons and other theatre staff using the data collection form. The costs of all the items were finally summed up to get the unit cost of consumables used in a single cataract operation. The data were finally entered into summary tables. The productivity and costs of consumables for the three Eye Units were compared and conclusions made.

Results

Kikuyu performed 53%, Lions 9% and Nakuru 4% of all the 9495 cataract operations reported in the 1998 annual report of the Kenya Ophthalmic Programme.

Kikuyu Eye Unit theatre did 100, Lions 17 and Nakuru 7 cataract operations per week.

In one theatre day, Kikuyu operated on 20, Lions 9 and Nakuru 4 cataracts.

Cataract operations per surgeon per week was 13 at Kikuyu, 9 at Lions and 2 at Nakuru. None of the three Eye Units in the study had a waiting list for cataract surgery.

The unit cost of consumable items used in a single cataract operation was US$ 11.2 at Lions US$ 14.6 at Kikuyu Eye Units and US$ 23.5 at Nakuru.

The IOL and the corneal suture were the most expensive items. The two accounted for 40 %, 61 % and 63 % of the total cost of consumable items used in a single cataract operation at Lions, Kikuyu and Nakuru respectively.

Conclusions

None of the three Units had realised its full potential in productivity of cataract surgery. The IOL was the single most expensive consumable item used for cataract surgery at Kikuyu and Lions Eye Units. At Nakuru, it was the corneal suture.

Kikuyu Eye Unit which represented the typical Kenyan NGDO Eye Care delivery setting had the highest productivity of cataract surgery at the cost of US$ 14.6 per one unit of consumable.

Lions Eye Unit which represented an NGO Eye Care setting whereby the sponsoring NGDO also managed the day to day running of the unit it was sponsoring performed cataract operation at the lowest cost per unit of consumables (US$ 11.2). The unit had low productivity of cataract surgery when compared to Kikuyu.

Nakuru Eye Unit represented the Government of Eye Care delivery setting. The unit had the lowest productivity of cataract surgery and the highest cost of a unit cost of consumables (US$ 23.5).

Recommendations

- Improve cataract surgical services through Social Marketing.

- Monitor productivity and cost of cataract surgery regularly.

Oludhe C. Homogenious Climatic Zoning.; 1999.
Musyoka SM. A model for a four-dimensional integrated regional geodetic network. Karlsruhe: University of Karlsruhe; 1999.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD. On Decomposition of Operators in Hilbert Spaces. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract

The almost-similar and similar relations between operators on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are investigated. It is shown that almost-similar operators share some properties with some other classes of operators. Various results on almost-similarity and similarity are proved. An attempt is made to classify those operators where almost-similarity implies similarity. We investigate some properties of corresponding parts of operators which enjoy these equivalence relations.

Karari EM. Prevalence of helicobacter pylori in chronic renal failure patients with dyspepsia.; 1999. Abstract

Background:The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of H.
pylori in dyspeptic patients with chronic renal failure.
Methods: One hundred and fifty four patients with dyspepsia, in two groups
of seventy-seven patients each were studied. The patients were divided on
the basis of presence or absence of CRF. H. pylori was tested for using the
biopsyurease test and histology. Patients were considered to have H. pylori
if theytested positive on both tests.
Results: The prevalence of H. pylori in CRF was 53.2%. There was no
statistically significant difference between the prevalence of H. pylori in
CRF patients from that observed in the controls. Patients with
endoscopicallyproven PUD had a very high prevalence of H. pylori (87.30/0)
regardlessof their renal function.
Conclusion: Dyspepsia in patients with or without CRF is due to multiple
causes and just over 500/0 is attributable to H. pylori. The prevalence of H.
pylori in dyspeptic CRF patients is similar to that in dyspeptic patients with
normal renal function. We recommend that all patients with dyspesia should
routinely undergo endoscopy and H. pylori studies before treatment for the
dyspepsiais started.

Odiemo LO. The Rhetoric of Positivistic Science and Professional Education for Teachers. Bergen, Norway: Norwegian Teacher Academy,; 1999.
Dr. Joshua Okumbe, Dr. Gerald Kimani (Eds.). A study of factors which influence performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in selected public secondary schools in Nairobi and Central Provinces.. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1999. Abstract

The Purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination in selected secondary schools in Nairobi and Central Provinces. The research was intended to find out whether good academic performance could be attributed to specific factors that are present in the schools performing relatively better. The major factor considered in this study KCSE performance. The literature review was divided into four subheadings: effect of school-related factors on academic performance, effect of non-school factors on academic performance, effect of student-related factors on performance and effect of motivational factors on performance. From the literature review, a conceptual framework was designed. The conceptual framework showed variables (inputs) and their expected directional effect on each other on the outputs (performance). The study used expost facto research design. The sample consisted of 32 headteachers, 575 teachers and 773 students. The data was analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics and the chi-square statistical test which was accompanied by a contingency coefficient. The study revealed that there was a significant relationship between the condition of school facilities, as perceived by headteachers, and students’ academic performance in KCSE. The study also revealed that students’ KCPE entry marks, headteachers’ frequency of holding staff meetings, students’ socioeconomic background, teachers academic qualification, teachers’ workload, involvement of teachers in administrative decision-making, method used to solve teachers’ problems, headteachers’ frequency of holding meetings with parents, frequency of headteachers’ meetings with form four students, teachers’ attendance of in-service training and promptness of school fees payment were significant in determining KCSE performance. The factors that were not found to be statistically significant in determining KCSE performance were teaching of extra hours and reinforcement by parents on their children. Based on these findings it was recommended that there is need for headteachers to hold frequent staff meetings in which problems and progress of the school could be discussed. It was also recommended that there is need to encourage bursary schemes to cater for students who come from low socioeconomic background. Finally it was recommended that there is need for headteachers to involve parents in school activities and need to convert day schools into boarding schools.

G.N. M. The value of pediatric upper gastrointestinal studies. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1999.
Gichuki NN. Wetlands: Our common property.; 1999.
Nyangoma JFA. Death and the Law.; 1998.
Nyangoma JFA. Death and the Law.; 1998.
K MJ, E.N.M N, Lerna KN. Effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on Mammalian host glucose metabolism. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.munyua_files_2.png
Absaloms HO. Genetic Algorithm Application to Image Processing Optimization Problems. Atsugi, Japan: Kanagawa Institute of Technology; 1998.
Wasamba P. Languange in Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’s Fiction. Chesaina PC, Odari M, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.abstract.pdf
Mwashando AH. Occurance of Anemia in Msambweni Division. Mombassa: Mombasa Poly University College; 1998.athumani-_diploma_project.pdf
Munyua JK, Njagi ENM, Mark AG. Physicochemical characterization of oils from Kenyan plants.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.munyua_files_1.png
Gichuki NN, Oyieke HA, Ndiritu GG, Handa C. Wetland biodiversity in Kajiado District.; 1998.
Wangoh J. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk Nr. 12295. Farah Z, Puhan Z, eds. Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; 1997.
Gichuki N. Computer Contracts in Kenya: Proposals for Regulatory Reform. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1997.
Amolo M. D ivination among the Luo community . Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 1997.
Barasa JL. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY INTO THE PASS RATES IN KASNEB CPA EXAMINATIONS. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract

The study aimed at determining factors that influence performance in CPA examinations conducted by KASNEB. Two approaches were used: First, approach examined factors that influence completion period of CPA examinations. A sample of 190 qualified students was randomly selected from a population of 1865 candidates who had qualified as at December 1996. Second approach examined factors which determine whether a student would pass the CPA Section 6 or not. A sample of 112 candidates who sat the December, 1995 and June 1996 examinations and passed was examined alongside a sample of 146 candidates drawn from a total population of 1007 candidates who sat and did not pass in the two sittings.
For each of the approaches, correlation, multiple regression analysis, stepwise regression, stepwise discriminate multiple discriminate analyses were conducted. In both cases, mode of study, educational background and occupation were found to be very significant variables. Age appeared also but with least significance. Analysis two identified Kenya College of Accountancy as a college that positively influenced passing. Analysis one gave emphasis on the manner of attempting the examination. English and Mathematics at “o” level also a positive association with completion period.
Regression analysis revealed that variables identified explained 80% of the reasons influencing completion period. Descriminant analysis showed that the same variables constituted over 90% of the discriminating attributes between those candidates who finished the course within a short time and those who take a long time to complete. Variables covered in influencing passing however, could only account for 30% of the reasons for passing or not passing under regression analysis and had only 35% discriminating ability between those candidates who fail and those who pass. This means that over 70% of the reasons for passing or not passing were not captured in this set of variables. Consequently, there is need to search and establish the factors that constitute the remaining 70% in all the analyses, regression and discriminant analyses strongly agreed on the findings.

Rukwaro RW. Kenyan maasai architecture in a changing culture .; 1997. Abstract

The Kenyan Maasai traditional built form in Kajiado District is changing. It is being replaced by the newly developed homesteads and houses which are inadequately planned, designed and lacking in symbolism. The latter are inconsistent with social arrangements and cultural needs of the contemporary Maasai lifestyle. It was the hypothesis of this study that the culture of the Maasai influences the architecture of their built forms. Multiple research tools were used in the collection of data. These included Observation, Focus Group Discussion, Questionnaires and Interviews. Among the techniques used in analysing the data are the chi-square statistics and qualitative analytical procedures based on the material collected through cluster sampling of 92 homesteads which were presented graphically. It is clear that the architectural conditions of Maasai buildings are a result of culture change variables identified as occupation, religion, rituals, education, family set-up and land tenure which have consistently evolved cultural values such as social status, independence, privacy and sedentary lifestyle. The study concludes that, in view of the changed culture of the maasai, the new built form is satifactory in the incorporating the emerging architectural design concepts such as nuclear family house, linearity, divisibility and permanence in response to emerging spaces and artifacts. These concepts symbolise the changing Maasai culture in the built form.

Njagi JW. The Kikuyu Determiner Phrase.; 1997.
Onyatta JO. Kinetics and Equilibria of Cadmium in Selected kenyan Soils. Huang PM, ed. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan; 1997.abstract_thesis.pdf
Manda DK. Labour Supply, Returns to Education, and The Effect of Firm Size on Wages: The Case of Kenya. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Sweden; 1997.
Makunda CS. Mother and child: The domestic approach in the design of institutional homes. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 1997.
Ndegwa PN. Studies on ecology and epidemiological significance of Glossina swynnertoni Austen in Masai Mara, Kenya. Mihok S, Oyieke F, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1997.
Ngesa PO. “A History of African Women Traders in Nairobi, 1899-1952”. Nirobi: University of Nairobi; 1996.
Mumbi JN, Mulli TK, Kamundia R. Association between periodontal diseases and tobacco use among adult males in Nairobi. Macigo FG, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Ikamari LDE. 'Factors Affecting Child Survival in Kenya’. The Australian National University; 1996.
Munyua JK, Njagi ENM, Mangara MJ, Kinyua AM. Heavy metal analysis of Local - and Imported Pica Soils.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1996.
JM O. Multi-component polymers containing polylactic acid. Huang PSJ, ed. Storrs, Connecticut, USA: University of Connecticut, Institute of Materials Science, ; 1996.
Orwa OD. Multi-User Remote Processing System. China: Shanghai University; 1996.
Nyarwath O. Philosophy and rationality in taboos with special reference to the Kenyan Luo culture. Oruka POH, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1996.
Nicholls N, Gruza GV, Jouzel J, Karl TR, Ogallo LA, Parker DE. The Science of Climate Change.; 1996.
Swazuri MA. The valuation of waterfront properties along the coastline of Kenya .; 1996. Abstract

The valuation of waterfront properties along the coastline of Kenya Kenya is one of the coastal states that lie in the eastern part of Africa. For a long time now Kenyan valuation practice has been concentrated on land-based resources. Valuation of farms, houses, offices, industries etc. are now quite familiar in everyday life. However, a "new" era is now becoming important in world resources affairs, an area in which the valuation profession in Kenya can also participate. This area is the coastal or marine environment, where many sectors of the economy such as energy, transport and research are now increasingly turning to use. Whereas professional valuers in other countries have expanded their scope into these environments, the valuation profession in Kenya has been slow to realise its potential in the same. And because the full economic potential of the resources of the Kenyan coast is not known with certainty, it is logical to carry out studies of their estimation. Unlike land-based resources waterfront properties along the coastline Possess somewhat peculiar characteristics which imply that a free market or a purely price competitive mechanism will not allocate these resources properly. It is even worse for the methods of valuation which can be employed in such cases. Identification and exploitation of resources have to be enhanced by proper methods of the resources' estimation for them to be worthwhile. Two notable characteristics of the waterfront properties located along the Kenyan coastline are the extremitie in values of similar properties, sometimes even in the same localities, and the exclusive use of the market comparison method in such property valuations. This study contends that extremities in values have arisen from the use of improper methods for valuieing waterfront properties. And the method being used currently in the valuation disregards a number of important factors, most of which are difficult to quantify using the market comparison method. This study aims, therefore, to present better ways of valuing waterfront lands . .The valuation of waterfront lands 1.'3 influenced by both site- oriented, such as size and non-site-oriented variables like reasons for sale, date of transaction and so on. Evidence from the valuation pr ac t i.ce s in the study area suggests that only site-oriented characteristics of property are considered during valuations and this leads to either under valuation or overvaluation of these properties. Although some factors are not directly on the property being valued, they· are actually significant influences of value, and disregarding them altogether is not reasonable. The valuation method proposed in this study considers both site and non-site oriented factors. Using conventional multiple regression analysis (CMRA) it has been shown here that the choice of value- influencing variables is more scientific, more reasonable and less subjective than in the ordinary Comparison Method . Choice of influencing variables for valuation purposes is a necessary step if proper values have to be estimated. Many valuations have had faults because of inability to identify and measure these factors. Several regressiGn methods of valuation have been tried in this study, ranging from the simple mul tiple regression analysis to rank transformation regression. Each of- the methods has its merits and demerits, in most cases in terms of their usefulnes and accuracy involving waterfront lands. Conventional Multiple Regression Analysis (CMRA) and Rank Transformation Regression (RTR) were foun.d ·to be the best of the lot, accounting for 49% and 51% of the variation in property values in the area respectively. However, RTR seems to have the methodological problem of how to rank factors affecting value before using them in the procedure. While it is appealing and quite rational to rank factors, the criteria to be used for the ranking is contentious. CMRA was, therefore, found to be a 'better' method, because it produced better results in all the various tests the models underwent. For example, CMRA had a relatively high R2 of 49.1%, a relatively low MSE value of 13612 and the smallest Cp value of 277. CMRA's ability to rank the independent variables within itself during analysis can easily be understood by both the valuer and client, and is applicable in practice. Using the same methods, it was found that SIZE of property is the most important factor affecting value in the study area. The larger the size, the higher the value, although other factors such as width of the beach area (AREA), VIEW of the ocean waters, availability of water SPORTS on the beach etc, have also to be considered. Furthermore, no single factor alone can be used as the only basis for estimating values of waterfront lands. Despite the study advocating for the use of CMRA in waterfront valuations, _there are very few instances where the valuer will not use some form of comparison in the valuation process. Whether it is in the choice of independent variables or in the measurement of these variables, the principles of comparison have to be utilised to arrive at objective values. After all, valuation is all about the market, and if the valuer disregards the market trends then his valuation will be somewhat incomplete.

wekesah CW. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for rural electrification in Kenya .; 1995. Abstract

Increased international pnces of petroleum-based products, rapid depletion of fuel-wood supplies and increased environmental concerns over air quality, global warming and acid rain, among other factors, have prompted a world-wide growth of interest in the utilization of renewable energy resources for electrification purposes, especially in the isolated rural areas. This research study was done in order to know quantitatively, how much potential electrical power can be harnessed from the hydro and solar resources in Kenya as well as its seasonal and daily profiles for the purpose of rural electrification. The daily profile of the rural loads was also determined and compared with the profiles of the two renewable energy sources (solar and hydro). Further, the cost of electrical energy from the two renewable energy sources was compared with that obtained from extension of the grid network. Mini- and micro-hydropower sites and the potential electrical power at each site were determined with the aid of 1:50,0000 scale topographic maps and river flow data available at the Survey of Kenya Institute and Ministry of Water Development respectively. On the other hand, solar sites and the potential electrical power associated with each site were determined with the aid of solar radiation data from Kenya Meteorological Department. Nairobi. The potential electrical power at each solar site was determined assuming 12% solar cell conversion efficiency. A daily rural load curve was determined from consumption data taken at Gachororo Village, Thika District. Further data on country-wide rural loads was obtained from Kenya Power and Lighting Company. (vi) The cost of electrical energy from both small hydropower and grid supplies was found to be strongly dependent on the annual capacity factor and the supply-to-load distance. The cost of solar supplies was strongly influenced by the fact that the ratings of the solar panels available on the market are low, being mostly less than 100 peak watts. Hence solar PV installations have very high cost per kW of installed capacity, which reflects high cost per kWhof electrical energy delivered. Gachororo Village is about 100 metres from the nearest grid point and 10 km from the nearest small hydro site. At an annual capacity factor of 30%, grid extension was the cheapest way of power supply to the village (KSh 2.60 per unit), followed by small hydropower (KSh 16.60 per unit) and finally by solar photovoltaic supply (KSh 155.30 for a 51 W installation). The distance beyond which grid supply becomes more expensive compared to small hydro supply was found to be 35.33 km at 30% annual capacity factor.

Muriithi AW. Gastric motility responses to duodenal stimulation of an in vitro rabbit stomach-duodenum preparation.; 1995. Abstract

Regulated gastric emptying is necessary for the complete digestion and absorption of
intestinal chyme. However, experiments have shown that the extrinsic denervation of
stomach and duodenum does not result in a cessation of gastric function. Furthermore,
the components necessary for the integration and relay of neural information
have been demonstrated in the intrinsic nervous network of the gut. A possible hypothesis
therefore, is that the enteric nervous system may playa role in the regulation of gastric
function. The purpose of this study was to establish whether or not stimulation of the
duodenal mucosa of an in vitro rabbit stomach-duodenum preparation has any effect on
gastric motility.
Electrically stimulated changes in intragastric pressure were used as indicators of gastric
motility and recorded with an intragastric balloon connected to a transducer and chart
recorder. The records were made in both the presence and absence of mechanical and
chemical stimulation of the duodenal mucosa. A comparative analysis was carried out on
the frequency and amplitude of electrically stimulated gastric contractions, and of the
peristaltic contractions that took place after electrical stimulation of the stomach wall.
The results were found to differ depending on the type of duodenal stimulus applied.
Duodenal distension did not attenuate or amplify the subsequent gastric response to
electric stimulation of the stomach wall. However, a disturbance in the inherent pattern of
gastric peristaltic contractions was observed. In contrast, the presence of hydrochloric
acid in the duodenum, reduced the force of the electrically stimulated gastric contraction
by half, but the inherent pattern of peristalsis that followed the electrical stimulation
appeared unaltered.
These results suggest the existence of a gastric motility regulation mechanism in the
rabbit that is mediated by the enteric nervous system and that responds to stimulation of
the duodenal mucosa.

Ntiba MJ, Oluoch AO, Mavuti KM. Impacts of human activities on coastal fisheries in Kenya..; 1995.
Ntiba MJ, Oluoch AO, Mavuti KM. Impacts of human activities on coastal fisheries in Kenya..; 1995.
Ondigo HO. Information content of Annual reports and Accounts. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1995.
Otieno D. Bacterial colonization profile in endo-tracheally intubated patients in the intensive-care unit,Kenyatta National Hospital, and the rationale for antibiotic therapy.; 1994. Abstract

A prospective study on the bacterial colonization profile
of the respiratory tract was carried out on fifty-six (56)
patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital, Intensive-
Care unit, and intubated for at least two days. between
January 1992 and March 1993.
During this period, a total number of four hundred and
fifty-eight (458) patients were admitted to the Intensive-
Care Unit. Out of these 25.7% (118) fell within the study
criteria, but only 47.4% of the eligible patients were
actually studied. •
Twenty-nine (29) were male and twenty-seven (27) were
female. The male to female ratio was 1.07:1. The patients'
ages ranged from eight (8) months to eighty (80) years, with
a peak in the 11-20year and another in the 31-40 year age
groups.
There were eight (8) different species of organisms
isolated during the study, most of which were gram-negative
bacilli. The most frequently isolated organism was proteus
29.1% (30) and the least common was enterococcus 3.9% (4).
Out of the fifty-six (56) patients, the colonization
rate was 30.4% (17). trache9-bronch~t~s 33.9% (19), and
pneumonia 35.7% (20). The severity of infection was found to
depend on the severitj .of illness. Of the eleven (11)
patients without organ fail~re, none developed pneumonia,
while 27% (3) had colonization and 73% (8) had tracheo-
bronchitis. There was a total of thirteen (11) uatients with
organ failure invoJving two or more systems; 69.2~ of t~ese
(9) had pneumonia, 30.7~ (4) had tracheo-bronchitis ann none
had colonization.
The duration of intubation varied from ~ to 9~ days in
this study. There was no clear relationship he tween the
duration of intubation and the severity of respiratory
infection. Duration of intubation of less than thirty davs
was associated wit~ 25~ (4) cases of colonization. 100% (19)
of tracheo-bronchitis and 90~ (lA) of uneumonia. Intuhation
for thirty days or more was associated with 75~ (13) cases
of colonization. 10% (2) of pneumonia and no case of
tracheo-bronchitis.
Ceftazidime (Fortum) was found to he the most effective
of the antihiotics tested against the isolated organisms;
100% effective in five (5) out of the eight (8) species
isolated.
Patients with either colonization or tracheo-bronchitis
were found to have a favourable outcome without antibiotics.
Of the 36 patients with either colonization or tracheobronchitis,
83% (30) made good recovery on conservative
management: regular 'chest phvsiotherapy and tracheo-bronchial
suctioning. One developed septicaemia and died despite
antibiotics. The other five died from multiple complications.
Twenty (20) patients diagnosed to have pneumonia were
put on specific antibiotic therapy. Only 16.6% (6) recovered.

Maina MJ. Human-wildlife conflict in Laikipia district: area specific strategy recommendations .; 1994. Abstract

The evolution of conflict often arise from divergent view points and the manner to derive benefits from a common resource. The increasingly limited supply of natural resources especially, in Arid and Semi Arid Lands exacerbates tension between various actors with vested interests in the use of the same resources. Wildlife is an important natural resource in Kenya as an environmental heritage, and cultural source of both food and revenue. Thus the government of Kenya has taken important measures to protect wildlife through gazetting certain areas for exclusive use by wildlife such as Parks and Reserves. Recent research findings have indicated that protected areas only contains less than 20 percent of the total wildlife species found in Kenya. The other 80 percent resides outside the protected areas in privately owned land where the wildlife is often in conflict with human settlement. Laikipia District is a case in point which is an important wildlife refuge outside these protected areas. Continued presence of wild animals in the District is now threatened by changes in land use brought about by demographic changes occasioned by continued influx of population from the high potential areas of Central Province. The incoming population bring with them intensive agricultural land use practices which are incompatible with migratory regimes of the wild animals in the region. The farms are thereby exposed to continuous destruction by elephants and other wild animals. This. problem is more serious in Ngobit, Sirima, and Salama Locations where this study was carried out. This study aimed to investigate the types, intensity and effects of human-wildlife conflict and to suggest a mechanism for spatial resolution of the conflict. It further sought to assess how the government and the community reach at resolutions aimed to abet conflict, and the types of solutions in the context of existing policy. In order to achieve the above broad objectives three conflict zones namely, Kariunga/Mutirithia, Ngobit ISirima and Ethi ILaikipia East were selected for detailed data collection and analysis. The three areas do have land use conflicts generated between wild animals on the one hand; and farming of livestock and crop rearing. A number of methods were used to collect data on the field, the most widely used being questionnaires, interviews, filed obserVations and photography among others. Respondents were mature household heads or their representatives. randomly selected .

Owakah F. Justice in the State: the Case of Nyerere’s Philosophy of Ujamaa. Monyenye S, Ochieng-Odhiambo F, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1994.
Ndombi DSJ. Lipid metabolic changes in patients with pancreatitis . Shanghai Second Medical University; 1994.
Osanjo L. participation of Commercial Banks in the Development of the Small Enterprise Sector in Kenya. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 1994.
Munyua JK, E.N.M. Njagi, K.N. Lerna, Kinyua AM. Schistomme Mansoni - Effects on Glucose metabolism in mice.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1994.
Sekadde-Kigondu C;, Ojwang SB;, Nyunya BO;, Kamau RK;, Thagana NG;, Nyagero JM. Sexuality and the use of condom among male university students.; 1994.
Ojwang SB;, Sekadde-Kigondu C;, Nyunya BO;, Kamau RK;, Thagana NG;, Nyagero JM. Sexuality and the use of condom among male university students.; 1994.
Nyongesa FW. Ultrasonic Characterization of Kenyan Clay refractories. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1994.
Kipchirchir IC. An Age Structured Population Model. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1993.
Censorship and its effects in libraries in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 1993.
Jaoko W. Detection of circulating immune complex associated parasite antigen in human loiasis: A new approach to diagnosis.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.

Joel O. Dissemination of Agricultural Information : a case study of KADOC. Nairobi: Technical University ; 1993.
Musyoka SM. Mathematical modelling and design of a three-dimensional geodetic network.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1993.
Ndiba PK. Performance of crushed coconut shell as coarse media in dual media filters .; 1993. Abstract

Filtration accounts for a substantial portion of water treatment cost. The dual media filter, by operating at a higher filtration rate than the conventional rapid sand filter, can reduce the cost of filtration considerably. However, use of the dual media filter in Kenya is limited by lack of suitable material for use as coarse media. In this study, pilot plant filtration tests have been carried out to investigate the performance of crushed coconut shell as coarse media in dual media filters. Filtration rate, size of crushed coconut shell, relative depth of media and backwash requirements have been investigated. A dual media filter with equal depths of 1.20 rom effective size crushed coconut shell and 0.42 romeffective size sand was found to give the best performance. The filter was found to operate at 2.4 times the filtration rate of the conventional rapid sand filter while maintaining the same effluent quality and length. of filter runs as the rapid sand filter. The filter also required a smaller percentage of filtered water for backwashing than the rapid sand filter. Durability tests on crushed coconut shell media have indicated that the media would be durable against microbiological degradation while in service. Scrapping off the less compact surface layer of the shell was found to improve the durability of the media

Kimata MD, Makawiti D, Dadzie S, Waindi EN. Plasma Cortisol, Luteinizing Hormone and Testosterone Levels in Human African Trypanosomiasis Patients from Western Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1993.
Odero AN. A Study of the Electrical Insulation Characteristics of Woods Locally locally available in Kenya. Nelson I, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract

For my thesis I did a problem formulation and then wrote a computer program to help speedily analyze various insulator profiles for use at high voltages. The program when fed the profile would output the potential and electric field patterns around the high voltage insulator, in addition to predicting it's flashover voltage. Validation of the model was obtained through practical measurement in a high voltage laboratory. Profiles that would insulate very high voltages were arrived at this way in a relatively short time.

Gathumbi JK. A survey of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in poultry feeds. . Nairobi.: University of Nairobi.; 1993.
Karanja DN, Ngatia TA, Wandera JG. Clinical and Pathological observations in Kenyan donkeys experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
Kyule MD. Economy and subsistence of Iron Age Sirikwa culture at Hyrax Hill, Nakuru: A Zooarchaeological approach. Koch DC, Mutoro DH, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
Nyabul PO. Faith and Reason. Nyasani PJ, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
IRAYA MWANGICYRUS. Forecasting demand in health services: The case of University of Nairobi Health clinics. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.

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