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Kingsford R. A STUDY OF EMPTY CONTAINERS MANAGEMENT BY LOGISTICS FIRMS IN MOMBASA. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract

The study had two major objectives. The first objective sought to investigate the current empty container logistics management practices by logistics firms in Mombasa. The second objective was geared to investigate and determine the challenges facing empty container logistics firms in Mombasa. Data was gathered mainly through semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. Content analysis as a method of data analysis was widely used in the analysis of the data collected. Charts and Tables were also used in the presentation and analysis of the data. The findings of this study have brought out pertinent issues. Through the analysis of the data collected it was noted that there is a short fall in practices by logistics firms logistics firms in Mombasa compared to practices found elsewhere in the world and therefore the potential for improvements largely untapped. It was also found that the customers always bear the bulk of the costs, even those associated with the logistics firm's inefficiencies. Several challenges and remedies were identified. The empty containers turnaround time was identified as a key impediment because of poor infrastructural and poor management and workmanship. Management of empty container fleet was cited as a big challenge in many empty container logistics firms by many of the respondents. Other challenges identified include poor handling equipment, Shortage of storage within the port and at the empty container logistics centers, Long distance between the port and container depots, High tariffs and fees charged on empty container storage, Lack of a standardized tracking and security systems, Poor container stacking procedures at the port among others. The findings and the recommendations of this study will be of great use to the empty containers logistics players and the policy makers in the future development and enhancement of the logistics sector in Mombasa. The experiences can also be used in other regions

Michira IN. Synthesis, Electrodynamics and Biosensor Applications of Novel Sulphonated Polyaniline Nanocomposites . Iwuoha PI, Baker PP-L, eds. CapeTown: University of the Western Cape; 2007. Abstract

The overall aim of this thesis was to prepare nanostructured more processable heteronuclear sulphonated polyanyline nanocomposites with electroconductive properties suitable for applications in biosensors. The sulphonated self-assembled polyaniline and derivatised polyaniline nanocomposites (SPAHs) were prepared by chemical oxidative polymerisation or electrical decomposition. The SPAHs prepared include those of polyaniline (PANi), poly-o-methoxyaniline (POMA) and poly-2.5 dimethoxyaniline (PDMA). Two types of sulphonic acids of heteronuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were used in the production of sulphonated SPAH composites. These were anthracene sulphonic acid (ASA) and naphthalene sulphonic acids (NSA) wich played both doping and surfactant roles.

Ongarora SO. “Mtindo katika Arusi ya Buldoza na Hadithi Nyingine''. E.M. DM,.M PM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007.
Nyonje. : “Mwono Ulimwengu wa Waswahili” . E.M. DM, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2006.
OLUOCH KEVINRAYMOND. Alkaline-active enzymes from Bacillus halodurans LBK 261 with potential applications in the textile industry. Mattiasson PB, Hatti-Kaul PR, Mulaa PFJ, eds. Lund, Sweden: Lund University; 2006.
Otieno NA. Diversity and Abundance of wild host plants of stem borers in two sites, Kakamega and Muhaka in Kenya.. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2006.
NDEGE FREDRICK. The Environment and Resource Use In Kenya: A Socio - Cultural Perespective. Cape Town.: University of Cape Town.; 2006.
Masu SM. An Investigation into the Causes and Impact of Resource Mix Practices in the Performance of Construction Firms In Kenya: A Case Study of the Building Construction Firms in N ai r o bi. .; 2006. Abstract

There is evidence that construction projects performance in Kenya is poor. Time and Cost performance of projects in Kenya are poor to the extent that, over 70% of the projects initiated are likely to escalate in time with a magnitude of over 50%. In addition over 50% of the projects are likely to escalate in cost with a magnitude of over 20%. Studies have shown that, although cost performance was not better, time performance was comparatively the worst. Australian studies on construction time performance showed that performance was affected by construction management team, project scope and projects complexity.

Pauw GD, De Schryver G-M, Wagacha PW. Kiswahili part-of-speech tagger: demonstration system.; 2006.
Otieno SO. Mitigation of liability for negligence in design and construction: case study of collapsed buildings in Nairobi. .; 2006. Abstract

This study is about mitigating liability for negligence in the Kenyan design and construction industry. Mitigation of liability as used in this study refers to reducing the damages that arise as a result of negligent practices of participants during construction. The problem which has been studied is that of collapsing buildings as it has been noted that building failures is a common phenomena in Kenya. The study investigates the various causes of failures in the construction industry with a view to recommending possible ways of reducing these occurrences or avoidinq them at all costs. The study has covered the role played by participants in the construction industry, who are; the clients, architects, contractors, quantity surveyors, engineers, the governing authorities, and the ministry of public works. Their role in contributing to a failure-free construction industry has been highlighted. An in-depth study has ~een carried on three cases of collapsed buildings, which have been taken as the case study for this research. Purposive sampling technique has been used to identify the case studies of this research. Reports which have been written by government commissions on collapse of buildings have also been looked at with a view of establishing the recommendations pegged towards reducing building failures in Kenya. Based on the findings of this research, the research concludes that the case studies sampled for this study. had very evident causes of failures linked to clients' poor administration of contracts and partly professional negligence. The study recommends education and training to clients so as to create awareness of the benefits of always including professionals who are registered in their projects. Its also recommends active participation of the government and professional bodies in the supervision of both-public arid p'ivate projects, to avoid coming up of low standard buildings.

Kit KR. Privatisation of public enterprises in COMESA: An exploration of approaches and strategies: the case of the privatization of Telkom Kenya. Durham; 2006. Abstract

This thesis investigates Kenya's approach to the privatization process through an exploration of Telkom Kenya's (TKL) unfolding privatization. The thesis research identifies outlines and documents the developments in Kenya's approach to the privatization programs in a developing economy of the COMESA region. In the process, the analysis contributes to an approach of privatizing and restructuring in Kenya. It has also helped explain new phenomena in privatizing in an environment with no institutional infrastructure and in the process has generated and contributed to new knowledge whose detail is discussed in chapter five. The research took an exploratory approach because there are few or no earlier studies in which a secondary data analysis solely was to be analyzed. The empirical data was based on observing and experiencing the real world with a focus to gain insights and familiarity on approaches to the privatization process. Although there is a variety of privatization literature and studies, these have tended to focus on developed and emerging economies and lately specific sectors of their interest. The analysis uses Field primary and Secondary data sources And an extensive Literature review on Privatization focusing on Specific elements Of approaches and Developments in The less developing Countries (LDCs) And in Kenya. The data Collection and analysis Focused on outlining Kenya's actual process Of choosing And implementing sectors, objectives, methods, techniques and strategies of transacting Telkom Kenya as a Strategic enterprise Under the GOK's Privatization program. In attempting to Respond to The central Research question raised In chapter one (page 9), the Thesis undertakes an in-depth mixed method analysis (majorly qualitative) ofapproaches to the privatization process. The research is driven by the central research question (s): "What are (why and how) the approaches and strategies of Kenya’s privatization program In a developing economy?" The research outcome identifies And outlines a 'sketch approach' to Kenya's privatization program and process. The Research analysis Concludes that Efforts to institutionalize (i.e. regulatory framework) The process, in order to make Kenya's approach more tangible, effective, efficient, and accountable need further attention. Evidence further shows that privatization of Kenya's strategic state enterprises (SSE, s) raises concerns of the socio-political dynamics of the management of the selected approaches, methods, processes, and objectives of privatization by GOK. Indeed 80 % of the respondents argued that privatization is crucial in enabling the government divest from business. However, the political control remains an impediment to Independent and fair strengthening and building of privatization institutions. In this regard, this thesis' major Contribution of Identifying Kenya's Approach provides a First attempt at a 'guide' to the Privatization process that Is clear, accountable and open to Checks and balances.

Sangilu SI. Resource utilization by large migratory herbivores of Athi-Kapiti Ecosystem, Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya.: University of Nairobi.; 2006.
Wagoro AMC. Structure and process factors that influence patients and nurses' perceptions of in-patient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari Hospital.; 2006. Abstract

In-patient psychiatric units which play an important role in the management of patients with severe psychiatric disorders often lack structures and processes needed for quality nursing care. Patients' and Nurses' perception of care is an important indicator quality of care and should be assessed regularly (Campbell, 1999; Garry and Shannon, 1997). Yet such assessment has not been done in Kenya to evaluate standards of in-patient psychiatric nursing care despite complaints of inadequate structures and processes of care in a country where more than 25% of patients in a general out patient clinic suffer from mental disorders; And WHO having developed quality checklist for evaluation of psychiatric care (WHO, 1994). The purpose of this study was therefore to explore structure and process factors that influence the patients' and nurses' perception of quality in-patient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari hospital, Nairobi. Donbedians' (1966) Structure-Process-Outcome model of quality care and Peplau's (1952) Interpersonal Relationships Theories were the frameworks for this study. It was a descriptive, quantitative and qualitative study of a sample of 236 in-patients and 13 1 nurses selected by stratified sampling. One of inclusion criteria for patients was a score of 24/30 on the mini mental status assessment tool. Data were collected for two months using mainly semi structured questionnaires and observation checklist tools modified fro in Gigantesco (2003), Wallace (199S) and WHO (1994) and was analyzed using SPSS version 10. Differences in proportions were determined by calculation of confidence interval and summary chi square statistic. p-values of:S 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A major finding was that physical environment vias significantly related to nurses and patients' satisfaction (X2=l0.456, p=O.0012) and (X2=5.506, p=O.002) respectively. The use Interpersonal relations principles of Peplau (1952) was also found to have a positive influence on patients' and nurses perception of care. Overall WHO(l991) criteria of good quality standards "vas met by only 4 (,28.5%) out of fourteen wards. One of the recommendations by the researcher i:' that Hospital administration urgently improves structure and process factors cf care at Mathari Hospital in order to improve quality of patient care.

Kiptoo. Towards road traffic information system using multi-agents. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2006.
Rajar SAD. • A Case for Human Rights for women in Africa . 2006: University of London; 2006.
Ngesa JL. Applicability of tooth size predictions in the Mixed Dention Analysis in a Kenya Sample. Cape Town: University of the Western Cape; 2005.
Oranga JO. Audience Media Preferences in Kenya: the Case of FM Radio. Ochilo, P.O and Kiai W, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2005.
MR GITAU WILSON. Characteristics of the wet and dry spells during the wet seasons over Kenya. PROF OGALLO LABAN, DR MUTEMI JOSEPH, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2005.
Iraki XN. Entrepreneurship, Productivity and International Trade: A study of Three Catalysts of Economic Growth. Jackson, Mississippi, USA: Jackson State University; 2005.
Mutegi RG. Factors Determining Demand for Secondary Education in Public Schools in Tharaka South Division. PhD GW, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2005.
Ndunda B, Chabbra S, Langat-Thoruwa C, Akenga T. Isolation and Characterization of Compounds from Kenyan Medicinal Plants of the Genus Croton. JUJA-KENYA: JKUAT; 2005.
Odada EO, Onyando J, Obudho PA. Lake Baringo: Experience and lessons learnt brief.; 2005.
Mueni J. The portrayal of the female gender in secular hip hop music videos. Miya DF, Okonji MA, eds. Nairobi: Daystar University; 2005.
omoni DG. Teenage Motherhood in North Kisii District, Kenya. Plant PA, ed. Perth: Curtin University of Technology; 2005. Abstract

Teenage pregnancy affects millions of girls every year worldwide and is extremely common in Africa. Teenage pregnancy reflects a pattern f sexual activity which not only puts teenagers at risk of pregnancy but also of infection by the human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). The subject of sexual behaviour is complex. It is an interplay of several factors - social, biological, economic and psychological.

Teenage pregnancy has been widely studied, but attention in relation to Africa has been largely limited to its prevalence. In particular, little work has been done on the consequences of teenage motherhood. The present study focuses on factors that pre-dispose a girl to teenage pregnancy, the effects of pregnancy on physical and mental health, and the socio-economic consequences of teenage motherhood.

The initial part of this study used qualitative research methodology. Focus group discussions were conducted with ten unmarried teenage mothers and a comparison group of ten teenage in-school girls aged between 10-19 years. Content analysis of the ensuring data was carried out to identify factors that predisposed teenage girls to unwanted pregnancy, and to determine the level of awareness about sexuality and sexually transmitted infections among teenage mothers and in-school teenage girls. The key themes that emerged as factors that predispose teenagers to unwanted pregnancy were: early sexual initiation, peer pressure, perception that other teenagers had sexual intercourse, knowledge deficit about their sexuality, sex-for-money, multiple partners, parental poverty, coerced sexual intercourse, and rape. Teenage mothers listed the following as consequences of their premature pregnancy: dropping out of school, abandonment or mistreatment by parents, desertion by their boyfriend, loss of friends, being scorned by relatives, contemplation of abortion, attempted abortion, depression, complications during or following delivery, sleep deprivation after delivery, and disillusionment about their future.

The second part of the study was a quantitative survey which aimed to compare the experiences of teenage mothers and in-school girls. Of major concern was depression among teenage mothers, an area that has received little attention in the literature. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) instrument was used to assess depression. There were 198 teenage mothers and 188 in-school girls who took part with their consent and/ of their parents. Analysis was by quantitative methods, including both bivariate statistical procedures and some multivariate methods.

Results show that of the teenage mothers, 65.2% had sexual intercourse before age 15, compared to 29.8% of the in-school girls. In the study, 12.1% of the teenage mothers and 3.5% of in-school girls suspected that they had ever had a sexually transmitted infection, while 6.1% of teenage mothers and 2% of in-school girls indicated that they had a confirmed and treated STI.

During pregnancy, abortion was contemplated by 25.3% of the teenage mothers. However, most of them were vague in their knowledge about available methods. About half of the teenage mothers (49.5%) in the study indicated having contemplated committing suicide, while only 17% of the in-school girls in the control group had contemplated committing suicide.

Teenage mothers were more depressed than in-school girls; the average depression score for teenage mothers being moderate to severe depression compared to mild to moderate for the in-school girls. The respondents who reported having consensual sex were examined along the three traits of early/non-early sexual initiation, multiple/single sexual partners, and sex-for-money. In each category, the teenage mothers were more significantly depressed than in-school girls, with the average depression scores being moderate to severe for teenage mothers and mild to moderate for the in-school girls in all the groups. For those who reported having coerced sex (those raped or teacher-seduced), there was no significant difference in the state of depression of the teenage mothers and the in-school girls - the average depression score being mild to moderate fort he raped, and teacher-seduced respectively.

The study explored the predictors of depression in teenage mothers, through multiple regression analysis. The models derived found the following four variables to be significant predictors: age at 1st sexual initiation, the teenage mother's own level of education, father's level of education, and whether the teenage mother had experienced rape.

In conclusion, this study suggests that being a teenage mother at such a young age is a difficult journey. The study adds to growing knowledge about depression among teenage mothers and suggests this is a significant problem which needs to be addressed. It is anticipated that health professionals, ministries such as the Ministry of Culture and Social Services and the Government of Kenya will use this knowledge to improve the services of its youth in general.

Akech M. 26) Public Law and the Neoliberal Experiment in Kenya: What Should the Public Interest Become. New York : New York University School of Law; 2004.
Awori KO. Assessment of the outcome of lower limb amputations as seen in Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2004. Abstract

This study was designed to assess the outcome of lower limb amputations as managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital. A prospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between July 1st, 2003 and June 30th, 2004 was performed. Data on the management and outcome were collected using questionnaires administered to the patients while admitted and in the follow-up clinics. The main outcome measures were the duration of hospital stay, duration of wound healing, need for operative revision, need to convert to a higher amputation level, degree of mobility and the thirty-day postoperative mortality. A total of74 patients (46 males) underwent 77 lower limb amputations. The mean age at operation was 44.4 years (range 7 months - 96 years). Ninety one percent were major amputations; 42 AKA ( 3 bilateral), 24 BKA and 4 hip disarticulations. Open amputations comprised 23% of the total. Extremity gangrene due to peripheral vascular diseases was the main indication for amputation (55%). Anaemia was the most common co-morbid condition (27%) followed by diabetes (18%), while stump infection was the commonest complication (33%). The thirty-day mortality rate was 13.5%. The healing rate for BKA was significantly less than for AKA, with a 21% rate of eventual conversion of BKA to AKA. Most of the patients (70%) were ambulating on crutches The average duration of hospital stay was 29.3 days. There was no patient who was using a prosthetic limb during the study period.

Aranga M. Factors affecting the performance of marketing communication tools: a case of selected dairy firms in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi ; 2004. Abstract

This study focuses on the marketing communication tools pursued by selected milk processing firms in Kenya. The theory articulated in this article suggests that marketing communication tools and factors affecting their performance are two important considerations. Taking this as a standpoint, the author predicted the use of similar marketing communication tools whose performances are influenced by the same factors. An empirical test of this theory using data collected from the milk processors operating in Nairobi yields data consistent with the view that the milk processors use similar marketing communication elements and their performance are influenced by similar factors.

Kiptoon DK. The immediate postoperative outcome of patients undergoing prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia at Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2004. Abstract

Objective: To describe the common postoperative complications of prostatectomy as
seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of patients who underwent
prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia at Kenyatta National Hospital between
6th October 2003 and 21 st June 2004.
Main outcome measures: Age, co-morbidity, type of surgery, complications, reoperation,
mortality, postoperative catheterisation, and duration of postoperative
hospital stay.
Results: A total of eighty five patients participated in the study, and their average age
was 66 years. Open prostatectomy was the more common type of prostatectomy
accounting for 81 % of cases while transurethral resection accounted for 19 % of
The most common intra-operative complication during prostatectomy was
haemorrhage which occurred in ten patients (11.8 %).
The most common postoperative complication following prostatectomy was wound
sepsis occurring in 24 patients (35 %, n=69). Other postoperative complications
observed were urinary tract infection (15 %), clot retention (10 %), pyrexia (10 %),
and pneumonia (8.2 %).
Three patients (4.4 %) required re-operation due to complications of postoperative
wound sepsis.
One patient had perforation of the bladder during transurethral resection and required
a laparotomy to repair the bladder.
Twenty six patients (30 %) had co- existing medical conditions. There was a
significant association between wound sepsis and diabetes mellitus (p< 0.05).
The mean duration of postoperative catheterisation was 6.66 days. There was a
significant difference in the duration of postoperative catheterisation between open
prostatectomy and transurethral resection (p= 0.001).
The mean duration of postoperative hospital stay was 8.16 days.
There was a significant difference in the duration of postoperative hospital stay
between open prostatectomy and transurethral resection (p= 0.001).
Conclusions: The duration of postoperative catheterisation and hospital stay are
mainly determined by type of prostatectomy, and the presence of diabetes mellitus
significantly increased the risk of developing postoperative wound sepsis.

Oketch TO. An investigation into risk management: response in handling building materials on construction sites in Kenya .; 2004. Abstract

The main aim of this study was to investigate risk management response in the handling of building materials on construction sites in Kenya. In the building contract, the contractor's main obligation is to carry out and complete the works, where as, the employer is to pay the contractor the contract sum. The contract sum, comprises cost of materials, labour, plant, equipment, contractor's profit and overheads. It is the contractor's responsibility to ensure the sufficiency of his tender before entering into the contract. Construction sites arc exposed to various risks such as workmanship, storage, transit, then, damage etc, that may affect material handling and . consequently, cost of production. In pricing his tender, the contractor is deemed to incorporate all the risks, which the building contract allocates to him. Handling of building materials on construction sites is part of the production process, which commences with delivery of building materials to the construction site up to the point of fixing them in position. Material handling represents a major portion of total costs and may account for 10-80% of total cost, (Amrine, 1993). In the computation of : '":. the tender sum, the contractor normally allows a proportion of the material cost for material handling. Ihis is normally based on the skill and past experience of the contractor. However, the eventual handling cost depends on the site organization and management. v It has been observed that then of materials is prevalent on construction sites, (Omondi, 1992) and that is one of the major causes or loss of building materials on site. Waste is one of the most serious aspects or site production and little is done to avoid this financial loss, (Edmeads, 1972). Consequently, there is a likelihood that a contractor may meet losses arising from the handling of building materials. Responses to these risks may be through contingency funding, insurance cover, risk reduction and/or retention. The objectives of this study are to: - , (i) identify the nature of risks involved in the handling of building materials. (ii) investigate the measures undertaken in risk response by contractors. (iii) establish the proportion of material loss on construction sites, (iv) recommend the appropriate measures of risk response. The target population in the study comprised of construction sites within Nairobi City Council. A sample, or 47 construction sites were studied. Primary data was collected through administering of questionnaires to contractors. Secondary data was obtained from books, journals, research papers and documented reports. The primary data was analysed using frequencies, descriptive statistics (mean, mode etc) and the Spearman's rank correlation. The correlation analysis was applied to determine the relationship between the variables and hypothesis testing. The types of risk on material handling were identified as storage, transit, workmanship, theft and damage. It was observed that most construction sites experienced loss of one material or the other. Risk retention was the most popular response measure considered at tender stage. It was observed that the final proportion of wastage on materials always exceeded the proportion allowed at tender stage. The objectives of the study were fulfilled and risk transfer was recommended as the most appropriate method of risk response in controlling material losses on construction sites. The contingency approach and subcontracting as a way of reducing material losses were suggested as areas of further study.

Kianji GK. Investigations on the Seismicity of Kenya using the University of Nairobi Seismic Network. Malte DI-von-S, Prof JB, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2004.
Wakasiaka S, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Omosa G, Jaoko W, Waruingi W, Ogutu H. Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative HIV Vaccine Peer Leaders Training Manual.; 2004. Abstract

MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. The IFN-y enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-Spot) assay is often used to map HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses. We compared overlapping 15-mer pools with optimized CD8 epitopes to screen ELISpot responses in HIV-infected individuals. The 15-mer pools detected responses to previously undefined epitopes, but often missed low-level responses to predefined epitopes, particularly when the epitope was central in the 15-mer, rather than at the N-terminus or C-terminus. These factors should be considered in the monitoring of HIV vaccine trials.

Ndinya-Achola JO, Wakasiaka S;, Bwayo JJ;, osa G;, Jaoko W;, Waruingi W;, Ogutu H. Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative HIV Vaccine Peer Leaders Training Manual.; 2004. Abstractkenya_aids_vaccine_initiative_hiv_vaccine_peer_leaders.dockenya_aids_vaccine_initiative_hiv_vaccine_peer_leaders.pdf

MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. The IFN-y enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-Spot) assay is often used to map HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses. We compared overlapping 15-mer pools with optimized CD8 epitopes to screen ELISpot responses in HIV-infected individuals. The 15-mer pools detected responses to previously undefined epitopes, but often missed low-level responses to predefined epitopes, particularly when the epitope was central in the 15-mer, rather than at the N-terminus or C-terminus. These factors should be considered in the monitoring of HIV vaccine trials.

Jaoko W;, Wakasiaka S;, Bwayo JJ;, Ndinya-Achola JO;, Omosa G;, Waruingi W;, Ogutu H. Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative HIV Vaccine Peer Leaders Training Manual.; 2004. Abstract

MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. The IFN-y enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-Spot) assay is often used to map HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses. We compared overlapping 15-mer pools with optimized CD8 epitopes to screen ELISpot responses in HIV-infected individuals. The 15-mer pools detected responses to previously undefined epitopes, but often missed low-level responses to predefined epitopes, particularly when the epitope was central in the 15-mer, rather than at the N-terminus or C-terminus. These factors should be considered in the monitoring of HIV vaccine trials.

Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S;, Bwayo JJ;, Ndinya-Achola JO;, Omosa G;, Jaoko W;, Waruingi W;. Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative HIV Vaccine Peer Leaders Training Manual.; 2004. Abstract

MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. The IFN-y enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-Spot) assay is often used to map HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses. We compared overlapping 15-mer pools with optimized CD8 epitopes to screen ELISpot responses in HIV-infected individuals. The 15-mer pools detected responses to previously undefined epitopes, but often missed low-level responses to predefined epitopes, particularly when the epitope was central in the 15-mer, rather than at the N-terminus or C-terminus. These factors should be considered in the monitoring of HIV vaccine trials.

Gitau AN. Mechanical Behaviour of a Hardsetting Luvisol soil . Nairobi: Univeristy of Nairobi; 2004.
Gitau, A.N., Ayub, Njoroge; Gumbe P(S)LO. Mechanical behaviour of a hardsetting luvisol soil Gitau, Ayub, Njoroge; Gumbe, L.O Prof. (Supervisor) .; 2004. Abstract

The study applies critical state soil mechanics to model the mechanical behavior of luvisol soils. Field work involved sampling and soil physical characterization to obtain undisturbed and disturbed specimens

Okemwa MP. Patterns of injuries in road traffic accident fatalities seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2004. Abstract

Few people can be ignorant of or unmoved b~ the enormous increase in the mortality and the
morbidity caused by trauma caused by RTAs. The number of road traffic accidents has
increased in recent years to pandemic proportions. The health, medical and legal problems
posed affect all branches of surgery and medicine and fatal results are particularly relevant to
the pathologist.
In Kenya, it is estimated that over 13,000 accidents occur annually, killing 2,600 people and
seriously injuring another 11,000. In terms of economic losses up to 14 billion shillings are
lost annually not withstanding the human and emotional suffering (32).
This study was carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital. It was a descriptive cross
sectional study that attempted to document the patterns of injuries, determine the cause of
death, correlate the fatalities as seen in pedestrians, drivers and passengers, determine the
proportion of those who die on the spot and those that die while undergoing treatment; and
determine injury severity scores.
One hundred (100) autopsies were performed after obtaining an informed consent over a
period of 25 weeks.
The study involved 81 males and 19 females with an age range of 4-80 years and a median
age of33.5 years. 45% arrived at casualty dead while 55% were admitted for a period
ranging between 1-730 days with a mean of 14 days.
Vulnerable groups were Pedestrians 62%, passengers 24%, drivers 9%, cyclists 4% and one
case was not specified.
Head injuries were commonest accounting for 76%, followed by chest injuries 70%,
abdominal injuries 60%, lower limb injuries 57%, upper limb injuries 35%, neck injuries
29% and pelvic injuries 16%.
The commonest cause of mortality was head injury 57%, followed by chest injury 33%,
abdominal injuries 17%, other secondary injuries 8% and lower limb injuries was least
accounting for 5%.
Majority 48% had a severe injury severity score (ISS) ranging 50-75, 44% had moderate
score of between 25-49 and 8% mild scores of up to 24.

Lore T. Studies on the microflora in suusac, a Kenyan traditional fermented camel milk product. K. MS, J. W, eds. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine the lactic acid bacteria (LAB)and yeasts
associated with the traditional fermented camel milk product (suusac) of the Somali
community in Kenya. The traditional method of suusac production was studied by use
of questionnaire and documented. The microbial content profile and changes during
fermentation were then determined.
From 15 samples of traditionally fermented suusac, 45 LABand 30 yeast strains were
isolated ~d identified using API 50 CHL and API 20C AUXidentification systems,
respectively. The total viable microorganisms, LAB,coliforms, and yeasts and molds
were enumerated. The isolates were investigated for their functional roles in the
fermentation process, namely, acidification, flavour/aroma production and proteolytic
activity. Fermentation trials with single and mixed strain cultures were investigated to
assess their acidification and flavour-producing properties.
The traditional production of suusac involves spontaneous fermentation of camel milk
in smoked gourds at ambient temperature for 1-2 days. The milk is not subjected to
heat treatment prior to fermentation. The isolated LAB species were identified as
Lactobacillus curvatus (8% of total isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (16%), Lactobacillus
soliuarius (8%), Lactococcus raffinolactis (4%) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp.
mesenteroides (24%). The isolated yeasts were Candida krusei (20%), Geotrichum
penicillatum (12%) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (8%). In traditional suusac, LAB
counts averaged 6.77 logrocfu Zml, while yeast counts were relatively lower (2.05
log.ocfuZml]. Low coliform numbers were encountered « 1 log cfu /rnl].
The LAB produced considerable acidity and majority (60%) were homofermentative.
The primary functional role of the LAB was fermentation of lactose to lactic acid,
resulting in acidity levels ranging from 0.46-0.67% lactic acid equivalent. All the LAB
isolates recorded high proteolytic activity, except for L. raffinolactis, which did not
exhibit any proteolytic activity. The LAB showed varying degrees of diacetyl
production. Of the LAB, L. curvatus recorded the highest diacetyl flavour score,
corresponding to >30 mg diacetyl/ 100 ml of milk.
The yeast isolates showed limited carbohydrate-assimilating capabilities, but played a
role in flavour development and proteolysis. G. penicillatum produced diacetyl (3.1-10
mg/lOO ml), although it did not exhibit any proteolytic activity. C. krusei exhibited
some proteolytic activity, although its diacetyl-producing capacity in camel milk was
minimal (0.5-3 mg/ 100 ml).
C. krusei also played a role in mixed starter fermentation of camel milk by increasing
the activity of the LAB cultures and improving product flavour. The use of C. krusei +
1. plantarum (1: 1) and C. krusei + L. curvatus (1: 1) reduced the fermentation time by
half as compared to the use of the cultures individually.

Kiarie GW. A Study To Determine The Prevalence Of Familial Clustering Of Cancer In Two Tertiary Care Hospitals In Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract

Familial clustering of cancer has been documented in the Western World. Familial
cancer syndromes have been described..' Genetic testing has demonstrated family
member positive for certain genes are at risk of these familial cancers.
No studies have been done in Africa to look into this and familial clustering is still
anecdotal. Evidence of familial clustering of cancer will lead to identification of
susceptibility genes in our setup, counseling affected individuals and instituting targeted
surveillance for early diagnosis and prophylaxis. Early diagnosis of cancer saves cost
and there is a reduction in mortality and morbidity .

Muyila W. Traditional African communalism and the neocomunal spirit in Africa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2004.
Chaga H. 2. ‘Dismal performance in Kiswahili at Holy Cross Secondary School’ . Nairobi: Kenyatta University ; 2003.
Syagga PM. Burnt Clay - An Alternative Pozzolana Cement For Kenyan Building Industry. .; 2003. Abstract

Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the Cly to Portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housin

Odula CA. Case records and commmentaries in Obstetrics and Gynaecology.; 2003. Abstract

Objective of the Study: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of Osteoporosis and osteopenia in three different racial groups of women over 40 years of age, attending the Aga Khan Hospital Nairobi outpatient clinics.
Methodology: This was a cross sectional clinical study involving a sample of 170 outpatient clinic attendants. Measurements of BMD were done using 10 QCT bone densitometry in the radiology department. This was complemented by a self-administered questionnaire to capture the associated variables.
Result: The quantitative analysis in the comparative results of Bone Mineral Densitometry among the three study groups indicated a significant difference in the levels of Bone Mineral Density, osteoporosis and osteopenia. Based on three levels of measurement of Low, Medium and high the study confirmed that the mean values of the measurements of osteoporosis and osteopenia amongst the African woman were found to be the lowest, followed by the Asian woman and highest amongst the Caucasians. These findings influenced the mean values of the BMD in the sample, which were found to be highest amongst the African, followed by the Asian and Lowest in the Caucasian woman.
TIle findings indicate that the BMD in the African woman seemed to be better despite the presence of the known influencing factors. The critica I varia bles that influence BMD studied included; parity, nutrition and dietary habits, physical activity, use of alcohol or tobacco. Other variables observed and documented in the study included the commonest menopausal signs and symptoms.
Conclusion: This study brings a significant difference amongst the three racial groups studied. There exists variations in the known factors influencing bone density in women and this observation needs further in-depth research.

MANDE JOHNDEMESI. Clinical and Pathological features of Osteoarthritis of the Hip Joints in German Shepherd Dogs in Kenya”. MBITHI PETERFELIXMULWA, ed. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2003.
Sheikh MA. Colostomy closure as seen at kenyatta national hospital both retrospective and prospective study.; 2003. Abstract

This is both a prospective study of thirty patients from March 2002 to February 2003 and a
retrospective study of eighty-five patients from January 1999 to February 2002 who underwent colostomy closure at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There was no significant difference in the
results of the two groups.
The main objective of the study was to analyse variables that determine outcome of colostomy
closure. All patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study.
The average age of patients in the prospective group was 34 (range, 15-85) years and 35 (range
16-87) years in the retrospective group. There were more males than females in the study with a
male to female ratio of 5:1 and 4.3:1 in the prospective and retrospective groups respectively.
The common indications for colostomy were colon injury and colon obstruction accounting for
more than eighty five percent (85%) of the patients.
Hartman's colostomy was the commonest type of colostomy fashioned accounting for fifty
percent (50%) and 44.7% of the colostomies in the prospective and retrospective studies
'respectively. Seventy percent (70%) of the colostomies in the prospective group and 58.8% of
those in the retrospective group were sited at the sigmoid colon. Mean time until colostomy
closure was 7.6 (range, 0.82 to 91) months in the prospective group and 5.3 (range, 0.79 to 29) ,
months in the retrospective group.
All the patients had mechanical bowel preparation. Seventy three percent (73%) in the
prospective group and 63.3% in the retrospective group had prophylactic systemic antibiotics.
All the patients had intraperitoneal closure of the colostomy. About ninety percent (90%) of the
patients in the study had two-layer anastomosis of the colon. About sixty percent (60%) of the
patients in the study had their colostomies closed in less than two hours. The average hospital
stay for patients in the prospective group was 7.1 (range, 2 to 18) days and 9.8 (range, 4 to 61)
days in the retrospective group.
The rate of developing early complications was 16.7% in the prospective group of which 13.4%
had wound infection and 15.3% in the retrospective group of which 11.8% had wound infection.
There was no death. There was a trend of increasing morbidity in patients who had colon
obstruction, colostomies sited at the sigmoid colon, Hartman's colostomy, operations lasting
more than two hours and those operated by Registrars.

Odada EO, Olago D, Kulindwa KAA, Bugenyi, F; West K, Ntiba M. Global International Waters Assessment East African Rift Valley Lakes, GIWA Regional assessment 47.; 2003.
Odada EO, Olago, D; Kulindwa KAA, Bugenyi, F; West K, M; Karimumuryango J. Global International Waters Assessment East African Rift Valley Lakes, GIWA Regional assessment 47.; 2003.
Odada, E. O; Olago D, Kulindwa, K. A. A; Bugenyi F, West, K; Ntiba M. Global International Waters Assessment East African Rift Valley Lakes, GIWA Regional assessment 47.; 2003.
Kimengu EK. Impact of computers in Printing Industry. Nairobi: Technical University of Kenya; 2003.
Wagacha PW. Induction of Decision Trees.; 2003.
Bosire KO. An investigation of a traditional herbal therapy used to treat malaria in Kisii.; 2003. Abstract

The plant Rhamnus prinoides L. Herit (Rhamnaceae) IS used in
traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria among other diseases
by the Kisii community. By using column chromatographic methods,
geshoidin was isolated and tentatively identified. Other isolates were also
obtained but were not identified.
Allextracts were found to have in vitro antimalarial activity. The highest
activitywas in the hexane and dichloromethane extracts with ICso values
of 19.9 /lgjml and 30.3 /lgjml,respectively. None of the extracts showed
toxicityin the brine shrimp test.
This study provides scientific basis for the use of the plant part in the
treatment ofmalaria by the herbalist in Kisii

Oburu E. Non Metabolic Causes Of Pathological Fractures In Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2003. Abstract

This was a prospective study over a period of 10 months from the month of April 2002 to
January 2003. The purpose of the study was to determine the pattern of non metabolic
causes of pathological fractures in Kenyatta National Hospital. The study assessed the
causes, sites, presentation and management of non metabolic causes of pathological
fractures at the hospital.
Methodology: Patients with non metabolic causes of pathological fractures admitted to
the orthopaedic wards were recruited into the study. Demographic data, data on the cause
of the fracture, site of the fracture, presentation and management of the patient was
collected. This data was analysed and presented in tables, charts and graphs.
Results: Thirty eight patients with 53 fractures were recruited into the study. The age
range was between 1 to 74 years with a peak age in the sixth decade, the male to female
ratio was 1:1. The prevalence of non metabolic pathological fractures among patients
with fractures was 2.62%. Te most common causes of these fractures were malignant
causes which formed 47% of the fractures followed by infection with 31% of the
fractures. Osteomyelitis formed 100% of all the peadiatric pathological fractures. The
lower limb was the most common site of pathological fractures in which 47% of these
fractures were located followed by the spine with 43%. Patients with spinal fractures
presented with two main complaints, that of back pain and difficulty in walking. Trivial
trauma was the most common complaint of patients with appendicular skeleton fractures,
found in 45% of these patients. The management of these fractures was mainly
Conclusions: While there are some differences in the causes of these fractures from what
is documented in literature, the sites and presentations concur. The most common cause
of non metabolic pathological fractures was malignancy and osteomyelitis was
established as the most common cause of pathological fracture in children.
Recommendations: Studies should be carried out to assess the management outcomes of
the individual causes of pathological fractures especially those due to malignancy and
osteomyelitis. Another study should also be carried out on all the causes of pathological
fractures including metabolic bone disease in order to establish the complete picture of
these fractures.

Hussein A. Oral health status among children with and without cleft lip and palate seen in Nairobi, Kenya.; 2003. Abstract

Clefts of the lip and palate (CLP) are amongst the commonest craniofacial anomalies
encountered by clinicians. Compared to many other anomalies, CLP is easily diagnosed
and described. Due to this, it has been one of the most intensively studied congenital
malformation worldwide. Anomalies of the face give rise to considerable morbidity
which is psychologically traumatic to the parents. Thus the need to study the oral health
status of children with cleft lip/palate (CLP) in a section of a Kenyan population.
Type of study: A descriptive comparative cross-sectional study.
Methods: A total of 89 children were clinically examined, 49 formed the study group
(children with clefts) and 40 were the control group (children without clefts) ; age range,
2 to 15 years. Factors such as plaque, gingivitis, caries, missing teeth and stage of the
dentition were recorded.
Setting: Nairobi, Kenya.
Results: Out of the 49 children in the study group, 55% had CLP and 33% had CLA
while 6%had isolated CL. The prevalence of plaque was 96.27% in the 'study group while
among the control group this was lower at 89.5% (p<0.05). This was reflected by the
significant difference observed in the frequency of tooth brushing (x211.564 l df
p=O.OOI). Children with clefts had a significantly increased number of units with
gingivitis ranging from 79.2% for tooth 16 (p=0.04) to 51.6% for tooth 52 (p =0.264),
although not statistically significant in the latter.
The prevalence of caries in the study group was 11.8% (95% CI; 9.8%-13.8%) and the
control group was 8% (95% CI; 6.2%-9.8%). This difference was significant (p<0.05).
These children also showed an increased number of carious teeth in the posterior
segments ranging from 16.7% for tooth 16 (p>O.05) to 41.2% for tooth 46 (p>O.05),
while in the deciduous dentition it ranged from 22.6% for tooth 61 (p>O.05) to 36.7% for
tooth75 ( p>O.05)and was not significant. The children with clefts also showed generally
delayed eruption in both the permanent and the deciduous dentitions. This was significant
for the lateral incisors in the deciduous dentition (pO.05).
Conclusions: Children with clefts had generally poor oral hygiene and gingival health
with an increased number of carious teeth compared to children without clefts. These
children should be considered to have an increased risk of developing dental diseases and
therefore,will require stringent oral hygiene instructions and regular reviews by dental
professionals. Their treatment should involve preventive and curative services in order to
maintain healthy primary and permanent dentitions.

Obosi JO. The provincial administration and the Democratisation of development process In kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstractmath.pdfma_thesis.pdf

This study is an attempt to investigate the emergence of the new actors such as Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and (Peoples Organizations) POs in the development space and their impact on the developmental role of the Provincial Administration in Kenya. The following objectives were formulated: First, to investigate the nature of the relationship between the civil society (NGOs and POs) as new actors in the development process, and the Provincial Administration (PA). Second, to examine the current development tasks of the Provincial Administration. Thirdly, to examine the impact of the democratization of the development process on PA with specific reference to the development activities of a given locality, and fourth, to investigate the impact of the emergence of the new actors (NGOs and POs) in the development space on popular participation.
This was done within the theoretical framework of development theories including statism and public or political choice. The study did not however lose sight of the fact that development still attracts both academic and policy debates that definitely have a bearing on the formulation of both development theory and/or policy in the light of the shifting world development thinking.

The study used both secondary data, and primary data obtained from surveys conducted in Nyamira, Nairobi and Migori districts in Kenya. The sample survey comprised a total of seventy-two respondents from all the three districts. The secondary data was analysed by use of content analysis. The survey data was coded and analyzed through cross tabulations of the frequencies and the results presented in table statistics form.

The main findings of the study were as follows: First, the increased democratization of the development process has called for a greater role for the Provincial Administration in development activities, especially in areas of security, advisory and mobilization of the local public. Secondly, it was found that an enhanced level of co-ordination of various project activities in the locality, liaison with other governmental agencies on behalf of local POs and NGOs are some of the new roles of the Provincial Administration. This is besides the traditional routine law and order roles of provision of security and mobilization of local population. Thirdly, the level of involvement of Provincial Administration is directly proportional to the level of popular participation in the development activities. Finally, the study found out that the level of involvement of civil society in the development activities is directly proportional to the level of popular participation in the development process provided the necessary level of party affiliation and involvement of Provincial Administration is sustained.

Finally, the study has recommended further research on the policy implementation consequences of liberalization of security arrangements and the role to be played by the Provincial Administration, and the need to investigate the impact of significant rise in the number of political parties on popular participation. The study recommended to the policy makers, especially government to consider: the training and retraining of Provincial Administrators to attain the required standards of professionalism; initiate and support policies to make development a shared responsibility of the PA and POs as the key players at the local level, and finally to formulate development policies tailored to different areas reflecting the socio-economic structural forms, wishes and needs of all the local stakeholders.

zipporah Onsomu. The Relationship between the Capital structure and the value of the firm. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003.
Mbuya TO. studies on the microstructure and mechanical properties of recycled cast aluminium scrap .; 2003. Abstract

The aluminium casting industry in Kenya is strongly dependent on aluminium scrap recycling. There is, however, little organised information on appropriate recycling procedures and the expected chemical composition of the resulting secondary alloys. Furthermore. little is also , known on the expected mechanical properties of castings produced from the secondary alloys . under different processing conditions. Consequently, the quality of locally produced castings is poor compared to their imported counterparts as most Kenyan foundries rely on chance to make good castings. The main objectives of this preliminary study were: (a) to determine the chemical composition of the secondary alloys obtained from recycling various cast aluminium scrap components available in Kenya; and (b) to determine the microstructure, tensile strength. percent elongation and hardness obtainable from these alloys using both green sand and permanent mould casting processes and under different process conditions. The process parameters for both green sand and permanent mould casting processes, whose influence on the said properties was investigated . are: the type of mould filling system, melt handling and pouring temperature. The influence of the thickness and initial temperature of permanent moulds on these properties was also investigated. It was found in this study that the common types of scrap components available in Kenya are automotive engine parts. Most of these components were found to be pistons, cylinder heads, gearbox housings and to a lesser extent, rear axle housings. Pistons and cylinder heads were classified as individual groups while gearbox and rear axle housings were grouped together. The rest of the scrap items, most of which could not be identified, were lumped together to form another separate group. Samples were randomly picked from these scrap groups and • individually remelted to obtain secondary alloys. Other secondary alloys were also prepared by • blending the above scrap groups in predetermined proportions. • The resulting secondary alloys from these groups of scrap •c9mponents were all hypoeutectic aluminium-silicon-copper (AI-Si-Cu) based alloys. The samples in similar scrap groups were v \. < fairly equivalent in chemical composition although some minor variations were observed. Some samples from different groups were also found to be fairly equivalent In their chemical composition. Furthermore, all the samples were also fairly equivalent. In their chemical composition, to several common commercial hypoeutectic AI-Si-Cu based alloys. Permanent mould casting resulted in castings with higher tensile strength, percent elongation and hardness compared to green sand casting in all scrap samples tested. Both quiescent melt handling and quiescent bottom filled mould systems yielded castings with higher aforementioned properties than turbulent melt handling and turbulent top filled mould systems . . respectively. In addition, these mechanical properties were found to decrease with increasing pouring temperature and mould preheat. Increasing the mould thickness was, however, found to increase these mechanical properties. Heat treatment of some of the alloys to the T6 condition increased their tensile strength and hardness, but decreased their percent elongation. The microstructure of all the recycled alloys was typically similar and contained cc-aluminium matrix, eutectic silicon particles, iron-bearing and copper-bearing intermetallics. The tensile strength and percent elongation of the recycled alloys did not correlate well with those of their respective commercial counterparts. This was particularly so with top filled green sand castings. The mechanical properties of bottom filled samples were. however. closer to those of their commercial counterparts albeit falling on the lower end in the range of reported . mechanical properties of their respective equivalent commercial alloys. The hardness values of the samples, however, correlated well with those of their commercial counterparts. It is inferred from the results of this study that using the type of scrap component as the sorting criterion is of limited usefulness because some samples cast from different scrap components were fairly equivalent in their chemical composition. Furthermore. some scrap items are either too few to recycle separately and/or difficult to identify. However, in the absence of appropriate facilities to determine the alloy chemistry on-line and make appropriate melt corrections. this sorting criterion together with the chemical compositions of the samples studied in this study can be a useful guide. Also inferred is that blending scrap samples is not useful because no . definite trend in the chemical composition was observed with blending. Finally the processing conditions strongly influenced the mechanical properties of the samples . . It is therefore important to choose the right casting process and to closely control the mould design, molten metal processing and other process parameters like pouring temperature and initial mould temperatures in permanent mould casting. In particular. permanent mould casting should be preferred to green sand casting if maximising mechanical properties is the major factor for process selection. In addition, mould filling systems should be skilfully designed to quiescently introduce molten metal into the mould cavity preferably via bottom filling. The pouring temperature should also be as low as possible.

E. T. Enhancing Web Information Search Using Meta-Searching and Web Automatons. Brussels: VUB; 2002. Abstract

The Web has emerged as a crucial information propagation medium in the information
age. As a consequence, availability of information on the Web has exploded. Equipping
consumers with better Web search tools is therefore becoming a matter of priority for
Web researchers.

Standard Web search engines have remained popular and, indeed, are very essential tools
for Web users to search for useful information. However, users often are faced with the
limitations of these search engines. These limitations include presence of obsolete data in
their databases, limited coverage of the WWW, vulnerability to keyword spamming and
inaccurate ranking of search results.

This study is founded on an attempt to demonstrate alternative approach to Web
searching, which can improve upon traditional approaches to Web searching. A tool was
developed, which combine meta-searching and use of Web automatons to process user
queries and produce higher quality results than individual regular search engines.

Wasamba P. Gender Perspectives in the Creative Works of Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye.. Chesaina PC, Wendo DS, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.abstract.pdf
Oyamo GO. Identification by saturation mutagenesis of a single residue involved in the a-galactosidase agab regioselectivity.; 2002. Abstract

a-Galactosidase AgaB from Bacillus stearothermophilus displays a major a(1~6) and a minor a(1~3) regioselectivity in hydrolysis and transglycosylation. Its corresponding gene, agaB, was subjected to saturation mutagenesis at codon 442 in order to change its regioselectivity. The mutant genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using pBTac2 as vector. The regioselective activity of the mutants was determined using thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A single point mutation, G442R, resulted in a mutant displaying an a(1~2) regioselectivity. Other amino acid substitutions at this site also gave mutants with altered regioselectivity and transglycosylation profiles. This is the first demonstration that single point mutations can lead to a strong modification of the regioselectivity of a glycosyl hydrolase. The kinetic parameters of the enzyme variants were determined and a preliminary investigation of possible substrates for condensation reactions conducted.

Osawa F. Management outcome of adult urinary fistulae at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) (1994 -1998).; 2002. Abstract

The study was carried out between January 1994 and December 1998. This was a retrospective
study in which data was retrieved from the patient's files at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) medical records department. The results were analyzed and various indices established. Ninety
patients were considered. Females were more than males with a ratios M:F 1:2 Seventy
percent of the fistulae involved the bladder. Most of the patients (54.44%) were from a low
socioeconomic set up and were referrals from rural centres in Kenya.
The commonest mode of clinical presentation was leakage of urine in 80% of the patients and
diagnosis was mainly clinical (74.44%). Obstetric fistulae were 53.33% and therefore were the
majority. Surgery was the preferred option of treatment. Only 12.2% of the patients were
managed conservatively.
The outcome of treatment was found to be significantly influenced by urmary or faecal
diversion and the duration of urethral cartheterization. However the aetiology of the fistulae
and the interval between injury time and treatment did not influence the outcome.

Boniface N. Mathematics Homework Practices in Kenya Secondary Schools.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
Omuto CT. Rapid Mapping of Hydraulic Conductivity in a Tropical Watershed . NaIROBI: Univeristy of Nairobi; 2002.
Jaoko W. Studies on the immunoepidemiology of bancroftian filariasis in East Africa.; 2002. Abstract

This study assessed the effect of transmission intensity on the patterns of
infection, disease and specific antibody response in bancroftian filariasis, by
comparing observed patterns of infection, disease and specific 19G1, 19G2, 19G3,
19G4and 19E profiles in two communities with high and low Wuchereria bancrofti
endemicity. The communities were Masaika in Tanga Region, Tanzania, which
was highly endemic for bancroftian filariasis, and Kingwede in Kwale District of
Kenya, which had low endemicity. Detailed analyses of specific antibody
responses were carried out in relation to infection and clinical status, age and
gender. An additional smaller part of the study investigated if seasonal variation in
transmission intensity influenced the stability of infection and specific antibody
The larger part of the study was cross-sectional and included all consenting
individuals aged 12 months and over. From each individual, demographic
information and medical history was obtained, followed by clinical examination and
blood sampling. Finger-prick samples were examined for microfilarie (mf) by
counting chamber method, and venous samples were analysed for circulating filarial
antigen (CFA) by the Trop Bio commercial kit for detecting W. bancrofti circulating
antigen in serum, and for filaria-specific antibodies (1gGl, 19G2, 19G3, 19G4 and
19E) using ELISA technique. Mean intensities of mf, CFA and filaria-specific
antibodies were all calculatedas geometric means.
Overall, mf and CFA prevalence and mean intensities were significantly higher
in Masaika than in Kingwede.In Masaika but not in Kingwede, mf and CFA mean
intensities were significantlyhigher in males than in females. This was mainly due
to gender differences in the 15-39 year age group. In both communities, infection
prevalence was higher, although not significantly, in children of infected parents
than in children of non-infectedparents.
Chronic filarial disease manifestations (hydrocele and elephantiasis) among
adults were more prevalent and presented earlier in Masaika than in Kingwede.
The proportion of individuals reporting having experienced acute
adenolymphangitis attacks during the one-year period preceding the survey was
also significantly higher in Masaika than in Kingwede, and was higher in adults
than in children, although this difference was statistically significant only in
Overall, prevalence and mean intensities of 19G1, 19G2, 19G4 and 19E were
significantly higher in Masaika than in Kingwede. The opposite pattern was seen
for 19G3.
Antibody profiles were analysed in relation to clinical and infection status of the
individuals in Masaika, but not in Kingwede where individuals with chronic disease
were too few for such analysis. The profiles were similar in asymptomatic and
chronic disease individuals. There was a highly significant association between
antibody profiles of all the measured antibodies and infection status. 19G1 and 19G2
were more associated with mf status than with CFA status and 19G3 and 19G4 were
more associated with CFA status than with mf status, while 19E was associated with

both mf and CFA status. These associations were not significantly influenced by
clinical status.
Due to few chronic filarial disease cases in Kingwede, inter-community antibody
profile comparison was restricted to asymptomatic individuals. In Masaika, IgG1
prevalence and intensity were significantly higher among mf negative individuals
than among mf positive individuals. The opposite pattern was seen in Kingwede
where both IgGI parameters were highest among the mf and CFA positive and
lowest among the mf and CFA negative. In Masaika, IgG3 profiles were associated
with both mf and CFA, while in Kingwede they were more associated with mf than
CFA. Furthermore, although in Masaika IgG2 and IgE were significantly associated
with mf status, in Kingwede their profiles were uniform in all infection groups. Only
IgG4 profiles were similar in the two communities, being highest among CFA
positive individuals and lowest among CFA negative individuals.
Age-specific antibody intensity patterns for IgGI, IgG4 and IgE were similar in
both communities. IgG1 and IgE decreased with age while IgG4 increased with age.
IgG2 and IgG3 profiles differed between the communities. IgG2 intensity decreased
with age in Masaika, but increased with age in Kingwede. IgG3 intensity remained
uniformlylow with age in Masaika but increased with age in Kingwede.
Despite clear gender differences in mf and CFA intensities in Masaika in the
female reproductive age group, there were no clear gender differences in antibody
intensities in this age group. IgG3 intensities were in general significantly higher
among mf or CFA positive females than among their male counterparts. The
oppositewas seen for IgG4 intensities.
Overall, mean IgG4/IgE ratio was significantly higher in Masaika than in
Kingwede. In Masaika, the ratios were higher among the chronic diseased than the
asymptomatic individuals in each infection group. These findings contrast what is
expected if this ratio indicates infection resistance level and if IgE mediates chronic
filarial disease pathogenesis, as has been suggested.
These results suggest that transmission intensity influences levels and patterns of
infection, disease and specific antibodies, and the association between infection
intensity and gender, and that antibody responses are more associated with infection
status than disease status. The study further suggests that the measured specific
antibodies are not the basis for the observed gender differences in infection
intensities in the female reproductive age group.
The last part of the study was longitudinal. A selected population of 37 CFA
positive males aged 20 to 40 years participated. Blood samples from each individual
were examined for mf, CFA and specific IgGI, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgE
antibodies at the beginning of the study, and at 6 and 12 months later. The time
points corresponded to high, low and high transmission seasons, respectively.
Transmission intensity during the study year was assessed entomologically by
catching, dissecting and examining mosquito vectors for infective larvae.

W. bancrofti transmission was found to be seasonal, with highest intensities
during the rainy season and lowest during the dry season in concert with mosquito
vectors abundance. Despite the marked seasonal variation in transmission potential,
no statistically significant variation was observed in the mf, CFA, measured filariaspecific
antibody levels or IgG4/IgE ratios, suggesting that seasonal transmission
may not result in seasonal fluctuations in the levels of infection, measured immune
responses or resistance to infection.

Oduor JAN. A Study of Syllable Weight and its Effects on Dholuo Phonology. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
B.W.K W.  Effects of herbicides and Kikuyu grass on yield and yield quality of pyrethrum. . Ariga ES, P.O A, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
MUTUKU AK. Analysis of birth intervals in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2001.
and Oranga, J.O. AKGAMW. A Comparative Analysis of Political Journalism and Humour Journalism: the Case of Philip Ochieng' and Wahome Mutahi. Odhiambo LO, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2001.
Nyabul PO. Critique of Aristotle's Conception of Eudaimonia. Nyasani PJ, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2001.
Ndetei DM. Drug abuse in Kenya: Information, needs, resources and analysis (INRA) project for Kenya.; 2001. Abstract

This is a report of Information, Needs and Resources Analysis, (fNRA) survey carried
out in Kenya in July 200 1. The survey team comprised a Professor of Psychiatry, David
Ndetei from the Nairobi Psychotherapy Services and Institute (NPSI), Dr. Donald A.
Kokonya, Francisca A. Ongecha, Mr. Leonidas Msafiri and Mr. Abel Ndumbu and Ms.
Victoria Mutiso. The UNDep team comprised Dr. Rebecca McKetin and Mr. Mathew
Warner-Smith who provided facilitative support. This survey sought to establish
Kenya's capacity for collecting information on drug abuse. INRA is primarily focussed
on assessment of existing information and sources on drug abuse and the identification
of key needs. It is also expected to propose a development strategy for establishing an
integrated drug information system for monitoring drug abuse trends and associated
problems in Kenya. The purpose of such a drug information system is to provide a
database which can be used to formulate policy and institute intervention programmes
on drug abuse. The information contained in this report was obtained by interviewing a
cross-section of leaders of a number of relevant institutions in Government, the Private
and NGO sectors as well as individual persons - all of whom are stakeholders in matters
of drug abuse. The survey covered Nairobi and its environs only and aimed at providing
a starting point for similar work throughout the country.
The information gathered indicated that drug abuse has been the subject of study for a
number of academic theses, but operational research on the subject has been mute. The
existing information shows that the most abused drugs in Kenya are alcohol and
Cannabis sativa (bhang) which is grown in a few isolated parts of the country. But there
are reports of somewhat isolated cases of cocaine, heroin, mandrax, hallucinogens,
amphetamines and solvents. Khat (miraa) which contains a banned psychotropic
substance (cathinone) is widely consl1med among certain sections of the Kenyan
community has become a major export crop to Somalia and further afield. There have
also been cases of addiction to prescribed analgesics and sedatives. In recent years,
Kenya has become a transit 'zone' (mainly from Pakistan to the west) for traffickers as a
result of its long and porous boundaries; Nairobi being a major communication city and
with a relatively low demand for local consumption.
The survey team identified a number of existing sources of information on illicit drugs
which can make valuable contributions to an integrated drug information system. These
range from treatment data from the national and teaching hospital - Mathari Hospital to
alcohol and drug rehabilitation and detoxification centres run by NGOs and private
companies as well as advocacy agencies involved in counselling and Information,
Education and Communication (lEC) activities. The Central Bureau of Statistics would
be the source of information on drug abuse in its household survey. The Central Bureau
of Statistics is, upon request by NACADA, planning for a national baseline survey to
establish drug abuse prevalence in Kenya. A household survey will follow thereafter.
As elsewhere existing sources of data need to be supplemented with specialized drug
abuse surveys in order to obtain a more comprehensive and reliable assessment of the
situation particularly as regards the abuse of drugs in educational institutions.
Kenya has a very strong manpower base as regards research and studies on drug abuse
information systems. Administratively, Kenya has created a central agency responsible
for coordination of activities on drug abuse - NACADA, the National Agency for the
Campaign Against Drug Abuse. A steering committee for a network on drug abuse has
already been established and is working towards the formation of the network which
will playa supportive role to NACADA.

Extraction of vernonia oil from vernonia galamensis seeds and its aminolysis to vernolamides.; 2001. Abstract

Vernonia galamensis grows as a common weed and is widely distributed in Africa,
and its center of diversity is found in East Africa. The dry seeds of Vernonia galamensis
contains a naturally epoxidized oil that is rich in trivernolin, which constitutes about 80% of
the seeds oil. The vernonia oil has a unique structure that makes it attractive for the
preparation of novel and useful products.
This study reports on the extraction of vernonia oil and its conversion to vernolamides
with higher added value. The oil was extracted from the seeds of Vernonia galamensis ssp.
nairobensis using soxhlet extraction. About 31.6% of crude oil was obtained which after
refining gave about 25.2% of oil. The oil was then reacted with 1,6-diaminohexane, 1,8-
diaminooctane, 2-aminopyridine, 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine and 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine to
give the corresponding vernolamides under two varied conditions, temperature (25,70 and
80°C) and solvents (neat, chloroform, dichloromethane and dimethylformamide). In all
reactions a mole ratio of vernonia oil to amine (1 :3) was used at the reaction time of 12 h.
In all cases, highest yields of the vernolamides (4l.2-72.3%) were obtained at 70°C in
chloroform, while the lowest yields (21-53.3%) were recorded at 80°C. The reactions at 25°C
gave reasonably high yields (17-62.8%), thus aminolysis proceeds even at room temperature.
Aminolysis carried under neat conditions also gave relatively high yields (41-64.2%).
The vernolamides were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), infrared (IR),
electron impact mass spe~ctroscopy (ElMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
spectroscopic techniques.
The antimicrobial activities of the products were investigated at concentrations of
100)..lg, 50)..lg and 25)..lg by the disc diffusion method. The vernolamides exhibited only
antibacterial activity and was greater against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) than in gramIX
negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. There was no antifungal activity shown on all the fungi
that were investigated.


The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed geology, the geochemistry and the mineralogy associated with the mafic and the ultramafic intrusives of the Mozambique Belt, eastern Kenya. To achieve this, a detailed geological mapping and sampling of the intrusives was done followed by laboratory analysis. The significance of the study was to highlight the nature, relative age and genesis of the intrusives and the potential for economic mineralization.

This study has revealed that the intrusive rocks and the regional foliation trends are inter-related suggesting that the intrusives developed in vertical structures during regional metamorphism. The elongated shapes of the bodies and their alignment with the enclosing regional structural grain of the gneisses suggest compressional deformation during the regional Mozambique Belt Orogeny. This is considered as evidence for at least a synorogenic emplacement of these intrusive rock bodies.
The mafic and the ultramafic rocks represent a range of differentiated rocks from fairly primitive magma (Mg-number = 79) to highly fractionated magma (Mg-number = 36). However, the fact that the rocks are intrusive brings out the possibility that none of them may represent parental magma composition. The magmas have undergone modification by crystal fractionation processes either in high-level magma chambers or during ascent from their mantle source regions. The gradual composition change in the feldspars, olivine and the pyroxenes is from high- to low-temperature members of their respective solid-solution series. This outlines the crystallization sequence.

The whole rock chemical analysis shows that rocks rich in magnesium oxide are also rich in chromium and nickel and those rich in potassium oxide are also rich in rubidium and barium in conformity with the rules of partitioning. This implies that they originated from one parent magma. The rocks show iron enrichment trend and have high nickel and low aluminium oxide contents. This chemical evidence supports a tholeiitic magma affinity for the intrusive rocks.
An attempt is made to construct the mineralogy of the gabbros based on the mineral chemistry. This has revealed that they are composed of magnesium-rich olivine (chrysolite) with approximately 80% forsterite. The pyroxene is both magnesium and calcium rich and has an enstatite molecular percentage of about 18%. It is an orthopyroxene (bronzite) in the enstatite-ferrosilite solid-solution series. The plagioclase feldspars show a range of composition from about 90-20% anorthite. This
range shows that the magma crystallized slowly. Crystallization over a wide temperature has resulted in the formation of alkali feldspars and other minor constituents.

Economically, the area has the potential for base metals. Chromium and nickel are present in concentrations higher than that found in average igneous rocks. Further geophysical work is recommended to reveal some more information in terms of the possibilities of economic deposits in this project area. Some of the pegmatite, particularly those near Muthanthara contains small needles of beryl. The beryl is blue green in colour but not of gem quality.

Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.
Karanja F, Ogallo LJ, Mutua FM, Oludhe C, Kisia SM. Kenya country case study: Impacts and responses to the 1997-98 El Nino event.; 2001.

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