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Odhiambo DO. Audience Reception of Communication Messages in Promoting Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: A Study of the Luo Community in Western Kenya. Nairobi: Moi University; 2014. Abstractphd_thesis__audience_reception_of_communication_messages_in_promoting_male_circumcision_for_hiv_prevention.pdf

Despite the promising role of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) in HIV prevention, its promotion as a prevention strategy remains a challenge and a persistent barrier to meeting the national target of circumcising 860,000 men in Nyanza by 2015. Part of this failure is attributed to the initial rejection of VMMC by the Luo council of Elders, largely due to the myths and misperceptions of VMMC, and the resultant negative cultural connotations. By helping to change retrogressive norms and cultural values, VMMC communication is strategic in legitimizing MC as a necessary strategy in the fight against HIV/AIDS. This is achieved by creating a climate in which talk about sex and HIV transmission is considered acceptable, valuable and proper rather than shameful, unacceptable and against the social norms. Successful uptake of VMMC in this community therefore necessitates a renegotiation of meaning of VMMC for health purposes. This study sought to analyze the audience reception of the communication strategies used in scaling-up VMMC uptake among the Luo community. Specifically, the study aimed to determine how communication strategies used in promoting VMMC have influenced the decision making processes regarding its adoption as a HIV prevention strategy. A mixture of probability and non-probability sampling procedures were applied to identify 800 men and women aged 15- 60 years, who participated in the study. A mixed approach involving a questionnaire survey, in-depth Key informant interviews and focus group discussions was then used to generate data. Statistical analysis was conducted to draw conclusions from quantitative data, while Qualitative data was analyzed through coding and identification of emerging themes. Findings suggest that mass media channels were initially used to communicate prescriptive messages with minimal attempts to raise critical consciousness to stimulate VMMC uptake among targeted audiences. However, these messages were found to have some influence on decisions to undergo VMMC among the younger age groups (18-25 years). Messages that were narrowly framed to exclude other health benefits of VMMC contributed in the low rate of uptake and low acceptability of VMMC among older men. Based on the findings, it is recommended that VMMC services be integrated in other health interventions besides HIV prevention to promote benefits for men and women. There is also a need to review the VMMC communication strategy to include use of participatory communication in which opinion leaders, peer educators, and role models play a central role in capturing positive narratives that promote VMMC.

Onyango OP, Karuri GP, Njuguna KD, DEMESI MANDEJOHN. Etiology and predisposing factors of diseases of domestic rabbits from selected areas in kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.

Efficiency of SACCOs is affected by various characteristics such as size, age, bond of association, adoption of technology and managerial competency. The relationship can be influenced by appropriate moderating and intervening variables. This study therefore sought to establish how members’ income and conduct of SACCOs affects the relationship between characteristics and efficiency of SACCOs in Kenya. The specific objectives were to determine the relationship between SACCO characteristics and efficiency; establish the moderating influence of the income of members in the relationship between characteristics and efficiency; and determine the intervening influence of conduct in the relationship between characteristics and efficiency. The study targeted all SACCOs that are regulated by SASRA for the period 2009 - 2013. DEA was used to compute efficiency with inputs being member deposits and borrowings; interest/dividend on member deposits and cost of borrowings; staff costs; and other operating expenses (such as rent payable, communication costs, office consumables). Outputs were loans to members and other earning assets (such as interest yielding bank deposits, treasury bills and bonds; investment in rental property; and shares); interest income; and other income (includes interest from bank deposits, treasury bills and bonds; rent from investment property; dividends from shares; money transfer and withdrawal charges). Multiple regression analysis between efficiency, characteristics and conduct was carried out. The study findings were that characteristics (specifically size and age) have a significant positive effect on efficiency of SACCOs and this relationship (for size only) is moderated by the income of members. Increase in size results in improved efficiency and, the older the SACCO the higher the efficiency. The higher the income of members, the stronger the relationship between size and efficiency. Efficiency was negatively related to strength of bond of association, possibly because weakening of the bond would be associated with increase in size, which contributes to increased efficiency. Adoption of technology had a negative relationship with efficiency, with a probable reason being low levels of computerisation of the SACCOs. Managerial competency was not significantly related to efficiency. This might be due to that SACCOs are not very complex entities and therefore the cost of additional competency may not yield payoffs that are greater than the extra expense. The main academic contribution of the study is the finding that income of members moderates the characteristics-efficiency relationship. This means that the results of empirical investigations of the relationship between size and efficiency are improved if the analysis is carried out separately for entities falling in different member income strata. Stratification would not improve the relationship between efficiency and age, bond of association, managerial competency and adoption of technology. Conduct of SACCO was found not to be a significant intervening variable between characteristics and efficiency. The study recommends policy interventions geared towards nurturing existing SACCOs with a view to increasing their size. This can be through setting a minimum size threshold that would necessitate existing SACCOs to merge and making it difficult for new ones to be established. Members and managers should on their own volition also pursue the increase in size strategy, through recruitment of more members or even merging with other SACCOs.

Atonya SC. Mapping Geological Structures in Western Mutomo, Kitui County: A Remote Sensing approach. Karanja FN, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.
Kitata M. Rhetorical Strategies in the Novels of Chinua Achebe. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.
Dancet EAF, Brännström M, Brasky K, Chai D, Chan AWS, Conn PM, Else J, Falconer H, Fazleabas AT, Farah IO, Goddeeris BM, Golos TG, Hau J, Hearn JP, Kariuki TM, Kyama CM, Lebovic DI, Mwenda JM, Ndung'u J, Nyachieo A, Parker J, Slayden OD, Stouffer RL, Strauss JF, Taylor HS, Vanderpoel S, Westergaard JG, Zelinski M, D'Hooghe TM. The role of scientists and clinicians in raising public support for animal research in reproductive biology and medicine.. Vol. 88.; 2013. Biol. Reprod. 88(2).
Nyachieo A, Spiessens C, Chai DC, Kiulia NM, Willemen D, Mwenda JM, Bourgain C, D'Hooghe TM. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation by vitrification in olive baboons (papio anubis): a pilot study.. Vol. 75.; 2013. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 75(3). Abstract

Ovarian tissue cryopreservation by vitrification is an attractive technique for fertility preservation in women. However, this technique has not been optimized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the baboon as a model for the preclinical study of ovarian tissue cryopreservation by vitrification and thawing.

Nyachieo A, Kiraithe MM, Spiessens C, Chai DC, Kiulia NM, D'Hooghe TM, Mwenda JM. Short-term effects of high-dose khat on sperm parameters and reproductive hormonal levels in olive baboons (Papio anubis).. Vol. 75.; 2013. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 75(2). Abstract

The biological effects of khat (Catha edulis) on reproduction and fertility are inadequately investigated and controversial, hence we determined the effects of oral administration of high-dose khat on sperm parameters and male hormonal levels in olive baboons. In this study, 6 male baboons received a high dose of khat (500 g/week) during 1 month. Electroejaculation for sperm studies (concentration, motility and chromatin integrity) and plasma collection for hormonal analysis (testosterone, prolactin and cortisol) were done weekly during 1 month before and 1 month during khat administration as well as 2 weeks after the last dose of khat administration. Administration of khat extract induced a significant reduction in sperm motility (p = 0.008), sperm count (p = 0.041), sperm chromatin integrity (p = 0.0003), testosterone levels (p = 0.035) and prolactin levels (p = 0.0115), but not in cortisol levels and sperm volume (p > 0.05). The results suggest that high-dose khat decreases sperm quality and testosterone and hence may contribute to male infertility.

Odera BO. Addition of vanadium and niobium to platinum-based alloys .; 2013. Abstract

The ternary systems, Pt-Al-V at the Pt-rich corner and Pt-Cr-V were investigated. Phase equilibria data were obtained using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. The alloys were studied in the as-cast condition, as well as after annealing at 1000°C for 1500 h. Solidification projections were constructed and liquidus surface projections derived for the two systems. Isothermal sections at 1000°C were also determined for the two systems. Two ternary phases were found in the Pt-Al-V system and one in the Pt-Cr-V system. It was concluded that all the phase regions were identified correctly since the results were self-consistent. Four invariant reactions were identified in the Pt-Cr-V system. Four Pt-Al-Cr-Ru-V and two Pt-Al-Cr-Ru-V-Nb alloys were also investigated and data obtained using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. The alloys were studied in the as-cast condition, as well as after annealing at 1000°C for 1500 h. The compositions of the alloys were based on a quaternary alloy, Pt82:Al12:Cr4:Ru2, which had been identified as one of the alloys having optimum properties in an earlier investigation. Four of the as-cast alloys had a two-phase structure of ~Pt3Al and (Pt), while two had a single phase, ~Pt3Al. Vanadium partitioned more to ~Pt3Al compared to (Pt). There was an improvement in hardness compared to the quaternary alloys which had been identified as having optimum properties. About 64% of as-cast Pt-Al-V alloys had Vickers hardnesses higher than 500 HV0.3 while ~70% of the annealed alloys had hardness higher than 500 HV0.3. More than 60% of both as-cast and annealed Pt-Cr-V alloys had hardness values higher than 600 HV0.3. There was a general increase in hardness after annealing Pt-Cr-V alloys. Hardness increased with V content in the higher order alloys, and also the annealed alloys had higher hardness compared to the as-cast ones.


Pain represents the symptom for the diagnosis of several diseases conditions and is widely accepted as one of the most important determinants of quality of life. Plants have been claimed to have analgesic effects by several communities in East Africa and a great number of the people use plants for management of painful conditions.

The aim of this study was to establish the antinociceptive activities of nine plants used in traditional medicine as a painkiller using tail flick test.

Of the nine plants tested in the tail flick test, the root extracts of Toddalia asiatica, Senna singueana and Rhus natalensis showed significant antinociceptive effects at dose 200 mg / kg while T. asiatica at 100 mg / kg dose exhibited highly significant effect (p < 0.001) compared to the control animals and this was comparable to the reference drug morphine (5 mg / kg).

In the hot plate test Senna singuaenae at 200 mg / kg dose showed significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive effect while Toddalia asiatica roots extract showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) compared to the vehicle treated mice. The antinociceptive effect of T. asiatica was comparable to that of morphine (5 mg / kg) and of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) (100 mg / kg).
In this study the acetic acid induced writhing test was used to screen the roots and leaves of T. asiatica, plant parts that are commonly used in traditional medical practice. The percentage inhibition was higher (56.3%) at 100 mg / kg of the roots compared to (46.21%) the dose of 200 mg /kg of the leaf extract suggesting that the roots is more potent than the leaf extract. The results also indicated that T. asiatica has peripheral pain modulatory effect.
Roots extract of T. asiatica at 200 mg / kg caused significant antinociceptive effects in the early phase of the formalin test while the 100 mg / kg extract caused a highly significant antinociceptive effect in the late phase. This was comparable to that of the reference drugs indomethacin (50 mg / kg) and ASA (100 mg / kg). The formalin test results suggest that T. asiatica roots extract has both peripheral and central sites of action.
The results of the present study indicate that the roots extracts of T. asiatica possess antinociceptive activity in chemical, thermal, and inflammatory models of pain and that the effects of the extract showed dose-dependent antinociceptive effects. The effects were comparable to those of the reference drugs used ASA, morphine and indomethacin.
The observed antinociceptive effects of T. asiatica roots extract are due to the presence of biologically active chemical compounds in the extracts. In order to identify the active compounds, the roots extract of T. asiatica was fractionated by column chromatography roots and the fractions tested for activity. The polar and non-polar fractions both exhibiting similar antinociceptive activities. The antinociceptive effects of the fractions were comparable to the effects of the morphine and ASA in the tail flick test. The hexane/ dichloromethane (1:1) fraction showed very highly significant antinociceptive effects (p < 0.001) with 50 mg / kg and the 100 mg / kg doses compared to the vehicle treated animals. This effect was comparable to that of ASA and morphine which were used as positive controls. The antinonociceptive effects of the polar fractions (dichloromethane / methanol; 1:1) were also highly significant (p < 0.001) with the 50 mg / kg while the 100 mg / kg dose being highly significant (p < 0.01). However, the fractions with moderate polarity (the fraction eluted with dichloromethane) did not show significant effect compared to the vehicle treated animals.
The roots extract of T. asiatica fractions were purified and yielded seven compounds, four alkaloids and three coumarins. The coumarins, labeled as HK 3 (Isopimpinellin) and HK 5 (6-(3-methylbut-2enyloxy)-8-methoxy2h-chromen-2-one), showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the tail flick test while HK 6 (6,7-dimethoxy-5-(3-methyl-2-oxobutyl) HK7 (8-Acetonyldihydrochelerythrine) and HK 18 (6-(2, 3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-5,7-dimethoxy-2H-chromen-2-one)) had significant antinociceptive effects compared to the vehicle treated animals. The alkaloids HK 15 (8-oxochelerythrine) and HK 13 (dihydrochlerythrine) showed very highly significant antinociceptive effects with HK 13 showing the most potent antinociceptive effects in the tail flick test. The structure elucidation of compounds of Toddalia asiatica was done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
The compound HK 6 is a new compound and it exhibited significant antinociceptive effects when compared to the vehicle treated controls. Compound HK13 (dihydrochlerythrine) was for the first time isolated from T. asiatica and the structure ellucidated. It is also the first time the compound has been assayed for antinociception and exhibited very highly significant effects. No motor, neurological, or other behavioral deficits were observed with the extracts as well as the compounds of T. asiatica.
Data obtained from this study established the analgesic properties of the crude extracts of which the roots of T. asiatica was he most active. From this plant the active compounds have been isolated and identified withdihydrochlerythrine, being the most active compound. More tests to evaluate on the safety and toxicity on dihydrochlerythrine and related compounds need to be conducted in animals before conventional clinical trials can be undertaken.
This study therefore authenticates the use of Toddalia asiatica in the management of pain since it contains compounds which have shown antinociceptive activities.

Key words:
Antinociception, Toddalia asiatica, mice, alkaloid, coumarin, antinococeptive, dihydrochlerythrine

Were FH. Assessment of Levels of Selected Heavy Metals among Industrial Workers and Related Occupational Health Effects in the City of Nairobi and Athi River Township in Kenya. Kamau GN, Shiundu PM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

The study assessed the concentrations of heavy metals among factory workers (N = 282) and their related adverse health effects in Nairobi and Athi River Township in Kenya. Sets of whole blood, spot urine, scalp hair and personal breathing zone air samples were collected from these workers in various sections of 6 different plants, and analysed for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. This method of analysis was validated using certified reference whole blood samples, BCR®-635 and BCR®-636. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) in production sections as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 ug/rrr' in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 ug/m' in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 ug/rrr' in steel and scrap welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 ug/nr' in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 ug/rn" in leather and tannery, and 5.5 ± 3.6 !!g/m3 in the pharmaceutical plant. The average airborne Pb levels in production sections were significantly high (P < 0.05) when t·.... .• compared to those in their respective office areas, which was: 23.9 ± 6.9 ug/rrr', 18.8 ± 1.6 ug/m", 23.5 ± 5.8 ug/m:', 13.8 ± 3.0 ug/rn", 8.0 ± 2.7 ug/m" and 2.1 ± 0.2 ug/nr'. In all cases, the average airborne Pb levels in production areas markedly exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety Health Administrations' Permissible Exposure Limit of 50 ug/rrr' ~ over an 8-hour Time-Weighted Average except for leather and tannery, and pharmaceutical plant. Blood lead (BPb) levels of all employees correlated positively (r = 0.86) with airborne Pb. All the determined mean BPb values in production workers exceeded 30 ug/dl, proposed by of the American Conference of Governmental for Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) biological exposure indices (BEls), except for employees in leather and tannery, and pharmaceutical plant. Similarly, levels of Cd, Ni and Cr in the ambient air correlated positively (r = 0.99 Cd, 0.89 Ni and 0.84 Cr, N = 282) with those in the urinary samples. The production areas of steel and scrap welding plant had the highest mean levels of 0.13 ± 0.05 ug/rrr' Cd and 10-:-3±4.3 ug/rrr' Ni in the breathing zone air compared to those in the other plants. In this* facility, 50% (20 of 40) and 27.5% (11 of 40) of employees had urinary Ni and Cd levels that exceeded the ACGIH BEls. The average airborne Cr levels of 23.4 ± 11.6 ug/rrr' were highest in production areas of leather and tannery industry, where urinary mean Cr levels of 35.2 ± 12.1 ug/g exceeded the BEIs. Nearly 71% (22 of 31) and 27.5% (11 of 40) of leather tanners and steel and v scrap welders, respectively had urinary Cr levels that exceeded this limit. A positive correlation of r = 0.55 Cr; 0.61 Pb; 0.58 Cd and 0.30 Ni was also observed in the levels between these metals in the ambient air and hair samples. The relationship between levels of heavy metals in the hair and other biomarkers of exposure further indicated correlation coefficient values (r) of 0.57 for urinary-Cr; 0.51, urinary-Cd; 0.21, urinary- Ni; 0.59, blood-Pb; and 0.42 for blood-Cd. The results also established that a high proportion of steel and scrap welders (47.3%, N 19), battery recyclers (39%, N = 16) and battery manufacturers (37.5%, N = 15) had hypertensive range of blood pressure with high incidences of cardiovascular diseases and related symptoms, which were associated with significantly high levels of Pb and Cd. Almost 10.7% of production workers (N = 233) were anaemic, which was associated with elevated levels of BPb. Leather tanners (48.3%, N = 15) and steel and scrap welders (47.5%, N = 19) had high prevalence of respiratory illnesses that were marked by severely reduced forced' vital capacity (FVC) .' . and forced expiratory volume of air in thi -(l.i;t second (FEV i). These were indication of airway obstructions. It was further observed that leather tanners (41.9%, N = 13) and steel and scrap welders (40.0%, N = 13) had high occurrences of dermatological conditions that manifested in the form of rashes and itching and which were associated with elevated airborne levels of Cr and Ni.

Bore M, Ilako D, Kariuki M. Clinical evaluation criteria and approach to management of ocular allergy by ophthalmologists in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
MBUNDE LUMITIGRACE. College of Humanities and Social Sciences.; 2013. Abstractmbunde_employees__perception_of_staff_appraisal_in_public_organisations_a_case_study_of_the_university_of_nairobi.pdf

The topic of this study was Employees’ Perception of Performance Appraisal: A
Case Study of the University of Nairobi. Despite the fact that various studies exist on
performance appraisal, none has specifically explored employee perception of
performance appraisal at the University of Nairobi among the Administrative Staff
from Grades A to Academic.The objectives of the study were: To examine
employees’ views of performance appraisal results in the University of Nairobi, to
find out the extent to which employees and employers understand performance
appraisal in the University of Nairobi and assessing the tool used in performance
appraisal of employees in the University of Nairobi.
In the Literature of this study the following themes were addressed: the concept of
performance appraisal, objectives of performance appraisal, staff benefits, the
process of appraisal, appraisal styles, requirement for effective performance
appraisal and performance appraisal methods. A sample of 138 respondents was
selected. The respondents were drawn from the six colleges and Central
Administration of the University of Nairobi. Semi structured questionnaires were
administered to the respondents. Primary data was collected, summarized and
analysed using descriptive statistics and presented in tables and pie charts.
The study established that whereas there was a performance appraisal system in place,
it faced various challenges. Among the factors found to influence employee perception
were: lack of clarity on the purpose of staff performance appraisal, inexistent link
between performance appraisal results and reward system, lack of communication on
problem areas that require improvement and absence of performance standards.

Mueni J. A comparative study of the representation of the female gender in local and foreign soap operas. Kareithi PP, NgugiJo DM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.abstract.docx
Shepherd M, Kasem S, Ablett G, Ochieng J, Crawford A. Developing a genetic classification for gene pool management of spotted gums.; 2013. Abstract

Spotted gums (Genus Corymbia Section Politaria) occur as a species replacement series along the eastern seaboard of Australia, their distributions marked by regions of disjunction and sympatry. Their taxonomy remains controversial, with species assignment often challenging and reliant upon knowledge of geographic origin as well as subtle morphological or leaf oil variation. In this paper we explore a classification for spotted gums without assuming predefined geographic or taxonomic groups, instead using genetic structure at microsatellite marker loci (n=9) and a Bayesian model-based clustering approach implemented in STRUCTURE software. The C. torelliana outgroup (n=21; Section Cadagaria) formed a well resolved cluster (min. pairwise Fst = 0.19). Four populations were evident within the spotted gums (n=93) but structure was weak (pairwise Fst range 0.13 -0.05). Geography, both distance and topography were major determinants of structure, with migration among populations approximating a linear stepping-stone model. Corymbia maculata was resolved as a taxon and had the greatest genetic distance to any other population (min pairwise Fst 0.08). Three clusters were evident within the northern taxa but alignment with taxonomic groupings was poor. Corymbia citriodora material from north of a major disjunction in Central Queensland formed a Northern population. Corymbia citriodora, C. variegata and C. henryi material from below this disjunction but north of the Border Ranges, formed a Central population, whereas a Southern population was comprised of C. variegata and C. henryi from predominately south of the Border Ranges. Fewer ambiguous assignments occurred using genetic rather than taxonomic groups for self classification of the spotted gum reference population.


In order to benefit from eLearning, institutions of higher learning should conduct considerable up-front analysis to assess their eLearning readiness. Studies show that there are numerous models that have been developed, however, they are used in developed counties whose eReadiness is high hence not applicable in developing countries. This paper includes a model that has been developed to assess eLearning readiness of lecturers from institutions of higher learning in Kenya. It investigates the eLearning readiness of lecturers from the University of Nairobi, and the objective was to carry out a diagnostic eLearning readiness assessment of lecturers and determine the factors that influence eLearning readiness. The questionnaires were administered to the lecturers, the results obtained indicate that an overwhelming majority are ready. In addition, the study results show that there is no significant relationship between age, gender, and level of education on eLearning readiness. The study results indicate that technological readiness is the most important factor followed by culture readiness. Most of the lecturers felt that more training on content development need to be conducted . In conclusion, the lecturers are ready for eLearning but the ICT infrastructure is not adequate enough to support the use of eLearning.
Keywords: eLearning, eReadiness, eMaturity, Institutions Of Higher Learning, Model.

Ndegwa SK. The effects of share splits on long run stock returns for companies listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

Share splits are a common corporate event among listed companies. Though it is
commonly practiced it has been described as a mere accounting change that increases
the number of shares outstanding without any benefit to the shareholders. This study
sought to determine the effects of share splits on long run stock returns among listed
companies at the Nairobi securities Exchange. The study covered returns for twenty
four months after the company had undergone a share split. The study therefore
sampled firms that had been in operation for at least twenty four months after they
had undergone a share split. There were eleven firms listed at the NSE that fulfilled
this condition and were therefore sampled for this study.
The study used the long run study methodology and applied the buy and hold
benchmark approach. The method required the identification of the event firm and its
benchmark firm and comparing the returns achieved by each of these firms
correspondingly for the same month. Secondary data obtained from the Nairobi
Securities Exchange was used in this study. The data consisted of monthly opening
and closing share prices of each of the sampled firms together with those of its
identified benchmark firm for the entire twenty four months of the study. The study
method required the determination of each of the sampled event firm’s monthly buy
and hold returns and comparing these returns with those of its benchmark firm, which
acted as a proxy for the market. The benchmark firm was identified as another firm
which had not undergone a share split and was within 70% to 130% of the share
capital of the event firm at the time of the event firm’s share split, and has a book to
market equity (BE/ME) ratio that is closest to that of the event firm. The monthly
returns of the event firm are then compared with those of its benchmark firm. The
difference in the monthly returns achieved by the paired firms constitutes the buy and
hold abnormal return (BHAR) for the event firm. The buy and hold abnormal returns
for each firm were then tested for difference from zero at 5% significance level in
order to determine whether there is any difference between the returns of the event
firm and the returns of its benchmark firm.
The study found that among all the eleven firms sampled; only two firms achieved a
positive mean buy and hold abnormal return of 1.89% and 3.72% respectively. The
other nine firms representing 82% of the sampled firms achieved a mean negative buy
and hold abnormal returns ranging from -4.94 % to -0.14 %. These returns were
however found to be insignificant at 95% confidence level. This implies that there
was no significant difference between the returns achieved by the event firm and the
returns achieved by its benchmark firm for the period under study. The study
therefore concluded that share splits at the Nairobi securities exchange have
insignificant effects on stock returns for the first two years following a share split.
However further studies on its effects on periods longer than two years would be
recommended in order to develop a hypothesis. The criteria for the choice of the
benchmark firm would also need to include a consideration of the industry in which
the event firm is operating in order to allow for proper benchmarking of the paired
firms returns. Firms from the same industry would be affected by market conditions in
the same way.

Mishra RS, Pokhariyal GP. Electromagnetic Tensor Field, Nijenhius Tensor (III).; 2013.
Njenga MM. Evaluating Fuel briquette technologies and their implications on Greenhouse gases and livelihoods in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

Charcoal is the principal cooking fuel in Kenya which provides energy to 82% of urban and 34% of rural households. Poor households are opting to use unhealthy sources of fuel such as tyres, old shoes and plastics especially those in urban and peri-urban areas while many families are shifting from traditional meals that require long cooking times and are compromising dietary diversity and nutrition as a result. Faced with poverty and unemployment, communities are turning to fuel briquette which is made by compressing biomass material into a solid unit. Fuel briquette production methods in Nairobi and surroundings and their implications on the quality of the product were studied through focus group discussions with eight groups and one private company. The fuel briquette producing community SHG‘s in Nairobi comprised all those identified and located using an existing database on self-help groups involved in waste management in Nairobi. One group SHG that produced sawdust fuel briquettes was identified in Naro Moro through PactKe an NGO working on Natural Resource Management in Laikipia county. Implications of fuel briquettes on the community livelihoods were also investigated. Theresults obtained were applied in designing experiments to assess different fuel briquettes producing techniques using, (i) different binders namely soil, paper, cowdung and gum Arabica, (ii) pressing machines, (iii) charcoal dust from Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus spp and Acacia xanthophloea,(iv) sawdust from Grevillia robusta, Pinus patulaandCupressus lusitanica and (v) carbonized sawdust from the three tree species above in (iv).combustion …

OCHIENG’ ELLYDUNCAN. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION AND FIRM FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: A CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstractexecutive_compensation_and_firm_financial_performance_-_a_critical_literature_review.pdf

There has been growing academic interest in the compensation of senior management in corporate enterprises. This interest stems from a concern about the motivation of management as well as concerns about equity and fairness coupled with the importance of corporate governance in enterprises. Shareholders as principals in entities desire maximization of stock returns for a given level of risk and they naturally wish that their firms design compensation systems that motivate senior executives as their agents to pursue policies that meet the principal objective of shareholder wealth maximization.

This desk review of relevant theoretical and empirical literature investigates whether the executive compensation – performance link meets an optimality test ex –ante or ex – post under the agency based models as well as other alternative paradigms that explain managerial actions. From the review findings, a confusing debate rages among academics about the relationship between executive compensation and firm financial performance. This confusion manifests itself in a number of ways: in the range of empirical specifications for pay to performance regressions in the literature; in the wide discrepancy in estimates of pay performance sensitivities and in controversy over the appropriate level of executive holdings of stock and stock options.

Differences in research methodology explain some of the inconsistent conclusions notwithstanding that there is even a lack of consensus among some studies that use identical or very similar research designs. Foremost, the measurement of firm success is in intself controversial regarding adoption of performance measures. Also controversial is treatment of the components of compensation. The diverse set of disciplines involved in the study area and the wide variety of methods used to investigate the main questions complicates the way to consensus especially on incorporation of organizational contextual settings and other contingency factors for executive compensation.

Research gaps emerging in the literature review include; wide variations of pay performance sensitivities derived within agency models, minimal evaluation of explanatory values of alternative paradigms to the agency models, undefined relationships between pay performance sensitivity and the performance metric applied, undefined relationship between executive compensation components and past and future organizational performance levels, inexplained sensitivity of the pay performance link to organizational contextual effects of ownership and internationalization, unspecified possibility of dual causality between executive compensation and firm performance and the information content of executive compensation plan adopted by a public enterprise.

The study recommends future research effort for bridging the knowledge gaps using alternative paradigms while adressing the methodological issues of empirical specifications, causality, fixed-effects, first-differencing, and instrumental variables. On the empirical specifications, the studies need to reconsider the causality relationships, operationalization of research variables, use of panel data and incorporation of control variables like demographic characteristics, corporate governance mechanisms, regulation, firm ownership and globalization.

Maru SM. Formulation Development Of Sustained Release Zidovudine-lamivudine Fixed Dose Combination Paediatric Mini Matrices By Hot Melt Extrusion.; 2013. Abstract

HIV/AIDS has become one of the major and deadliest pandemics in the world today. Besides
concerns about cost and accessibility, a major concern for current therapies in most
developing countries is the lack of age appropriate antiretroviral formulations which might
expose children to "homemade" formulations with significant risks of variable dosing, poor
and erratic absorption and inappropriate pharmacokinetic profiles. In this light and with the
several campaigns driven by the World Health Organisation (WHO), UNICEF and the
European Medicines Agency (EMA) in mind, the potential for developing alternative
presentations for paedratic use has been raised. Flexible options such as granules, pellets,
mini- matrices which children are able to swallow or which can be dispersed on the tongue or
in water have been identified as the presentations of choice in some of these WHO led
discussions. It is therefore critical that feasibility assessments are undertaken to demonstrate
the likelihood of administrating essential medicines in this manner. In this regard, two
antiretroviral drugs have been identified for this study. Oral zidovudine (AZT) and
lamivudine (3TC) are soluble drugs with short elimination half-lives and moderate
bioavailability. Free high doses are therefore required to achieve and maintain
therapeutic blood. As a result, dose-dependent toxic side effects are frequently
observed. One way to avoid dependent side effects is by formulating the dosage forms
as sustained release formulations intended to optimize a therapeutic regimen by providing
slow and continued service delivery over the entire dosing giving reduced side effects, whilst
also providing compliance and convenience. To have access and availability of
paediatric fixc : iSC bination mini matrices at low cost, a fast, flexible and efficient
manufacturing process which can be adapted by local manufacturers in HIV/AIDS endemic
regions such .: ; 'an African is required. One-such process that could be adapted and
scaled up for: .ctic .isily is hot melt extrusion (HME).

This study was therefore designed to investigate the physicochemical properties of
zidovudine and lamivudine and their influence on interactions with matrix forming polymers
such as ethylcellulose, Polyvinylpyrrolidone/Vinyl acetate (Kollidon® SR) and polyethylene
oxide (PEG) during hot melt extrusion. Furthermore, mini-matrix formulations of fixed dose
combinations of zidovudine and lamivudine were developed followed by evaluation of key
quality attributes including in-vitro dissolution and accelerated stability studies. The
dissolution data were used to make estimations of in-vivo performance using a method
described in the literature.
The results showed that Zidovudine and Lamivudine were thermally stable and miscible (Van
Krevelen's solubility parameter calculations) with polymers such as ethylcellulose, Kollidon®
SR and PEG enabling extrusion by hot melt extrusion. Thermal and crystalline characteristics
were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction
studies (XRPD) which showed that the drugs were transformed from the crystalline to the
amorphous state. Rheological studies showed that addition of Zidovudine decreased the melt
viscosity with all the polymers while Lamivudine seemed to saturate the polymer at 40%w/w
concentration at which point there was a marked increase in melt viscosity. Triethyl citrate
(TEC) was used as plasticizer during hot melt extrusion, whilst polyethylene oxide (PEG)
was added to modulate the drug release profile. For some formulation variants, extensive drug
release (98%) was observed over a period of .24 hrs, particularly for mini-matrices of
zidovidine and lamivudine formulated with Kollidon® SR. The release was related to the
increases in percentage of plasticizer TEC which may have caused strong coalescence
between the drug and polymer particles. Accelerated stability studies done using mini
matrices in open and closed high density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles for a period of three
month in a hot oven chamber at 40° C and 75% Relative Humidity (RH) as well as at 60°C in
Humidity (RR) as well as at 60°C in closed HDPE bottles for 15 days and the results showed
that the both zidovudine and lamivudine did not recrystallized and the matrices were stable
after 3 months. The data obtained from the predicted in vivo drug blood concentration profiles
for ethylcellulose and Kollidon® SR formulations showed that both zidovudine and
lamivudine not only sustained drug release for over 16 hrs but also maintained drug
concentration within the effective drug concentrations (therapeutic window) over the same
period which suggests that side effects caused by frequent dosing of the drugs could be
In conclusion, it is feasible to produce stable fixed dose combination sustained release mini
matrices of zidovudine/lamivudine using HME with ethylcellulose, Kollidon® SR and PEO.
This platform therefore provides potential to be used a standard method for producing
sustained release formulations of antiretroviral drugs for use in the paediatric population.

Ikobwa JML. Gedächtnis und Genozid im zeitgenössischen historischen Afrikaroman. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch; 2013.
Wagacha PW, Pauw GD, Githinji PW. A grapheme-based approach for accent restoration in Gıkuyu.; 2013.
Odada EO, Cherlet M. Impacts on climate variability and change.; 2013.
Otachi BN. The Influence of Entrepreneurial Personality, Human Capital and Entry Barriers on Performance of Entrepreneurs in the Informal Transport Business in Nairobi, Kenya”. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

Entrepreneurship is believed to be the driving force behind economic and social development of nations. In today’s capitalistic system, entrepreneurs make an accelerated contribution to the economic growth and development of countries through the creation of small enterprises. In major world economies, these enterprises are associated to their overall economic growth and employment, hence the reason why research on this area is very critical. In carrying out the above study, the researcher was guided by five theories of entrepreneurship; the resourced-based, the social cultural, the psychological approach, the ecological and the institutional theory. Due to the nature and requirement of the study, the researcher was biased towards the use of two of the five theories mentioned above; the resourced-based and the psychological approach theory. The study was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya and the target was the Matatu entrepreneurs, operating the fourteen sitter public vehicles. Since its inception in Nairobi, the Matatu business has grown both in size and volume. This is assumed to indicate good business performance. However, despite the growth, it is only a few entrepreneurs who have succeeded. This is the problem this study attempted to investigate. The overall objective of this study was to determine the factors influencing performance of Matatu business in Nairobi, Kenya. This was a cross-sectional study and stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Based on the routes and regions, a sample of 364 registered Matatu owners was picked and questionnaires given out giving a response rate of 95%. Results from respondents were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics which indicated that performance in Matatu business was a function of but not limited to, personality traits, human capital, government policies, entry barriers and the management of registered Matatu welfare bodies. The findings from the study revealed that vital information touching on this business were missing in government records. One of the major findings of the study was the positive contribution of the registered industry welfare bodies towards the success of the Matatu business. Another major finding from the study touched on the human capital. That though education is important, the same was not a major performance factor in Matatu business.

Khamala CP. Insect and disease control.; 2013.
Kanoti JR. Investigation of Ground Water dynamics in the Lake Victoria Basin using Hydrogeochemical and Isotope Hydrology. Nairobi - Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

Kenya is classified as a water-scarce country with per capita water being below the global benchmark of 1,000 cubic meters. In 2005 the estimated per capita was about 647 cubic meters for all uses. This scarcity is expected to worsen by 2025 when per capita is projected to be about 235 cubic meters. This poses a serious threat to socio-economic development, the integrity of national ecosystems and the quest to achieve the Vision 2030. There is therefore urgency to investigate and understand the available freshwater resources and water dynamics so as to formulate informed policy. This study targets the Nyanzian trough in the neighborhood of the freshwater Lake Victoria. This region faces a lot of water challenges related to water quantity, water quality deterioration, transboundary water issues and perennial flooding.

To counter the challenges, we need to improve our understanding of the water cycle since it is one of the key elements of scientific information necessary for developing policies toward a sustainable management of freshwater resources. Water supplies in the area come from various sources including surface water, shallow and deep wells.

The aim of this study is to investigate the groundwater characteristics using suitable environmental isotope techniques in order to establish the links between groundwater and the surface water for better exploitation strategy. It will investigate and demonstrate if there is any link between the lake water and the boreholes and if water mining is occurring in some regions within the basin.

This study also aims to answer local hydrologic questions about the aquifers through studies with pumping tests and stable isotopes. Specifically, of interest is the amount of dispersion in the deeper aquifer, its degree of hydraulic connectivity, and whether there are signs of younger, shallow groundwater intrusion. On a regional scale, we would like to know what the age and recharge rates of groundwater are at depth, thus allowing the estimates of groundwater flowlines and their changes with shifting deep groundwater usage.

The study will explore the near-surface processes of the land phase of the hydrologic cycle (surface and shallow subsurface processes) in particular the movement of water near the earth's land surface, the physical and the chemical interactions with earth materials accompanying that movement.
Flow system analysis and tracer hydrology will be used to evaluate the water resources within the basin.

This will involve determination of the characteristics of the natural groundwater flow field, flow systems and hydrogeochemical facies analysis of water samples. The definition of the facies and classification of water types in the basin including identification of groundwater origin will be undertaken during this study.

Different methods of analyses and assessment of hydrological flow systems will be used including hydro-chemical and tracer hydrological approaches to delineate flow systems and understanding flow patterns in the Basin. The use of tracer techniques will illustrate the flow pathways, residence times of the water, the hydraulic properties of flow systems, and the mixing of different water compartments if any.

It is envisaged that through this study the general use and acceptance of hydrogeochemical proxies and by extension, isotope methodologies into the mainstream hydrology and water resources management in Kenya will be adopted since isotope techniques may provide, among others, adequate information on recharge conditions, quality and age of groundwater. It may also unravel the role groundwater dynamics contributes to the Lake Victoria waters and to the flooding in the Basin.

Ndiiritu JM. Mathematical and Statistical Population Models: Elephants population modeling. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Lule G;, Omonge E;, Kayima JK;, Otieno FCF;, McLigeyo AA. Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).; 2013. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral
therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This
study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in
Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total
cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic
patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2
CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated
triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were
significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p
= 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated
triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had
dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among
patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic.
Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars
(p value 0.125).

Musiga LA, Owino JO, Weke PGO. Modeling a Hierarchical System with a Single Absorbing State.; 2013.
Obiero JPO. Pedotransfer Functions For Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity For Surface Runoff Modeling .; 2013. Abstract

The study involved development of pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for determining saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) used in surface flow prediction. This preceded evaluation of existing PTFs for Ks in flow simulation. The pedotransfer functions were developed to predict parameters used in the determination of Ks using selected basic soil properties. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used in flow prediction in the Naro Moru river catchment of the Ewaso Ng’iro river basin, Kenya. The developed pedotransfer functions were then used in the simulation of surface runoff on the catchment and their performance in surface flow prediction compared with that of existing pedotransfer functions. Initial model runs during flow simulation yielded poor daily flow simulations compared to monthly simulations. This was attributed to differences in the timing of peak discharges for the observed and simulated hydrographs. The model was calibrated for a three year period followed by a three year validation period based on monthly flows. Calibration results yielded acceptable, but modest agreement between observed and simulated monthly stream flows. The modest model performance was associated with input data deficiencies and model limitations. The results indicated that the model could be adapted to the local conditions. Manual flow calibration was performed to improve simulation results initially based on average annual conditions followed by monthly calibration. There was significant improvement in the model performance based on monthly flow simulations. The model simulation of surface flow registered better performance compared to base flow and total flow indicating the model to be a better simulator of surface flow than baseflow. Observed and predicted surface runoff was compared to evaluate performance of existing PTFs. Model performance was similar for the existing PTFs selected. There was diversity v in performance of PTFs when used for surface runoff prediction. It was felt there is the need for continued development of PTFs for predicting Ks. The developed PTFs were evaluated for accuracy and reliability. The PTFs developed for saturated soil moisture content (θs) produced better performance in reliability compared to the remaining parameters in the van Genutchen moisture retention equation. The developed pedotransfer functions were then used in predicting Ks for surface flow simulation. The model performance in surface runoff simulation using developed PTFs was found acceptable. The study provides insight in developing equations for predicting Ks from basic soil properties being an input parameter in hydrological models. Hydrologic modeling plays a significant role in enabling policy makers, watershed planners and managers make appropriate decisions consistent with sustainable management of watershed resources.

Pokhariyal GP. Pokhariyal.; 2013.
Obosi J. The Public Service Delivery Challenge: A Public-Private Sector Partnership In Water Service Provision In The Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstractphd_thesis.-_joseph_okeyo_obosi_.pdf

The study investigated how public-private partnership arrangements have perfomed in the provision of water services in Kenya. This is with a view to explain the extent to which this increasingly preferred public service delivery approach has improved access to water in terms of coverage, affordability, quality of water and customer service.

The broad objective of the study was to investigate outcomes of the Private -Public Partnership policy for provision of water as a public good as a challenge in Kenya. Specific objectives are as follows: First, to analyze the nature and scope of Public- Private Partnership arrangements in the water sector; secondly, to examine the gains from organizational managerial strategies in the provision of water services, and finally, to analyse appropriate interventions adopted to enhance the accessibility of water services notably by vulnerable consumers.

The study used secondary data and primary data from a household survey of 288 respondents, seven (7) Focus Group Discussions, and 28 Key informant interviews from seven (7) WSPs (Mogombet, Chemosit, Boya, KIWASCO, SNWSCO, MIKUTRA and Nyasare) of the Lake Victoria South Water Services Board (LVSWSB) umbrella. The study was conducted under two mutually reinforcing theories: governance theory and public choice theory. We used both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the data. The techniques included use of content analysis of secondary data, frequency tables and cross tabulations to measure the central tendencies and dispersions.

The main finding was that public institutions that have adopted more private sector participation have performed better than those that have not, hence the more the public private sector partnership, the better the quality of public service delivery.
Highlights of findings specificically include the following: that there are various stakeholders, both institutional and individual involved in water service provision either through interventions or as facilitators, for example, the government through WSTF provides funds to community water projects in the provision of water services.; there is more private participation independence as WSPs increasingly become less involved together with the government in service operations and management; the existing policy on organization of water resources management does not guarantee effective popular participation given the formal governance structure; community water projects with more public private sector participation implemented better, on average, the required managerial strategies such as Enterprise Design; Operational roles; Network management; and Human resource functions.

The study recommended first, a realignment of the national water regulatory agency (WSRB) to be in charge of both service provision and resource management. Secondly, the “Service Provider” role of the state should be changed to that of a regulator of services and facilitator. The idea is to make a shift which necessitates strengthening of institutions responsible for planning, implementation and management of water resources. Water service operation should be left to the community and private operators. Third, the Water Service Trust Fund (WSTF) funding level should be enhanced substantially to finance community or private water operators with viable proposals to provide water to the community without having to go through Water Service Boards.

Kinyamario JI, Squires VR. Rangeland Ecophysiology.; 2013.
SOCIOLINGUISTIC CHANGE IN ELMOLO AS A DYING LANGUAGE BY ERICK OMONDI ODERO (PhD). Nairobi: Univeersity of Nairobi; 2013. Abstractabstract_dr._odero.docxsociolinguistic_change_in_elmolo_as_a_dying_language.pdf

This study investigated the sociolinguistic status of the Elmolo language considering its apparent condition as a language threatened by death and extinction from the onslaught of the neighbouring dominant Samburu language. Cross-cultural marriages, migration and other social and economic factors were also seen to influence the observed sociolinguistic changes. The Elmolo people reside in the south east shores of Lake Turkana in Loiyangalani division, Laisamis district, Samburu County of the Eastern province of Kenya. With a total population of about 700 people (BTL, 2007, 2008), the Elmolo are considered as one of Kenya’s smallest communities. The Elmolo language is classified in the larger Eastern Cushitic group of languages and is closely related to the Albore, Somali, Bran, Rendille, and Dasaanach languages (Sasse, 1974). The study investigated the sociolinguistic changes evidenced by shift in domain use and decrease in the number of users, and their possible contributions to the threatened status of the Elmolo language. The study also investigated the relevance of gender, geography, poverty levels, and age to the observed sociolinguistic changes. While the study recognized that the death of a language could be a consequence of multiple factors, it was delimited to the sociolinguistic factors that contributed to the threatened status of Elmolo. The Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (GIDS) proposed by Fishman (1990, 1991) and the Indicators of Ethnolinguistic Vitality Theory (EVT) proposed by Landweer (2000) are the main theoretical approaches used in the study. The eclectic approach was informed by the individual contributions of each of the theories in addressing the objectives of the study. The GIDS was used to determine the sociolinguistic status of the Elmolo language given its explicit description of characteristics of languages in its typology. The EVT was used to explain what was happening to the Elmolo community and how it influenced the language use patterns among the Elmolo people. Although not used in the study, the researcher was aware of many other relevant theories such as the Gaelic-Arvantika Model of Language Death (GAM), proposed by Sasse (1992). This model provides tools to determine the influence that the External Settings (ES) have on the Speech Behaviour (SB) of a community resulting in particular Structural Consequences (SC) affecting their language(s). An integrated approach using both quantitative and qualitative data was adopted in the study. The analysed data indicate that Elmolo is demonstrably in an acute path of death that may also subsequently lead to its extinction. It was observed that there was lack of intergenerational transfer of the language from the older to the younger generations, lack of documented materials in the language and a very low prestige value of the language among its would be speakers and the neighbouring communities. The study recommends detailed phonological, morphological and syntactic studies of the Elmolo language. These are viewed as having the capacity to enhance possible reconstruction and documentation of the language coupled with advocacy for revitalization and maintenance.

Evusah MM. Strategic responses by the University of Nairobi to changes in the external environment. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

Organizations are environment serving and environment dependent. The environment in which organizations operate is constantly changing with different factors influencing the organizations. Coping with the increasingly competitive environment has called on firms to rethink their strategies. Strategic responses ensure the survival of organizations at large and at the same time enhance relevance in the environment in which they serve. Theobjective of this study was to determine the strategies adopted by the University of Nairobi to changes in the external environment. An interview guide was used to collect primary data while secondary data were gathered from various publications of the University of Nairobi. The data collected was analysed using content analysis. The study findings indicate that the University of Nairobi faces various challenges from the external environment including increased competition from local and international universities, reduced capitation from the exchequer, low information technology integration, poaching of staff by other universities, high rate of poverty in the country, increased pressure to admit more students and inadequate budgetary allocation. The University of Nairobi has adopted various strategic responses to address these challenges which included expansion into new markets, product development, forming strategic alliances and collaborations with other universities, improving resource management and governance, increasing and diversifying the revenue base, upgrading and fully exploiting university assets and preparing a university strategic plan for the development and use of physical facilities. Other response strategies included promoting research, and consultancy activities, innovation and technology transfer. Following the findings from this study, the following recommendations are made. The management of the university of Nairobi should lead in providing leadership and direction required in formulating strategic responses, fine tuning strategic plan by the university to fit to environmental changes, ensuring a strategic fit between the strategies and the environment, promoting research, consultancy, innovation and technology transfer through developing and implementing appropriate research programmes and promoting relevant consultancy services, collaborating/partnering and forging strategic alliances with other universities both locally and internationally, market expansion and diversification.

Ndetei DM;, Khasakhala L;, Kuria MW;, Mutiso V;, Muriungi S;, Bagaka B. A study on assessment of needs, care in the homes and clinical trends among the elderly in Kenya.; 2013.
Nyachieo A, Spiessens C, Chai DC, Kiulia NM, Mwenda JM, D'Hooghe TM. Baboon spermatology: basic assessment and reproducibility in olive baboons (Papio anubis).. Vol. 41.; 2012. J. Med. Primatol. 41(5). Abstract

Development of a reproducible baboon in vitro fertilization (IVF) system require optimized and reproducible sperm parameters. The objective of this study was to document basic spermatology values and investigate the reproducibility of these variables in the same baboons 1 or 3 months later in a larger number of baboons.

Dharmadhikary VM. Analysis of microstrip-patch antennas incorporating arbitrarily-shaped apertures.; 2012. Abstract

Microstrip antennas have received extensive attention as they have many attractive features, such as lightweight, small size, low profile and ease of fabrication. One of the inherent limitations when using these antennas is their limited bandwidth. Aperture coupling has proven to be a reliable and a robust feeding technique for these antennas as they are suitable for wide-bandwidth designs. A microstrip patch antenna that is coupled to a Microstrip-line by an aperture in the intervening ground plane has been designed and implemented in this work. Arbitrarily shaped coupling slots have been considered by investigating their contributing effect on the radiation characteristics of the antenna. Aperture shape and size are the crucial parameters that are considered for the aperture-coupled microstrip antennas. Our publications [109-110] have been based on a hybrid formulation combining the Method of Moments (MOM) and the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) for which, as a student, I take credit. It should also be taken as a contribution that the ingenuity of interfacing one kind of basis functions, Rao- Glitton-Wilson (RWG) for the surface with another type, the volume function for FDTD for the cavity. The aim of this work was to look for an aperture shape that gives significantly improved coupling of the radiated power from the feed-line to the resonant patch element and at the same time giving lower back-lobe radiation level from the slot. Rectangular, Circular, Bowtie and H-shaped apertures were of Micros investigated and it was found that the H-shaped aperture coupled antennas provide higher coupling and reduced backward radiation levels as compared to the other aperture shapes. The numerical analysis carried out employed the Electric Field Integral Equation technique with the Moment Method using the software called FEKOᆴ, which employs the triangular patch modelling scheme as the basis function. The antenna characteristics such as the radiation pattern, S-parameters, and input impedance were simulated for the various shapes of coupling apertures. The antenna prototypes utilizing each of these aperture shapes were constructed and tested in the laboratory and the experimental results compared with the simulated ones. The obtained results were found to be in good correlation.

Kitonde CK. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of three selected medicinal plants used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening in Kenya. The majority of the sick are
seeking herbal remedies in search of effective, safe, and affordable treatments. This study
investigated the antimicrobial activity and presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, sapogenins,
flavonoids and quinones in different parts of Vernonia glabra, Senna didymobotrya, and
Kigelia africana. Traditionally, these medicinal plants are used to treat microbial infections in
Kenya. The plants were selected based on the available traditional medical knowledge and
literature and collected in January 2010 in Machakos and Kisumu Counties. Different parts
were dried at room temperature under shade, ground into powder and extracted in
dichloromethane: methanol (1:1) and water. The crude extracts were tested against
Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive), Escherichia coli (gram negative) bacteria, Candida
albicans (yeast fungus), and Aspergillus niger (filamentous fungus) for antimicrobial activity
and Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) determined using disc diffusion technique
under sterile conditions. Discs impregnated with standard antibiotics (Streptomycin for
bacteria and Nystatin for fungi) were used as positive controls while the extraction solvents
were used as negative controls. Antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the
diameter of the clear inhibition zones around the paper discs using a transparent ruler (cm)
after 24 to 48 hours for bacteria and yeast fungus, and up to 72 hours for filamentous fungus.
Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was used to determine the chemical compounds present
in selected active crude extracts. Results showed that, organic extracts of V. glabra leaf
(Mean inhibition zone of 1.85 cm) and flower (MIZ of 1.78 cm) recorded the highest activity
against S. aureus than the standard antibiotic (Streptomycin MIZ of 1.30 cm). Organic extract
of V. glabra flower showed significant activity only against S. aureus, with the lowest MIC
of 1.5625 mg/100 mL compared to streptomycin at high MIC of 6.25 mg/100 mL. Qualitative
spray reagents on TLC plates, showed the V. glabra and S. didymobotrya flavonoids highly
present; terpenoids, sapogenins and quinones sufficiently present and V. glabra flower
alkaloids greatly present. The results of this study suggest that the three plants have
significant antimicrobial properties and justify their use in traditional herbal medicine for the
management of microbial based diseases. The presence of chemical compounds in most
extracts of V. glabra indicates its potential to produce novel compounds. Bioassay-guided
fractionations are recommended to identify the compounds responsible for antimicrobial
activity. Cytotoxicity assays are highly recommended for V. glabra in order to verify,
validate and document its safety in medicine.
Key words: Microbial infections, Vernonia glabra, Senna didymobotrya, Kigelia africa


In Civil Engineering and Construction Industry, crushed stones are known as aggregates and are the basic materials in modern construction work. The current methods for crushing stones to produce aggregates are characterized by the use of large, expensive and centralised crushing plants, which are beyond the reach of small scale entrepreneurs. In addition, such centralized plants are often located too far away from the point of use of aggregates leading to prohibitively high cost of the same.
On the other hand there is widespread practice of manual “hammer and anvil” stone crushing especially in rural areas. Though, the practice is hazardous, laborious and hardly profitable, the technology is common in Kenya. It is against this background that the proposed research work has been formulated in order to study the crushing characteristics of various stones and to subsequently come up with an optimum, dynamical ad structural design of a small stone crusher for small scale entrepreneurs. The study will contribute to the body of knowledge in the domain of innovative development of Engineering products; the case in point being a small- mechanised stone crusher that is cost effective, environmentally and user friendly. Further, the study will generate information on stone characteristics that are relevant in aggregate formation.

Gatheru AP. Blood requests, crossmatch and transfusion practices for elective surgery in Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2012. Abstract

This study was carried out over a period of ten weeks between June and August 2011 at the KNH theatres. A total of 370 patients scheduled for elective surgery whose blood had been crossmatched prior to being taken to theatre were recruited into the study. Majority of requests in the study period were requests for whole blood while requests for other blood products were rarely made. Most surgical teams made requests for two units of blood for the adults for most surgical procedures. Cross-matching of one unit of blood per patient however predominated followed by cross-matching of two units per patient. Single unit transfusions for adult patients were the most common despite requests for two units being the majority. However in the category of children the average blood volume transfused was 18.9mllKg. The overall Cross-match to Transfusion ratio during the study period was 1.42. Most of the blood that was cross-matched (64.8%) was transfused of the patients was transfused to them. The mean estimated duration blood products were kept out of the cold chain was 17 minutes. The methods mainly used to reduce the need for pre-operative blood transfusions included use of diathermy, pre-operative hemodilution and use of hypotensive anesthesia. The main transfusion triggers were estimated blood loss, conjuctival pallour and change in haemodynamic status. In the study subjects above 14 years, the mean estimated blood loss triggering transfusion was 750 mls. The study established that all patients received peri-operative fluids with crystalloid infusions predominating. There was a highly significant relationship( P

Mukuwa M, Njeru A, Martin Inyimili. Car Hire and Tracking Management System. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Uninersity of Agriculture and Technology; 2012. Abstract

By Mary Mukuwa, Ambrose Njeru,Martin Inyimili

Nowadays, there are online car reservations which give much benefit to user. The existence of this online system can overcome the problem of availability and provide convenience to the user in renting, car yet users still need more convenience system such as helping them in recommending car to be rent based on car specific requirements.
The user selects their preferred car from the car catalogue. Reservation can be done through online and users have to come to the service center to make payment and pick the reserved car. This system is functioned in retrieving, creating, updating and deleting the data or information depends on the security level and allows the organization to search user information from the database based on their identification card number. Besides that, this system may produce reports such as payment receipt, renting information and statistics of car renting by year, month, or week. The finding of this project is the web-based car rental system with recommended car to be rent and the output that will produce the information by following the user requirements. In conclusion, the system may need some enhancement and improvement in the future BMK. Challenges Faced By Kenya Sugar Board In Implementing Strategy On Service Delivery To Sugar Cane Millers In Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstractchallenges_faced_by_kenya_sugar_board_in_implementing_strategy_on_service_delivery_to_sugar_cane_millers_in_kenya.pdf

A company's strategy is management's action plan for running the business and conducting its operations. Strategy on service delivery is thus an important element of this management process. For global business market acceleration, business must respond to customers faster than ever with value added products and services, while they struggle to maintain temporary competitive advantage. The study was guided by the main objective which was to identify the challenges of implementation of strategy on service delivery by Kenya Sugar Board to Sugar Millers and to determine possible solutions to these Challenges. It utilized a case study on the Kenya Sugar Board. The target population was the managerial personnel at KSB and a total of eight representatives (one from eight sugar factories). Primary data was collected by the use of interview guide.

Mwiti BK. Deception in advertising: a case study of fruit juices in the local Kenyan market .; 2012. Abstract

Deception in advertising is an ongoing moral, and in some cases, controversial issue. What may appear to be a harmless advertisement to one person or group may be very misleading to another. With the increase in technology and the ever-increasing use of the Internet, consumers remain prime targets for advertising and marketing practices that are deceptive. The research thesis first gives background information on deception in advertising and describes different types of deception. It then examines what makes an advertisement deceptive, or what kind of advertisement would be defined 'as containing information that is deceptive and what role the designer plays in the advertising process/chain. It also gives information about juices and studies done on the production of juices, being that the case study revolves around fruit juices and the deception that occurs in their marketing. A field research was conducted to establish just how much deception there is in advertising, using fruit juices sold in the local Kenyan market as a case study. From the findings I was able to determine the level of deception the consumer is exposed to and the likely effects. Within the research were sought views of designers on why, if at all, they use deception in the adverts they produce. Discussions with designers, marketers and advertisers were heldto understand the point at which deceptive information was incorporated as part of the advertising process. Consumers were also interviewed to get an in-depth into what influences their purchasing powers. Retailers came n handy when informing me as to whether advertising was crucial in purchases made in their shopping outlets. The results from the field research proved that deception does exist and led me to conclude that advertising ought to be a moral concern & thus the need to inform consumers of this so that they can make more informed decisions about their purchases; and the need for designers to be held responsible for advertisements they create to market products and services.


This study explored the relationship between transformational leadership characteristics of secondary school principals’ and students’ academic performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). Although transformational leadership had been linked with academic performance in developed countries, the study attempted to investigate which specific characteristics could be attributed to improved academic performance in Kenya. The study was carried out in Nairobi County, Kenya. Stratified sampling process was used to ensure that both public and private schools in Nairobi were captured in the study. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”) (Kouzes & Posner, 1993). Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between transformational leadership characteristics and academic performance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test if a relationship existed between selected demographic characteristics and the interaction of leadership characteristics of principals’ and students’ academic performance. To test relationships between principals’ ratings and teachers’ ratings, ratings of male principals and female principals, t-test was used. Results indicated a positive correlation of “Inspiring a shared vision”, “Encouraging the heart” and “Challenging the process” characteristics and academic performance. There was however, a weak but not statistically significant correlation between “Modeling the way” and “Enabling others to act” characteristics and academic performance. It was recommended that secondary school principals should exhibit transformational leadership characteristics in order to succeed in today’s changing world of educational leadership. Suggestions made for further studies included a replication of the study in more counties.

Awiti J. Essays on Health Determinants in Kenya. University of Nairobi.; 2012.
Wambugu CW. Factors Influencing Employees’ Job Satisfaction: A Case of University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services (UNES). EBS PDM, ed. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

he purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing employee’s job satisfaction at
University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services (UNES) which is the commercial arm of the
University of Nairobi created to facilitate efficient use of institutional resources, including those
represented by human capacity within the ranks of academia. To achieve this objective, the study
explored four independent variables of job satisfaction, namely, training, remuneration,
motivation and work environment while the dependent variable is job satisfaction among UNES
The rationale for the study was derived from the observation that some employees of UNES seem
better adjusted and happy at work and are able to cope well with the demands of the company
while others are not. Another observation was the management's new challenge at UNES to
maintain a workforce that performs concertedly to achieve the company goals. \ •
This study, is based on a qualitative methodology. Data was collected using a questionnaire
containing Likert scale type questions which were administered to staff members, where the
researcher dropped and picked them after three days to allow the respondents' time to fill them.
These questionnaires where then edited and the data collected analyzed using the SPSS computer
The major findings of this investigation were that four factors, namely training, remuneration,
motivation and work environment directly contribute towards employee’s job satisfaction.
The study recommends that interventions should be carried out to increase levels of job
satisfaction among UNES employees this is important as job satisfaction has a strong correlation
with job performance. It also recommends on how management can eliminate low motivation and
job dissatisfaction amongst employees by reinforcing relevant human resources policies,
improving working conditions and compensation.

(Phd) DRNAOMIGIKONYOWM. Factors Influencing University Managers’ Participation in Distance Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Njoroge SN. Factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the internal Audit function as a corporate governance mechanism in public Universities in Kenya: (a case study of the university of Nairobi). Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

The purpose of the study was to establish the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the
internal audit function as a corporate governance mechanism in public universities in Kenya. The
study set to provide an understanding and appreciation of the factors that are necessary for the
Internal Audit Function to be effective, and how best the function could be made to contribute to
the promotion of Good Corporate Governance in public institutions in Kenyan. A case study
design was adopted, and the UON was chosen for the study. To address this purpose, the study
sought to answer the following research question: what is the perception of the internal auditors
at the UON on the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the internal audit function. The
target population for the study was all the Internal Audit staff in the internal audit department of
the UON. A total of 40 respondents were targeted.
The dependent variable was the Effectiveness of the Internal Audit Function, while the
independent variables were: Professional Proficiency of Internal Auditors, Quality of Audit
Work, Organizational Independence, Career and Advancement, and Top Management Support.
The researcher analyzed the collected data using descriptive statistics and presented the
presented the data in terms of percentages, frequency distribution and charts.
The findings from the study were that various factors contribute to the effectiveness of the
internal audit function as a corporate governance mechanism in public universities. These factors
range from professional proficiency of internal auditors, quality of audit work, organizational
independence, career and advancement and top management support. The study findings were
similar with those in existing literature reviewed; hence the conclusion that an effective internal
audit function contributes to corporate governance to a great extent. The research findings
indicated that there was a positive relationship between the variables, and that the effectiveness
in internal audit function in public universities can be explained by the identified factors.
The study recommended that there was need to invest in the internal audit function of
organizations, as this was bound to contribute to the enhancement of the corporate governance
structures. The study suggested that future research should focus on all public universities in
Kenya, and that a broad based study on role of Internal Audit on organizational performance in
both private and public organizations should also be carried out in future.

DO Gisiora, Mburu S. A framework for implementation of information security management in government ministries, a case study of Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Not only is Inlormation Security Strategy crucial to protect information systems, but it is central to organization survival. Ioday's organizations depend on information for their survival. Specifically, organizations depend on the systems and controls in place that provide for the ongoing confidentiality, integrity, and availability of their data and information. Many organizations are ill-equipped to define their security goals, let alone
to make an explicit connection between their security goals and the strategic drivers of
the organization. Threats to organizational information and information systems are
increasing in occurrence and in complexity and this emphasizes the urgency for
organizations to learn how to better protect their information and information systems
Information security is subjective and contextual therefore, every organization's approach
to a security strategy should be different and customized accordingly, because each
organization has its own threats, risks, business drivers, and industry compliance
requirements .
To improve the governance of IT and comply with regulatory demands, organizations are
using best practice frameworks implement information security. One of these IT
governance frameworks is COBIT (The Control Objectives for Inlormation and related
Technology). COBIT provides guidance on what could be done within an IT organization
in terms of controls, activities, measuring and documentation. This framework is however
generic and require specific knowledge in order to enable customization and use in a
local scenario.
The research methodology that was adopted was a case study. I he population of interest
was officers in the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports working at the headquarters.
Random sampling was used with targeted interviews to the olficers in ICT department
who are the custodians of Information systems in the ministry and the administration
which provide policy guidelines for the ministry. Data was analyzed by the use of
descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution tables, percentages, bar charts and pie
I he research established that the ministry faces a number of challenges in relation to
implementing information security in today's environment. In as much as the ministry’s
top officials expressed firm commitment to implementing security in the ministry, there
seemed to be no co-ordination between ministry staff and IT staff on the role of
information which indicates a communication deficit.
The key recommendations include the need for management to fully recognize that
Information Communication Technologies are a critical asset and which should be
restricted to authorized/legal use only; Information Communication Technology is a
Business Issue - not a technology issue and need to be aligned with priorities, industryprudent
practices and government regulations, and Information Communication
Technologies are enterprise-wide business with associated risks, and therefore all staff
should be involved in securing them. An implementation framework, The Control
Objectives for Government Information Technologies (COGIT) was developed which the
researcher recommended to government ministries as a reference model to Information
security management.

Matanji P. In-House indexing of Periodical literature: A study of University Libraries in Kenya.. Pretoria: University of South Africa; 2012.
Otieno SO. An investigation into the practice corporate social responsibility in the construction industry in Kenya: a case of contractors, Nairobi .; 2012. Abstract

The construction industry in Kenya is very important since it contributes greatly to the growth of the economy. Despite its very significant contribution to the economy, one finds that its operations diversely affect the society and environment in which most of its works are carried out in. Due to this reason, construction companies are required to go beyond the basic requirements of meeting projects' basic objectives by considering socio- economic, as well as sustainable environment issues. One of the ways in which this can be achieved is through the practice of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in a firm's operations. It is on this premise that the study was carried out with the main aim of investigating the practice of CSR by Kenyan construction companies. The study sought to establish the prevalence of CSR practice in the Kenyan construction industry, together with the various impacts encountered as a result of embracing the practice by various contractors. Other objectives of the study included formulation of a practical CSR model which could be adopted by contractors in Kenya for future use and also to recommend a way forward. A survey approach was adopted for the study and data was collected from the chosen sample group of 'Class A' construction firms. Data was analysed using statistical software's and procedures, and inferences made from the data outputs. Responses from the survey request were used to inform the study findings, conclusions and recommendations. The results of the survey indicate that most of the construction firms are aware of the concept of CSR and that those who had embraced the practice had encountered various positive impacts highlighted the study. This was despite some of the challenges they had faced in implementation of the concept. The study highlighted pertinent concepts on how construction firms can improve their outputs and work relationships by embracing the practice of CSR. The study recommends that CSR practice .should be adopted by all practicing contracting firms in Kenya for purposes of enjoying the inherent benefits that comes with its practice. This can be done through the formulation of relevant and practical legal and institutional frameworks that will ensure mandatory practice, as it has been done in other developed countries. The study further recommends a simple CSR model which can be adopted by the various construction firms for purposes of improving their businesses.


Lean supply chain management thinking and practices is considered as one of the ways
recognized to achieve timely supplies and to create greater values. The application of lean supply
management principles is meant to lead to improved performance of managers of the supply
chain. The Changing consumer needs and business environment has necessitated Public
Universities in Kenya to adopt lean supply chain management practices in order to survive thus
minimizing operational costs and maximizing profits. The increased change of customer needs
and the emergence of new technologies have resulted into Public Universities adapting to those
changes so as to remain relevant and competitive.
The objectives of the study sought to; (i) determine the extent that the human resource practices
linked to the supply chain management at the Public Universities in Kenya were consistent with
lean supply chain management, (ii) determine the extent that the information Technology linked
to the supply chain management at the Public Universities in Kenya were consistent with
reference to lean supply chain management and (iii)determine the extent to which the supplier
relations linked to the supply chain management at the Public Universities in Kenya were
consistent with the reference of lean supply chain management.
The study used a descriptive survey research design to assess the application of lean supply
chain management practices at the Public Universities in Kenya. The survey was used to
describe the Lean Supply chains Management practices which are successfully applied in the
Public Universities so as to enhance their service delivery. The survey was a census study that
included all the Seven Public Universities in Kenya, namely; University of Nairobi, Moi
University, Egerton University, Kenyatta University, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture
and Technology, Maseno University and Masinde Muliro University. The main instruments for
data collection were structured questionnaires with both closed and open ended questions. It was
administered to the respondents through personal interviews and by dropping and picking the
questionnaires at the business premises.
The data collected was analyzed using measures of central tendency including the mean scores
and percentages and measures of dispersion. Findings were then interpreted, conclusions made
and recommendations. The study established that rigid organizational culture and resistance to
change among Public Universities is a major obstacle to successful implementation of lean
supply chain management practices in Public Universities.
The study recommends that employees of Public Universities in Kenya be involved in decision
making and be sensitized on lean supply chain management practices in order to understand the
value and the changing business environment. The study established that human resource
practices among Public Universities have not been full linked to lean supply chain management
practices due to inappropriate policies of Public Universities to develop their new and existing
staff through training on the value of lean supply chain management practices. Therefore, the
study recommends the formulation of policies by the public universities that embrace lean supply
chain management practices for competitive advantage. The study established that, integration
of information technology in every department of Public Universities in Kenya enhances
efficiency and effectiveness thus customer satisfaction. The study established that unclear
procurement policies in Public Universities in Kenya hinder efficient and effective lean supply
chain management practices and results into poor performance of Public Universities due to
increased costs associated with supply chain activities.

Wairimu J. Mathematical analysis and dynamical systems : modeling Highland malaria in western Kenya.; 2012. Abstract

The objective of this thesis is to model highland malaria in western Kenya using dynamical systems. Two mathematical models are formulated ; one, on differentiated susceptibility and differentiated infectivity in a metapopulation setting with age structure, the other, a saturated vector feeding rate model with disease induced deaths and varying host and vector populations. In the first model, we consider the different ecosystems identified as malaria hotspots in the western Kenya highlands and consider the ecosystems as different patches. The population in each patch is classified as, either child or, adult. The model will aid in examining the role of ecosystem heterogeneity and age structure to the persistent malaria epidemics in the highlands. We formulate the differentiated susceptibility and infectivity model that extend to multiple patches the well known epidemiological models in one patch. Classifying the hot spots as n patches, we give its mathematical analysis using the theory of triangular system, monotone non-linear dynamical systems, and Lyapunov-Lasalle invariance principle techniques. Key to our analysis is the definition of a reproductive number, Ro, the number of new infections caused by one individual in an otherwise fully susceptible population throughout the duration of the infectious period. The existence and stability of disease-free and endemic equilibrium is established. We prove that the disease free state of the systems is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number Ro<1, and when Ro>1 an endemic equilibrium is established which is locally and globally asymptotically stable. The model shows that the age structuring reduces the magnitude of infection. Using relevant data we did some simulation, to demonstrate the role played by metapopulation and age structuring on the incidence and Ro. In the second part we formulate a model for malaria with saturation on the vector feeding rates that lead to a nonlinear function in the infection term. The vector feeding rate is assumed, as in the predator prey models, to rise linearly as a function of the host-vector ratio until it reaches a threshold Qv, after which the vector feeds freely at its desired rate. The two populations are variable and drive malaria transmission, such that when the vectors are fewer than hosts, the rate of feeding is determined by the vectors feeding desire, whereas, when the hosts are more than the vectors, the feeding rate is limited by host availability and other feeding sources may have to be sought by the vector. Malaria induced deaths are introduced in the host population, while the vector is assumed to survive with the parasite till its death. We prove that the Disease Free Equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable if Ro<1 and when Ro>1, an endemic equilibrium emerges, which is unique, locally and globally asymptotically stable. The role of the saturated mosquito feeding rate is explored with simulation showing the crucial role it plays especially on the basic reproduction number

Thuo JW. Media Framing of Women Politicians in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Omwansa TK. Modelling adoption of mobile money by the poo in Nairobi, Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Njaanake HK. Morbidity patterns, spatial distribution and treatment of schistosoma haematobium and soil transmitted helminthes in primary school children in the tana delta of Kenya.; 2012. Abstract

Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infections are important public health problems in Kenya but their prevalence, intensities and the resultant morbidity vary widely from one endemic focus to another in the country. There is, therefore, an urgent need for investigations on the extent of disease burden, risk factors associated with the infections and effects of treatment from different endemic settings as a background for designing and implementing programs for successful control of these infections.
Objective: To assess morbidity patterns, response to treatment and spatial distribution of S. haematobium and STH infections in school-going children of the Tana Delta District, coastal Kenya.
Methods: At baseline, urine samples were collected from primary school children and examined for S. haematobium eggs, haematuria, and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and selected cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)- γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10] levels. Stool samples were also collected and examined for soil-transmitted helminth eggs, ECP and eosinophil protein X (EPX) levels. One sample of venous blood was taken from each child and tested for haemoglobin level, serum IL-6, TNF-α, IFN- γ and IL-10 levels. Height and weight of each child were taken and each child was subjected to ultrasound examination of the urinary tract for S. haematobium infection-related morbidity. The children were interviewed on their behaviour in relation to infection with S. haematobium and STH, related symptoms. At the end of the baseline survey each child was treated with praziquantel (40 mg/ kg body weight) and albendazole (400 mg).
During the follow-up survey, 3 months after treatment, stool and urine samples were examined for S. haematobium and STH eggs and haematuria as in the baseline. The weight of each child was also recorded. A household survey was conducted during which parents were interviewed to elucidate the socio-economic conditions which would predispose to infections. Geographical co-ordinates of the main houses in the households and the local water contact points were also recorded. p-values less than 0.05 were considered significant in all statistical tests.

Omucheni DL. Multispectral Imaging of Human Blood Media Applied to Malaria Diagnostics. Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Bulimo WD, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Sarguta R. On the Construction of Mixed Poisson Distributions. Ottieno JAM, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Buyinza D. Phytochemical investigation of Zanthoxylum holstzianum for antimicrobial principles. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

As a response to the worldwide alarm of increased resistance of microbes to readily available antibiotics, the stem bark of Zanthoxylum holstzianum (Rutaceae) with no prior phytochemical report was investigated so as to isolate, and elucidate secondary metabolites with likely antimicrobial activities. The plant material was collected from Diani Veminant forest (coastal province of Kenya), dried at room temperature under shade, pulverised and extracted using acetone. The crude extract was subjected to fractionation and purification using a range of separation techniques including, partitioning, Column Chromatography (CC), Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (PTLC) and crystallization. The structure of the isolated compounds was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques such as UV, MS, and NMR.
In total seven compounds were isolated, of these, three were benzophenanthridine alkaloids dihydrochelerythrine (2), 8-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (5) and 8oxochelerythrine (7)], one canthin-6-one alkaloid [N-methylflindersine (3)], a flavanone
[hesperidine (1)], a fatty acid [hexadecanoic acid (6)], and an amide (2E,4E)-Nisobutyltetradeca-2,4-dienamide (4)]. This is the first report of the occurrence of (2E,4E)N-isobutyltetradeca-2,4-dienamide (4), hexadecanoic acid (6) and hesperidin (1) from the genus Zanthoxylum. A summary of the isolated compounds is shown in figure 1. The crude extract and isolated compounds were screened against four microbial
pathogens, namely: Escherichia coli NC 35218 (Bacterium), Staphylococcus aureus
ATCC 259213 (Bacterium), Candida albicans SC 5314 (Yeast fungus), and Aspergillus
niger ATCC 16404 (Filamentous fungus) using the disc diffusion technique as
recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2012).
Dihydrochelerythrine (2), N-methylflindersine (3), (2E, 4E)-N-isobutyltetradeca-2,4dienamide (5) and the crude extract, each had minimum inhibition concentration (MIC)
of 6.25 μg/disc against Staphylococcus aureus. The crude had MIC of 62.5 μg/disc
against Candida albicans and the essential oils showed a MIC of 12.5 μg/disc against
both Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.

Tirop LJ. Polymer-surfactant stabilised drug nanoparticles. London: King's College London; 2012.
Osanjo L. Product Design Practice within Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Mulli TK. Proteomic investigation of salivary biomarkers in periodontal diseases. Hughes FJ, Ide M, eds. London: King's College London; 2012.
Kalai JM. School principals’ preparation and development.. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic publishers. ISSBN-978-3-8465.; 2012.
IRAYA MWANGICYRUS. Socially responsible investments and portfolio performance: A critical literature review. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Since its introduction in the early 1970s, socially responsible investment (SRI) has gained prominence as both a rival and a complement to conventional investment. SRI is the philosophy and practice of making strategic investment decisions by integrating financial and non-financial considerations, including personal values, societal demands, environmental concerns and corporate governance issues. One of the major concerns in socially responsible investing is whether there is a difference between the performance of socially screened portfolios and that of conventional funds.

This study is a literature review of socially responsible investment and portfolio performance. The objectives of the study are to establish the documented relationship between socially responsible investment (SRI) and portfolio performance; to investigate, from the literature, whether investor demographic characteristics moderate the relationship between socially responsible investment and portfolio performance, to examine whether the relationship between SRI and portfolio performance is intervened by portfolio management process, to identify and document research gaps in socially responsible investment and lastly to establish researchable issues in socially responsible investment. The study presents a conceptual model guided by the modern portfolio theory, the stakeholders’ theory, the institutional theory and the new social movement theory.

Literature reviewed on the performance of SRI mutual funds has been inconclusive with three schools of thought emerging: SRI under-performs, over-performs or performs as well as conventional mutual funds. The paper concludes that the conflicting results are caused by the fact that the relationship between SRI and portfolio performances is not direct but is intervened by other variables such as the portfolio management process. Five factors in the portfolio management process that are affected by SRI have been identified (Havemann and Webster, 1999). These are the portfolio diversification process, the size and structure of the investable universe, concentration and the research costs incurred in monitoring the investee companies. Another explanation into the conflicting results is that the relationship between SRI and portfolio performances may be moderated by the investors’ demographic characteristics such age, gender, level of education and amount of funds under management (Nilsson, 2008; Nilsson, 2009; Junkus and Berry, 2010).

A number of research gaps arise from the analysis of the issues examined in this paper. These include: Firstly, lack of consensus on why SRI occurs even when empirical evidence on the impact of SRI on portfolio performance is inconclusive. Secondly, difficulties in assessment of non-financial risk and return created by SRI especially given the inability to quantify social, ethical, governance, moral and environmental issues. Thirdly, most studies have not controlled for any intervening or moderating variable affecting the relationship between SRI and portfolio performance. Variables such as differences in demographic characteristics of the fund managers and portfolio management process may affect the relationship between SRI and portfolio performance.

Arising from the research gaps identified, several areas of further study have been suggested. These include: Firstly, a research instrument be developed to empirically test the variables that impact on socially responsible investment including the moderating and intervening variables. Secondly, a study can be undertaken to investigate the heterogeneity among investor clienteles and its implications for understanding the effects of social values on asset prices. Thirdly, given that investors have different reasons for investing in SRI profiled mutual funds, future research with regard to this segmentation would be to find out the reasons why investors belong to certain groups. Fourthly, further research can be done focusing on the type of mutual funds that could be marketed to the different investors’ segments and finally, an index can be developed to quantify the non-financial risk and returns existing in SRI mutual funds.

Chege MN. A study of how commercial sex workers care for and arrange for future support to their children: case of Kibera, Nairobi.; 2012. Abstract

Childcare is necessary for child survival growth and development. It is influenced by certain factors such as the maternal health status and resource availability. It has been estimated that 50-80% of Kenya's commercial sex workers are HIV positive. They are the primary caregivers for their children. Yet while considerable body of research in Kenya has focused on commercial sex workers as a high-risk group for the fatal HIV/AIDS and on their role in relation to HIV epidemic, no data were available on how they care and plan for future support for their children. This descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out among 385 commercial sex workers in Kibera Slum in Nairobi Kenya, between July and December 2000. The aim of this study was to evaluate the commercial sex workers' childcare practices and how they plan for future support of their children. The study respondents were women aged between 18 and 19 years. They all had children whose age groups included the 0-18 years. Data were collected over a period of 18 weeks, using a structured questionnaire, observations of the under five years old children, verification of child health card and focus group discussions. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results indicated that 81.2% of the study population lived with their children despite the fact that 74.1% practiced prostitution at home. In this study 89.9% of the study population had taken their children to school. However continuous education was undermined by lack of school fees (52.5% and truancy (46.6%) with more of the illiterate mothers (65%) reporting school dropouts. A larger proportion (42.2%) of the respondents who practiced prostitution at home (42.2%) reported more school dropouts of their children than those who practiced elsewhere. Results of health promotion indicated that 96.8% of the under five years old children were fully immunized. More respondents who knew their HIV status discussed HIV/STDs with their children than those that did not know 25.3, p < 0.001). Focus group discussions showed that, health-seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by use of alcohol by the mothers and to some extent, health care cost. Health seeking behaviour for the mothers was significantly associated with respondent's knowledge of own HIV status 6.1, p < 0.05). Support for commercial sex workers in bringing up their children, was minimal. Only 43.9% received support from extended families. The illiterate mothers were less likely to be supported by relative (OR 2.64, p < 0.01). Possession of assets was positively associated with having an extra income generating activity 17.8, p < 0.001). Those respondents with secondary education were more likely to possess assets for future support of their children compared to those without (OR 1.9, p < 0.05). Generally, the commercial sex workers of Kibera slums made no provisions for future support of their children. Alcohol consumption and low education undermined their efforts to provide better care to their children and to secure resources. This underlines the need for continuous health education among commercial sex workers and establishment of systems that will assist them to invest in the education of their children.

G.H.N. N. supervision to Asiko, Grace Pollinating of Strawberries by stingless bees in Kenya . Nairobi, Kenya.: University of Nairobi.; 2012.
C. Ludia Mattakwa, Oliech PJ, Owillah F. Symptomatic and Uroflometry Outcomes Of Tamsulosin and Dutasteride Combination In Management of Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy in the Black Race . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Objective: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) incidence and progression has been shown to vary by race, geography and ethnicity with African-Americans having a more aggressive disease than other races. Combination drug therapy has been shown to be a favorable option for medical therapy of symptomatic BPH but data is lacking on the effects of this therapy in black race patients locally. This study aims to assess the early (six months) response, by both International-Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and peak urinary flow rate (QMax), to combination drug therapy of Tamsulosin and Dutasteride for management of symptomatic BPH in a predominantly African black race population cohort as a pilot study.
Patients and Methods: Dutasteride 0.5mg and Tamsulosin 0.4mg once daily were administered orally to 52 patients aged 45years and above of black race with confirmed BPH for six months. The main outcome measures of change in mean QMax and IPSS were assessed at three months and six months. Secondary outcome measures were mean Total Prostate Specific Antigen (tPSA) and Prostate Volume (PV) changes. Drug compliance by Modified Morisky Scores (1) and adverse/side effects reported were documented. Paired sample t test and Pearson correlation as well as ANOVA were used to analyze the data.
Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant increase in mean QMax by 13.3ml/sec and decrease in mean IPSS by 14.5 points at six months. There was a fairly rapid reduction in mean Total PSA of 0.9ng/ml as early as two months and a slower fall in mean PV of 10.224mls most evident at the last follow-up. Safety and tolerability of the drugs was consistent with previous experience and majority of the patients portrayed an excellent drug compliance profile.
Conclusion: These results suggest the efficacy of combination drug therapy of Dutasteride and Tamsulosin for moderate-to-severe BPH in the black race. These patients seem to have a more drastic and rapid mean IPSS, QMax and PV response to therapy than reported for other races but their mean total PSA decrease was less. Combination drug therapy is therefore recommended as a useful alternative to surgery in management of BPH in the black race.
Key Words: Benign Prostatic Enlargement, Urinary flow rate, Prostate Specific Antigen, IPSS
Corresponding Author: Professor J.S. Oliech Professor of General Surgery/Urology
Department Of Surgery, University Of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.Email:

Kanduma E, Francis Gakuyab, Naftaly Githakaa, Saori Suzukia, Edward Kariukib, Hirohisa Mekataa, Satoru Konnaia, Tomohiro Okagawaa, Shirai T, Ikenakad Y, Ishizuka M, Murata S, Ohashi K. Transcriptional profiling of inflammatory cytokine genes in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) infected with Theileria parva. Vol. IX. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2012.
Juma G, Thiongo M, Dutaur L, Rharrabe K, Marion-Poll F, Ru LB, Magoma G, Silvain J-F, Calatayud P-A. Two sugar isomers influence host plant acceptance by a cereal caterpillar pest. PO Box 62000 Nairobi, Kenya:: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, ; 2012.abstracts_juma.pdf
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Karimurio J. The “segment knockout” survey method for large trachoma-endemic districts. Melbourne: Melbourne; 2012. Abstract

Prevalence surveys are mandatory before new trachoma control projects are funded and existing ones continued. When a large administrative district with >200,000 people is surveyed as one trachoma intervention unit, the survey clusters are widely spaced and it is difficult to establish the distribution of the disease at the sub-district level with certainty. As a result, some trachoma-endemic areas in Kenya have been missed out and non-endemic areas included in mass antibiotic treatment. The other challenge is the large sample size required in standard trachomatous trichiasis (TT) surveys that include participants aged >15 years. The main objective of this study was to develop an effective and efficient survey method to justify administration of mass antibiotic treatment for active trachoma. The other objective was to establish the optimum lower age limit of TT survey participants, to ensure that the time required to complete a TT survey was the same as the time required to complete a TF survey, while ensuring that the sample was adequately representative of the TT backlog. The costs of surveys and administration of mass antibiotic treatment were determined for comparison of the standard and new survey methods. Data sets for previous surveys were re-analysed to calculate the optimum lower age limit of TT survey participants and correction factors to extrapolate the total backlog of TT.

A “Trachoma Survey by Segment” (TSS) method was developed to justify and reduce the cost of mass antibiotic treatment. It was tested in Turkana, a large hyper-endemic district with 543,199 people and Narok, a meso-endemic district with 576,388 people. Each district was divided into five geographical areas (segments). A segment had a population of 100,000–200,000 people. Areas with similar risk of trachoma were aggregated in the same segment. The segments with <10% prevalence of TF in children 1-9 years were excluded (knocked-out) from mass treatment, 10%-30% treated for 3 years and >30% treated for 5 years.

An efficient TT40 survey method was also developed where the backlog of TT was estimated in people >40 years old and correction factors used to extrapolate the total backlog. A TT40 survey required a smaller survey sample than a standard TT survey. The backlog correction factor for the lower age limit of 40 years was 1.1.

In Turkana district 3,962 children aged 1-9 years were examined and the prevalence of TF in the whole district was 38.0% (95%CI: 32.2%-43.9%). If the survey was conducted using the standard survey by administrative district method the whole population would have been treated for 5 years. However, the TSS method revealed that two segments needed treatment for 3 years and three segments for 5 years. After mass treatment the areas will be re-surveyed to justify further treatment.

In Narok district 3,998 children aged 1-9 years were examined and the prevalence of TF was 11.0% (95%CI: 8.0%-14.0%). The entire district had received three rounds of mass antibiotic treatment prior to this study. If this study was conducted by administrative district method, the whole population could have been treated for another three years. The TSS method identified three non-endemic segments which were excluded (knocked-out) from further treatment.

In Turkana district 2,962 people >40 years were examined and 7.8% (95%CI: 6.8%-8.8%) had TT while in Narok 2,996 people >40 years were examined and 2.9% (95%CI: 2.2%-3.6%) had TT. All the segments in both districts needed TT surgical services.

The cost of a survey by the administrative district method was $15,726 to $28,905, while by the TSS method it was $31,917 to $40,610 ($6,383 to $8,122 per segment). In 2009, the unit cost of administration of mass treatment was $0.20 to $0.42 per person treated. In Turkana district (hyper-endemic setting), the total cost of a survey and administration of mass treatment by the TSS method was $11,705 (1.7%) more expensive that by the administrative district method. In Narok district (meso-endemic setting with clustered trachoma) the survey by TSS method and administration of mass treatment was cheaper by $168,275 (53.2%).

It was concluded that the TSS is an effective trachoma survey method to identify the areas that need mass antibiotic treatment. For short term (<3 years) mass treatment in a hyper-endemic district like Turkana, the TSS method has no advantage over the administrative district method. For long term treatment, the TSS method is recommended because some segments may not require treatment for >3 years. The TT40 is an efficient trachoma survey method to determine the backlog of people with TT.


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