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Research Paper
Imungi, JK; Okoth MW. 2nd Food Science Subject Meeting Report.; 1996.
Otieno.d.m. Ergogenic Aids in Sports.; 1995.
Keya, SO; Michieka RW. Agricultural sector development.; 1993.
Nyagah DG, Opondo FA, SP Wamahiu. Educational situation of the Kenyan girl child.; 1992.
Mbugua PN;, Wahome RG. Evaluation of poultry feeds.; 1991.
Mbugua SK;, Okoth MW. Food Science Subject Meeting Report.; 1990.
Connerley E;, Nathan I;, Schroeder L. Bangladesh Rural and Feeder Roads Sector Assessment.; 1989.
Munene, J.N; Kariuki MGWDI; SJ. Incidence And Cost Of Mastitis In Kenya.; 1987.
Mbogoh SG;, Mbatia OLE. Evaluation of socio-economic aspects of smallholder irrigated rice schemes. The case of Anyiko, Alungo and Nyachoda schemes in Nyanza province of Kenya.; 1986. Abstract

Gives the results of the evaluation of socio-economic aspects of three smallholder irrigated rice schemes in Nyanza Province of Kenya. These includes the Anyiko, Alungo and Nyachoda rice schemes. Discusses the involvement of the provincial irrigation unit in the rehabilitation and extension of irrigated rice production in these schemes. Results show that irrigated rice production is the only crop production enterprise that can guarantee a source of both food and attractive cash income in the three rice schemes.

Mbogoh SG. Dairy development and dairy marketing in sub-Saharan Africa Some preliminary indicators of policy impacts.; 1984. Abstract

OVER THE PAST TWO DECADES, sub-Saharan Africa experienced relatively low growth rates in the production of dairy products compared with the average for all developing countries. Total consumption of dairy products grew relatively much faster during the same period. However, available data suggest that the consumption of goat and sheep milk declined in East Africa between 1963 and 1980 and that of camel's milk stagnated. Only the consumption of cow's milk increased fairly rapidly in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. During the 1970s the population of sub-Saharan Africa grew at a rate of 2.9% per annum. Over the same period dairy production grew at a rate of about 1.9% per annum, while the consumption of dairy products increased at a rate of 2.1 % per annum. The trade deficit in dairy products in sub-Saharan Africa increased alarmingly over the last two decades: while in 1963 the dairy trade deficit for the region was about US$ 39 million, the figure had risen to about US$ 81 million by 1970 and to US$ 575 million by 1980. The major components of the imports were milk and butter and to a lesser extent cheese. The systems of dairy development and dairy marketing in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa have one common feature: the dairy economy is dominated by a relatively underdeveloped dairy marketing subsystem in the traditional livestock subsector. Most countries in the region have both a formal dairy marketing subsystem, which caters primarily for urban milk supplies, and an informal marketing subsystem, which operates especially in the rural areas. There is some evidence that the informal marketing subsystems tend to be low-cost operations and that they are in a position to pay higher prices to producers. With milk production in sub-Saharan Africa being well below the effective demand for milk and milk products, the region will continue to depend on dairy imports to close the dairy deficit in the foreseeable future. Measures to improve the marketing infrastructure in order to facilitate the distribution of recombined fluid milk derived mainly from imported milk powder and butter oil, will also be needed. The need to link rural and urban areas in a more efficient milk distribution network must therefore receive top priority. Most food policies in developing countries, and especially those in sub-Saharan Africa, appear to be aimed at providing cheap food to urban populations. A strategy of dairy development through the creation of producer incentives, with producer prices and price controls as the main policy instruments, is limited chiefly by the need to strike a balance between the producer price and the retail price. The pricing problem appears to be at the core of programmes for improving dairy development and dairy marketing. Governments are often sensitive to the level of food prices, particularly for the urban poor. Variations in the quality of the products offered for sale, whereby consumer prices are differentiated, could help achieve certain nutritional objectives. For instance, the introduction of 'toned' (more expensive) and 'double-toned' (less expensive) liquid milk in India has made it possible to sell pasteurized milk to both higher-income and lower-income groups in the metropolitan areas. Generally, sub-Saharan Africa could learn from the experience of dairy development in India, where petty milk traders have been integrated into the overall milk collection and distribution system, thus creating a complementary rather than a competitive relationship in the operations of the country's dairy industry.

Njoroge, K; Mwendwa EW. Maize in Kenya: development and production.; 1982.
Stelfox, John G; Kufwafwa JMSW; W. Distributions, densities and trends of elephants and rhinoceros in Kenya, 1977-1978 from KREMU's aerial surveys.; 1979. Abstract

Baseline information on densities, distributions and population trends of the African elephant was obtained during KREMU's 1977 and 1978 aerial surveys of all pastoral rangelands in Kenya. It was estimated in 1978 that there were between 44,000 and 67,000 elephants in Kenya 73% of the estimated 1977 population. The ratio of live to dead elephants in 1978 has further decreased to 44:56 compared to 51:49 in 1977. Of the 5,000 to 10,000 located in the general agricultural zone, most were in the national parks and forest reserves.

Stelfox, John G; Kufwafwa JMSPDW; W; G. Livestock and wild herbivore populations in the Kenya rangelands in 1977 compared with 1978.; 1979. Abstract

Compares wild herbivore and livestock poulation data collected during the aerial suveys throughout the rangelands areas during 1977 and 1978. rangelands which were flown in straight line belt transects the first year at l0km spacing and the second at 5km apart. Elephant population estimates according to the ecoregions were: Northern Rift Valley 1,600 in 1977 but not included in 1978; Northern volcanics 1,600 in 1977 and 110 in 1978; Northern Central 4,170 in 1977 and 1,930 in 1978; North East 9,500 in 1977 and 3,060 in 1978; South Central 2,800 in 1977 and 4,130 in 1978, East Central-Coastal 13,900 in 1977 and 8,450 in 1978; South East 25,500 in 1977 and 21,900 in 1978; South West 1,800 in 1977 and 3,180 in 1978 providing a total estimate for 1977 of 59,800 and for 1978 of 42,800.

Johansen, K; Maloiy GGMO; H. Temperature regulation in the naked mole rat.; 1976.
Ebrahim YH. Ebclima Software (Synthesis + interpretation of findings). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Ebrahim YH. Ebenergy Software (Simulations + experimentations). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Ebrahim YH. Ebstats Software (Collection, processing, preparation, analysis of data + results). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Ebrahim YH. Temperature Template Software (Baseline data). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Orwa OD, Okoyo OJ. Mobile Interfaced Crop Diagnostic Expert System. 1.0.0 ed. University of Nairoboi; 2011.
Kurji, Parin; McDermott B; SD; SR. The Growing Role Of Computers For Teaching Statistics In Kenya.; 2010. Abstract

Until recently, the teaching of statistics in East Africa has been a traditional chalk-and-talk affair. In the last few years computers have become more widely accessible. At the same time many statistical resources of the highest quality are freely available for Africa, including Computer- Assisted Statistics Textbooks (CAST), an electronic textbook, GenStat Discovery Edition, (a statistics package), and training resources such as the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Training Pack DVD prepared by Statistics Services Centre (SSC) , Reading University. This means that change is not only possible but is within reach of lecturers all over Africa. Experiences at two Kenyan universities are described. Initiatives for undergraduates and postgraduates in both service teaching and specialist teaching of statistics are discussed.

Mungania G. Maudhui Mbalimbali Katika Ushairi wa Mathias E. Mnyampala (Penda-Chako). Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
Kiplagat D. STRATEGY FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION AND ADOPTION OF E-PROCUREMENT IN KENYA PUBLIC SECTOR. Wausi D, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Forthcoming. Abstract

There is strong consensus among researchers and practitioners regarding the strategic importance of developing efficient purchasing techniques to increase transparency and fairness, reduce corruption, ensure competitiveness and reduce costs. An increasing number of government authorities are adopting e-procurement solutions to reap the above stated benefits (Panayiotou et al., 2004). E-procurement is the process of purchasing goods and services electronically , and can be defined as “the use of integrated (commonly web-based) communication systems for the conduct of part or all of the purchasing process; a process that may incorporate stages from the initial need identification by users, through search, sourcing, negotiation, ordering, receipt, payment and post-purchase review” (Presutti,2003).

In this research proposal I propose to comprehensively study through explorative case study five successful cases of e-procurement in the public sector in Korea, Australia, Italy, Ireland, Philippine's and use their experiences, challenges and strategies employed to come up with a multi-disciplinary framework for the successful implementation and adoption of e-procurement in the public sector in Kenya. In this research critical successes factors (CSFs) and diffusion of innovation theory will be used in the study. Explorative case study and qualitative research design methodology will be used in this research study although aspects on the attitude of the intended users will be analyzed quantitatively.

Mungania G. Ufundishaji wa Kiswahili katika shule za upili chini ya mfumo wa 8-4-4 (Kidato cha Kwanza). Anonymous, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
Odhiambo MA. Antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of some medicinal plants used by the Luo community of Kenya.; Submitted. Abstract

The Luo community of Kenya have traditionally used plants for treatment of various disease conditions,
some of which we now know to be caused by microbial infections. Some of these plants, namely Lannea
stuhlmanii, Carissa edulis, Combretum fragrans, Conyza sumatrensis, Ormocarpum trichocarpum, Sida
cuneifolia, Plumbago zeylanica, and Rhoicissus revoilii, were studied. Their ethanol extracts were
screened for their antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus
and Bacillus pumulus.
Ethanolic root extract of C sumatrensis had good antibacterial activity against E. coli, while extracts of
C fragrans root bark, C edulis root, S. cuneifolia whole plant, R. revoilii tubers and leaf extract of C
sumatrensis in the same solvent had good activity against it. Activity against B. pumulus was observed in
all extracts except those of L. stuhlmanii bark and R. revoilii tubers. Good activity against S. aureus was
observed for C fragrans, S. cuneifolia and L. stuhlmanii.
R. revoihi, L. stuhlmanii, C fragrans and C edulis exhibited good antifungal activity against Candida
Combretum fragrans bark extract had the highest overall antimicrobial activity of all the different plant
extracts examined and was subsequently chosen for further studies. All its ethanol, methanol, ethyl
acetate and chloroform extracts were found to have significant antimicrobial activity.
Combretum fragrans bark powder was found to contain saponins, cardiac glycosides, free anthraquinones
(anthracene glycosides), tannins and flavonoids. However, it had no starch nor alkaloids.
The chloroform extract of C fragrans was subjected to column chromatographic separation and
sitosterol (with stigmasterol as a minor compound) was isolated and identified. Sitosterol was shown to
have antifungal activity against C albicans and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli.
The results of this work would therefore appear to lend support to the traditional use of Lannea
stuhlmanii, Combretum fragrans, Conyza sumatrensis (tineasis), Plumbago zeylanica, and Rhoicissus
revoilii in disease conditions where microbial infections may be a factor. Use of growth enhancers like
Carissa edulis in combination therapy may be justified on the basis of their immune boosting activity.

Omolo MJ. Assessment Of Knowledge And Attitude On Antiretroviral Therapy Among Nursing Students.; Submitted. Abstract

Title: Assessment of knowledge and attitude on antiretroviral therapy among nursing students. Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of final year nursing students at Kenyatta National Hospital. Specific Objectives were to establish the knowledge of nursing students on Anti-retroviral therapy and to determine the attitude of students towards patients who are on Anti-retroviral therapy Method: The study done at Kenyatta National hospital administered questionnaires to 150 students and 138 were found eligible. Data collected was analyzed using STATA. Results: The findings of the study showed that 39.8% of the nursing students had knowledge about Anti-Retroviral drugs; 42% of the students had some ideas while 18% of the students did not have adequate knowledge. Married and older students seemed to have better knowledge on ART compared to young and single Nurses significant at a P-value of 0.033. Attitude towards ART was positive from 34.8% of the students while 65.2% of the nursing students had not expressed their feeling. There was significant association between attitude and sex. Conclusion: This study confirmed lack of adequate knowledge on Antiretroviral therapy among newly qualified nursing students. The study recommended inclusion of HIV/AIDS based units in the basic training of nurses

Njoroge PK. Assessment of parental sex education to own adolescents among parents in a Peri urban community.; Submitted. Abstract

This was a Survey of Parents' Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of sex education to their own adolescents. The study was conducted between January and March in three divisions of Kiambaa Division of Kiambu District, Central Province of Kenya. This study area is located about 20 km from the city of Nairobi. The study population were parents with at least one child in adolescence. Depending on availability either one or both parents were included in the study. The study instrument was structured, mainly pre-coded questionnaire. The data was obtained through personal interviews conducted from house La ho u sc . The sample population was made up of 729 parents, 70.4% of whom were females. The survey found that 46.3% of parents gave sex education to their own adolescents, majority of them giving it to those of their sex only. Parents gave their adolescents sex education from a mean age (of the adolescent) of 10.33 years (SD=3.51) and the practice was associated with Parents Social, Economic and Demographic factors. 'Of these factors, knowledge that own adolescents received sex education from sources other than the parent had highest odds ratio 10R=4.l8). Age of the parent was the only other factor with odds for the practice (OR=.l.03 ). The level of sex education given to adolescents was higher for girls than for boys. The level of practice to boys was associated with age and socio-economic status (SES) inde~ of the parent. Knowledge of sex education among parents was high and associated with a parents' sex and SES index. Males scored signi ficantly higher than females and parents of Jow SES scored significantly higher than those of high SES index. The attitude to sex education was positive, with nearly all parents feeling that sex education for adolescents was appropriate and that it should be given by own parents, starting from a mean age of 10.61 years (SD=2. 84) and that it should include contraceptive education. The study recommended further studies on parents to understand why the level of practice is unmatched with the high levels of knowledge and attitude and to determine why those parents who know that their adolescents receive sex education from other sources are more likely to give sex education to their adolescents than those who did not. 'Other recommendations were: a study to assess the feasibility of using PTA' s to impart sex education to adolescents in schools, beginning Family Life education in primary schools at standard four (corresponding to age .10-11 years),and establishing of community based centres for sex education counselling for parents with adolescents and adolescents out of school.

Qureshi ZP. Case Records and Commentaries.; Submitted.
Akama MK. Current pattern of road traffic accidents, maxillofacial and associated injuries in Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract

Objective: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and concomitant injuries sustained in Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs).
Study Area: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Study Design: A descriptive cross sectional study including all patients involved in RTAs
brought to casualty and dental departments of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the
KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004.
Results: A total of 482 people involved in RTAs were included in the study. Four hundred and
thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries.
Nonfatal injuries. The 21-30-year-old age group was the most affected. The male to female ratio
was 4:1. Day time injuries were recorded among 60.3% of the participants. The incidence of
RTAs was highest on Fridays. There were 245 (59.5%) pedestrians and 139 (33.7%) passengers
involved. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatu) which were
responsible for 256 (62%) casualties whereas private saloon cars were involved in 150 (36.3%)
cases. Non- use of safety belts was reported in 90 (56.6%) cases whereas over-speeding was
reported by 120 (29.1 %) casualties. Alcohol use by drivers was reported in 26 (6.3%) cases
whereas vehicle defects accounted for 62 (15%) cases.Three hundred and seventy (89.6%)
casualties had soft tissue injuries (STls) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the
majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1 %) incidents of other STls than those of
the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the
casualties had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those
involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. The lower limbs were
more affected with 61 (43%) incidents followed by the upper limbs (24.6%). Pedestrians were
most involved in sustaining skeletal injuries than other categories of road users.
Fatal RTAs: Sixty nine (14.3%) of the 482 participants were fatally injured. The 21-30- year-old
age group was the most affected (20%). The male to female ratio was 3.3:1. Matatus and minibuses
were the leading cause of fatal accidents together having been responsible for 28 (40.6%) of
the accidents. Pedestrians (71.4%) were by far more involved than other categories of road users.
Most participants had multiple injuries with chest injuries having been the most common (50
cases). Fourty six (66.7%) victims had injuries to the head region with subdural haemorrhage
having been the commonest injury found at autopsy (47.8%). Injuries to the chest were found in
fifty (72.2%) victims whereas abdominal and limb injuries were recorded in 42 (60.9%) and 34
(49.3%) victims respectively. Head injury alone was the leading cause of death (37.7%) followed
by head and chest injuries combined (13.0%)
Conclusion: The majority of people involved in RTAs were in their third decade of life with
males having been the predominant group affected. Pedestrians were the leading casualties
amongst road users. Most of the accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles. The lower
limbs sustained most soft tissue and skeletal injuries compared to other anatomic sites other than
the craniofacial area. The leading cause of death was head injury.

Olang' POR. Effects of Spinal Anesthesia during Elective Caesarean Section on Neonatal outcome at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

Utero-placental circulation and hence fetal well-being depends on maternal blood pressure.
Spinal anesthesia for cesarean section causes sudden and severe drops in blood pressure thus
threatening fetal and neonatal acid-base balance. Several protocols have been formulated to
prevent maternal hypotension but none has been shown to totally eliminate this risk.

This was a prospective non-randomized descriptive study that adopted a consecutive sampling
method. All eligible ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) I and ASA II mothers slated
for elective cesarean section at the Labour Ward of The Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi
were visited in the ante-natal ward the day or night before surgery and an informed consent
obtained for inclusion in the study. Any pre-selected mother who ended up needing emergency
surgery or changed her mind about inclusion in the study was excluded. Similarly, any willing
mother who did not qualify for spinal anesthesia was excluded from the study.
A sample size of 172 cases was taken and this required approximately 15 weeks of data
collection. Maternal blood pressures were recorded every minute until delivery. Immediately
after delivery, a section of the umbilical cord was clumped with 2 clumps. Umbilical arterial and
venous blood samples were collected in heparinized syringes and taken to the laboratory within
one hour of collection and analyzed for blood gases and pH as a measure of foetal! neonatal
compromise. Apgar scores were also noted at birth and after 5 minutes and later correlated with
the cord blood gas analyses and maternal blood pressures.
The anesthesia provider was requested to complete a data sheet which was then collected by the
principal investigator on the same day the surgery was performed.
Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16.0 and presented in the form of tables,
graphs and charts.

A total of 172 patients were successfully recruited into the study and the total number of
umbilical cord blood samples analyzed (both arterial and venous) was 316. 28 blood samples
clotted and were not available for analysis.
43 babies (27.2%) were born with neonatal acidemia defined as umbilical arterial blood pHS 7.2.
There was, however, no significant relationship between neonatal acidemia and low Apgar
scores; neither was there a significant relationship between low Apgar scores and maternal
hypotension. 104 patients (65.8%) had a wedge inserted under the right hip as recommended for
prevention of aorto-caval compression. There was, however, no significant difference in the
incidence of maternal hypotension among those with a wedge and those without. Vasopressors
were used in 84 patients (53.2%). These included the use of ephedrine alone or epinephrine
alone or a combination of the two in the process of treating or preventing maternal hypotension.
The use of Va sopressors resulted in significantly fewer incidences of hypotension (p=0.018). The
use of preload with crystalloids before induction of spinal anaesthesia was noted to be
significantly related to the use of Vasopressors whenever the volume of preload was less than
500mls (p=0.027). Similarly, maximum levels of spinal block above T6 resulted in significant
incidences of maternal hypotension (p=O.OO1). Maternal height < 155cm did not have any
significant effect on the incidence of maternal hypotension.

Maternal hypotension can lead to poor neonatal outcome due to its effects on placental perfusion
and hence foetal oxygenation. This study has shown that vasopressor use during spinal
anaesthesia effectively minimizes the incidence of maternal hypotension. Crystalloid preload of
over 500mls is effective in preventing or moderating maternal hypotension.
A well conducted spinal anaesthetic for caesarean section with meticulous control/management
of adverse effects results in healthy neonates and mothers

Githaiga JW. Evaluation of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and needle paracentesis in the management of penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma, at Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients

Indalo DM. Factors Affecting Patients Retention And Defaulter Rates In An Anti-retroviral Therapy Program.; Submitted. Abstract

The purpose of this research was to determine patients' retention and associated factors in the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) program. Specifically, it establishes factors that contribute to patients' retention and recommends the appropriate strategies that enhance sustainable retention of patients in the ART program. The case studies were carried out at Kibera Community Based Health Care project/clinic - AMREF intervention area in Kibera slum
A descriptive cross-sectional method was employed aimed at collecting information from the patients in the program through random sampling, while stratified sampling was used to pick on defaulters, who were traced by Community Health Workers as well as key informants. A representative sample constituted 357 patients in the ART program, 27 defaulters and 8 Health Care Providers of the total population of patients in the program. Quantitative data was collected using a standardized questionnaire administered to the study participants in the program and defaulters. Qualitative data
was obtained through; focus Group Discussion and Key informants interviews. Ethical consideration and risk to human subjects was put into consideration, through provision of willing consent and confidentiality upheld at all times.
The study reveals that AMREF in Kenya, Kibera project continues to playa leading role in the fight against HIV/AIDS. A majority of the respondents (69%) confirmed to have disclosed their HIV status to someone while 31% were categorical that they have not disclosed their status to anyone. It is imperative to point out that disclosure levels were high (88%) amongst respondents in the 51-55 years age group and closely followed by those in the 41-45 years age group (77%). The study also found out that 49.5% of the respondents were on the affirmative that indeed they find it easy discussing their challenges with their clinicians, while 50.5% noted that they do not find it easy. It is
interesting to observe that the challenges of side effects related to ARV are more pronounced amongst those who skip appointments at the clinic compared to stigma and lack of food. A considerable number (15%) of the respondents noted that they like the clinic as it provides free ARVs while 4% lauded the good counseling services offered at the clinic. Some 3% liked the facility as it was near to their areas of residence. Asked to state the reasons why they would prefer other ART clinics, most of the respondents (63%) pointed to the distance from their areas of residence, 14% made reference to the quality of services while 8% explained that they would prefer other clinics if they offer food supplements as part of the program.
In conclusion psycho-social counseling appeared the most preferred service in the facility, it enforces adherence to medication and also reduces stigma related condition among the patients and those around them. MSF Belgium clinics were most preferred clinic in Kibera slum; AMREF Kibera project management should consider exchange visits to their sites and learn from each other. The study detects that there is a cross cutting call from the study approach that an ideal ART programme should provide comprehensive care and support (37%) and offer free medical care (15%) to enhance
accessibility besides integrating PTC (7%) among others as captured from the interviews with defaulters. Service delivery it was suggested should also be done professionally without unethical and coercive practices such sexual harassment among other malpractices that accentuate default.
AMREF Kibera project should consider to networking and collaborating with other organizations that are working in informal settlement to learn and share best practice to enhance adherence to ART care. Address the attitude of health care providers in the facility through trainings, supervision and assessment of care. The project should also review its approach to ART care and through operation research to boost ART care in marginalized communities in the informal settlements.

Mbunya NN. Factors hindering paediatric ward nurses from using nursing care plans at Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

Factors Hindering Paediatric Ward Nurses from Using Nursing Care Plans at Kenyata
National Hospital (KNH)
BACKGROUND: Documentation is an essential and integral part of quality nursing care.
A nursing care plan best suits this purpose because it combines holistic and scientific
approach to patient care. Further, it communicates and supports continuity of care though
minimally used by nurses.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to identify factors hindering paediatric nurses from using
nursing care plans.
METHOD: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to August 2007
at KNH. It used a random sample of 7 in-charge and 100 non in-charge nurses who filled a
self-administered close-ended questionnaire. Pearson product-moment correlation was used
to assess the association between variables with a P value set at 0.05.
RESULTS: Only 2% nurses were utilizing care plans. The characteristics of the nurse (i.e.
age: r = .026, p= .796 ; qualification: r = .007 , p= .941 and years of service: r = .135 , p=
.181 ), nursing work (i.e. workload: r = .099 ,p = .328 and stress: r = -.027 ,p = .786) and
nursing administration (i.e. staffing: r = .192 ,p = .680 and care plan policy: r = .277 ,p =
.547) had a non significant linear relationship with utilizing care plans. The linear
relationship between familiarity with the care plan content (r=.198, p= .049)) and its use
was statistically significant whereas ease to update a care plantr = .013, p = .897) was not.
CONCLUSION: Further research is indicated to determine hospital-specific factors
predicting non-use of care plans in order to address them with aim of popularizing their
use. This will go a long way to enrich the four main areas of nursing: Research, Education,
Administration and Teaching.

Nyamu DG. Knowledge on diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients attending Kenyatta national hospital outpatient clinic.; Submitted. Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease that has significant morbidity and mortality worldwide resulting from complications arising from poor control. 1,3
There is no local data to show the level of diabetic patients' knowledge on this disease at KNH, an important aspect in DM management. In the present cross-sectional study, determination of the diabetic patient's knowledge of his/her disease was undertaken for the first time at KNH.
Study Objectives: To determine the proportion of KNH DM outpatients with adequate knowledge on the disease and to determine the level of provision of diabetic education to the DM outpatients.
Study design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study from September 2007 to January 2008.105 DM patients (above 18 years) who had given informed consent were interviewed to determine the level of their knowledge on OM and hence the proportion of respondents with adequate knowledge. Codes were manually assigned to all questions and the respective answers. Five randomly selected KNH OM OPO healthcare providers were also interviewed to determine the level of KNH preparedness in the provision of diabetic education to the OM outpatients. A sequential sampling procedure was used to interview the diabetic patients. Every Wednesday during the course of the study one different OM healthcare provider was picked and interviewed.
Data Analysis: The data obtained were captured using Epi-data computer software which was then exported to SPSS version 15.0 for analysis. Statistical significance was determined using the Pearson Chi Square at p<0.05, at 95% confidence limit. Results: 105 diabetic patients aged 18 years and above were interviewed; 53(50.5%) were males and 52 (49.5%) females. The age categories 18-30, 31-40,41-50, 51-60, 61-70 and above 70 years accounted forl2 (11.4%), 24 (22.9%), 21 (20.0%),21 (20.0%),22 (21.0°) and 5(4.8%) OM patients respectively. The highest education levels; College/University, Secondary, Primary and Non-formal accounted for 27(25.7%), 42(40.0%), 25(23.8%) and 11(10.5%) DM patients respectively. 52 (49.5%)patients had sufficient knowledge on the diabetes mellitus disease itself, 64(61%) on DM complications, 35 (33.3%) on DM medications, 84 (80%), on the importance of dietary control, 73 (70%) on the importance of doing exercises and 11 (10.5%) on the importance of DM Affiliate Associations.
Patients with highest academic level had the highest proportion of patients with adequate knowledge on the disease (p=O.OOO 1), dietary control (p=O.O 1) and exercise (p=0.03). Patients' age influenced the proportion of patients with adequate knowledge on OM complications (p=0.03). The study also showed that diabetic patients' education was conducted mainly verbally at OPO clinic once a week for two hours and only one healthcare provider conducted the training at each education session though the number of staff was ten. Conclusion: Patients were mainly taught verbally. Two-thirds to three-quarter of the patients had sufficient knowledge on the OM disease, importance of dietary requirements and exercise programs.90% of patients had insufficient knowledge on diabetes organizations and two-thirds on rational use of DM medications. Recommendation: Hospital's training and education on rational use of DM medications should be improved. The hospital should make the healthcare providers and the DM patients aware of the DM' associations for patients' benefit. More research involving larger samples over longer periods should be carried out in order to reflect what happens over a longer period of time.

Omonge E;, Kyateesa; J, Otieno FCF;, Kayima, Lule G;, McLigeyo AA. Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).; Submitted. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral
therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This
study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in
Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total
cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic
patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2
CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated
triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were
significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p
= 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated
triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had
dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among
patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic.
Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars
(p value 0.125).

Onyambu CK. The pattern of chest radiographic findings in immunocompromised patients at the Kenyatta national hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

The pattern of chest radiograph findings were studied in 280 HIV positive individuals.
These were compared to 40 HIV negative patients who acted as controls. The
commonest disease seen was pneumonia 94 (33.9%), followed by pulmonary
tuberculosis 89 (3l.7%). Mixed infections were seen in 34 (12.2%) cases while PCP
occurred in 16(5.6%) cases. The pneumonia seen was more of bronchopneumonia than
lobar pneumonia in-patients with HIV (33.9) than HIV negative patients (23%).
The cases of pulmonary tuberculosis seen showed less upper lobe distribution than in
HIV negative patients. Most of the cases showed mid and lower zone distribution.
There are less cavitations than HIV negative patients. Also more cases with hilar and
mediastinal nodes were seen. There were 34 (12.2%) cases of mixed infection, which
constituted of 3 (1.1 %) cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. These mainly presented
with hilar and mediastinal nodes. The clinical differentiating features were KS skin
nodules in-patients with pulmonary K.S.

Kilonzo BM. A Plastic Anaemia At The Kenyatta National Hospital During The Period 1973-1978.; Submitted. Abstract

A total of 54 patients were diagnosed and treated for plastic anaemia between July, 1973 to December 1978 at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The sex distribution was equal. Most of the age groups were affected with the majority of Cases occurring in the young age groups.
Most tribes in Kenya were found not to be free from a plastic anaemia and there was a predominance of the disease amongst the Kikuyu tribe who lived in and around Nairobi.
Very few factors associated with actiology could. Be elicited and this was partially due to adequate histoties taken at the time of admission by the various physicians. Even though great difficulties are encountered in establishing an aetiologic role for a given agent, so that in large proportion of patients remains unexplained.
The presenting clinical features were those of anaemic haemorrhages due to thrombocytopenia and infections resulting from leucopenia, all of which were observed in all the patients reviewed except for the 4 patients with pure red cell aplasia.
The other 50 patients had hypoplastic marrows. Confirmation of diagnosis was delayed due to initial blood transfusion given before peripheral blood film examination in most patients.
Massive blood transfusion was given to patients on remission. Although platelet concentrates are available and obviate the massive blood transactions, only very few patients received platelet infusions.
Corticosteroid and androgenic asteroids were administered but there was no laid down policy as to the protocol to be followed. Hence administration of these drugs was done in a haphazard manner with a big proportion of patients going without any steroid therapy. This may have accounted to a great extent, for the very poor remission rate noted.
Since it has been observed that pure red cell aplacia remits spontaneously, prolonged therapy of these patients should be pursued vigorously.
Most of the deaths encountered occurred during the first 4 months of admission and they were mainly due to complications of the disease process mainly infections, congestive cardiac failure and excessive haemorrhage.

Rajab JA. The role of trephine needle bone marrow biopsy in the evaluation of various haematological and non-haematological diseases At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract

This is a descriptive retrospective and prospective
study of 101 patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH) between 1st October, 1985 and 30th January, 1990 and
had bone marrow examination done by aspiration and trephine
needle biopsy. At KNH trephine needle bone marrow (TNBM)
biopsy has been performed over the years when aspiration
results in 'dry tap'. It is only available for the use by a
few specialists (haematologists) and it is rarely performed
in staging malignant lymphomas or as a routine diagnostic
technique in various other diseases. The study was done to
evaluate the role of the technique in patient care at this
hospital. The relevant data and the diagnostic outcome of
50 patients admitted to the hospital between 1st October,
1985 and 30th June, 1989 were collected retrospectively.
Trephine needle biopsies were performed by the investigator
on 51 patients during the last 7 months of the study. Data
collected included: the age and sex, the indications for
bone biopsy, the quality of the specimen, the reporting
format and the final diagnosis on the trephine biopsies.
The 101 patients studied were between 2 and 75 years of
age. The mean age was 23.9 years. There were 62 males and
39 females. A 'dry tap' aspirate, the commonest indication
for TNBM biopsy was reported in 37 (36.6%) cases. In twelve
cases, the aspirate and needle biopsy were performed at the
same time using the same needle. Ten of these were in the
staging of malignant lymphomas. Good or satisfactory
specimens were obtained in at least 86% of the biopsies

performed. Aplastic anaemia, the commonest abnormality
detected was found in 28 (27.7%) of the patients studied. A
review of the reporting format showed that in only 20% cases
in the retrospective study was a full report of the biopsy
given by the haematologist.
This study shows that TNBM biopsy is a simple and safe
procedure yielding a good or satisfactory specimen in most

instances. The biopsy will most likely provide a diagnosis
when bone marrow aspirate fails due to 'dry tap' or scanty
yield. The procedure may be of value in routine
investigation of various diseases such as aplastic anaemia
and in staging of malignant lymphomas although larger
studies need to be done in this area (only ten cases in this
study). A standard format should be formulated and adhered
to by haematologists and pathologists reporting on the TNBM
biopsies in this hospital.

A Study Of Some Clinical And Laboratory Aspects Of The African Suffering From Duodenal Ulceration.; Submitted. Abstract

This is a prospective study of 50 patients with duodenal
ulcer proved by endoscopy. The clinical and laboratory features
of these patients were analysed and where possible compared to a
group of 30 control subjects.
It was found that a significant number of duodenal ulcer
patients do not present with the classical clinical picture. The
frequency of blood group Q was more in the duodenal ulcer patients as
compared to the controls and duodenal ulcer patients had higher basal
and maximal acid output values. An attempt at interpreting these results
in the Kenyatta Hospital set up has been made.

Mwendarani B. “Taswira ya mwanamke katika tamthilia mbili za kiswahili’’. Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Submitted.
Muraga JM. Assessment Of Dissolved Ions And Microbial Coliforms In Water From Selected Sites Of The Upper Athi River Subcatchment Area, Kenya.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019. Abstract

The Upper Athi River sub-catchment area has experienced exponential growth of human population since the turn of the century. This has led to establishment of satellite towns such as Ngong, Kiserian, Ongata Rongai, Mlolongo, Kitengela and Ruai. These towns have either no or inadequate supply of water from the local governments, that is, Kajiado, Machakos and Nairobi. Communities in this area of study have therefore resorted to obtaining ground water through drilling boreholes and digging shallow wells for their domestic needs. This is done without proper information on whether the water meets quality standards set out by Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS). This study therefore sought to assess the water quality in this area to determine whether ground water meets these standards. It also compared these levels of dissolved ions and coliforms to those of river water in the recharge area of the Upper Athi sub-catchment area. Twenty one water samples comprising of eleven boreholes, five shallow wells and five river water samples were collected from the Upper Athi sub-catchment area in the months of December 2011 which was a dry month and in May 2012 which was a wet month. The samples were analysed for dissolved ions and microbial coliforms. The metal ions analysed included Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn while anions included Cl-, CO32-/HCO3-, F-, NO2-/NO3- and SO42- as well as faecal coliforms. Physical parameters analysed included pH, electrical conductivity (EC) turbidity, total dissolved solids and colour. The analysis of cations was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometry while chlorides …

Osiro OAM. Development of a prototype for a restorative dental cement in Kenya. Kariuki DK, Gathece LW, Brauer DS, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2019.

This chapter presents summary of findings, discussion of the key findings, conclusions drawn from the findings, and recommendations.

Yohannis MA. ICTS As A Bridge Between Climate Information And Livelihood Strategies Among Rural Women In Kitui County, Kenya.; 2019. Abstract

The study was motivated by the increasing challenges of climate variability and climate change, which create problems, such as food insecurity in Kitui County in Kenya. In the current digital age, ICTs are core to all sectors to facilitate access to and enhance efficiency across various services. Although the role of ICTs in improving life in Kenya is widely acknowledged, the focus of most ICT-related developments has been on human experiences at the level of disease and needs for communication and mobility. Less obvious is how such technological interventions may be used to address seemingly abstract yet grave concerns like climate change and its impact on the quality of human life. This study, therefore, investigated the various scenarios where ICTs were deployed in relaying relevant localized climate information to help rural women farmers in Kitui County to make relevant decisions to improve their farm productivity and their livelihoods by extension. The study incorporated an ICT system to the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) that consisted of Digital Capital and ICT Tools, thereby improving on the SLF. This modified SLF, mainstreamed ICT-driven climate information and provided the ideal means by which such information was leveraged to ensure enhanced sustainable livelihoods. Gender and Development (GAD) theory, Bourdieu’s ideas of social capital theory, and the Information Needs Assessment Model (INAM) further strengthened the SLF by addressing household power dynamics and climate information relevance in the rural communities. The research drew from emerging variables to demonstrate that regardless of the context in which the SLF was formulated, its versatility makes it the most appropriate tool for such studies in rural Kenya. The specific objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to assess the extent to which rural women access and use ICT tools in the utilization of climate information including weather, seasonal forecasts and agro-advisories; (2) to analyze the extent to which the use of ICT-based climate information by rural women influence maximize access and utilization of livelihood assets; and (3) to examine the livelihood strategies employed with the increasing availability and use of ICT-based climate information. The author adopted a mixed-methods approach for data collection and analysis that was guided by the SLF. Specific methods used, apart from on-desk review, were a household survey of 419 respondents, 14 key informant interviews, and two focus group discussions. The study merged theoretical and applied research outcomes to narrow the gap between the theory and practice of ICTs use while linking it to climate information and enhanced rural livelihood strategies. The outcome from the research findings highlighted the need for interventions to empower rural women in the use of ICT tools in exploiting the full potential of climate information, the need for tailoring modern scientific climate information to local needs, translated into simple formats and the local Kikamba language, the need for complementary services such as affordable credit, insurance, livelihood diversification opportunities and access to livelihood assets that can further strengthen their household resilience to climate variability. The results show that community radios combined with mobile phones are the most accessible and cost-effective ICT tools for rural women’s access to real-time, relevant climate and agro-advisory information. There is evidence that the women’s livelihood strategies have been enhanced which strengthened their livelihood assets, thereby improving their livelihoods under the wider rubric of the sustainable livelihood framework. The contribution to knowledge for this research was an enhanced SLF where the various responses and systematic analysis made the framework relevant in gaining insights into the link between climate information and livelihood strategies through ICTs among women in ii rural communities in Kitui. The modified framework and the research findings are also timely in light of the increasing realization of ICTs potential in contributing to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Also, the thesis builds on the growing body of literature that generated a rich repository that other researchers can use to advance knowledge, and the outcomes are eight peer-reviewed articles. The output of this study is replicable to other counties in Kenya because rural households depend on agriculture for their livelihood and this economic sector is not exempt to climate change and variability necessitating the need for local specific climate information. The recommendations to the research are that it can be extended to examine outcomes that will look at improved income, sustainable resource utilization, and food security, physical and emotional wellbeing. Further we provide policy recommendations and made suggestions to shape future climate change adaptation policies, plans, and strategies in Kenya that integrates gender equality into ICT and climate change to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability for sustainable development. Keywords: ICT Tools; Digital Capital; Climate Information; Enhanced Sustainable livelihood Framework; Livelihood Strategies

Joseph SK. An Investigation on Sustainability Compliance in the Kenyan Construction Industry (A Perspective of Key Interior Design Professionals in Nairobi City County). Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019. Abstract

This study investigated sustainability compliance in the Kenyan construction industry focusing on the interior design market segment. This focus was informed by the need to have all market segments involved in sustainable construction endeavours. From past literature, independent variables were identified as sustainability literacy, uptake and assessment with the moderating and dependent variables as market segment peculiarities and sustainable construction compliance respectively. The study had hypothesized, in the alternative, the impact of independent variables individually and jointly on dependent variable in the Kenyan construction industry was above average. The phrase above average was based on threshold which for this study was set at a mean of three [Average]. Additionally, the study sought to assess the extent of independent variables, individually and jointly, as key contributors to sustainable construction compliance in Nairobi City County. The targeted population were key practitioners in the Kenyan construction industry. These were identified as architects/interior designers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, quantity surveyors and contractors being the typical core team required for a professionally executed interior design project in Kenya. They have the potential to influence project lifecycle towards improved sustainable construction compliance. Sampling frame was defined as actively practicing key professionals as above identified in Nairobi City County. The Yamane (1967) formula was used to compute sample size which was adjusted for non-response resulting in 60 respondents. For the research instruments, structured questionnaires, appropriate measures were taken to ensure their validity and reliability. Lastly, appropriate research ethics considerations were observed. The unit of analysis and observation was the individual key professional. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were mainly through computation of means and standard deviations and inferential statistics through t-statistic p-value score calculations. Resulting data was presented in form of charts, tables and graphs. Out of the 60 targeted respondents, valid responses were 46 representing a 77% response rate. On hypotheses testing, individually and jointly, sustainable construction literacy, transition/uptake and assessment/evaluation had an above average impact on sustainable construction compliance in the Kenyan construction industry. The findings also established the impact of independent variables on dependent variable in the Kenyan construction industry individually and jointly as above average in Nairobi City County. Additionally, the study highlighted improvement measures for the three independent variables as a means of achieving improved sustainability compliance in the Kenyan construction industry both at policy and practice levels. Recommendations for future research based on the findings of this study were also outlined.

Ngarachu M, Bore M, Gichuhi S. Willingness to donate eyes and its associated factors among adults in a community in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019.
Nyumba TO. Are elephants flagships or battleships? : understanding impacts of human-elephant conflict on human wellbeing in Trans Mara District, Kenya. England: University of Cambridge; 2018. Abstract

This thesis examines the impacts of human-elephant conflict on human wellbeing and the implications for elephant conservation and management in Trans Mara District, Kenya. The District comprises communal lands bordering the world-famous Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya. Trans Mara supports a range of land use types and provides refuge to one of Kenya’s large elephant population comprised of over 3,000 transient and 500 resident animals. This study used interdisciplinary methods to gain insights into the nature and consequences of conflict on the wellbeing of communities living with elephants. In particular, I used a combination of existing wellbeing indices and a set of indicators developed through consultations with local communities in TM to measure impacts of HEC on specific wellbeing domains. The results show that elephants still use the communal lands in Trans Mara but are increasingly restricted to the riverine forest remnants in central Trans Mara. However, there was no evidence of a further decline in the elephant range. Instead, this study points to a shift in elephant range against a background of increasing human settlement, land sub-division and agricultural expansion. The wellbeing of Trans Mara residents comprised eight indicators. Human-elephant conflict negatively affected peoples’ wellbeing, but the impacts were limited to certain dimensions. Elephants affected school-going children within elephant range. Attitudes towards elephants and its conservation in TM were influenced by the location of human residence relative to elephant refuge, diversity of income sources, and age and gender. Finally, conflict mitigation in Trans Mara is still elusive and challenging, but opportunities exist to develop simple and dynamic mitigation tools. The findings of this study have important implications for the future of elephant conservation in the face of competing human needs, both in Trans Mara District and elsewhere in Africa.

Nyakagwa F, Bore M, Gachago M, Kiage D. A multicenter study of the outcomes of combined cataract and trabeculectomy surgery in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
FO N, M B, Gachago MM, D K. Outcomes of Combined Cataract and Trabeculectomy Surgery In Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Okong’o PO, Lu YQ. The study of the airway and craniofacial morphology characteristics of individuals with different modified Mallampati scores before orthodontic treatment 正畸治疗前患者的Mallampati评分与气道和颅面形态的相关研究.; 2018. Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the airway and craniofacial morphology characteristics of individuals with different modified Mallampati scores before they undergo orthodontic treatment.
Materials and Methods:
According to the inclusion criteria, 54 patients (age 15-49 years) were included in the study. The modified Mallampati score of each patient was recorded, and then CBCT and lateral cephalograms of each patient were taken. Cephalometric analysis, CBCT analysis of pharyngeal volumes and transverse jaw dimensions were done for each patient. The patients were stratified into two groups according to their modified Mallampati scores: group 1 (Mallampati I and II); group 2 (Mallampati III and IV). The differences between the two groups were calculated and analysed using descriptive statistics and independent t-test. The relationship between modified Mallampati score and cephalometric morphology, pharyngeal airway volume was analysed using logistic regression analysis.
The cephalometric analysis results showed that: Maxillary length (ANS-PNS) (p ≤ .05); the perpendicular distance between the hyoid bone and the Mandibular plane (p ≤ .05); the maximum soft palate thickness (p ≤ .05); and lower airway dimension (p ≤ .05) are statistically significantly different between group 1 and group 2. A binary logistic regression identified the perpendicular distance of the hyoid bone from the lower border of the mandible (Hyoid-MP Perp) to be significantly (p < 0.05) and positively related (regression coefficient β =.168) to group membership. The following prediction formula was obtained: probability of belonging to group 2: p = 1 / (1 + exponential (exp)−f), where f = -1.285+0.168x Hyoid-MP Perp.
Maxillary length (ANS-PNS); the perpendicular distance between the hyoid bone and the Mandibular plane; the maximum soft palate thickness and lower airway dimension may affect the score of Modified Mallampati classification.

Key words: modified Mallampati classification, craniofacial morphology, pharyngeal airway

Mungania BG. Word order in the Kiswahili clause: a Minimalist approach. Schroeder H, Okombo O, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Mutai BK, Muthama NJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Mwanthi MA, Wagner T. Assessment of Population Exposure to Future Climate Change-Induced Exceedances of Health-Based Air Pollutants over Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Ebrahim YH. The effects of urban built form on micro-temperature change: A case study of Komarock Infill B Estate Nairobi. Rukwaro RW, King’oriah GK, eds. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Sarguta R. Four Routes to Mixed Poisson Distributions. Ottieno JAM, Mwaniki JI, Kipchirchir IC, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
UD A, K K, Gachago MM, A M. Outcome Of Age-Related Cataract Surgery At Specialist Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria In Year 2015. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
AI K, Gachago MM, LO N, JM N. The Quality Of Life Of Primary Caregivers Of Children With Retinoblastoma At Kenyatta National Hospital. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Ouma OE. ANALYSIS OF FODDER PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN THE RANGELANDS OF SOUTHERN KENYA. Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology (LARMAT ; 2017. Abstract
Ndambo DK. Big Data Anaytics And Competitive Advantage of Banks and Insurance Companies in Nairobi, Kenya.; 2016. Abstract

This study focussed on big data and competitive advantage in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi, Kenya and was dependent on the following objectives: To establish the extent of application of big data analytics in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi; to determine the relationship between big data analytics and competitive advantage of commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi; to establish the challenges of big data analytics in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi. A descriptive survey was employed for the purpose of data collection for this research. The population targeted for this study was commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi, Kenya. There are 42 commercial banks and 49 insurance companies in Nairobi. A sample of 20 commercial banks and 25 insurance companies was undertaken due to the limited time allocated for data collection and analysis. The sample was selected based on a judgmental basis taking into account the companies’ use of big data analytics. This research used primary data collected using structured questionnaires. The respondents were managers dealing with company strategies and/ or information and technology managers in the selected companies. The data was analyzed using frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation and regression techniques. The study found that companies in the financial industry specifically commercial banks and insurance firms have invested in data storage facilities and advanced tools in the area of business intelligence for reporting and analysing consumer/ client behaviour. These tools allow the companies to anticipate consumer needs more effectively, in addition to optimizing their operations. The addition of big data analytics systems in the companies’ daily routines enables them to gain higher levels of insight in the big data environment thus enabling more effective decision making. There are challenges in management of big data that if addressed can help organizations appreciate the full potential of big data tools and various analytics especially in aspects of competitive advantage. This study, through a thorough analysis of its findings concludes that the big data revolution has found a place in the commercial banking and insurance industry in Nairobi, and that the trend is on the rise as these companies continue to discover the valuable data with tremendous potential they have had in their storage for decades.

Judy O. Changamoto Za Mikondo Mipya ya Utunzi wa Mashairi. Nairobi: Kenyatta University ; 2016.
Nickson. Mastitogenic bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Kabete Sub County. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2016.
Rogo MO. Modeling and synthesis of antiplasmodial benzoxazines from natural products of Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2016. Abstract

Natural products research has taken place in Kenya for decades. This has led to the explosion of data about natural products which largely remains scattered in theses, published articles and books of abstracts and proceedings. As a result, natural products of Kenya are not accessible for drug design studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to create a webbased database of natural products of Kenya and use it in molecular modeling studies for the design of antiplasmodial compounds. Currently the database contains 1112 compounds. It has been named Mitishamba, a Kiswahili word referring to herbal medicine and is hosted online at ( The compounds in the database were utilized in the generation of suitable fragments for molecular modeling studies using the OpenyEye scientific software suite. Benzoxazine scaffold was identified as a suitable molecular framework, due to its similarity to Primaquine (an existing antimalarial drug). Analogs of the scaffold were generated and subjected to docking against the target, 3D shape comparison and electrostatics studies with promising molecules synthesized and assayed. A validated Plasmodium falciparum enzyme target, Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH), was used in the docking studies. Three benzoxazines, 7- Methoxy-4H-1, 4-benzoxazin-3-one (25), (7-methoxy-3-oxo-1,4-benzoxazine-4- carbaldehyde (54) and 4-acetyl-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (56) were synthesized and then subjected to in vitro antiplasmodial assay against chloroquine resistant K1 and chloroquine sensitive 3D7 strains of P. falciparum. The results showed 7-methoxy-3-oxo- 1,4-benzoxazine-4-carbaldehyde had an activity of 11.05 μg/mL against chloroquine resistant K1 isolate while 4-acetyl-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one had an activity of 8.32ug/mL. The latter has activity classified by the WHO as active and should be pursued further through optimization to investigate its antimalarial potency. The results above demonstrate the potential use of the database in the identification of lead antiplasmodial compounds. Therefore more benzoxazine derivatives should be identified through virtual screening and synthesized to optimize their antiplasmodial activity.

Manyim S. Modeling and synthesis of antiplasmodial chromones, chromanones and chalcones based on natural products of Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2016. Abstract

A significant amount of research has been done on plants of Kenya resulting in the isolation of thousands of natural products, but data on these natural products is not systematically organized in a readily accessible form. This has necessitated the construction of a web-based database of natural products of Kenya. The database is named mitishamba and is hosted at The mitishamba database was queried for chromones, chromanones and chalcones that were subjected to structure based drug design using Fred (OpenEye) docking utility program with 1TV5 PDB structure of the PfDHODH receptor to identify ligands that bind with the active site. Ligand-based drug design (Shape and electrostatics comparison) was also done on the ligands against query A77 1726 (38) (the ligand that co-crystallized with PfDHODH receptor) using ROCS and EON programs, respectively, of OpenEye suite. There was an above average similarity among the top performing ligands in the docking studies with shape and electrostatic comparison. This led to the identification of compounds of interest which were targeted for synthesis and antiplasmodial assay. A chromanone, 7-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) chroman-4-one (48) and two intermediate chalcones, 2’,4’-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (45) and 2’,4’- dihydroxy-4-chlorochalcone (47), were synthesized and subjected to antiplasmodial assay. Whereas 45 showed strong activity, 47 and 48 had moderate activity against the chloroquine resistant K1 strain of P. falciparum with IC50 values of 4.56±1.66, 17.62 ± 5.94 and 18.01 ±1.66 μg/ml, respectively. Since the synthesized compounds showed antiplasmodial potential, there is need for further computational refinement of these compounds to optimize their antiplasmodial activity.

G N, Gachago MM, MW N, S J. Pattern of Posterior Segment Manifestations After Ocular And Orbital Trauma In Kikuyu Eye Unit.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2016.
Kahigi CM. Influence of sources of sexual information and personal characteristics on secondary school students' sexual behaviour in Thika West Sub-County, Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2015. Abstract

The purpose of this research was to investigate reliable sources of sexual
information for secondary school students that influence their sexual
behaviour. This research was carried out in Kenya, specifically Thika West
sub-County. It was conducted among sampled secondary school students, their
head teachers and teacher counsellors. The specific objectives of the study
were to: establish how sexual information obtained through the school
curriculum influences secondary school students' sexual behaviour; establish
how sexual information received through the family setting influences
secondary school students' sexual behaviour; investigate how sexual
information received through religious institutions influences secondary
school students' sexual behaviour; establish how sexual information obtained
through the peer group influences secondary school students' sexual
behaviour; investigate how sexual information accessed through the media
influences secondary school students' sexual behaviour; and how students'
personal characteristics influence their sexual behaviour. The study was
carried out using survey research design and was guided by six hypotheses.
Research tools used comprised questionnaires for student respondents and
interview schedules for head teachers and teacher counsellors. The data
collected was processed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS
IBM statistics 21). The statistics were tabulated and subjected to regression
analysis using ANOVA and coefficient models. Pertinent findings have
indicated that: an overwhelming proportion of secondary school students are
sexually active. This may have contributed in a rise in cases of premarital
pregnancies and subsequent abortions, student drop out from schools, Human
Immune Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Sexually
Transmitted infections. The results established that mass media as a source of
sexual information is the most influential, followed by peer group and school
curriculum respectively. However all respondents reported that the
information received through the school curriculum is too little and
economical especially on emotional aspects of sexuality. Sexual information
from the family members though considered as reliable is too little to be of
any significance on students' sexual behaviour. Information received through
religious institutions is almost non-existent and has the lowest level of
significance on students' sexual behaviour. Finally, students' personal
characteristics of age and gender were revealed as influencing students' choice
of being sexually active. Study results reveal that the preferred agents of
transmitting sexuality information were; school curriculum, media, family,
peer counsellors, and teacher counsellors respectively. Others mentioned
included religion, mentors, and specialized personnel. In a nutshell, there is no
any reliable source of sexual information that students can rely on. All student
respondents indicated their support for comprehensive sexuality information to
enable them avoid pitfalls from lack of knowledge. All key informants who
included head teachers and teacher counsellors supported that information
about the use of contraceptives should be made available to students.


The usefulness and limitations in climate information are due to uncertainty inherent in the climate system. The reduction of errors increases the reliability of the information. Therefore, for any given region to have sustainable development there is need to apply climate information into its socio-economic strategic plans.
The overall objective of the study was to assess the performance of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) over the Lake Victoria Basin. The data used in the study included the observed point station data, gridded rainfall data from Climate Research Unit, University of East Anglia (CRU) and hindcast data from eight Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) for the period 1971 to 2005 for historical and 2006-2100 for model future projections. The methodology employed included trend analysis, spatial analysis, correlation analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) regression analysis, and categorical statistical skill score.

WASWA AARONKUTUKHULU. Petrology and iron ore mineralization in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt rocks of Mutomo-Ikutha area, in Kitui county, S.E. Kenya. Nyamai DCM, Mathu PE, ICHANG'I DD, eds. Nairobi, Kenya: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2015. Abstractabstract.docxabstract.pdf


The study area is bounded by longitudes 380 4’E to 38020’E and latitudes 1048’S to 208’S in South Kitui within the Kitui County occupying about 100 Km2. This area can be accessed from Nairobi-Thika - Kitui ,Nairobi – Machakos-Kitui roads, or from Mombasa –Kibwezi – Ikutha – Mutomo road. Mineral deposits in Kenya occur in different geological settings, such as those associated with Tertiary rocks (Turkana sapphire deposit). Most of the mineral deposits like iron ore located within the Neoproterozoic Mozambique orogenic belt have not been properly evaluated in geological and metallogenical context. This work intends to relate, evaluate and scientifically place the geological framework of iron deposits in Mutomo – Ikutha area of Kitui County, Kenya to the specific events within the litho and tectonothermal evolution of the Mozambique mobile Belt. A thorough investigation of the major and minor geological structures as well as metamorphism will be elucidated in the project area on their role in the formation of iron deposits. The establishment and economic and scientific investigation of iron deposits in the study area for purposes of mining and wealth creation in the region is of great importance in this research work. The application of the research to exploration and development of artisanal mining in Kenya will be successful in terms of prospecting at the regional and scale, by determining the lithological, geochemical and tectonic controls for the mineralization.
The Mozambique Belt has a long and complex history, marked by a succession of major tectonothermal events. This belt runs from Egypt through, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and ends in Mozambique. The methods to be used to achieve the aim of this research will include; geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations. Preliminary investigation will be carried out using remote sensed data. Laboratory analysis will include X-ray florescence, X-ray defractometry, and electron Microprobe. The data obtained will be analyzed using Oasis montaj software, Matlab and any other relevant software. The updated geological and structural maps will be compiled using Arc GIS software. This study is expected to provide comprehensive understanding of the tectonothermal scenario and its associated economic mineralization in the Mozambique belt.

Tsegaye DW. Phytochemical investigation of selected millettia (leguminosae) and ochna (ochnaceae) species for anticancer activities. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2015. Abstract

Despite the availability of well established cancer therapies, death from cancer is common and is predicted to rise. There is evidence that natural products play a significant role in cancer therapy and prevention; with considerable number of anticancer agents in use are either natural products or their derivatives. Flavonoids are among classes of natural products gaining a lot of interest as potential anticancer and cancer chemopreventive agents. In this regard, plants from two flavonoid rich genera, Millettia (Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis, Millettia dura and Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis) of the Leguminosae family and Ochna (Ochna holstii and Ochna ovata) of the Ochnaceae family were investigated. Chromatographic (column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, preparative TLC and HPLC) separation of the extracts from the five plants led to the identification of a total of sixty six compounds, out of which ten are new. Four derivatives of the isolated compounds were also prepared. The structural elucidation of the compounds was performed using spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Ultra Violet spectroscopy (UV), Circular Dichroism (CD), X-ray crystallography, Polarimetry and Mass Spectrometry (MS). The crude extract of the leaves of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis yielded two new isoflavones (316 and 317) and four new structurally related rotenoids (318-321) along with eight known compounds. Similarly, the leaves of Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis led to the identification of five rotenoids, three isoflavones and one triterpene, of which the isoflavone (312) is new. One of the known rotenoid (313) is reported here for the first time from the genus Millettia. The root bark extract of Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis gave thirteen compounds (chalcones, rotenoids, flavanoids and cinnamyl alcohol) of which the chalcone (326) is a new compound. From the roots of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis, thirteen compounds were identified. Among these, the tetraglycoside isoflavone (306) is a new compound. Similar work on the root bark of Millettia dura yielded six isoflavones, one chalcone and a pterocarpan, named 3-O-prenylmaakiain (303) is new compound. Similarly, investigation of the stem bark and leaves of Ochna holstii yielded dimeric and monomeric flavonoids along with dasycarponin (332) and 2,4-dihydroxyphenylmethyl acetate (335). Furthermore, the root bark of Ochna ovata also gave seven compounds some of which were also obtained from the stem and leaves of Ochna holstii. Four alkaloids (336-339) obtained from root bark of Ochna ovata are reported here for the first time from the family Ochnaceae. This is the first report on the phytochemistry of the two Ochna species. The crude extracts and some of their constituents were evaluated for anticancer activities. The crude extract of the roots of M. oblata ssp. teitensis showed strong activity (4.5 μg/mL) against ER-negative MDB-MB-231 human breast cancer cell-line followed by crude extract of root bark of M. usaramensis ssp usaramensis (11.6 μg/mL). The pure compounds were also found cytotoxic aganist ER-negative MDB-MB-231 human breast cancer cell-line (IC50 10.5-88.1 μg/mL) among which the highest activity was recorded for usararotenoid C (154, 10.5 μg/mL) followed by maximaisoflavone J (325, 11.2 μg/mL). The activity of 154 is almost four times higher than that of epimillettosin (137, 39.7 μg/mL) with the only structural difference between the two is that 154 has a prenyl group at C-8 and a methoxyl group at C-9 while in 137 the prenyl has cyclized into 2,2-dimethylchromene. Similarly, the activity of maximaisoflavone J (325) is almost five times higher than maximaisoflavone B (304, 53.8 vii μg/mL); while the only difference between the two compounds is the replacement of the methoxyl group at C-4' in 325 by a methylenedioxy (C-3'/C-4') in maximaisoflavone B (304). The strong activities observed for the crude extracts; roots of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis and root bark of Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis could be due to their active component; maximaisoflavone J (325) and usararotenoid C (154), respectively. Some compounds were also evaluated for cytotoxicity against Vero cells (IC50 6.7-67.4 μg/mL). Strong activity was recorded for the dimeric flavonoid, calodenone (253). This compound is ten times more active than the related compound, lophirone A (252), a compound which only differ from 253 by lack of a methoxyl group at C-15. The isolated constituents were also tested in Krebs-2 in vitro for translation inhibitory, but none of the compounds showed translation inhibitory activity. Overall, the investigation of the five plants yielded a wide range of new and known compounds as monomeric and dimeric flavonoids, rotenoids, isoflavonoids, chalcones, alkaloids, triterpene and two simple molecules (331 and 335), some of which showed moderate to low cytotoxicity on the ER-negative MDB-MB-231 human breast cancer cell-line and Vero cells.....

Odindo MK, Mbuthia P G, Njagi L W, DN K. Prevalence and Clinico-pathological Manifestations of Avian Leukosis in Chicken in Nairobi and Surroundings. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2015.
king'oo p.k. SMS based system to provide first aid information in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2015.
Mitema A. Systematics of Aspergillus species from maize and ground nuts in Kenya.. Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town; 2015.
Liech JG. Agent-Based Interoperability System In Health Insurance . Nairobi; 2014. Abstract

The Information Technology industry has been very dynamic in health insurance for the last couple of decades. In this health insurance firms applications have been developed using different methodologies, and technologies. These applications cannot be integrated, which becomes an issue to health insurance interoperability. Health insurance is available to both individual and groups; there are many insurance companies in Kenya and there is no central database to extract stratified information about them. Attempts by many scholars to develop an interoperable system have not been successful largely due to lack of expertise, resources and the inherent complex nature of the health insurance system. There is also difficulty in accessing the required data by different people due to the fact that the applications of these insurance firms are independent. They are designed in any manner, and can use different technologies. This study proposed an agent-based platform which allowed users to receive and exchange data and information from distributed sources. The health insurance business was used as a case study to implement multi-agents approach in this study. In this case study, different agents were used to represent different functional areas in the developed system. The reactivity, proactive, sociability characteristics of multi-agents achieved health insurance interoperability and accomplished the health insurance business requirements. In this study we reviewed pure theory, evaluated and developed an agent based system which allowed health insurance firms to share data and also data sharing platform that enabled collaboration among multiple health insurance institutions in Kenya and also the experimental results showed that the platform could be extended easily to support a large number of concurrent client connections.

Odhiambo DO. Audience Reception of Communication Messages in Promoting Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: A Study of the Luo Community in Western Kenya. Nairobi: Moi University; 2014. Abstractphd_thesis__audience_reception_of_communication_messages_in_promoting_male_circumcision_for_hiv_prevention.pdf

Despite the promising role of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) in HIV prevention, its promotion as a prevention strategy remains a challenge and a persistent barrier to meeting the national target of circumcising 860,000 men in Nyanza by 2015. Part of this failure is attributed to the initial rejection of VMMC by the Luo council of Elders, largely due to the myths and misperceptions of VMMC, and the resultant negative cultural connotations. By helping to change retrogressive norms and cultural values, VMMC communication is strategic in legitimizing MC as a necessary strategy in the fight against HIV/AIDS. This is achieved by creating a climate in which talk about sex and HIV transmission is considered acceptable, valuable and proper rather than shameful, unacceptable and against the social norms. Successful uptake of VMMC in this community therefore necessitates a renegotiation of meaning of VMMC for health purposes. This study sought to analyze the audience reception of the communication strategies used in scaling-up VMMC uptake among the Luo community. Specifically, the study aimed to determine how communication strategies used in promoting VMMC have influenced the decision making processes regarding its adoption as a HIV prevention strategy. A mixture of probability and non-probability sampling procedures were applied to identify 800 men and women aged 15- 60 years, who participated in the study. A mixed approach involving a questionnaire survey, in-depth Key informant interviews and focus group discussions was then used to generate data. Statistical analysis was conducted to draw conclusions from quantitative data, while Qualitative data was analyzed through coding and identification of emerging themes. Findings suggest that mass media channels were initially used to communicate prescriptive messages with minimal attempts to raise critical consciousness to stimulate VMMC uptake among targeted audiences. However, these messages were found to have some influence on decisions to undergo VMMC among the younger age groups (18-25 years). Messages that were narrowly framed to exclude other health benefits of VMMC contributed in the low rate of uptake and low acceptability of VMMC among older men. Based on the findings, it is recommended that VMMC services be integrated in other health interventions besides HIV prevention to promote benefits for men and women. There is also a need to review the VMMC communication strategy to include use of participatory communication in which opinion leaders, peer educators, and role models play a central role in capturing positive narratives that promote VMMC.

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