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Research Paper
Kugonza, DR; Jianlin KGH; HMOH; O; A. Microsatellite DNA polymorphism of the Long Horned Ankole cattle in Uganda.; 2006. Abstract

Nineteen microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and herd structure of Ugandan Ankole cattle. A total of 304 animals from 8 herds in Mbarara District were characterised. Across all loci, 200 alleles were observed. A high mean number of alleles (MNA) per locus, ranging from 5.89 to 6.79 per herd, was observed. Polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.403 (ILSTS013) to 0.817 (ILSTS036), with an overall mean of 0.688. The average observed heterozygosity (Ho) was highest in Kaibanda (0.727) and lowest in Kituuha (0.648), while the expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.722 (Nshaara) to 0.664 (Kituuha). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions were observed on 8 loci, however, all 152 loci-herd combination tests were in equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. FST estimates for all loci and between all herds were highly significant (P<0.001), suggesting little if any gene flow between the herds. For all herd pairs, FST values were generally low, with an overall mean of 0.041 + 0.08. Significant (P<0.01) inbreeding effect (FIS) was detected in the Nasasira herd. The mean number of migrants per generation (Nm) across all herds was 3.82. Phylogenetic analysis showed that herds from the same geographical counties grouped together. These results illustrate at the molecular level the fairly wide genetic variation found among the Ankole herds studied and therefore the potential for genetic improvement of these herds.

Mwai AO;, Malmfors B;, Andersson-Eklund L;, Philipsson J;, Rege JEO;, Hanotte O;, Fulss R. Capacity building for sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. ILRI-SLU Project progress report for the period 1999-2003.; 2005. Abstract

To promote a sustainable and improved use of animal genetic resources in developing countries, ILRI in collaboration with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), and supported by Sida (Sweden), launched a project training the trainers, for national agricultural research systems (NABS) scientists (national university teachers and researchers) in developing countries. The main objectives of the project were to strengthen subject knowledge and skills, and teaching and communication skills of scientists teaching and supervising students in animal breeding and genetics at least up to MSc level. Other objectives were to catalyse curriculum development, stimulate contacts and networking, and to develop computer-based training resources relevant for use by NARS scientists in teaching and research. This capacity building project was an integrated component of the ILRI research agenda on Animal Genetic Resources. It was also an endeavour by ILRI to collaborate with and strengthen NARS institutions and scientists. The project was initially planned to include regions in sub-Saharan Africa, SouthEast Asia and South Asia, resources allowing, Latin America. The activities in each region or sub-region included: planning activities (questionnaire, country visits, planning workshop), training course for university teachers and researchers (three weeks, combining training in animal genetics/breeding and teaching methodologies), development of an Animal Genetics Training Resource' (on CD-ROM, and later also on the Web), follow-up activities, including impact assessment (questionnaires and follow-up workshops). During the period 1999 to 2003 a full round of activities was completed for sub Saharan Africa. The training course was conducted for Eastern/Southern Africa (20 scientists from 10 countries) and for Western/Central Africa (18 scientists from 10 countries). The planning and follow-up workshops were performed jointly for the region. In addition, the planning activities and training course (18 scientists from 9 countries) were completed for South-East Asia. Version 1 of the computer-based training resource (CD) was released in late 2003. The resource contains modules, i.e. core texts on issues related with farm animal genetic resources, quantitative methods and teaching methods, and Resources containing case studies, breed information, maps, examples, exercises, video clips, a glossary and a virtual library. It also contains references to web links, books and other CDs. The participants found the training courses very useful; average score for Overall Impression was 8.2 (scale 1-9). They also indicated that the computer-based training resource would be a valuable tool both in teaching and in research, but had not yet had a chance to explore and use it fully. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants' home institutions, both on teaching methods and on course content. Students have shown more interest and understanding of animal breeding and genetics. The impact on participants' research has been just as large; more focus on research involving indigenous animal genetic resources, improved research proposal writing, research methodologies and science communication skills, and also more efficient supervision of students' research. Many of the participants have actively disseminated materials and experiences from the course to colleagues in their home institutions. Other important outcomes have been increased contacts and an open e-mail network `Afrib' formed by the African course participants. The project also strengthened Swedish knowledge and expanded PhD activities on animal genetic resources in developing countries; these were valuable `spin-off effects' of the project. The 'training the trainers' approach adopted in the ILRI-SLU project seems to be a good model for effective capacity building to promote a sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. The approach was innovative and has functioned well; the model could be extended to other disciplines. Furthermore, linking universities from the North to those of the South, with a CGIAR institute playing both a facilitating and catalytic role was beneficial. The project will now proceed to South Asia and version 2 of the computer-based training resource will be developed. More impact analyses will also be performed.

Gathumbi, J. K.; Muthomi N'u C'waJW; JK. Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination in freshly harvested wheat grain in Kenya.; 2005. Abstract

A survey was carried out during the 2004 wheat-cropping season in 6 agro-ecclogical zones to determine fusarium contamination of freshly harvested wheat grain. This was done by plating in culture media. Contaminations with mycotoxins t!cnxynivalcnol, zenralenonc and aflatoxin B I were determined by competitive EUSA. Farmers indicated presence ol'hcnd blight 111 wheat fields and occurrence of wet weather during flowering. Wheat residue was mainly directly grazed to animals in the field or ploughed in. Most popular rotation was wheal-maize followed by continuous wheat cropping. Fusarium contaminated 85 % of the wheat samples, but kernel infection rate was 15%. Fusarium species most isolated were F.poae. F. chlumvdospnrum and F. grammC:Ul1lfll. Other fungi isolated were Alternaria. Epicoccum. Aspergigiilus anti Penicillium. Mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and aflatoxin B1. There is need for regular screening for Fusarium mycotoxins in wheat grain.

Barrett, Christopher B; Marenya PP; MPJ; MF; O-KW; PF; WJ. Poverty Dynamics In Rural Kenya.; 2005.
Boon TRE;, Nathan I. Preassessment report Denmark.; 2005.
Ahuya, CO; Okeyo AM; MFM. Productivity of cross-bred goats under smallholder production systems in the Eastern highlands of Kenya1.; 2005. Abstract

Dairy goats have become increasingly popular among smallholder mixed crop-livestock farmers. Their profitability will determine their growth within smallholder production systems. A survey was carried out in 114 farmer groups, representing 435 goat herds and 1676 goats. Data on reproductive and growth performance, milk production and flock dynamics (deaths, births, and sales) were collected between October 2001 and September 2003. The genotypes involved were the local East African goat, pure Toggenburg (T) and their crosses (F1) and 3/4T. Using the Livestock Productivity Efficiency Calculator (LPEC) as an input framework, herd structure, gross margins and herd growth were calculated based on feed efficiency. The parameter used was the annual total value of off- take per carrying capacity unit (CCU), which was defined as a standard livestock unit consuming 100 Mega joules of metabolisable energy (ME) per day. The goat enterprise proved to be profitable Annual gross margins of over US $259 were recorded indicating that dairy goat enterprises under smallholder production systems can be profitable,(the USD exchange rate at March 2005 was 77 Kenya shillings to US $1)

Makokha, S; Karugia SKJ; S; O. Combining stated and revealed preference methods: A dairy adoption case study of western Kenya.; 2004. Abstract

The study was carried out in seven districts in western Kenya to determine factors influencing the adoption of dairy technologies. This paper looks at the complementarity in the analysis derived from the revealed preference (RP), and stated preference (SP) methods in the determination of these factors. The binary choice probit model was used for the RP method, while the ordered probit model (OPM) was used for conjoint analysis, an SP method. The SP methods are based on hypothetical choice behaviour and were used to place a value to each of the cow attributes (milk yield, disease resistance, feed requirement and price). Unlike the SP methods that have been criticized because actual choice is not observed, the RP methods, common in most adoption studies, are based on actual choices, hence the complementarity. The PPE, ethnicity, cultural values, education, income and extension influenced adoption. In some households, other reasons other than the economic reasons of rearing dairy influenced adoption, thus unfolding a unique adoption process. The willingness to pay (WTP) showed that externalities in the form of lack of information, ethnicity and farmer priorities reduced efficiency in resource use for dairy. The SP method is good at targeting interventions by explaining the households’ observed behaviour, thus it gives feedback signals on efficiency of resource use and apportions the stakeholders’ effort in dairy adoption. The interventions are addressed in the perspective of the resources available.

Wambua, E. M; Nderitu OWJH; F;. Evaluation of variety resistance as amangement srategy for thrips (megalurothrips sjostedti trybom and frankliniella occidentalis pergrande) on french beans (phaseolus vulgaris l.).; 2004. Abstract

French bean, phaseolllus vulgaris l. is a major horticultural crop in kenya mainly grown for fresh export market. A major contraint in succesfull production of the crop is pests and diseases. thrips are considered as one of the major inscect pests attacking mainly flowers and causing losses of above 60percentage A lot of pesticides use and hence pesticide resideu has been attributed to thrips control. In view of the introduction of maximum pesticides level by importing countries, there is need to develope intergrated thrips mangement strategy with less pesticide use . Towards this goal, nine french beans varieties were evaluated for resistance to thrips (megalurothrips sjostedti frankliniella occidentalis)during the period (november 2001 to april 2002). This was done in two planting phases using randomised complete block design in four replicates. It was evident from the study that there significant diffrences in resistance to thrips by varieties. monel variety was found to be the most susceptibleand impala the least.Frankliniella occidentalis was more abadunt than megalurothrips sjostedti during the study period. The ratio of M . sjostedti to F. occidentalis on flowers was 1.5and 1.7 during the 1st and 2nd planting respectively.

Nyangito HO;, Nzuma J;, Ommeh H;, Mbithi M. Impact of Agricultural Trade and Related Policy Reforms on Food Security in Kenya.; 2004. Abstract

Kenya’s agricultural sector has undergone various changes emanating from policy reforms over the years. These reforms, which occurred from the late 1980s to the early 1990s, were aimed at reducing government involvement in economic activity and allowing the economy to move towards a free market. Policy reforms covered monetary, fiscal and trade aspects and liberalization of the agricultural sector. This study analyses the impact of specific reforms on agricultural production, performance and trade, and therefore food security. The study uses secondary data from the Central Bureau of Statistics and the Ministry of Agriculture. Welfare Monitoring Surveys of 1982, 1992 and 1997 were used as sources of regional cross-sectional household data. Trends in production and trade are analysed, the impact of policy instruments such as prices and market access explained, household incomes and expenditures estimated, and food security trends are analysed using various indicators for both the pre- and post-reforms periods. The analysis indicates that agricultural prices and production have generally declined. The performance of the agricultural sector in the 1990s was dismal, with annual growth in agricultural GDP averaging 2% compared with 4% in the 1980s. Agricultural export growth after the reforms has shown mixed trends due to market access limitations for Kenyan exports. Market access for imports into the Kenyan market has improved since the reforms, occasioning tremendous import growth. However, the capacity to import food has declined, making the country more food insecure. The balance of trade between Kenya and the rest of the world has worsened against Kenya. After the reforms the country moved from broad self-sufficiency in production of most food staples to a net importer. The sources of food security for rural people are subsistence food production and purchases using farm or off-farm income, with a third of households receiving remittances. The linkage between the performance of the agricultural sector and household incomes indicates that when the performance of the sector is poor, household incomes are low. In the light of these challenges, the country needs to reconsider increasing the use of domestic support measures allowed within the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement on agriculture to allow adequate development of the sector. However, implementation of liberalized policies should be harmonized and coordinated to avoid adverse effects on the sector.

Barret, Christopher B; Pell A; MD; VL; BLGJ; KJ; LE; J. The Interplay Between Smallholder Farmers and Fragile Tropical Agroecosystems in the Kenyan Highlands.; 2004. Abstract

That farmers rely on the land for their livelihoods is obvious. The converse, that ecosystem services depend on farmers' behaviors, must also be recognized if agricultural productivity is to be improved. In sub Saharan Africa, the 70% of the population employed in the agricultural sector (Sanchez 2002) is engaged in an on-going 'dialogue' with the agricultural natural resource base. Recently, this conversation has not been going well: per capita food production has remained stagnant for the last 40 years so now 180 million on the continent lack adequate food, a number that has increased by 100% since 1970 (Sanchez 2002). To provide adequate diets to the African population, increases in crop yields of 3.0 to 3.5% y-1 are needed (Reardon et al. 2001), but such increases have not been realized as average maize yields have remained static at 1200 kg ha-1.

Mureithi, J G; Gachene WCKK; J. Legume research network project: a sythensis report of phase 1 (1994-2000).; 2004. Abstract

The Legume Research Network Project (LRNP) was started in 1994 (by then known as the Legume Screening Network) to evaluate suitable legume species for different agro-ecological environments and to subsequently incorporate the “best bets” into the existing farming systems. Initial Network activities included the screening of about 40 legume species, among them, green manuring species, food legumes and forage species. The screening trials were conducted in 11 sites across the country especially where soil infertility had been identified as a major constraint to crop production. The Network extended its activities to include research on legume residue management, integrated nutrient management, livestock feeding and cowpea screening trials. Each site had the task of bulking seeds of promising legume species. The Network members are from KARI, University of Nairobi (UoN), Environmental Action Team (EAT, an NGO based in Kitale) and Community Mobilisation Against Desertification (C-MAD, an NGO based in Rongo near Kisii). The main collaborators are the Ministry of Agriculture, and Rural Development staff, and the farmers from different regions of Kenya. The following are the major highlights of phase 1 activities: ♦ Promising green manure (GM) legume species: The most outstanding green manure legume species across Network sites based mainly on biomass accumulation are Mucuna pruriens, Lablab purpureus, Crotalaria ochroleuca, and Canavalia ensiformis. ♦ Inoculation of best-bet legume species: The rhizobia inoculation study concluded that inoculation of best-bet legumes in the study sites was not necessary but further systematic studies to characterise the native rhizobia and to determine their levels in the soil should be undertaken. ♦ Response of legume species to phosphorus: Three Network sites participated in this trial, namely Kakamega, Kisii and Gatanga. In Kakamega and Kisii, legumes did not respond to application of P. In Gatanga they responded to application of P at the rate of 20 kg ha-1 but did not respond substantially to application beyond this rate. ♦ Potential benefits of GM legume technologies for improved maize yields: Incorporating mucuna biomass (4 - 11 t DM ha-1) into the soil for maize production increased maize yields by 120%. The additional labor required for digging mucuna into the soil was compensated by increased maize yields. Returns to labour were higher in mucuna (US$ 11.50) than in maize only plots (US$ 8.00). Besides, farmers in Gatanga and Kisii Network sites reported that additional labour required for incorporation of legume biomass was minimal because incorporation and land preparation for the companion crop were done simultaneously. ♦ Potential for soil moisture conservation: In a semi-arid site Machakos,mucuna on the surface as mulch gave better yields than incorporating it in the soil probably because of the moisture conservation effect. A farmer in Embu reported that soil moisture was retained for a longer time in plots where mucuna was grown than in plots without mucuna. ♦ Potential for soil improvement: Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) at three sites, Kakamega, Embu and Mtwapa, mucuna and crotalaria were evaluated in field studies that involved the combinations of green manure, FYM and inorganic fertilisers. Higher maize yields were obtained by combining green manure legume with FYM and inorganic N. ♦ Potential for feeding livestock: Livestock feeding studies at, Mtwapa and Katumani showed that performance of cattle and goats improved when fed on legume forage. In Mtwapa, dairy cows fed on mucuna and lablab forage had a daily DM intake of about 9.2 kg cow-1, which was similar to cows fed on Gliricidia sepium forage, a proven fodder tree for the coastal Kenya. Milk yield (6.5 kg day-1) was only 8% less than that produced by cows fed on gliricidia forage. In Katumani, goats supplemented with Neonotonia wightii gained on average 16.37 g while those on basal diet alone lost 23.81g daily.

Gachene, C K K; Mureithi JG. Lost and reclaimed: A case study of gully rehabilitation in central Kenya highlands using low-cost measures.; 2004. Abstract

Gully control and reclamation activities using low-cost measures were carried out in early March 2001 at Gatanga division, Kenya. The study area was selected on the basis of previous work carried out in farmers fields by the Legume Research Network Project (LRNP). The project’s main objective is to introduce green manure legume species that perform well in different agro ecological zones of Kenya mainly for the purpose of soil fertility improvement and erosion control in smallhold farms. Area studied is characterized by a mean annual rainfall of about 1100 mm with a bimodal distribution, deep red soils, steep slopes and intensive landuse. Field activities were carried out in one of the farms which had literally been abandoned due to gully erosion. The length of the gully was 130 m with an average width and depth of 1.62 and 1.4 m, respectively. Work involved planting of grasses (mainly Brachira humidocola) and mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) on the floor and sides of the gully. In addition ‘macro-contour lines’ were constructed in the farm which involved planting lines of mucuna, sesbania (Sesbania sesban) and napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) along the terrace embankments. Through photographs taken over a 3 year period, evidence is given to show that the gully has completely healed and that the farm has been brought back to productivity.

Odhiambo, Walter; Nyangito HNJO;. Sources and Determinants of Agricultural Growth and Productivity in Kenya.; 2004. Abstract

Agriculture is the most important sector in the Kenyan economy given its contribution to employment, foreign exchange, food, and its linkages with other sectors of the economy. Indeed, the sector’s performance directly mirrors that of the overall economy. However, in last ten years or so, the performance of the sector has been steadily declining, culminating in a negative growth rate in 2000. With over 80 per cent of the Kenyan population (the majority of whom are poor) living in the rural areas, the poor performance of the sector has had serious implications on poverty and living standards of the people. Declining agricultural growth has been identified as a major determinant of poverty in the country. Reversing this trend is no doubt an immediate development challenge for Kenya. Addressing this challenge requires knowledge of what drives agricultural growth and productivity. This study explores the sources and determinants of agricultural growth and productivity in Kenya for the period 1965-2001. The ‘growth accounting’ approach is used to identify the sources of growth, while econometric techniques are used to assess the determinants. The study utilized secondary information from the World Bank Africa Database and the KIPPRA Agricultural Data Compendium. The study establishes that most of the agricultural growth in Kenya is attributable to factor inputs – labor, land and capital. Growth in output not attributed to factor inputs or total factor productivity has in the entire period accounted for only 10 per cent of growth. Labor has been the most important source of growth and accounted for about 48 per cent of the total growth. Land is also a very important determinant of agricultural growth and productivity. The study has also established that the Kenya’s trade policy, climate, and government expenditure on agriculture are important determinants of agricultural total factor productivity growth.

Mburu J. Wildlife Conservation and Management in Kenya: Towards a Co-management Approach.; 2004. Abstract

The co-management approach of managing natural resources has increasingly become popular among conservationists and development practitioners since it overcomes the shortcomings of both the centralised management and community-based approaches that hinder harmonization of conflicting interests among diverse stakeholder groups. Considering criteria developed from theoretical advancements on co-management and drawing on empirical studies conducted in Kenya, the paper examines how successful the co-management approach has been in terms of meeting the needs and interests of local communities and conservationists. Further, it analyses some of the factors or conditions that contribute towards the emergence and subsequent adoption of the co-management approach in the conservation and management of wildlife. These factors, which may also be important in other developing countries, include the provision of a favourable policy framework, institutional capacity of organized user groups to co-manage wildlife resources, land tenure conditions and accessibility to wildlife resources. It is emphasised that the co-management approach has had, so far, mixed results and there are certain important factors challenging its successful implementation in Kenya.

Marenya, Paswel Phiri; Barrett CB, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Place F;, Barrett CB. Education, Nonfarm Income, And Farm Investment In Land-scarce Western Kenya.; 2003.
Karugia, Joseph T; Wambugu SO-KWK;. The role of infrastructure and government policies in determining the efficiency of Kenya's maize marketing system in the post-liberalisation era.; 2003. Abstract

Although Kenya has liberalized its agricultural market, it continues to experience frequent food shortages that greatly compromise the welfare of its citizens, especially the poor. In Kenya food shortages are synonymous with maize shortages. Persistent maize crises sometimes manifest themselves in simultaneous existence of grain surpluses in some regions and grain shortages in others. This situation has placed great doubt on the efficiency of the Kenyan food marketing system. Improved market efficiency was an expected outcome of agricultural market liberalization. Partial liberalization of the maize market started in the early 1980s, and full liberalization commenced in 1992, when the National Cereals and Produce Board (NCPB) lost it monopoly as the sole buyer and importer. Liberalization of the maize market was fully effected in December 1993, when consumer prices were decontrolled, grain movement restrictions were lifted, and the NCPB was assigned the role of stabilizing markets and maintaining strategic grain reserves. This study examines the maize marketing system in order to understand the effects of liberalization on its efficiency. Several measures of efficiency are used to assess the performance of the maize marketing system. These measures include the degree of market integration between surplus and deficit regions, the level of marketing costs, and the flow of price information. The study also considers the role of different infrastructure components in enhancing the efficiency of the marketing system. It further addresses the issue of government policy in facilitating or impeding the private sector’s ability to respond to liberalization. Data for the study came from both secondary and primary sources. Price data came from reports of the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) and the Ministry of Agriculture. These data were supplemented with data from other published sources. The analysis also relies on survey data collected from a sample of 234 maize traders in Nairobi, Trans Nzoia, Migori, and Mbeere districts using a structured questionnaire. The main methods of data analysis used in the study are computation of descriptive statistics, cross tabulations of survey data, and use of cointegration regression techniques to study price data. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) and Microfit 4.1. vi This study finds that liberalization policy has enhanced market integration and the flow of information among markets. This finding suggests that potential arbitrage opportunities exist between maize surplus and deficit regions. The study also reveals, however, that substantial infrastructural, institutional, and policy constraints hinder the exploitation of these opportunities. The constraints undermine the development of private trade in the maize marketing system and lead to high marketing costs, barriers to entry and expansion by traders, and an uncertain business environment. In addition to filling gaps in the literature on maize marketing in Kenya, this study recommends a number of policies that the government and the private sector could undertake to enhance efficiency of the maize marketing system. The study recommends that the central and local governments play a greater role in improving marketing infrastructure, enhancing the performance of the various institutions involved in maize marketing, and reducing uncertainty caused by government policy regarding maize marketing. Farmers and traders should organize themselves into groups to increase their bargaining power in the marketplace and to exploit economies of scale in acquiring marketing inputs such as storage and transport facilities and access to credit. Both government and nongovernmental organizations could play a catalytic role in the formation of these organizations.

Mugunieri, Lawrence Godiah; Omiti JM; IP. Animal Health Service Delivery Systems in Kenya s Marginal Areas under Market Liberalization: A Case for Community-Based Animal Health Workers.; 2002. Abstract2020nw_br02.pdf

This brief is based on the results of a research project funded under the competitive grants program of the 2020 Vision Network for East Africa. A research report bearing the same title has been published by the Network and is available upon request.

Omiti, John; Irungu P. Institutional and policy issues relevant to pastoral development in Kenya.; 2002. Abstract

Pastoral life is dependent upon and bound to livestock. Pastoralists operate in a fragile and precarious environment characterised, by long dry spells, interspersed with low and erratic rainfall. These factors, together with low soil nutrients and high temperatures limit the productive capacity of their key enterprise: livestock. Sustainable livestock production in pastoral areas of Africa, and particularly in Kenya, is made worse by the failure of institutions to guard against both poor governance and the articulation of development policies that are biased against pastoralism. Institutional failure in pastoral areas is depicted by, among other things, social and political marginalisation, economic stagnation, destitution and persistent social conflicts. Public policy should address these issues in order to develop a more secure system for the sustainable development of pastoral areas. Several interventions have been carried in pastoral areas in an effort to improve the situation. However, most interventions in the Kenyan pastoral areas have been intermittent and sporadic in nature, often in response to crises such as drought, famine or such other disasters. Most of these efforts have been inappropriate and rather untimely, with unsatisfactory results. To mitigate against such frustrations, development of pastoral areas should adopt a more holistic approach that focuses on the root causes of constraints in the pastoral sector rather than merely attempting to 'treat' the symptoms. This would involve targeting the constraints arising from agro-ecological, political and socio-economic environments. The solutions to these constraints should be practical, demand-driven, people-centred and backed by requisite policy instruments. However, the implementation of these strategies may be hindered by a number of factors such as: who will pay for the implementation of these solutions? Is the government willing to retract on the reform agenda in favour of pastoralists? Are the pastoralists themselves willing to improve their lot? This paper reviews various policy-oriented efforts with the aim of suggesting alternative approaches to enhance pastoral development in the country.

Kurji P. Statistics made alive.; 2002. Abstract

This paper examines briefly some of the problems of teaching statistics to agriculture students in the traditional manner. The current teaching has consisted of foundation courses on the statistical concepts at undergraduate level followed by a design and analysis of experiments course at postgraduate level. This is compared with a newer approach which comprises a change at both levels. With the traditional approach the students found it difficult to integrate the statistical concepts into their project work, and this undermined the quality of their research. The new approach concentrates on exploring the whole process of planning and implementing research projects and includes an intensive course in basic statistical concepts, with emphasis on critical thinking in problem solving. The paper ends with an evaluation of the impact of this approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and with plans for the future.

Freeman, H.Ade; Rohrbach DA-OCD;. Strategic Assessments and Development Pathways for Agriculture in the Semi-Arid Tropics.; 2002. Abstract

The agricultural economies of Africa have witnessed three major changes during the past 10 to 15 years that justify a reassessment of agricultural research priorities. First, liberalization of macroeconomic and trade policies has increased the relative importance of tradeables in the commodity mix. Second, agricultural input and product markets have expanded, broadening the range of livelihood strategies available to rural households. Finally, broader partnerships for technology development and dissemination are creating new opportunities. Many of Africa’s poorest and most food-insecure farmers live in semiarid areas. To survive in a harsh and variable environment, they pursue a range of livelihood strategies. Different households pursue different development paths. But almost all seek to diversify their income sources and investment strategies as a means to reduce risk and respond to changing market conditions. How can R&D agencies improve the payoffs to farmers’ investments? There are trade-offs between different alternatives – should the farmer spend her limited money looking for an off-farm job, or on livestock, or on a bag of fertilizer? It is hard to evaluate these trade-offs. But recent investment trends offer some clues on the trade-offs involved, and on how farmers’ investment decisions are influenced by changes in policy, technologies, and market conditions. In July 2002, ICRISAT sponsored a conference on Targeting agricultural research for development in the semi-arid tropics of sub-Saharan Africa to discuss how best to link technology development, market expansion, and agricultural growth in Africa’s semiarid tropics (SAT). This meeting • Examined and compared alternative growth paths for poverty alleviation and development of smallholder agriculture • Reviewed the market and institutional factors influencing technology adoption • Assessed the current stock of available technologies • Discussed institutional arrangements linking national and international research programs and the public and private sectors. The meeting concluded with a series of recommendations for better targeting of agricultural research to achieve faster development. This policy brief summarizes the discussions and outputs from the meeting.

Irungu P. Formalisation of Village Peace Committees in the Karamoja Cluster A Consultancy Report.; 2001. Abstract

Nomadic livestock production is the backbone of the economy of pastoral communities in the Karamoja cluster. However, widespread and uncontrolled livestock raiding is currently threatening the success of this enterprise. In fact, raiding has been named as the single most important impediment to the development of the cluster generally and particularly in the delivery of animal health services. Efforts are being made by national and international agencies to remedy the situation. One of these agencies is the CAPE Unit of OAU-IBAR’s PACE Programme whose mandate in the area includes the control animal diseases through community-based initiatives. Following the realisation of the negative impact of livestock raiding on animal health service delivery, the PACE with the assistance of the donor community, particularly REDSO, DFID and CDTF, initiated a Pastoral Community Harmonisation (PCH) project to find solutions to this problem in order to enable it fulfil its mandate. One of the steps taken in this direction has been to facilitate dialogue between cross-border neighbours in what has come to be referred to as “border harmonisation meetings”. However, commitments made at these peace meetings lacked agents at the grassroots to follow them up and oversee their implementation. In this regard, this study was commissioned by the CAPE Unit to document the process of linking village peace committees in the cluster to local government machinery. Due to time constraints, this exercise was confined along the Kenya-Uganda border involving the Turkana, Karimojong and Pokot. One of the findings of this study is that village committees already exist in the cluster in form of traditional councils of elders, which, among other things, resolve conflicts at the grassroot level. However, these committees are poorly integrated into the formal conflict resolution structures. This study also found that the criteria for selection of members of the village committees, as well as their tasks, are well known by the villagers. In addition, there are traditionally institutionalised incentives for the village committees. The few traders in the area pledged their support for the village committees. The district administration in the area also pledged to support the committees morally but regretted that they cannot offer any meaningful financial support because limited funding from the government. From the observations made in this study, the following recommendations are made: In the short term, (i) An immediate follow up of the village committees should be conducted as soon as possible to activate them. (ii) A similar village committee formalisation exercise needs to be urgently carried out along the Uganda-Sudan, Kenya-Sudan, Ethiopia-Sudan and Kenya-Ethiopia borders in order for enable them start on an equal footing. (iii) A trader sensitisation/advocacy exercise should be conducted in order to solicit for their support for the village committees. In the intermediate term, (iv) There is need to provide the village committees with communication equipment to facilitate the dispersal of information across the common border. Due to the sensitivity of this issue, more discussion with the relevant government organs is advised. (v) There is need to establish a rapid response team comprising elders, the youth and government security personnel to complement the efforts of the village elders in diffusing local conflicts. The formation of such as team could benefit from the experience of the Wajir Peace and Development Committee. In the long term, (vi) Taking advantage of the existing trust of CAPE Unit by the cluster governments, the Unit could persuade them to speed up the construction of roads from their side of the borders. This will help to tone down the tension and suspicion that is rife between cross-border neighbours. (vii) In the same token, using the goodwill of the OAU and other regional bodies such as IGAD and EAC, the CAPE Unit could persuade the cluster governments to speed up the disarmament programme. Until this is done, the delicate balance of power existing between the youth and the elders today will continue to frustrate any efforts aimed at bringing peace, reconciliation and development in the Karamoja cluster.

Abate, Gugsa; Kogi-Makau W; MNM. Hygiene and health-seeking behaviours of households as predictors of nutritional insecurity among preschool children in urban slums in Ethiopia: the case of Addis Ababa.; 2001. Abstract

The objective of the study was to establish hygiene and health-seeking practices most likely to be predictors of nutritional insecurity among children living in slums. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 1997 comparing 192 households with and 192 without malnourished children. All the households with children in the 3 - 36-month age group were identified. Using underweight (weight-for-age) as an indicator of nutritional insecurity, the households were classified into two groups, namely nutritionally secure and insecure households Subsequently, sampling frames for each set of households were established and used to select the study households randomly. Four slums in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, constituted the study sites. The results indicated that there was not a significant difference between secure and insecure households with regard to prevalence of immunisation and dietary (food withholding) habits during episodes of diarrhoea. After adjusting (by means of logistical regression) for covariates, six household behaviours were established as having the power to predict exposure to childhood natritional insecurity in urban slums of Ethiopia. The presence of children's faeces inside the house, failure to have diarrhoea treated at a health facility, prolonged storage of cooked foods (beyond 24 hours), feeding children with unwashed hands, and poor handling of drinking water and foods are risk factors that can predict nutritional insecurity. Advice with a view to achieving sustainable behaviour change in households, namely good personal and household hygiene practices and increased utilisation of health facilities is recommended as being essential in addressing challenges to nutritional insecurity and in optimising the success of public health programmes.

Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Tibaijuka MG; MRGM;. The Tanzania Family Planning Training Program:The Impact of an Innovative Training Strategy on Reproductive and Child Health Service Performance of Health Attendants in Tanzania.; 2001. Abstract

This report is based on a study, implemented in Kasulu and Kibondo districts in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, to assess the impact of a health attendants’ pilot training strategy on reproductive and child health (RCH) services. The strategy was developed and implemented by the RCH-Unit of Ministry of Health (MOH) with technical assistance from Intrah/PRIME and was implemented with financial support from USAID. The training strategy, covering a period of four months (July to October, 1998), used a combination of on-the-job-training (OJT) and traditional central and distance-based learning (DBL). The training was divided into four modules. Modules 1 and 3 were centrally based while Modules 2 and 4 used OJT and DBL in which the HAs remained at the facilities where they worked. The DBL was backed by supportive supervision from facility in-change staff as onsite supervisors, district-based supervisors and trainers and regional trainers. It also utilized two key leaning aids (developed as part of this strategy): a handbook and solar-powered cassette player with audiotapes. Each trainee was given a solar/battery-powered cassette player and six audiotapes containing course content. The study utilized three different intervention designs to assess three different levels of impact. The study used pre-and post-test assessments of knowledge and skills to determine whether learning occurred among trainees as a result of the training. A non-equivalent control group design was used to compare whether the training significantly influenced provision of reproductive and child health services in trainee facilities over facilities whether providers had not been trained. The study requested feedback from various players on the HA training strategy. This assessment addressed attributes such as appropriateness, acceptance, achievement of the project’s objectives, how the project was comprehended/perceived and the reliability of this training approach. The HA training led to acquisition of knowledge as indicated by a significant change in the mean score of Module 1 pre-test (32.8) compared to post-test mean score (71.4)(P<.05). A similar trend was found in module 3 in which the mean pre-test score (70.5) was significantly lower than the post-test mean score (87.1)(P<.05). The skills assessment demonstrated a substantial gain in two skills: antenatal clinic client assessment and conducting growth monitoring. However, counseling services, care for mothers and neonates during the postpartum period and care during and monitoring progress in labor did not improve. As a result, the investigators conducted that HAs gained adequate skills in some areas while continued learning is essential in others, possibly through further OJT by the RCH trained CO/ACO at the HA work site. Comparison sites are also in need of improved training to improve their RH/FP skills. The data collection period for the service statistics assessment was divided into three blocks: prior to training (March-June 1998), during training (July-October 1998). The intervention group comprised 29 health facilities while the comparison group contained 25 facilities. For the comparison group, data were collected only for the periods before and after training. Six study instruments (five questionnaire and one data collection sheet) were used as data collection tools. From the RCH-Unit through the regional, district and facility levels, the training approach was considered to be suitable, especially for the targeted (HA) cadre. It was agreed that this target group required a training approach that emphasized practice oriented learning methods instead of a traditional didactic approach. To meet these needs, the project provided two key learning aids: the handbook and cassette tapes. The handbook was considered to be appropriate for three reasons: the handbook satisfactorily covered the training content, it was well illustrated, and it utilized language appropriate to the target audience. The cassette tapes were considered to be suitable learning aids because they were audible and contained appropriate and adequate content. However, audibility reportedly decreased sharply as battery power diminished. Nevertheless, feedback also highlighted area for improvement. Respondents pointed out that the approach was expensive. District planning boards that are responsible for financing training in the post health sector reform (HSR) era may not be able to afford to replicate the training. As a result, they may revert to the traditional central training approach. Respondents also reported that the use of solar powered cassette players were found to be vulnerable to frequent breakdown and other minor mishaps, As a result of these failings, a recommendation was made that ordinary battery-powered cassette players be adopted for future training. A recommendation was also made to review and edit the handbook was easy to understand and the illustrations were clear, they reported that there was room for improvement in these areas as well. The sustainability of this training strategy depends on the availability of sufficient funding to carry out all of the project’s elements, especially learning at the work site. The feasibility of replicating this successful intervention remains to be demonstrated.The HA training strategy set out to achieve certain objectives: develop a curriculum and two complimentary learning aids; select and prepare trainers, and both on and offsite supervisors; update facility in charge staff on RCH; and train a selected number of HAs. It was also planned as a pilot study for testing all of the components and documenting the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In addition, the training was geared at empowered both the DHMT members and staff at the intervention facilities. This evaluation conducted that the HA training strategy achieved these objective.

Irungu P. Cattle Keeping Practices Of The Orma People A Household Survey In Tana River District, Kenya.; 2000. Abstractirungu1.pdf

Trypanosomosis, a disease mainly transmitted by tsetse flies, is widespread throughout the humid and sub-humid areas of Africa. For centuries the disease has taken its toll on cattle and people living in tsetse-infested areas. In Kenya, 25% of the country’s total landmass is tsetse infested. This land supports over half of the country’s national cattle herd. The Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute (KETRI) has conducted a series of studies over the last 20 years on the Orma Boran, an indigenous cattle breed kept by the Orma tribe in Tana River district in the Coast province of Kenya. Field studies on Galana Ranch, Coast province, Nguruman, Kajiado district, and some laboratory based studies at their Nairobi headquarters have shown this breed to be less susceptible to trypanosomosis than other Kenyan cattle. The current study aimed to provide information on the Orma pastoralists and their cattle in their own environment of the Tana River district. A household survey was conducted in 12 locations of Tana River district. A total of 48 household heads were interviewed and data collected on body weight for 407 cattle and milk yield for 164 cows. The household heads interviewed, despite having minimal formal education, were very knowledgeable cattle keepers. They selected their cattle for breeding or commercial purposes primarily on the basis of their milk yield and body size. There was a marked degree of sedentarisation amongst the Orma people in the areas studied. On average, the household heads had resided in their current villages for 25 years. The average herd size of these pastoralists was 156 head of cattle, some of which remained close to the villages. The larger proportion of the cattle was herded by young men away from the villages in fora herds and living in temporary manyattas. The mean live weight of mature cows was 250kg, mean calf weight at eight months was 78kg. The average daily milk off-take was 1.6 litres per cow. The mean yearly expenditure per household on trypanocidal drugs was Kshs 15,575, but this varied greatly depending on the tsetse challenge in any particular area. The Tana delta area, which is heavily infested by four species of tsetse fly, was used by the majority of the households as dry season grazing for their catt

Mbuvi JP. Drylands Research .; 2000.
Oluoch-Kosura W;, Okeyo AM;, Waithaka MM;, Okilla EA. The economic implications of declining artificial insemination service provision in Kenya..; 2000.
Mbogoh, Stephen G; Munei K; TP. CRSP study on wildlife, livestock and human interaction in Kajiado District in Kenya: results of the economic study.; 1999. Abstract

1.1 The economic study of the wildlife, livestock and human interaction in Kajiado District of Kenya focused on the case of the Amboseli National Park wildlife dispersal areas encompassing the Kimana Group Ranch and the Mbirikani Group Ranch. The main objective of the study was to examine the economics of livestock keeping within the game reserves wildlife dispersal areas, including a documentation of the following: (i) other economic activities that compete with livestock keeping in these areas; (ii) the magnitude of income and/or losses due to wildlife, ecotoursim and other non-livestock keeping activities in the said wildlife dispersal areas. 1.2 Pastoral livestock and other human economic activities have coexisted with wildlife in the East African rangelands for hundreds of years. This interaction has come under stress in the last few decades, and is turning into conflicts over the use resources. These conflicts especially intensified after implementation of a land reform program that transferred pastoral trustlands into group ranches, individual ranches and private agricultural holdings in the mid-1960s in Kajiado District. The change of property rights to pastoral rangelands from communal ownership to group ownership and recently to private ownership has brought the conflicts to a new level whereby the prospects for sustained coexistence is diminishing. This research project also attempts to evaluate the prospects for continued coexistence of pastoral livestock and other human economic activities by analysing the nature of conflicts as well as identifying possibilities for resolving some of these conflicts, at least by searching for avenues of mitigating costs imposed by wildlife on pastoralists and their economic activities.

Oluoch-Kosura W;, Ackello-Ogutu C. Role of credit in the uptake and productivity of improved dairy technologies in Kenya.; 1998. Abstract

The potential for increasing marketable domestic milk production lives mainly in improving the technologies used as the smallholder farm sector. The other area of concern to complement technology improvement would be to strengthen dairy input and output marketing systems. The motivation for the current study arose from the observation of research institutions such as KARI Agricultural Universities and ILRI. This developed dairy farmers seem to be relatively slow in adopting the technolgies. This paper examines the role of credit in the uptake and continuous use of dairy technology by smallholders in Kenya, and assesses the relative productivity of liquidity constrained and non-constrained farmers.

Imungi, JK; Okoth MW. 2nd Food Science Subject Meeting Report.; 1996.
Otieno.d.m. Ergogenic Aids in Sports.; 1995.
Keya, SO; Michieka RW. Agricultural sector development.; 1993.
Nyagah DG, Opondo FA, SP Wamahiu. Educational situation of the Kenyan girl child.; 1992.
Mbugua PN;, Wahome RG. Evaluation of poultry feeds.; 1991.
Mbugua SK;, Okoth MW. Food Science Subject Meeting Report.; 1990.
Connerley E;, Nathan I;, Schroeder L. Bangladesh Rural and Feeder Roads Sector Assessment.; 1989.
Munene, J.N; Kariuki MGWDI; SJ. Incidence And Cost Of Mastitis In Kenya.; 1987.
Mbogoh SG;, Mbatia OLE. Evaluation of socio-economic aspects of smallholder irrigated rice schemes. The case of Anyiko, Alungo and Nyachoda schemes in Nyanza province of Kenya.; 1986. Abstract

Gives the results of the evaluation of socio-economic aspects of three smallholder irrigated rice schemes in Nyanza Province of Kenya. These includes the Anyiko, Alungo and Nyachoda rice schemes. Discusses the involvement of the provincial irrigation unit in the rehabilitation and extension of irrigated rice production in these schemes. Results show that irrigated rice production is the only crop production enterprise that can guarantee a source of both food and attractive cash income in the three rice schemes.

Mbogoh SG. Dairy development and dairy marketing in sub-Saharan Africa Some preliminary indicators of policy impacts.; 1984. Abstract

OVER THE PAST TWO DECADES, sub-Saharan Africa experienced relatively low growth rates in the production of dairy products compared with the average for all developing countries. Total consumption of dairy products grew relatively much faster during the same period. However, available data suggest that the consumption of goat and sheep milk declined in East Africa between 1963 and 1980 and that of camel's milk stagnated. Only the consumption of cow's milk increased fairly rapidly in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. During the 1970s the population of sub-Saharan Africa grew at a rate of 2.9% per annum. Over the same period dairy production grew at a rate of about 1.9% per annum, while the consumption of dairy products increased at a rate of 2.1 % per annum. The trade deficit in dairy products in sub-Saharan Africa increased alarmingly over the last two decades: while in 1963 the dairy trade deficit for the region was about US$ 39 million, the figure had risen to about US$ 81 million by 1970 and to US$ 575 million by 1980. The major components of the imports were milk and butter and to a lesser extent cheese. The systems of dairy development and dairy marketing in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa have one common feature: the dairy economy is dominated by a relatively underdeveloped dairy marketing subsystem in the traditional livestock subsector. Most countries in the region have both a formal dairy marketing subsystem, which caters primarily for urban milk supplies, and an informal marketing subsystem, which operates especially in the rural areas. There is some evidence that the informal marketing subsystems tend to be low-cost operations and that they are in a position to pay higher prices to producers. With milk production in sub-Saharan Africa being well below the effective demand for milk and milk products, the region will continue to depend on dairy imports to close the dairy deficit in the foreseeable future. Measures to improve the marketing infrastructure in order to facilitate the distribution of recombined fluid milk derived mainly from imported milk powder and butter oil, will also be needed. The need to link rural and urban areas in a more efficient milk distribution network must therefore receive top priority. Most food policies in developing countries, and especially those in sub-Saharan Africa, appear to be aimed at providing cheap food to urban populations. A strategy of dairy development through the creation of producer incentives, with producer prices and price controls as the main policy instruments, is limited chiefly by the need to strike a balance between the producer price and the retail price. The pricing problem appears to be at the core of programmes for improving dairy development and dairy marketing. Governments are often sensitive to the level of food prices, particularly for the urban poor. Variations in the quality of the products offered for sale, whereby consumer prices are differentiated, could help achieve certain nutritional objectives. For instance, the introduction of 'toned' (more expensive) and 'double-toned' (less expensive) liquid milk in India has made it possible to sell pasteurized milk to both higher-income and lower-income groups in the metropolitan areas. Generally, sub-Saharan Africa could learn from the experience of dairy development in India, where petty milk traders have been integrated into the overall milk collection and distribution system, thus creating a complementary rather than a competitive relationship in the operations of the country's dairy industry.

Njoroge, K; Mwendwa EW. Maize in Kenya: development and production.; 1982.
Stelfox, John G; Kufwafwa JMSW; W. Distributions, densities and trends of elephants and rhinoceros in Kenya, 1977-1978 from KREMU's aerial surveys.; 1979. Abstract

Baseline information on densities, distributions and population trends of the African elephant was obtained during KREMU's 1977 and 1978 aerial surveys of all pastoral rangelands in Kenya. It was estimated in 1978 that there were between 44,000 and 67,000 elephants in Kenya 73% of the estimated 1977 population. The ratio of live to dead elephants in 1978 has further decreased to 44:56 compared to 51:49 in 1977. Of the 5,000 to 10,000 located in the general agricultural zone, most were in the national parks and forest reserves.

Stelfox, John G; Kufwafwa JMSPDW; W; G. Livestock and wild herbivore populations in the Kenya rangelands in 1977 compared with 1978.; 1979. Abstract

Compares wild herbivore and livestock poulation data collected during the aerial suveys throughout the rangelands areas during 1977 and 1978. rangelands which were flown in straight line belt transects the first year at l0km spacing and the second at 5km apart. Elephant population estimates according to the ecoregions were: Northern Rift Valley 1,600 in 1977 but not included in 1978; Northern volcanics 1,600 in 1977 and 110 in 1978; Northern Central 4,170 in 1977 and 1,930 in 1978; North East 9,500 in 1977 and 3,060 in 1978; South Central 2,800 in 1977 and 4,130 in 1978, East Central-Coastal 13,900 in 1977 and 8,450 in 1978; South East 25,500 in 1977 and 21,900 in 1978; South West 1,800 in 1977 and 3,180 in 1978 providing a total estimate for 1977 of 59,800 and for 1978 of 42,800.

Johansen, K; Maloiy GGMO; H. Temperature regulation in the naked mole rat.; 1976.
Ebrahim YH. Ebclima Software (Synthesis + interpretation of findings). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Ebrahim YH. Ebenergy Software (Simulations + experimentations). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Ebrahim YH. Ebstats Software (Collection, processing, preparation, analysis of data + results). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Ebrahim YH. Temperature Template Software (Baseline data). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Orwa OD, Okoyo OJ. Mobile Interfaced Crop Diagnostic Expert System. 1.0.0 ed. University of Nairoboi; 2011.
Kurji, Parin; McDermott B; SD; SR. The Growing Role Of Computers For Teaching Statistics In Kenya.; 2010. Abstract

Until recently, the teaching of statistics in East Africa has been a traditional chalk-and-talk affair. In the last few years computers have become more widely accessible. At the same time many statistical resources of the highest quality are freely available for Africa, including Computer- Assisted Statistics Textbooks (CAST), an electronic textbook, GenStat Discovery Edition, (a statistics package), and training resources such as the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Training Pack DVD prepared by Statistics Services Centre (SSC) , Reading University. This means that change is not only possible but is within reach of lecturers all over Africa. Experiences at two Kenyan universities are described. Initiatives for undergraduates and postgraduates in both service teaching and specialist teaching of statistics are discussed.

Mungania G. Maudhui Mbalimbali Katika Ushairi wa Mathias E. Mnyampala (Penda-Chako). Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
Kiplagat D. STRATEGY FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION AND ADOPTION OF E-PROCUREMENT IN KENYA PUBLIC SECTOR. Wausi D, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Forthcoming. Abstract

There is strong consensus among researchers and practitioners regarding the strategic importance of developing efficient purchasing techniques to increase transparency and fairness, reduce corruption, ensure competitiveness and reduce costs. An increasing number of government authorities are adopting e-procurement solutions to reap the above stated benefits (Panayiotou et al., 2004). E-procurement is the process of purchasing goods and services electronically , and can be defined as “the use of integrated (commonly web-based) communication systems for the conduct of part or all of the purchasing process; a process that may incorporate stages from the initial need identification by users, through search, sourcing, negotiation, ordering, receipt, payment and post-purchase review” (Presutti,2003).

In this research proposal I propose to comprehensively study through explorative case study five successful cases of e-procurement in the public sector in Korea, Australia, Italy, Ireland, Philippine's and use their experiences, challenges and strategies employed to come up with a multi-disciplinary framework for the successful implementation and adoption of e-procurement in the public sector in Kenya. In this research critical successes factors (CSFs) and diffusion of innovation theory will be used in the study. Explorative case study and qualitative research design methodology will be used in this research study although aspects on the attitude of the intended users will be analyzed quantitatively.

Mungania G. Ufundishaji wa Kiswahili katika shule za upili chini ya mfumo wa 8-4-4 (Kidato cha Kwanza). Anonymous, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
Odhiambo MA. Antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of some medicinal plants used by the Luo community of Kenya.; Submitted. Abstract

The Luo community of Kenya have traditionally used plants for treatment of various disease conditions,
some of which we now know to be caused by microbial infections. Some of these plants, namely Lannea
stuhlmanii, Carissa edulis, Combretum fragrans, Conyza sumatrensis, Ormocarpum trichocarpum, Sida
cuneifolia, Plumbago zeylanica, and Rhoicissus revoilii, were studied. Their ethanol extracts were
screened for their antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus
and Bacillus pumulus.
Ethanolic root extract of C sumatrensis had good antibacterial activity against E. coli, while extracts of
C fragrans root bark, C edulis root, S. cuneifolia whole plant, R. revoilii tubers and leaf extract of C
sumatrensis in the same solvent had good activity against it. Activity against B. pumulus was observed in
all extracts except those of L. stuhlmanii bark and R. revoilii tubers. Good activity against S. aureus was
observed for C fragrans, S. cuneifolia and L. stuhlmanii.
R. revoihi, L. stuhlmanii, C fragrans and C edulis exhibited good antifungal activity against Candida
Combretum fragrans bark extract had the highest overall antimicrobial activity of all the different plant
extracts examined and was subsequently chosen for further studies. All its ethanol, methanol, ethyl
acetate and chloroform extracts were found to have significant antimicrobial activity.
Combretum fragrans bark powder was found to contain saponins, cardiac glycosides, free anthraquinones
(anthracene glycosides), tannins and flavonoids. However, it had no starch nor alkaloids.
The chloroform extract of C fragrans was subjected to column chromatographic separation and
sitosterol (with stigmasterol as a minor compound) was isolated and identified. Sitosterol was shown to
have antifungal activity against C albicans and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli.
The results of this work would therefore appear to lend support to the traditional use of Lannea
stuhlmanii, Combretum fragrans, Conyza sumatrensis (tineasis), Plumbago zeylanica, and Rhoicissus
revoilii in disease conditions where microbial infections may be a factor. Use of growth enhancers like
Carissa edulis in combination therapy may be justified on the basis of their immune boosting activity.

Omolo MJ. Assessment Of Knowledge And Attitude On Antiretroviral Therapy Among Nursing Students.; Submitted. Abstract

Title: Assessment of knowledge and attitude on antiretroviral therapy among nursing students. Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of final year nursing students at Kenyatta National Hospital. Specific Objectives were to establish the knowledge of nursing students on Anti-retroviral therapy and to determine the attitude of students towards patients who are on Anti-retroviral therapy Method: The study done at Kenyatta National hospital administered questionnaires to 150 students and 138 were found eligible. Data collected was analyzed using STATA. Results: The findings of the study showed that 39.8% of the nursing students had knowledge about Anti-Retroviral drugs; 42% of the students had some ideas while 18% of the students did not have adequate knowledge. Married and older students seemed to have better knowledge on ART compared to young and single Nurses significant at a P-value of 0.033. Attitude towards ART was positive from 34.8% of the students while 65.2% of the nursing students had not expressed their feeling. There was significant association between attitude and sex. Conclusion: This study confirmed lack of adequate knowledge on Antiretroviral therapy among newly qualified nursing students. The study recommended inclusion of HIV/AIDS based units in the basic training of nurses

Njoroge PK. Assessment of parental sex education to own adolescents among parents in a Peri urban community.; Submitted. Abstract

This was a Survey of Parents' Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of sex education to their own adolescents. The study was conducted between January and March in three divisions of Kiambaa Division of Kiambu District, Central Province of Kenya. This study area is located about 20 km from the city of Nairobi. The study population were parents with at least one child in adolescence. Depending on availability either one or both parents were included in the study. The study instrument was structured, mainly pre-coded questionnaire. The data was obtained through personal interviews conducted from house La ho u sc . The sample population was made up of 729 parents, 70.4% of whom were females. The survey found that 46.3% of parents gave sex education to their own adolescents, majority of them giving it to those of their sex only. Parents gave their adolescents sex education from a mean age (of the adolescent) of 10.33 years (SD=3.51) and the practice was associated with Parents Social, Economic and Demographic factors. 'Of these factors, knowledge that own adolescents received sex education from sources other than the parent had highest odds ratio 10R=4.l8). Age of the parent was the only other factor with odds for the practice (OR=.l.03 ). The level of sex education given to adolescents was higher for girls than for boys. The level of practice to boys was associated with age and socio-economic status (SES) inde~ of the parent. Knowledge of sex education among parents was high and associated with a parents' sex and SES index. Males scored signi ficantly higher than females and parents of Jow SES scored significantly higher than those of high SES index. The attitude to sex education was positive, with nearly all parents feeling that sex education for adolescents was appropriate and that it should be given by own parents, starting from a mean age of 10.61 years (SD=2. 84) and that it should include contraceptive education. The study recommended further studies on parents to understand why the level of practice is unmatched with the high levels of knowledge and attitude and to determine why those parents who know that their adolescents receive sex education from other sources are more likely to give sex education to their adolescents than those who did not. 'Other recommendations were: a study to assess the feasibility of using PTA' s to impart sex education to adolescents in schools, beginning Family Life education in primary schools at standard four (corresponding to age .10-11 years),and establishing of community based centres for sex education counselling for parents with adolescents and adolescents out of school.

Qureshi ZP. Case Records and Commentaries.; Submitted.
Akama MK. Current pattern of road traffic accidents, maxillofacial and associated injuries in Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract

Objective: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and concomitant injuries sustained in Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs).
Study Area: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Study Design: A descriptive cross sectional study including all patients involved in RTAs
brought to casualty and dental departments of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the
KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004.
Results: A total of 482 people involved in RTAs were included in the study. Four hundred and
thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries.
Nonfatal injuries. The 21-30-year-old age group was the most affected. The male to female ratio
was 4:1. Day time injuries were recorded among 60.3% of the participants. The incidence of
RTAs was highest on Fridays. There were 245 (59.5%) pedestrians and 139 (33.7%) passengers
involved. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatu) which were
responsible for 256 (62%) casualties whereas private saloon cars were involved in 150 (36.3%)
cases. Non- use of safety belts was reported in 90 (56.6%) cases whereas over-speeding was
reported by 120 (29.1 %) casualties. Alcohol use by drivers was reported in 26 (6.3%) cases
whereas vehicle defects accounted for 62 (15%) cases.Three hundred and seventy (89.6%)
casualties had soft tissue injuries (STls) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the
majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1 %) incidents of other STls than those of
the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the
casualties had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those
involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. The lower limbs were
more affected with 61 (43%) incidents followed by the upper limbs (24.6%). Pedestrians were
most involved in sustaining skeletal injuries than other categories of road users.
Fatal RTAs: Sixty nine (14.3%) of the 482 participants were fatally injured. The 21-30- year-old
age group was the most affected (20%). The male to female ratio was 3.3:1. Matatus and minibuses
were the leading cause of fatal accidents together having been responsible for 28 (40.6%) of
the accidents. Pedestrians (71.4%) were by far more involved than other categories of road users.
Most participants had multiple injuries with chest injuries having been the most common (50
cases). Fourty six (66.7%) victims had injuries to the head region with subdural haemorrhage
having been the commonest injury found at autopsy (47.8%). Injuries to the chest were found in
fifty (72.2%) victims whereas abdominal and limb injuries were recorded in 42 (60.9%) and 34
(49.3%) victims respectively. Head injury alone was the leading cause of death (37.7%) followed
by head and chest injuries combined (13.0%)
Conclusion: The majority of people involved in RTAs were in their third decade of life with
males having been the predominant group affected. Pedestrians were the leading casualties
amongst road users. Most of the accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles. The lower
limbs sustained most soft tissue and skeletal injuries compared to other anatomic sites other than
the craniofacial area. The leading cause of death was head injury.

Olang' POR. Effects of Spinal Anesthesia during Elective Caesarean Section on Neonatal outcome at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

Utero-placental circulation and hence fetal well-being depends on maternal blood pressure.
Spinal anesthesia for cesarean section causes sudden and severe drops in blood pressure thus
threatening fetal and neonatal acid-base balance. Several protocols have been formulated to
prevent maternal hypotension but none has been shown to totally eliminate this risk.

This was a prospective non-randomized descriptive study that adopted a consecutive sampling
method. All eligible ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) I and ASA II mothers slated
for elective cesarean section at the Labour Ward of The Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi
were visited in the ante-natal ward the day or night before surgery and an informed consent
obtained for inclusion in the study. Any pre-selected mother who ended up needing emergency
surgery or changed her mind about inclusion in the study was excluded. Similarly, any willing
mother who did not qualify for spinal anesthesia was excluded from the study.
A sample size of 172 cases was taken and this required approximately 15 weeks of data
collection. Maternal blood pressures were recorded every minute until delivery. Immediately
after delivery, a section of the umbilical cord was clumped with 2 clumps. Umbilical arterial and
venous blood samples were collected in heparinized syringes and taken to the laboratory within
one hour of collection and analyzed for blood gases and pH as a measure of foetal! neonatal
compromise. Apgar scores were also noted at birth and after 5 minutes and later correlated with
the cord blood gas analyses and maternal blood pressures.
The anesthesia provider was requested to complete a data sheet which was then collected by the
principal investigator on the same day the surgery was performed.
Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16.0 and presented in the form of tables,
graphs and charts.

A total of 172 patients were successfully recruited into the study and the total number of
umbilical cord blood samples analyzed (both arterial and venous) was 316. 28 blood samples
clotted and were not available for analysis.
43 babies (27.2%) were born with neonatal acidemia defined as umbilical arterial blood pHS 7.2.
There was, however, no significant relationship between neonatal acidemia and low Apgar
scores; neither was there a significant relationship between low Apgar scores and maternal
hypotension. 104 patients (65.8%) had a wedge inserted under the right hip as recommended for
prevention of aorto-caval compression. There was, however, no significant difference in the
incidence of maternal hypotension among those with a wedge and those without. Vasopressors
were used in 84 patients (53.2%). These included the use of ephedrine alone or epinephrine
alone or a combination of the two in the process of treating or preventing maternal hypotension.
The use of Va sopressors resulted in significantly fewer incidences of hypotension (p=0.018). The
use of preload with crystalloids before induction of spinal anaesthesia was noted to be
significantly related to the use of Vasopressors whenever the volume of preload was less than
500mls (p=0.027). Similarly, maximum levels of spinal block above T6 resulted in significant
incidences of maternal hypotension (p=O.OO1). Maternal height < 155cm did not have any
significant effect on the incidence of maternal hypotension.

Maternal hypotension can lead to poor neonatal outcome due to its effects on placental perfusion
and hence foetal oxygenation. This study has shown that vasopressor use during spinal
anaesthesia effectively minimizes the incidence of maternal hypotension. Crystalloid preload of
over 500mls is effective in preventing or moderating maternal hypotension.
A well conducted spinal anaesthetic for caesarean section with meticulous control/management
of adverse effects results in healthy neonates and mothers

Githaiga JW. Evaluation of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and needle paracentesis in the management of penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma, at Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients

Indalo DM. Factors Affecting Patients Retention And Defaulter Rates In An Anti-retroviral Therapy Program.; Submitted. Abstract

The purpose of this research was to determine patients' retention and associated factors in the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) program. Specifically, it establishes factors that contribute to patients' retention and recommends the appropriate strategies that enhance sustainable retention of patients in the ART program. The case studies were carried out at Kibera Community Based Health Care project/clinic - AMREF intervention area in Kibera slum
A descriptive cross-sectional method was employed aimed at collecting information from the patients in the program through random sampling, while stratified sampling was used to pick on defaulters, who were traced by Community Health Workers as well as key informants. A representative sample constituted 357 patients in the ART program, 27 defaulters and 8 Health Care Providers of the total population of patients in the program. Quantitative data was collected using a standardized questionnaire administered to the study participants in the program and defaulters. Qualitative data
was obtained through; focus Group Discussion and Key informants interviews. Ethical consideration and risk to human subjects was put into consideration, through provision of willing consent and confidentiality upheld at all times.
The study reveals that AMREF in Kenya, Kibera project continues to playa leading role in the fight against HIV/AIDS. A majority of the respondents (69%) confirmed to have disclosed their HIV status to someone while 31% were categorical that they have not disclosed their status to anyone. It is imperative to point out that disclosure levels were high (88%) amongst respondents in the 51-55 years age group and closely followed by those in the 41-45 years age group (77%). The study also found out that 49.5% of the respondents were on the affirmative that indeed they find it easy discussing their challenges with their clinicians, while 50.5% noted that they do not find it easy. It is
interesting to observe that the challenges of side effects related to ARV are more pronounced amongst those who skip appointments at the clinic compared to stigma and lack of food. A considerable number (15%) of the respondents noted that they like the clinic as it provides free ARVs while 4% lauded the good counseling services offered at the clinic. Some 3% liked the facility as it was near to their areas of residence. Asked to state the reasons why they would prefer other ART clinics, most of the respondents (63%) pointed to the distance from their areas of residence, 14% made reference to the quality of services while 8% explained that they would prefer other clinics if they offer food supplements as part of the program.
In conclusion psycho-social counseling appeared the most preferred service in the facility, it enforces adherence to medication and also reduces stigma related condition among the patients and those around them. MSF Belgium clinics were most preferred clinic in Kibera slum; AMREF Kibera project management should consider exchange visits to their sites and learn from each other. The study detects that there is a cross cutting call from the study approach that an ideal ART programme should provide comprehensive care and support (37%) and offer free medical care (15%) to enhance
accessibility besides integrating PTC (7%) among others as captured from the interviews with defaulters. Service delivery it was suggested should also be done professionally without unethical and coercive practices such sexual harassment among other malpractices that accentuate default.
AMREF Kibera project should consider to networking and collaborating with other organizations that are working in informal settlement to learn and share best practice to enhance adherence to ART care. Address the attitude of health care providers in the facility through trainings, supervision and assessment of care. The project should also review its approach to ART care and through operation research to boost ART care in marginalized communities in the informal settlements.

Mbunya NN. Factors hindering paediatric ward nurses from using nursing care plans at Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

Factors Hindering Paediatric Ward Nurses from Using Nursing Care Plans at Kenyata
National Hospital (KNH)
BACKGROUND: Documentation is an essential and integral part of quality nursing care.
A nursing care plan best suits this purpose because it combines holistic and scientific
approach to patient care. Further, it communicates and supports continuity of care though
minimally used by nurses.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to identify factors hindering paediatric nurses from using
nursing care plans.
METHOD: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to August 2007
at KNH. It used a random sample of 7 in-charge and 100 non in-charge nurses who filled a
self-administered close-ended questionnaire. Pearson product-moment correlation was used
to assess the association between variables with a P value set at 0.05.
RESULTS: Only 2% nurses were utilizing care plans. The characteristics of the nurse (i.e.
age: r = .026, p= .796 ; qualification: r = .007 , p= .941 and years of service: r = .135 , p=
.181 ), nursing work (i.e. workload: r = .099 ,p = .328 and stress: r = -.027 ,p = .786) and
nursing administration (i.e. staffing: r = .192 ,p = .680 and care plan policy: r = .277 ,p =
.547) had a non significant linear relationship with utilizing care plans. The linear
relationship between familiarity with the care plan content (r=.198, p= .049)) and its use
was statistically significant whereas ease to update a care plantr = .013, p = .897) was not.
CONCLUSION: Further research is indicated to determine hospital-specific factors
predicting non-use of care plans in order to address them with aim of popularizing their
use. This will go a long way to enrich the four main areas of nursing: Research, Education,
Administration and Teaching.

Nyamu DG. Knowledge on diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients attending Kenyatta national hospital outpatient clinic.; Submitted. Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease that has significant morbidity and mortality worldwide resulting from complications arising from poor control. 1,3
There is no local data to show the level of diabetic patients' knowledge on this disease at KNH, an important aspect in DM management. In the present cross-sectional study, determination of the diabetic patient's knowledge of his/her disease was undertaken for the first time at KNH.
Study Objectives: To determine the proportion of KNH DM outpatients with adequate knowledge on the disease and to determine the level of provision of diabetic education to the DM outpatients.
Study design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study from September 2007 to January 2008.105 DM patients (above 18 years) who had given informed consent were interviewed to determine the level of their knowledge on OM and hence the proportion of respondents with adequate knowledge. Codes were manually assigned to all questions and the respective answers. Five randomly selected KNH OM OPO healthcare providers were also interviewed to determine the level of KNH preparedness in the provision of diabetic education to the OM outpatients. A sequential sampling procedure was used to interview the diabetic patients. Every Wednesday during the course of the study one different OM healthcare provider was picked and interviewed.
Data Analysis: The data obtained were captured using Epi-data computer software which was then exported to SPSS version 15.0 for analysis. Statistical significance was determined using the Pearson Chi Square at p<0.05, at 95% confidence limit. Results: 105 diabetic patients aged 18 years and above were interviewed; 53(50.5%) were males and 52 (49.5%) females. The age categories 18-30, 31-40,41-50, 51-60, 61-70 and above 70 years accounted forl2 (11.4%), 24 (22.9%), 21 (20.0%),21 (20.0%),22 (21.0°) and 5(4.8%) OM patients respectively. The highest education levels; College/University, Secondary, Primary and Non-formal accounted for 27(25.7%), 42(40.0%), 25(23.8%) and 11(10.5%) DM patients respectively. 52 (49.5%)patients had sufficient knowledge on the diabetes mellitus disease itself, 64(61%) on DM complications, 35 (33.3%) on DM medications, 84 (80%), on the importance of dietary control, 73 (70%) on the importance of doing exercises and 11 (10.5%) on the importance of DM Affiliate Associations.
Patients with highest academic level had the highest proportion of patients with adequate knowledge on the disease (p=O.OOO 1), dietary control (p=O.O 1) and exercise (p=0.03). Patients' age influenced the proportion of patients with adequate knowledge on OM complications (p=0.03). The study also showed that diabetic patients' education was conducted mainly verbally at OPO clinic once a week for two hours and only one healthcare provider conducted the training at each education session though the number of staff was ten. Conclusion: Patients were mainly taught verbally. Two-thirds to three-quarter of the patients had sufficient knowledge on the OM disease, importance of dietary requirements and exercise programs.90% of patients had insufficient knowledge on diabetes organizations and two-thirds on rational use of DM medications. Recommendation: Hospital's training and education on rational use of DM medications should be improved. The hospital should make the healthcare providers and the DM patients aware of the DM' associations for patients' benefit. More research involving larger samples over longer periods should be carried out in order to reflect what happens over a longer period of time.

Omonge E;, Kyateesa; J, Otieno FCF;, Kayima, Lule G;, McLigeyo AA. Metabolic factors associated with the development of lipodystrophy in patients on long-term highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).; Submitted. Abstract

Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes are frequent in patients on highly active anti-retroviral
therapy (HAART) and especially in patients with lipodystrophy, and may lead to atherosclerosis. This
study described the metabolic alterations associated with lipodystrophy in adults on chronic HAART in
Kenya. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst the study participants was (211) 79.6%. Elevated total
cholesterol was found in 129, high low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 107, low High-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 110 and high triglycerides in 131 participants. Lipodystrophic
patients were more likely to have dyslipidemia than normal lipids (55.4 versus 35.1%, p = 0.007 OR 2.2
CI 1.3 to 4.6) with 57, 45.9, 65.9 and 45.2% having elevated total cholesterol, elevated LDL-C, elevated
triglycerides and low HDL-C, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were
significantly associated with lipodystrophy (OR 3.8 CI 2.3 to 6.4; p = 0.000) and (OR 1.94 CI 1.2 to 3.2; p
= 0.008), respectively. The odds of lipodystrophy was 2.913 times higher for patients with elevated
triglycerides than for those with normal triglycerides (p < 0.001). Sixty-four (24.3%) participants had
dysglycemia, with 3.5% having diabetes and 20.8% having impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Among
patient with lipodystrophy, 69.8% had normal fasting glucose, 25.1% had IFG and 5.1% were diabetic.
Lipodystrophic patients were not more likely to have abnormal blood sugars than normal blood sugars
(p value 0.125).

Onyambu CK. The pattern of chest radiographic findings in immunocompromised patients at the Kenyatta national hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

The pattern of chest radiograph findings were studied in 280 HIV positive individuals.
These were compared to 40 HIV negative patients who acted as controls. The
commonest disease seen was pneumonia 94 (33.9%), followed by pulmonary
tuberculosis 89 (3l.7%). Mixed infections were seen in 34 (12.2%) cases while PCP
occurred in 16(5.6%) cases. The pneumonia seen was more of bronchopneumonia than
lobar pneumonia in-patients with HIV (33.9) than HIV negative patients (23%).
The cases of pulmonary tuberculosis seen showed less upper lobe distribution than in
HIV negative patients. Most of the cases showed mid and lower zone distribution.
There are less cavitations than HIV negative patients. Also more cases with hilar and
mediastinal nodes were seen. There were 34 (12.2%) cases of mixed infection, which
constituted of 3 (1.1 %) cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. These mainly presented
with hilar and mediastinal nodes. The clinical differentiating features were KS skin
nodules in-patients with pulmonary K.S.

Kilonzo BM. A Plastic Anaemia At The Kenyatta National Hospital During The Period 1973-1978.; Submitted. Abstract

A total of 54 patients were diagnosed and treated for plastic anaemia between July, 1973 to December 1978 at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The sex distribution was equal. Most of the age groups were affected with the majority of Cases occurring in the young age groups.
Most tribes in Kenya were found not to be free from a plastic anaemia and there was a predominance of the disease amongst the Kikuyu tribe who lived in and around Nairobi.
Very few factors associated with actiology could. Be elicited and this was partially due to adequate histoties taken at the time of admission by the various physicians. Even though great difficulties are encountered in establishing an aetiologic role for a given agent, so that in large proportion of patients remains unexplained.
The presenting clinical features were those of anaemic haemorrhages due to thrombocytopenia and infections resulting from leucopenia, all of which were observed in all the patients reviewed except for the 4 patients with pure red cell aplasia.
The other 50 patients had hypoplastic marrows. Confirmation of diagnosis was delayed due to initial blood transfusion given before peripheral blood film examination in most patients.
Massive blood transfusion was given to patients on remission. Although platelet concentrates are available and obviate the massive blood transactions, only very few patients received platelet infusions.
Corticosteroid and androgenic asteroids were administered but there was no laid down policy as to the protocol to be followed. Hence administration of these drugs was done in a haphazard manner with a big proportion of patients going without any steroid therapy. This may have accounted to a great extent, for the very poor remission rate noted.
Since it has been observed that pure red cell aplacia remits spontaneously, prolonged therapy of these patients should be pursued vigorously.
Most of the deaths encountered occurred during the first 4 months of admission and they were mainly due to complications of the disease process mainly infections, congestive cardiac failure and excessive haemorrhage.

Rajab JA. The role of trephine needle bone marrow biopsy in the evaluation of various haematological and non-haematological diseases At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract

This is a descriptive retrospective and prospective
study of 101 patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH) between 1st October, 1985 and 30th January, 1990 and
had bone marrow examination done by aspiration and trephine
needle biopsy. At KNH trephine needle bone marrow (TNBM)
biopsy has been performed over the years when aspiration
results in 'dry tap'. It is only available for the use by a
few specialists (haematologists) and it is rarely performed
in staging malignant lymphomas or as a routine diagnostic
technique in various other diseases. The study was done to
evaluate the role of the technique in patient care at this
hospital. The relevant data and the diagnostic outcome of
50 patients admitted to the hospital between 1st October,
1985 and 30th June, 1989 were collected retrospectively.
Trephine needle biopsies were performed by the investigator
on 51 patients during the last 7 months of the study. Data
collected included: the age and sex, the indications for
bone biopsy, the quality of the specimen, the reporting
format and the final diagnosis on the trephine biopsies.
The 101 patients studied were between 2 and 75 years of
age. The mean age was 23.9 years. There were 62 males and
39 females. A 'dry tap' aspirate, the commonest indication
for TNBM biopsy was reported in 37 (36.6%) cases. In twelve
cases, the aspirate and needle biopsy were performed at the
same time using the same needle. Ten of these were in the
staging of malignant lymphomas. Good or satisfactory
specimens were obtained in at least 86% of the biopsies

performed. Aplastic anaemia, the commonest abnormality
detected was found in 28 (27.7%) of the patients studied. A
review of the reporting format showed that in only 20% cases
in the retrospective study was a full report of the biopsy
given by the haematologist.
This study shows that TNBM biopsy is a simple and safe
procedure yielding a good or satisfactory specimen in most

instances. The biopsy will most likely provide a diagnosis
when bone marrow aspirate fails due to 'dry tap' or scanty
yield. The procedure may be of value in routine
investigation of various diseases such as aplastic anaemia
and in staging of malignant lymphomas although larger
studies need to be done in this area (only ten cases in this
study). A standard format should be formulated and adhered
to by haematologists and pathologists reporting on the TNBM
biopsies in this hospital.

A Study Of Some Clinical And Laboratory Aspects Of The African Suffering From Duodenal Ulceration.; Submitted. Abstract

This is a prospective study of 50 patients with duodenal
ulcer proved by endoscopy. The clinical and laboratory features
of these patients were analysed and where possible compared to a
group of 30 control subjects.
It was found that a significant number of duodenal ulcer
patients do not present with the classical clinical picture. The
frequency of blood group Q was more in the duodenal ulcer patients as
compared to the controls and duodenal ulcer patients had higher basal
and maximal acid output values. An attempt at interpreting these results
in the Kenyatta Hospital set up has been made.

Mwendarani B. “Taswira ya mwanamke katika tamthilia mbili za kiswahili’’. Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Submitted.
Muraga JM. Assessment Of Dissolved Ions And Microbial Coliforms In Water From Selected Sites Of The Upper Athi River Subcatchment Area, Kenya.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019. Abstract

The Upper Athi River sub-catchment area has experienced exponential growth of human population since the turn of the century. This has led to establishment of satellite towns such as Ngong, Kiserian, Ongata Rongai, Mlolongo, Kitengela and Ruai. These towns have either no or inadequate supply of water from the local governments, that is, Kajiado, Machakos and Nairobi. Communities in this area of study have therefore resorted to obtaining ground water through drilling boreholes and digging shallow wells for their domestic needs. This is done without proper information on whether the water meets quality standards set out by Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS). This study therefore sought to assess the water quality in this area to determine whether ground water meets these standards. It also compared these levels of dissolved ions and coliforms to those of river water in the recharge area of the Upper Athi sub-catchment area. Twenty one water samples comprising of eleven boreholes, five shallow wells and five river water samples were collected from the Upper Athi sub-catchment area in the months of December 2011 which was a dry month and in May 2012 which was a wet month. The samples were analysed for dissolved ions and microbial coliforms. The metal ions analysed included Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn while anions included Cl-, CO32-/HCO3-, F-, NO2-/NO3- and SO42- as well as faecal coliforms. Physical parameters analysed included pH, electrical conductivity (EC) turbidity, total dissolved solids and colour. The analysis of cations was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometry while chlorides …

Osiro OAM. Development of a prototype for a restorative dental cement in Kenya. Kariuki DK, Gathece LW, Brauer DS, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2019.

This chapter presents summary of findings, discussion of the key findings, conclusions drawn from the findings, and recommendations.

Yohannis MA. ICTS As A Bridge Between Climate Information And Livelihood Strategies Among Rural Women In Kitui County, Kenya.; 2019. Abstract

The study was motivated by the increasing challenges of climate variability and climate change, which create problems, such as food insecurity in Kitui County in Kenya. In the current digital age, ICTs are core to all sectors to facilitate access to and enhance efficiency across various services. Although the role of ICTs in improving life in Kenya is widely acknowledged, the focus of most ICT-related developments has been on human experiences at the level of disease and needs for communication and mobility. Less obvious is how such technological interventions may be used to address seemingly abstract yet grave concerns like climate change and its impact on the quality of human life. This study, therefore, investigated the various scenarios where ICTs were deployed in relaying relevant localized climate information to help rural women farmers in Kitui County to make relevant decisions to improve their farm productivity and their livelihoods by extension. The study incorporated an ICT system to the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) that consisted of Digital Capital and ICT Tools, thereby improving on the SLF. This modified SLF, mainstreamed ICT-driven climate information and provided the ideal means by which such information was leveraged to ensure enhanced sustainable livelihoods. Gender and Development (GAD) theory, Bourdieu’s ideas of social capital theory, and the Information Needs Assessment Model (INAM) further strengthened the SLF by addressing household power dynamics and climate information relevance in the rural communities. The research drew from emerging variables to demonstrate that regardless of the context in which the SLF was formulated, its versatility makes it the most appropriate tool for such studies in rural Kenya. The specific objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to assess the extent to which rural women access and use ICT tools in the utilization of climate information including weather, seasonal forecasts and agro-advisories; (2) to analyze the extent to which the use of ICT-based climate information by rural women influence maximize access and utilization of livelihood assets; and (3) to examine the livelihood strategies employed with the increasing availability and use of ICT-based climate information. The author adopted a mixed-methods approach for data collection and analysis that was guided by the SLF. Specific methods used, apart from on-desk review, were a household survey of 419 respondents, 14 key informant interviews, and two focus group discussions. The study merged theoretical and applied research outcomes to narrow the gap between the theory and practice of ICTs use while linking it to climate information and enhanced rural livelihood strategies. The outcome from the research findings highlighted the need for interventions to empower rural women in the use of ICT tools in exploiting the full potential of climate information, the need for tailoring modern scientific climate information to local needs, translated into simple formats and the local Kikamba language, the need for complementary services such as affordable credit, insurance, livelihood diversification opportunities and access to livelihood assets that can further strengthen their household resilience to climate variability. The results show that community radios combined with mobile phones are the most accessible and cost-effective ICT tools for rural women’s access to real-time, relevant climate and agro-advisory information. There is evidence that the women’s livelihood strategies have been enhanced which strengthened their livelihood assets, thereby improving their livelihoods under the wider rubric of the sustainable livelihood framework. The contribution to knowledge for this research was an enhanced SLF where the various responses and systematic analysis made the framework relevant in gaining insights into the link between climate information and livelihood strategies through ICTs among women in ii rural communities in Kitui. The modified framework and the research findings are also timely in light of the increasing realization of ICTs potential in contributing to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Also, the thesis builds on the growing body of literature that generated a rich repository that other researchers can use to advance knowledge, and the outcomes are eight peer-reviewed articles. The output of this study is replicable to other counties in Kenya because rural households depend on agriculture for their livelihood and this economic sector is not exempt to climate change and variability necessitating the need for local specific climate information. The recommendations to the research are that it can be extended to examine outcomes that will look at improved income, sustainable resource utilization, and food security, physical and emotional wellbeing. Further we provide policy recommendations and made suggestions to shape future climate change adaptation policies, plans, and strategies in Kenya that integrates gender equality into ICT and climate change to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability for sustainable development. Keywords: ICT Tools; Digital Capital; Climate Information; Enhanced Sustainable livelihood Framework; Livelihood Strategies

Joseph SK. An Investigation on Sustainability Compliance in the Kenyan Construction Industry (A Perspective of Key Interior Design Professionals in Nairobi City County). Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019. Abstract

This study investigated sustainability compliance in the Kenyan construction industry focusing on the interior design market segment. This focus was informed by the need to have all market segments involved in sustainable construction endeavours. From past literature, independent variables were identified as sustainability literacy, uptake and assessment with the moderating and dependent variables as market segment peculiarities and sustainable construction compliance respectively. The study had hypothesized, in the alternative, the impact of independent variables individually and jointly on dependent variable in the Kenyan construction industry was above average. The phrase above average was based on threshold which for this study was set at a mean of three [Average]. Additionally, the study sought to assess the extent of independent variables, individually and jointly, as key contributors to sustainable construction compliance in Nairobi City County. The targeted population were key practitioners in the Kenyan construction industry. These were identified as architects/interior designers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, quantity surveyors and contractors being the typical core team required for a professionally executed interior design project in Kenya. They have the potential to influence project lifecycle towards improved sustainable construction compliance. Sampling frame was defined as actively practicing key professionals as above identified in Nairobi City County. The Yamane (1967) formula was used to compute sample size which was adjusted for non-response resulting in 60 respondents. For the research instruments, structured questionnaires, appropriate measures were taken to ensure their validity and reliability. Lastly, appropriate research ethics considerations were observed. The unit of analysis and observation was the individual key professional. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were mainly through computation of means and standard deviations and inferential statistics through t-statistic p-value score calculations. Resulting data was presented in form of charts, tables and graphs. Out of the 60 targeted respondents, valid responses were 46 representing a 77% response rate. On hypotheses testing, individually and jointly, sustainable construction literacy, transition/uptake and assessment/evaluation had an above average impact on sustainable construction compliance in the Kenyan construction industry. The findings also established the impact of independent variables on dependent variable in the Kenyan construction industry individually and jointly as above average in Nairobi City County. Additionally, the study highlighted improvement measures for the three independent variables as a means of achieving improved sustainability compliance in the Kenyan construction industry both at policy and practice levels. Recommendations for future research based on the findings of this study were also outlined.

Ngarachu M, Bore M, Gichuhi S. Willingness to donate eyes and its associated factors among adults in a community in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019.
Nyumba TO. Are elephants flagships or battleships? : understanding impacts of human-elephant conflict on human wellbeing in Trans Mara District, Kenya. England: University of Cambridge; 2018. Abstract

This thesis examines the impacts of human-elephant conflict on human wellbeing and the implications for elephant conservation and management in Trans Mara District, Kenya. The District comprises communal lands bordering the world-famous Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya. Trans Mara supports a range of land use types and provides refuge to one of Kenya’s large elephant population comprised of over 3,000 transient and 500 resident animals. This study used interdisciplinary methods to gain insights into the nature and consequences of conflict on the wellbeing of communities living with elephants. In particular, I used a combination of existing wellbeing indices and a set of indicators developed through consultations with local communities in TM to measure impacts of HEC on specific wellbeing domains. The results show that elephants still use the communal lands in Trans Mara but are increasingly restricted to the riverine forest remnants in central Trans Mara. However, there was no evidence of a further decline in the elephant range. Instead, this study points to a shift in elephant range against a background of increasing human settlement, land sub-division and agricultural expansion. The wellbeing of Trans Mara residents comprised eight indicators. Human-elephant conflict negatively affected peoples’ wellbeing, but the impacts were limited to certain dimensions. Elephants affected school-going children within elephant range. Attitudes towards elephants and its conservation in TM were influenced by the location of human residence relative to elephant refuge, diversity of income sources, and age and gender. Finally, conflict mitigation in Trans Mara is still elusive and challenging, but opportunities exist to develop simple and dynamic mitigation tools. The findings of this study have important implications for the future of elephant conservation in the face of competing human needs, both in Trans Mara District and elsewhere in Africa.

Nyakagwa F, Bore M, Gachago M, Kiage D. A multicenter study of the outcomes of combined cataract and trabeculectomy surgery in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
FO N, M B, Gachago MM, D K. Outcomes of Combined Cataract and Trabeculectomy Surgery In Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Okong’o PO, Lu YQ. The study of the airway and craniofacial morphology characteristics of individuals with different modified Mallampati scores before orthodontic treatment 正畸治疗前患者的Mallampati评分与气道和颅面形态的相关研究.; 2018. Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the airway and craniofacial morphology characteristics of individuals with different modified Mallampati scores before they undergo orthodontic treatment.
Materials and Methods:
According to the inclusion criteria, 54 patients (age 15-49 years) were included in the study. The modified Mallampati score of each patient was recorded, and then CBCT and lateral cephalograms of each patient were taken. Cephalometric analysis, CBCT analysis of pharyngeal volumes and transverse jaw dimensions were done for each patient. The patients were stratified into two groups according to their modified Mallampati scores: group 1 (Mallampati I and II); group 2 (Mallampati III and IV). The differences between the two groups were calculated and analysed using descriptive statistics and independent t-test. The relationship between modified Mallampati score and cephalometric morphology, pharyngeal airway volume was analysed using logistic regression analysis.
The cephalometric analysis results showed that: Maxillary length (ANS-PNS) (p ≤ .05); the perpendicular distance between the hyoid bone and the Mandibular plane (p ≤ .05); the maximum soft palate thickness (p ≤ .05); and lower airway dimension (p ≤ .05) are statistically significantly different between group 1 and group 2. A binary logistic regression identified the perpendicular distance of the hyoid bone from the lower border of the mandible (Hyoid-MP Perp) to be significantly (p < 0.05) and positively related (regression coefficient β =.168) to group membership. The following prediction formula was obtained: probability of belonging to group 2: p = 1 / (1 + exponential (exp)−f), where f = -1.285+0.168x Hyoid-MP Perp.
Maxillary length (ANS-PNS); the perpendicular distance between the hyoid bone and the Mandibular plane; the maximum soft palate thickness and lower airway dimension may affect the score of Modified Mallampati classification.

Key words: modified Mallampati classification, craniofacial morphology, pharyngeal airway

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