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Musyoka SM, Karanja FN, Mwathane I. Establishment of a pro poor Land Information Management System. Nairobi: Institution of Surveyors of Kenya; 2012.
L. O, J. A. Evaluation of HelpAge Kenya’s Sponsor a Grandparent Programme. Nairobi: HelpAge International; 2012.
Musyoka SM, Karanja FN. Determination of minimum and maximum land holding. Case Study: Kajiado County, Transnzoia County and Kisii County. Nairobi: Instituition of Surveyors of Kenya; 2012.
Samuel Maina Githigia. PIG SECTOR REVIEW KENYA. NAIROBI: FAO LIVESTOCK COUNTRY REVIEWS; 2012.fao_pig_sector_review_in_kenya1.pdf
kinyua OH. QUELLING VIOLENCE. Nairobi: Supreme Cuoucil of Kenya Muslims; 2012.quelling_violence_in_mombasa_.doc
Osengo C. Integrated Strategic Urban Development Plan of Lodwar.. Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

The Lodwar Integrated Urban Development Plan 2011-2030, highlights the historical background of the town, spatial planning its development and main planning bottlenecks. It further projects the planning area in the context of location, regional functions, sectoral analysis of key planning sectors with a view to bringing out main planning challenges.

The planning report finally looks at the conceptual arguments around the factors that determine the development of patterns within the planning areas signed out as the drainage features, landscape units and the infrastructure features of the road system as well as the proposed Lamu Southern Sudan Ethiopia Transport corridor. After alternative models of spatial development are based on the above structuring the elements from which the best was selected as the preferred without integrated urban development plan 2011-2030.

Kinyanjui S. • Best Practices in the Administration of Criminal Justice. Muslim for Human Rights (MUHURI); 2012.
Opere A. THE IMPACT OF NATURAL DISASTERS, DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, ON THE LIVELIHOOD OF THE LAKE VICTORIA BASIN. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. AbstractWebsite

The major forms of disasters include: Droughts, Floods, Terrorism, Landslides, HIV/AIDS and disease epidemics, Transport accidents, Fires/industrial hazards and pollution. There are other extreme outbreaks of diseases, such as cholera, malaria, typhoid and meningitis, which have become threats as a result of HIV/AIDS. The focus of this paper is on the natural disasters, which are rampant within the lake Victoria basin and are related to extreme weather and climate events such as droughts, floods and strong winds, among others. Extreme weather and climate events influence the welfare of the society and entire economy of the country with droughts and floods having the highest adverse effects. The sectors that experience the immediate effects include agriculture, health, and water resources among others.

Ndegwa EN. Kiharu Constituency Strategic Plan. Nairobi; 2012.
Mwega FM. Recent Economic Shocks, their Impacts and Policy Responses in Kenya.. London.: International Development Institute (ODI),; 2012.
Mwega FM, Weil D, Mbiti I. The Implications of Innovations in the Financial Sector on th e Conduct of Monetary Policy in East Africa.. International Growth Ce ntre Tanzania Country Programme; 2012.
Ndetei DM, Mamah D, Owoso A, Mbwayo AW, Mutiso VN, Muriungi SK, Khasakhala LI, Barch DM. Classes of Psychotic Experiences in Kenyan Children and Adolescents.; 2012.classes_of_psychotic_experiences_in_kenyan_children.pdf
Avery" "L, Crockett" "M, Kihara" "A, Murila" "F, Njoroge" "P. Enhancing maternal health, Global Engagement in action - Highlights from the Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants (CAREG): . Canada: Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants (CAREG): ; 2012.
Osengo C. Ewaso Ngiro North Integrated Regional Development Plan . Nairobi: United Nations Centre for Regional Development & Ministry of Regional Development Authorities ; 2012.
National Gender and Equity Commission(NGEC) K. The Land Area Dimension of Resource Allocation: A Review of the Formula by Commission on Resource Allocation (CRA), Kenya. Nairobi: National Gender and Equity Commission (NGEC), Kenya ; 2012.
Marianne W. Mureithi, Danielle Poole VNSRNMP, Sengeziwe Sibeko, Lise Werner QAKSAKTN’u MATCAPRISA004 T. Preservation HIV-1–Specific IFNg+ CD4+ T-Cell Responses in Breakthrough Infections After Exposure to Tenofovir Gel in the CAPRISA 004 Microbicide Trial. Vol. 60.; 2012.mureithi_mw_jaids_2012.pdf
Dunstan Kaburu, Nderitu JH, John Kamanu, Chemining’wa G. Snap bean Integrated Crop Management booklet. UON; 2012.snap_bean_integrated_crop_management_booklet.doc
of of Nairobi KDTCT-KU; &. Spatial Planning for Tala-Kangundo Town Council.; 2012.
of Karisa Dadu; Slum/Shack Dwellers International(SDI) MST(MST) UN&. Zonal Planning for Mathare Valley, Nairobi.; 2012.
of Karisa Dadu; Slum/Shack Dwellers International(SDI) MST(MST) UN&. Zonal Planning for Mathare Valley, Nairobi.; 2012.
of Karisa Dadu; Slum/Shack Dwellers International(SDI) MST(MST) UN&. Zonal Planning for Mathare Valley, Nairobi.; 2012.
Onjala J, Odero K. Viability Assessment and Tariff Rate Structure for The Sheikh Water System in Somaliland.. Nairobi: International Labour Organization (ILO) Somalia Programme; 2011.
and Oucho, J. O.(Team Leader) OJKJP. Mid-Term Review of the GOK-UNFPA 7th Country Programme.; 2011.
Nderitu JH, Muthomi JW. Curricula for Agricultural Value Chain Development for Universities and Colleges. Nairobi, Kenya: Gesellschaft Fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and Promotion of Private Sector Development in Agriculture (PSDA); 2011.
Mwangi WE. Animal welfare issues in transport and slaughter of swine.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Akech M, Kinyanjui S. 5) Pretrial Detention in Kenya: Balancing the Rights of Criminal Defendants and the Interests of Justice . Open Society Initiative Global Criminal Justice Fund ; 2011.
Akech M, Kinyanjui S. 6) Sentencing in Kenya: Practice, Trends, Perceptions and Judicial Discretion . Legal Resources Foundation; 2011.
ANDETO WANAMBISITHOMAS. TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF DIVORCE ON THE FAMILY AS A UNIT. NAIROBI: JKUAT; 2011. Abstract

The purpose of this research is to get to the knowledge of how divorce affects the family according to the Kenyan society. It looks at the family’s life, living habits and through this, point out a few highlights of how the family is affected by divorce.
The target population is the whole Kenyan society regardless of race, religion and sex.
The data gathered will be analyzed using tables, pie charts, graphs among others. The results from this study will provide an insight on divorce among Kenyans.

Kinyanjui S. • Best Practices in the Administration of Criminal Justice. Muslim for Human Rights ; 2011.
Kinyanjui S. • Pre-Trial Detention in Kenya . Open Society Initiative for East Africa; 2011.
Mumma-Martinon CA. The Role Of Regional Bodies In Promoting Sustainable Peace In The Great Lakes Region.. Nairobi: ISS, RESCA And The International Conference On The Great Lakes Region (ICGLR); 2011.19.role_of_regional_bodies_in_sustainig_peace_in_great_lakes.pdf
S.W. M. Optimization of production techniques for structural bricks. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Building Research Centre; 2011.
S.W. M. Use of organic fibres and cement for repair and retrofitting of structural elements. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Building Research Centre; 2011.
Agwanda A. Household Dynamics of Kenya 2009 census analytical volume. Kenya national Bureau of Statistics; 2011.
Ndegwa EN. Mathioya Constituency Strategic Plan. Nairobi; 2011.
Agwanda A. Population Dynamics of Kenya. 2009 census analytical volume. Kenya national Bureau of Statistics; 2011.
of Nairobi KD; SAPI(SAPI) U&. Situating Rural Communities in Nairobi Metropolitan Region.; 2011.
KABUBO-MARIARA J. Soil Conservation and Crop Productivity in Kenya: The role of Institutional Isolation. CEEPA Discussion Paper No. 49, . Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, University of Pretoria.; 2011.
Agwanda A. Youth Dialogue Tool submitted to Ministry of Youth Affairs . Kenya Country Office: UNFPA ; 2011.
Ikamari LDE. ‘A Status report on the implementation of the KeFA Project’. Hanoi, Vietnam: National Institutes for Health (NIH) Partnership for HIV/AIDS Research Meeting; 2010.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. A Study of the East African Urban Land Market.. Nairobi: FinMark Trust and UN-Habitat ; 2010.
Musyoka SM, Wayumba GO, Mwathane I. Development of a proto-type land information management system for the peri-urban areas in Nairobi: Case study of Kitengela area. Nairobi: Institution of Surveyors of Kenya; 2010.
Akech M. 7) Towards Professionalized Prosecution Services in Kenya. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime & Directorate of Public Prosecutions; 2010.
L O, J A. Impact of the National Council of Church’s Leadership Training Programme. Nairobi: Bread for the World and National Council of Churches of Kenya; 2010.
Akech M. 8) Facilitating and Monitoring the Implementation of the New Constitution. African Centre for Open Governance; 2010.
Hoshino, et al. Environment Conservation and Local Culture in the Region Suffering from Soil Erosion in Western Kenya. Nagoya: Published by the International Cooperation Center for Agricultural Education (ICCAE); 2010.
E W, L O, J M, M K, G B, C N. Evaluation of the Small Holder Dairy Commercialization Programme in 27 Districts in Kenya.. Nairobi: IFAD and Government of Kenya; 2010.
Nzioka C. HIV Behavioral Surveillance Survey in Kajo Keji County, Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan. Juba. Juba : HIV Behavioral Surveillance Survey in Kajo Keji County, Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan. Juba; 2010.
Secretary - Kachero F. Maintenance Policy. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.maintenance_policy.pdf
Dadu CK. A Negotiated Framework for Rehabilitation of Riparian Zones in Nairobi City: The Case of Mathare River Valley (Kenya) . Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Short Outline

Traditionally, riparian zones have been conceived as natural areas adjacent to water bodies. Today these are infiltrated by other non-traditional functions, particularly human settlement related; their management is a complicated negotiation.

Traditionally, riparian zones have been defined, planned, and managed as natural areas adjacent to rivers or water bodies; seen in this context, the riparian zone as a land use would largely have a recreational and/or environmental function attached to it. Consequently, when it comes to river restoration and rehabilitation, the above characteristics have formed the bulk of the desired end-state. However, the situation becomes much more complex where, for various reasons such as lack of access to urban land especially for the poor, such areas are infiltrated by other non-traditional uses, particularly those related to human settlement. In Nairobi, and Mathare River Valley in particular, the bulk of human activities occupying and using the riparian zone fall under the pro-poor informal sector; these include shanty dwelling units, informal micro-industry, urban agriculture (including livestock farming), informal breweries, and clay works. For decades, the Mathare riparian corridor has been colonized and utilized by the urban poor now estimated at over 6000 households organized into villages; whereas majority use it for dormitory purposes only, a significant number have relied on it for extractive and processing micro-economic functions with tangible benefits. Both dimensions have triggered serious problems related to environmental quality and carrying capacity. A significant proportion of these households have settled much into the flood zone that is considered as hazardous.
Recently the Government of Kenya, through a ministerial statement, put the riparian communities on notice pending total recovery of the riparian reserve. The immediate impact is the imminent displacement of large amount of dwellings, but also such a move is predicted to have adverse effects on key livelihoods and socio-economic activities of the community in the long-term. The pronouncement has been met by anxiety and resistance on the community side, who argue that complete recovery of the riparian zone for exclusive natural and recreational functions will have far-reaching effects and thus is not sustainable. Other than exchanges through the media, there has not been any effort towards dialogue, neither has there been initiated any meaningful research to establish the true extent of potential impacts of enforcing the pronouncement in total. The research employs GIS mapping techniques as well as field surveys to develop community profiles; overlays will be conducted to assess level of displacement and its impacts, which will be interpreted in scenario development. The output is a negotiated framework for rehabilitation of Nairobi riparian zone anchored on four components: community mapping, impact assessment, scenario development, and consensus building.

Keywords
Riparian; Rehabilitation; Framework; Livelihoods

mwaura F, Kimani M, Nyandega IA. State of Kenya Population 2009: Population Dynamics and Population Change: Implications for the Realization of the MDGs and the Goals of Vision 2030. Nairobi: National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development; 2010.
Waris A, Kohonen M, Ranguma J, Mosioma A. Taxation and State Building in Kenya: Using Human Rights to Advance Revenue Capacity. Nairobi: Tax Justice Network; 2010.
Ikamari LDE, Odwe G. Analysis of Unintended Pregnancy and pregnancy termination among women in selected urban settlements in Nairobi. Nairobi: African Population and Health Centre; 2010.
Shaka, Roushdy, Dulo. Flood and Drought Forecasting and Early Warning Program (For the Nile Basin). Nile Basin Capacity Building Network for River Engineering; 2010.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Massawe S, Wanjiku J, Karugia J. Poverty Reduction Initiatives in the COMESA Region. Mimeo, ReSAKSS/ILRI, Nairobi..; 2010.Website
Ikamari LDE, Odwe G. Socio-economic determinants of unwanted pregnancy among women in slum and non-slum settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Nairobi: African Population and Health Centre; 2010.
Thoithi GN, Amugune BK. Some plants used traditionally for antifungal activity in Vihiga district, Western Kenya: Herbal Wash Preparation. Juja: 4th Call 2nd Phase presentation workshop final reports; 2009.
Onjala J, Cook J. Microfinance in the Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in Kenya. Washington DC: Global Water Challenge; 2009.mfinancewater.pdf
Akech M. 12) Report on the Review of the Law of Succession Act. Kenya Law Reform Commission ; 2009.
Akech M, Kameri-Mbote P. 9) Kenyan Courts and Politics of the Rule of Law in the Post-Authoritarian State. Helsinki : the Institute of Development Studies, University of Helsinki ; 2009.
Oucho JO. Stalled Protocols on Free Movement of Persons in African Regional Economic Communities. Development Projects Group,The World Bank; 2009.
Akech M, Kameri-Mbote P. 10) The Justice Sector and the Rule of Law in Kenya. African Governance Monitoring and Advocacy ; 2009.
Onjala J. Water Credit Viability Assessment in the Mara River Basin- Bomet and Narok South Districts, Kenya. Nairobi: Water Partners International/Water Org; 2009.
Akech M. 13) The Nature and Extent of Environmental Crime. Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Sudan, Ethiopia, Rwanda ; 2009.
THURMAN TR, RICE J, IKAMARI L, B.JARAB, MUTUKU AK, NYANGARA F. The difference interventions for guardians can make: Evaluation of the Kilifi Orphans and Vulnerable Children Project in Kenya. Washington, DC.: United States Agency for International Development (USAID); 2009.ovc_kilifi.doc
ABSALOMS HO. Status of iLabs in sub-Sahara Africa (iLabs-Africa). New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York; 2009.
Nyang’au TN, Ng’ethe, N. and Omosa M(eds.). Changing Social Structure. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi.; 2009.
and Stephen Karekezi, John Kimani BBNOKM. Energy Technology Policy and the Domestication of Renewable Energy Technologies in Africa". Nairobi: AFREPREN/FWD; 2009. AbstractWebsite

It is now widely recognized that the availability of affordable and reliable energy services is key to unlocking the economic growth potential especially in the African sub-region. However, the energy sector remains one of the key challenging areas in Africa, largely lacking in necessary infrastructural investment. The sector is characterized by lack of access to modern energy services (especially in rural areas), poor infrastructure, lack of expertise, low purchasing power, limited investments, lack of local manufacturing capacity and over-dependence on the traditional biomass to meet basic energy needs.

In most parts of Africa, especially Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), energy has been supplied in insufficient quantity, at a cost, form and quality that has limited its consumption by the majority of Africa’s population, making the continent the lowest per capita consumer averaging about 0.66 toe. Only 25% of SSA’s population has access to electricity and electrification is as low as 5% in some countries while per capita electricity consumption is below 50kWh in parts of the region (World Bank 2007).

The entire generation capacity of the 47 countries of SSA (excluding South Africa) is mere 28 GW (equal to that of Argentina). Capacity utilization and availability is poor, typically in the range of 30% - 40% of the installed capacities. Consequently, supplies are erratic and intermittent, with attendant frequent power cuts, load shedding and at-times outright grid collapses. An increasingly common response to the crisis has been short-term leases for emergency power generation by a handful of global operators. Though this capacity can be put in place within a few weeks, it is expensive. The costs of small-scale diesel units, for example, are typically about US$0.35/kWh. In eastern and western Africa, about one-third of installed capacity is diesel-based generators (IMF, 2008).

Over the past four decades, the gap between energy supply and demand in Africa has actually widened. Unless drastic interventions are made, recent trends indicate that this gap continues to grow, and the majority in Africa will continue to lack access to basic energy services and consequently will have limited chances of realizing any meaningful social and economic development. One form of intervention would be to promote renewable energy development.

The World Bank estimates that about USD 11 billion would be required annually for Africa to achieve 100% electrification by 2030. The IEA estimates that the African power sector infrastructure requires a cumulative investment of USD 485 billion to 2030. Most African countries have largely failed to attract investment in the power sector despite sectoral reforms which attempt to attract private investment. For example, total external capital flows to the power sector in SSA amount to no more than 0.1% of the region’s GDP (IMF, 2008).

Africa continues to face these energy problems despite the fact that the region has significant conventional and renewable energy potential. Renewable energy technologies (RETs) have especially the potential to play a key role in addressing many of the challenges in the energy sector including improving energy security, saving on foreign exchange outflows, availing decentralised energy to remote areas and promoting rural economic >development. Despite these apparent benefits, existing policies and regulatory frameworks have provided little resources to stimulate market growth. Except for hydropower and wind energy, most RETs in Africa are still in transition and therefore demand continuing research, development and demonstration efforts.

There is growing consensus among policy makers that efforts to deploy renewables in Africa have fallen short of expectations; renewables have not attracted the requisite level of investment or policy commitment they deserve. Needless to say, marginal successes have been attained by some countries. Past studies in Africa have identified number of barriers to renewable energy deployment which can generally be summarized into the following:

Lack of a level playing field for renewable energy technologies (due to continued subsidies for conventional technologies; externalities are not internalised in energy/fuel prices and unduly disadvantaging RETs; and poor feed-in tariffs offered for renewable electricity generation discourages investment)

Insufficient incentives for governments and private companies to support renewable energy development

Lack of affordable financing and access to finance for renewable energy technologies (Financial institutions are hesitant to finance RET projects)

Technology standards are lacking for renewable energy technologies

Energy markets are not prepared for renewable energy (difficulties in integration of intermittent energy sources; grid connection and access is not fairly provided)

Renewable energy skills and awareness is insufficient (lack of knowledge and acceptance of RETs; lack of training and education).

In order to overcome the above barriers a number of innovative renewable energy technology programmes have been established. For example, the Cogen for Africa project – an innovative and first-of-its-kind regional initiative was recently launched by the African Development Bank (AfDB) and UNEP/GEF and executed by AFREPREN/FWD. This initiative seeks to significantly scale up the use of efficient cogeneration technology options in seven eastern and southern African countries, namely: Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, Swaziland and Sudan.

The Cogen for Africa project will build on the success of cogeneration in Mauritius and plans to replicate this technological success in other countries of the region as well as in other key agro-processing sectors found in eastern and southern Africa. The initiative will also take on board relevant elements of the European Commission- supported regional cogeneration programme in south-east Asia, which has been successful in promoting numerous efficient cogeneration installations.

Another notable cogeneration initiative is the Eskom South Africa Cogeneration programme, which was launched in 2007 with a Call for Expression of Interest (EOI) in developing cogeneration. The original target was 900 MW. The call included a standard PPA, and a feed-in tariff to be based on avoided cost of thermal power units. The call received an overwhelming response, with 5000MW worth of EOIs received by end of September 2007 – which is approx. 10% of South Africa’s current installed capacity. A significant portion of the EOIs were from sugar and agro-industries. The South African Government and Eskom were so impressed by the response that a second phase of the cogeneration bids is planned with the aim of mobilizing investment totalling 5000MW [Karekezi, et al, 2007].

The important role to be played by the aforementioned cogeneration initiatives is underscored by the fact that, with regard to renewable energy investment, Africa is doing poorly when compared to other developing countries. However, there is promising large-scale solar development in North Africa and signs of change in South Africa, where targets for renewable energy have been set and the country’s first wind farm commissioned. Development of renewable energy continues to focus on North and South Africa, with the vast mass of SSA largely unexploited. Overall, investment volumes remain very low.

For most of Sub-Saharan Africa, small hydro holds a most near term potential in Africa with several mini-hydro projects in planning stages. There are also many opportunities for medium to largescale biomass-based cogeneration within the agro-industries. With regard to geothermal, Kenya is likely to see some investment in the expansion of its geothermal resources, e.g. the 60 MW Olkaria phase IV project already has secured funding from the Kenyan Government and KfW, but is still at the planning stage (UNEP, 2007).

Based on development plans tabled to date, significant investment in renewables is likely to occur in South Africa from a variety of technologies including cogeneration, wind, tidal, and solar energy. As Africa’s largest economy, South Africa has significant technological and financial capacity to implement large scale RETs development. Furthermore, by having a proactive utility - Eskom - South Africa is poised to become the region’s renewable energy investment hub in the short to medium term.

RETs development in North Africa is mainly centred on Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt, particularly in solar and wind energy. By the end of 2007, Egypt had a cumulative wind installed capacity of 310 MW, while Morocco had 124 MW (El-Khayati, 2008). North Africa is also attracting interest from large-scale solar developers, especially in Tunisia. In Algeria, there are also plans to build a 25 MW parabolic trough solar energy plant as well as a 130 MW combined cycle gas power plant (UNEP 2008).

It is particularly important to deploy technologies that are technologically and economically mature and ensure that local expertise is available to handle the technology. In addition, it makes economic sense to piggyback RETs development on existing industries, institutions and technology developers. A number of demonstration programmes featuring RETs which are not yet mature have failed as outstanding design features hinder the technology’s full deployment. Examples include gasification trials in various African countries. Other technologies are still economically unattractive and still need to several years of learning experience before they are disseminated in large numbers. It is also critical that technology selection takes into account the capabilities of a country in terms of expertise to implement, operate and maintain. Africa has relied for too long on external technical expertise and this is demonstrated by the numerous disused small hydro plants in the region, many of them set up in the pre-independence era.

Investments in RETs need to take into account some key practical aspects which can contribute the effective deployment of the/domestication of renewable energy technologies. Especially important is the need to deploy technologies that are technologically and economically mature, cost competitive, can be operated and maintained by local expertise, and has potential for piggybacking on existing industries, institutions and technology developers.

Specific skills and institutional capacity are required for implementing, operating, modifying, adapting and continuously improving RETs in order to establish national systems of energy technological innovation. Both productive and innovative skills are required to scale-up RETs application in Africa. Many of these skills can be acquired in a technology incubator, which is also useful for commercialization of technologies. Policies that are required to domestic RETs include fostering technology transfer and also build human resource base with specialised skills and expertise. They also include policies that promote and strengthen domestic knowledge base, stimulate learning and innovation and the support structures to sustain these processes.

From projects implemented in various countries in Africa and elsewhere, several factors have been found to be central to the adaptation of RETs. They include educational drive to create awareness and impact, promotion of the utilisation of local raw materials, training of personnel on requisite techniques for equipment operation and maintenance and the emergence of private sector participation. A high political commitment and engaged local NGOs that support such initiatives are also key success factors in the adaptation of the technologies to local conditions.

This report concludes that appropriate energy technological has been recognised as the key driving force in economic development. The acquisition and progressive mastering of technologies has also been a central aspect of Newly Industrialised Countries, mainly in the East, that have grown so rapidly over the last half-century. However, Africa is presently faced with inadequate capacity to independently generate technological knowledge; undertake R&D, and modernize technology used in the industries. Nevertheless, technologies such as renewable energy can be promoted by having specific and targeted technology policies/strategies.These policies can be subdivided into two: Policies for the establishment of an enabling environment; and, Strategies for domestication of RETs.

In order to promote renewables for electricity supply, it is imperative that enabling policies are in place first.The aim of such policies would be to enhance investor confidence as well as ensure that renewable energy projects are sustainable in the long-term.These policies would serve as the foundation on which an energy technology policy would be based on, and they include:

1.Setting of national renewable energy targets

2.Feed-in tariffs for renewables

3.Standard PPAs for renewable energy technologies

Having established an enabling environment for promoting renewables, an energy policy could serve to provide guidelines to investors on various aspects of mature and priority technologies. More importantly, such an energy policy would guide the region towards domestication of renewable energy technologies. The key strategies for the successful domestication of renewables include:

Piggyback on existing industries
Promote mature technology
Capacity building in relevant technical skills
Identify and promote “local champions”

Akech M. 15) Draft Constitution of the Dockworkers Union. Mombasa, Kenya ; 2008.
Obiero A. Automation of library services in Academic libraries. NAIROBI: TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY; 2008.
B M, L O. Rapid assessment of milk sheds in 16 Districts in Kenya. Nairobi: Land O Lakes; 2008.
Ndiritu AW. ADULT AND LIFE LONG LEARNING PRACTICE IN KENYA.; 2008. Abstract

INTRODUCTION
Kenya as an East African country is bordered by Sudan, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda. It has an area of 581,677 sq km. The capital city is Nairobi. The country is divided into eight provinces namely Coast, Central, Eastern, Nairobi, Nyanza, North Eastern, Rift Valley and Western.

CURRENT SITUATION OR PRACTICE OF ALLL
According to the Kenya National Adult Literacy Survey (2006), 38.5 per cent or 7.8 million of the Kenyan Adult population is illiterate. The results of the National Adult literacy survey 2007 indicate that urban adult population that is literate is higher at 79.9 per cent compared to the rural adult population at 58.7 per cent.

SUCCESSES AND PROBLEMS
Several innovations have taken place in the field of adult literacy. These include, the implementation of the post literacy programs as a continuation of basic literacy. For example, many post literacy programs have been established in the several districts and such as Machakos, Homa Bay and Malindi.

There has been an improvement on the learner generated materials LGMS- Primers that are written by the community itself. This makes the reading materials relevant and interesting to the learners. There has been establishment of community libraries and mobile literacy classes in pastoral communities. In 2003, when the government of Kenya declared free primary education, there the oldest pupil in the Guiness book of record Mzee Kimani Nganga Maruge joined the formal education system at the age of 83.

Njeru G. The Constituency Development Fund: An Examination of Legal, Structural, Management and Corruption Issues in Kenya. . Nairobi : National Anti-Corruption Campaign Steering Committee; 2008.
Digolo P.O., Magoha G.O., Origa J, Odundo P, Nyandega I. The Effects of Massification on Higher Education in Africa. Accra, Ghana: Association of African Universities; 2008.

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