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Journal Article
Mailu AM, Rose DJW, Khamala CPM. "Sequential surveys for the pine woolly aphid, Pineus pini (L.) Homoptera: Adelgidae in Kenya.". 1980. AbstractWebsite

Sequential survey procedures are described from Kenya for classifying the damage caused by the aphid Pineus pini (Gmel.) to Pinus patula. The criteria used are the degree of needle stunting caused by a given number of aphids per centimetre of shoot length, the percentage of twigs on individual trees with mats of aphid wool, and the amount of tree surface covered with aphid wool. Field procedures for making measurements are given, and the survey procedures are presented.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ,(ed.) DNK. "Strategies for Introducing English as the National/Official language in Namibia." English as the Official Language, Perspectives and Strategies. 1980;(4).
Varma S, Shartry AM. "A Technique for Partial Marsupialization of the Spleen in Calves." Veterinary Record. 1980;106(a):127-128.
Varma S, Shartry AM. "A Technique for Partial Marsupialization of the Spleen in Calves." Veterinary Record. 1980;106:127-128. Abstract
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Winter RJ, Harris CJ, Phillips LS, Green OC. "Diabetic ketoacidosis. {Induction} of hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia by phosphate therapy." The American Journal of Medicine. 1979;67:897-900. Abstract
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Katzarski M, Gopal Rao UK, Brady K. "Blood supply and position of the vermiform appendix in {Zambians}." Medical journal of Zambia. 1979;13:32-34. Abstract

The arterial blood supply, position, and length of the appendix were studied 103 Zambian cadavers. In 39.8%, more than one appendicular artery was found. In position, 43.6% were pelvic, and 20.3% retro-cecal. The average length of the appendix was 12.0 cm in males, and 11.4 cm in females. The prevalence of the dual blood supply and pelvic position, may partly explain the recorded rarity of appendicitis among Africans.

Perry VH. "The ganglion cell layer of the retina of the rat: a {Golgi} study." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing papers of a Biological character. Royal Society (Great Britain). 1979;204:363-375. Abstract

In whole-mounts of Golgi stained rat retinae four cell types are described in the ganglion cell layer. Three of these cell types are considered to be analogous to the alpha, delta and gamma cells described in the cat retina by Boycott & Wässle (1974). The fourth cell type is thoughtt to be a displaced amacrine cell. All the cell types described are present in all parts of the retina. There is no evidence for an increase in dendritic field size with increasing distance from the optic disk.

Zipf WB, Bacon GE, Spencer ML, Kelch RP, Hopwood NJ, Hawker CD. "Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and transient hypoparathyroidism during therapy with potassium phosphate in diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes Care. 1979;2:265-268. Abstract

The effects of intravenous administration of potassium phosphate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis were studied in nine children, ages 9 9/12 to 17 10/12 yr. During phosphate infusion (20–40 meq/L of fluid), all children maintained normal serum concentrations of phosphorus. Transient hypocalcemia occurred in six and transient hypomagnesemia in five patients. One child developed carpopedal spasms refractory to intravenous infusion of calcium gluconate but responsive to intramuscular injection of magnesium sulfate. In three patients, serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone were low at the time of hypocalcemia, an observation that suggests transient hypoparathyroidism. This study indicates that the use of potassium phosphate as the sole source of potassium replacement might potentiate ketoacidosis-induced hypocalcemia through multiple mechanisms.

Waldhäusl W, Kleinberger G, Korn A, Dudczak R, Bratusch-Marrain P, Nowotny P. "Severe hyperglycemia: effects of rehydration on endocrine derangements and blood glucose concentration." Diabetes. 1979;28:577-584. Abstract
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Fisher LJ. "Development of retinal synaptic arrays in the inner plexiform layer of dark-reared mice." Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. 1979;54:219-227. Abstract

In the central area of the retina of mouse the rate of synaptogenesis in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) drops precipitously at about the time the eyes open. To determine if the visual input at eye opening provides a signal for the neurons to stop adding synapses, mice were raised in darkness during the period of maximal synaptogenesis and through eye opening. Retinal synaptic arrays of dark-reared and normally reared animals were compared quantitatively. The rate of synaptogenesis after eye opening in dark-reared mice indicated that the onset of visual stimulation was not the cue to stop synaptogenesis. However, the synaptic arrays of the IPL of dark-reared mice consistently had more conventional synapses than those of normally reared mice. It is concluded that the number of conventional synapses in the central retina was increased by dark-rearing.

Cavaillon JM, Udupa TN, Chou CT, Cinader B, Haeffner-Cavaillon N, Dubiski S. "Rabbit B spleen lymphocytes and T helper cells. I. Responsiveness to mitogens of B cell subpopulations of different sedimentation velocities and subpopulations bearing or lacking Fcgamma receptors." J. Immunol.. 1979;123(5):2231-8. Abstract

The response to anti-allotype (anti-Ab4), Nocardia Water Soluble Mitogen (NWSM), pneumococcal polysaccharide type III (SSS III), and human Fc fragments of various purified and unfractionated rabbit spleen cell populations was determined in terms of 3H-thymidine up-take. B cells were isolated either from untreated suspensions of spleen cells or from suspensions from which adherent and phagocytic cells were removed. The purification factor was greater than the enhancement of 3H-thymidine uptake by anti-Ab4, NWSM, and SSS III as compared with the response of unfractionated spleen cells. It thus appears that a helper cell was involved: the mitogen response of purified B cells was enhanced by the addition of T cells. B subpopulations were separated by sedimentation or by rosetting, which allowed us to separate Fcgamma receptor-bearing cells from cells that did not possess this receptor. There were differences between cells responding to B mitogens not only in sedimentation velocity but also in the absolute number of cells. B cells bearing the Fcgamma receptor were less responsive to anti-Ab4 and more responsive to SSS III, NWSM, and human Fc than were B cells lacking the Fcgamma receptor.

Odingo RS, Dadzie S, Ongoma A. "Aquatic Ecology and Fisheries .". 1979.Website
Gichaga FJ. "Bearing Capacity of Crushed Stone Embankment." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 1979:14-16.
KAAYA, G.P., MAXIE, M.G., VALLI VEO, LOSOS GJ. "Bovine granulocyte/macrophage and erythroid colony culture: Characteristics of the colonies and the assay systems." Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine. 1979;43:448-457.
Ogana W. "Derivation of an integral equation for three-dimensional transonic flows." AIAA Journal. 1979;Vol. 17(No. 3):pp. 305-307.
D.C. Munasighe, A.H.S. Elbusaidy KMDNNB. "The development of the Solar Industry in Kenya.". 1979.
Musuva JK, Radon JC. "The Effect Of Stress Ratio And Frequency On Fatigue Crack Growth.". 1979. AbstractWebsite

Fatigue crack growth tests were performed on compact tension specimens (CTS) made in two thicknesses 12 and 24 mm. Tests were conducted at two frequencies of 0·25 and 30 Hz, applying a stress ratio R varying from – 0·7 to 0·7. The results were analysed using the linear elastic fracture mechanics approach. They showed that the increase in both positive and negative R caused increased fatigue crack growth rates. Also an empirical effective stress intensity factor range, ΔKeff, was found more appropriate to correlate the fatigue crack growth data than the ΔK factor frequently used in crack growth studies. The loading frequency had only a little influence on crack growth rates at low R. However, at high R, growth rates were significantly higher at lower frequencies. It is suggested that this frequency influence may be associated with environmental effects, due to the embrittlement caused by hydrogen from the moist air, while the crack was fully open.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "Methodology of Sociolinguistic Survey." Journal of Social Science Research and Development. 1979;9(1 and 2).
Patel JP, Raja PKS. "A palaeomagnetic study of lower Proterozoic granites from Western Kenya.". 1979. AbstractA palaeomagnetic study of lower Proterozoic granites from Western Kenya

This paper reports a palaeomagnetic study of the lower Proterozoic granites, exposed in the western part of Kenya and dated at 2530 ± 50 Ma (λRb= 1.39 × 10−11 yr−1). Ten sites out of 13 have yielded stable palaeomagnetic directions which are believed to be primary. Polished section and thermomagnetic analyses indicate titanomagnetite grains as the main carrier of the primary component of the natural remanence. The mean palaeomagnetic north pole is calculated at 210.7° E, 60.9° N with A95= 13.5°.

Patel JP, Raja PKS. "Paleomagnetic results from the Narosura and Magadi volcanics of Kenya.". 1979. AbstractPaleomagnetic results from the Narosura and Magadi volcanics of Kenya

Results of a paleomagnetic study carried out on the exposed volcanic rocks on the western side of the South Kenya Rift Valley are presented. Nine stratigraphic groups ranging in age from Miocene to Pleistocene were sampled. The rocks consist of basalts, trachytes, nephelinites, melanephelinites, olivine melanephelinites and ignimbrites. Paleomagnetic poles obtained for different age ranges are as follows: Period I (0.64–0.72 Ma), 116°E, 85°N (A95 = 6°); Period II (1.6–6.9 Ma), 297°E, 84°N (A95 = 4°); Period III (12.0–15.0 Ma), 34°E, 80°N (A95 = 9°). The results for Period II show large secular variations which are in disagreement with the model predictions for near-equatorial sites.

Kirimi MW. "Population and Employment.". 1979.Website
Oucho JO. "Population Movements in Kenya: A Review and Analysis." Eastern African Research and Development. 1979;9(1&2):78-90.
D.N. Kariuki, A.H.S. Elbusaidy MTMHM. "Production of salt at Lake Magadi and possible improvements.". 1979.
Ogallo L. "Rainfall Variability in East Africa." American Meteorological Society. 1979;107(9).
Kasili EG, Wamola IA, Pamba HO, Shiramba T, Broekman JM. "Various pathological manifestations of leprosy: a multidisciplinary study.". 1979.
Vaegan M, Taylor D. "Critical period for deprivation amblyopia in children." Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society (UK). 1979;99:432-439. Abstract
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Mendelow AD, Karmi MZ, Paul KS, Fuller GA, Gillingham FJ. "Extradural haematoma: effect of delayed treatment." BMJ. 1979;1:1240-1242. AbstractWebsite
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Brown PM, Tompkins CV, Juul S, Sönksen PH. "Mechanism of action of insulin in diabetic patients: a dose-related effect on glucose production and utilisation." British Medical Journal. 1978;1:1239-1242. Abstract

Six insulin-requiring diabetics were studied after insulin had been withheld for 24 hours. On three separate occasions each received a two-hour infusion of insulin at a low dose (2.6 U/h) and a high dose (10.6 U/h) and an infusion of saline as control. The rates of production and utilisation of glucose were measured isotopically. The rate of fall of plasma glucose concentration was faster on the high-dose infusion of insulin than on the low, whereas the fall in plasma free fatty acids, glycerol, and keton bodies was the same on both insulin infusions. The mechanism whereby the two rates of insulin administration lowered plasma glucose concentration differed: during the low-dose infusion the decrease in the glucose concentration was produced entirely by a fall of hepatic glucose output, whereas during the high-dose insulin infusion the glucose concentration fell because both the rate of glucose production fell and the rate of glucose utilisation rose. In all experiments there was a direct relation between a fall in serum potassium concentration and the fall in plasma glucose concentration irrespective of the mechanism that reduced the glucose concentration.These results indicate that in uncontrolled diabetics low-dose insulin infusions lower the blood glucose concentration entirely by reducing glucose production from the liver and that the effect of insulin on potassium transport is independent of its effect on glucose uptake.

Oh MS, Carroll HJ, Goldstein DA, Fein IA. "Hyperchloremic acidosis during the recovery phase of diabetic ketosis." Annals of Internal Medicine. 1978;89:925-927. Abstract

We have studied 35 patients to find the occurrence of hyperchloremic acidosis during the recovery phase of diabetic ketoacidosis. At admission the patients had typical normochloremic acidosis, with increased anion gap exactly balancing decreased serum bicarbonate. In contrast, in 18 patients with phenformin-induced lactic acidosis, the increase in anion gap at admission was much greater than the decrease in bicarbonate. The difference between lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis may be explained by a slower rate of excretion of lactate than of ketone anions. After the patients with ketoacidosis were treated, the acidosis became predominantly hyperchloremic with normal anion gap. Failure to normalize serum bicarbonate is attributed to excretion of ketone anions in the urine.

Simanovskaia VK, Kadishaite DL, Lisok TP, Siminina AA, Goluveb DB. "[Characterization of biological properties and glycopeptide composition of influenza virus type A grown in different cell systems]." Virologie. 1978;29(4):275-81.
Rodineau P. "[Elementary respiratory care in the postoperative period]." Anesth Analg (Paris). 1978;35(4):677-84.
Betzhold J, Hong R. "Fatal graft-versus-host disease after a small leukocyte transfusion in a patient with lymphoma and varicella." Pediatrics. 1978;62(1):63-6. Abstract

A child with a poorly differentiated lymphoma developed varicella while being treated with maintenance chemotherapeutic agents. He received a transfusion of nonirradiated leukocytes from 1 unit of whole blood donated by a healthy volunteer who had recently recovered from varicella. The clinical course of varicella was aborted, but a classic graft-versus-host reaction developed and ultimately proved fatal. The host may have presented a large population of antigen-bearing cells to an infusion of presensitized immunocompetent donor cells, leading to an overwhelming aggressor lymphocyte reaction. We speculate that a modified approach using irradiated donor cells could be of benefit in the treatment of varicella infections in the immunosuppressed host.

Gatei DG, Odhiambo PA, Orinda DA, Muruka FJ, Wasunna A. "Retrospective study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya." Cancer Res.. 1978;38(2):303-7. Abstract

A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.

Calder JF, Wasunna AE. "Diverticular disease of the colon in Kenyan Africans." East Afr Med J. 1978;55(12):579-81.
Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. "Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes." East Afr Med J. 1978;55(8):373-9.
Obel AO. "Antipyrine and progranolol disposition in malnutrition." East African Medical Journal. 1978;(55):20-24.
KAAYA, G.P., VALLI, V.E.O., MAXIE MG. "Bovine erythrocytic, granulocytic and macrophage colony formation in culture." Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine. 1978;42:322-326.
Gichaga FJ. "Curriculum Development in Civil Engineering in Kenya." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya.. 1978.
Mailu AM, Khamala CPM, Rose DJW. "Evaluation of pine woolly aphid damage to Pinus patula and its effect on yield in Kenya.". 1978. AbstractWebsite

It is reported in this further paper on the damage caused by Pineus pini (Gmel.) to Pinus patula in Kenya [see preceding abstract] that reduction in the elongation of the needles and stems occurs only after crown damage and aphid infestation become extreme. Lighter infestations are reflected in slight reductions of needle length. Damage to the trees and consequent losses of wood volume are most severe under warm dry conditions. Severely stunted needles caused by aphid feeding result in loss of half the tree yield. Infested stands may incur up to 5% economic loss in wood volume. These relations are, however, affected by site factors such as rainfall and altitude. With stands of P. patula at suitable sites. Pineus pini need not pose an important threat to plantations in Kenya.

Zuzarte JC;, Kasili EG. "Hepatitis B antigen--a review.". 1978.
Omondi LN, Odera LN. "Kenya's Independence.". 1978.Website
Kokwaro JO. "New Taxa and combination in Rutaceae of East Africa and North-East Africa." Kew Bulletin . 1978;34(4):785-798.
C.K. M. "Pharmacy – A profession with a crisis of identity." Kenya. Pharm J.. 1978;1(1):24.
Dr. Molepo PKDN. "Polymorphism of calcium carbonate." FC.D. 1978.
D.N. Kariuki and S.F.A. Kettle IC. "Raman Spectra of mixed crystals of transition metal hexacarbonyls.". 1978.
Gichaga FJ. "Research on Flexible Road Pavements in Kenya." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. . 1978:3-5.
Sketchley HR, Mbuvi JP, Scilley FM, Wokobi SM. "Soil science [in the Marginal Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya].". 1978.
Sketchley HR, Scilley FM, Wokobi SM. "Soil science [in the Marginal Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya].". 1978.Website
Khamala CPM, Okeyo-Owour JB. "Studies on insect podborer infestations on Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (pigeon pea) under different insecticidal spraying regimes in the Kenya Highlands.". 1978. AbstractWebsite

Three insecticides were tested in sprays in the field in Kenya in 1976 for the control of podboring insects, especially the noctuids Pardasena virgulana (Mab.) and Heliothis armigera (Hb.) and the agromyzid Melanagromyza obtusa (Mall.), on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). DDT was applied twice at a concentration of 25% diluted to 180 ml/10 litres water, 40% dimethoate was applied at 30 ml/18 litres, and 35% endosulfan at 102 ml/18 litres water; these quantities were applied to 450 m2. The percentage pod damage and (in brackets) percentage seed damage totalled 30.4 (18.3) for DDT, 24.7 (13.5) for dimethoate, and 32.4 (17.3) for endosulfan, as compared with 47.9 (24.4) for no treatment.

C.K. 45. M. "Training of Pharmacists." Kenya J. Pharm.. 1978;1(1):19.
Mutiga ER. "Treatment of the repeat breeder cow syndrome in Kenya.". 1978. Abstract

One hundred repeat breeder dairy cows have been studied in detail. Although clinically 60 per cent of them were normal bacteria were isolated from the uteri of the majority (90 per cent). Thirty per cent of these isolates were mixed. Intra-uterine infusion of the uteri with diluted Lugol's Iodine solution, supplemented in a few cases by antibiotic therapy, resulted in a 62 per cent conception rate compared with 26 per cent in the control group. It is concluded that dilute Lugol's Iodine is a useful treatment for repeat breeder cows under conditions similar to those described.

Hardy DG, Rhoton Jr AL. "Microsurgical relationships of the superior cerebellar artery and the trigeminal nerve." Journal of neurosurgery. 1978;49:669-678. AbstractWebsite
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McArdle CB, Dowling JE, Masland RH. "Development of outer segments and synapses in the rabbit retina." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1977;175:253-273. AbstractWebsite

The peripheral retina of rabbits aged 0 to 60 days was studied by electron microscopy. Ribbon and conventional synaptogenesis was studied with serial sections, and the density of synapses of the inner plexiform layer was measured on large (1,500μm2) montages. Photoreceptor and bipolar ribbon synapses seem to develop similarly in that processes of the prospective dyad or triad contact the presynaptic ribbon-containing terminal one at a time. No statistically significant difference in the lengths of ribbon lamellae was found at 11 and 30 days. Conventional synapses appear to result from the aggregation of synaptic vesicles on one side of junctions that first existed as symmetrical membrane densities without vesicles. The length of the synaptic membrane specialization remains constant between 0 and 30 days. The density of inner plexiform layer conventional synapses remains at a low and roughly constant level from 0 to 9 days, after which there is an abrupt increase to a plateau at about 20 days. After nine days the density of ribbon synapses also increases, with an initially steep time course similar to that of conventional synapses. All subcategories of synapse studied (amacrine-to-amacrine, amacrine-to-bipolar, serial, and reciprocal) participate in the general increase between 9 and 20 days. Functional circuits of the inner plexiform layer thus seem to be assembled primarily during the second and third weeks of life.

Fraley DS, Adler S. "Correction of hyperkalemia by bicarbonate despite constant blood {pH}." Kidney International. 1977;12:354-360. Abstract

Patients having hyperkalemia often are given bicarbonate to raise blood pH and shift extracellular potassium into cells. Blood pH in many hyperkalemic patients, however, is compensated. To determine whether bicarbonate, independent of its pH action, affects plasma potassium, 14 hyperkalemic patients were treated with bicarbonate in 5% dextrose. In five patients (changed pH group), blood pH rose at least 0.08, while in nine (constant pH group), it changed less than 0.04. In the first group, pH rose 0.12, bicarbonate rose 5.9 mEq/liter, and plasma potassium fell 1.6 mEq/liter, and plasma potassium fell 1.4 mEq/liter. The correlation between changes in plasma potassium and bicarbonate was identical in the two groups and independent of urinary potassium excretion. Four additional patients, who were treated with 5% dextrose alone, did not significantly lower their plasma potassium, although subsequent treatment with bicarbonate in 5% dextrose lowered their plasma potassium. Thus, bicarbonate lowers plasma potassium, independent of its effect on blood pH, and despite a risk of volume overload, should be used to treat hyperkalemia in compensated acid-base disorders, even in the presence of renal failure, provided the plasma bicarbonate concentration is decreased.

Saeki N, Rhoton AL. "Microsurgical anatomy of the upper basilar artery and the posterior circle of {Willis}." Journal of Neurosurgery. 1977;46:563-578. AbstractWebsite
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Kreisberg RA. "Phosphorus deficiency and hypophosphatemia." Hospital Practice. 1977;12:121-128. Abstract

Low serum phosphorus levels, sometimes associated with depletion of phosphorus stores, can engender a variety of serious, often life-threatening physiologic changes. The proximate cause of this dangerous situation is usually medical intervention in such conditions as alcoholism and diabetic ketoacidosis, which can produce a shift of phosphorus within the body unless preventive measures are instituted.

Hickey TL, Spear PD, Kratz KE. "Quantitative studies of cell size in the cat's dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus following visual deprivation." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1977;172:265-281. Abstract

The effects of visual deprivation upon dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG) cell size were compared for seven kittens reared with monocular lid-suture (MD), seven with binocular lid-suture (BD), and six with one eye lid-sutured and the other eye enucleated soon after birth (MD-E). Six additional kittens were reared normally for comparison. For each kitten the cross-sectional areas of 300 cells were measured in one or both nuclei. Measurements were taken from the binocular segment of laminae A and A1 and the monocular segment of lamina A. In agreement with previous studies, cells in the binocular segment of the deprived laminae of MD cats were smaller (33-34%) than those in the non-deprived laminae. Comparisons with normal animals indicated that this difference was due to an increase (10-15%) in size of cells in the non-deprived laminae as well as a decrease (23-25%) in size of cells in the deprived laminae. Cells in the monocular segment also were affected by deprivation in MD cats, and this effect increased with the age (and duration of the deprivation) of the animal. However, it was always smaller than the decrease in cell size in the binocular portion of the DLG. In BD kittens, DLG cells were smaller (7-12%) than normal in all portions of the nucleus, including both the binocular and monocular segments. Direct comparisons between the deprived laminae of MD and BD kittens indicated that the decrease in cell size was greater for MD kittens in the binocular segment, but tended to be greater for BD kittens in the monocular segment. In MD-E kittens, DLG cells in the deprived laminae were smaller (11-17%) than normal in all portions of the nucleus, including both the binocular and monocular segments. Thus, the effects of deprivation were similar to those in BD kittens, even though inputs from the deprived eye had been placed at a competitive advantage in MD-E kittens. These results indicate that two factors may affect cell size in the DLG of visually deprived cats: deprivation per se and abnormal binocular competition. Finally, separate analyses for the ten largest and the ten smallest cells in each lamina of each cat were carried out in an attempt to determine if the changes in cell size were limited to the largest cells. In every case, differences observed for the total sample of cells were paralleled by differences from normal of both the largest cells present and the smallest cells present in the deprived laminae. Since at least two alternative interpretations can account for this finding, the question of whether the large cells are selectively affected by visual deprivation remains unanswered in the cat.

Von Noorden GK, Crawford MLJ, Middleditch PR. "Effect of lid suture on retinal ganglion cells {inMacaca} mulatta." Brain Research. 1977;122:437-444. AbstractWebsite

Previous work has established the pronounced effect of unilateral lid suture during visual immaturity on cell growth in the lateral geniculate nucleus of cats, dogs and monkeys. Most investigators have reported the retinas to be grossly normal but only a few quantitative studies are available and the results are contradictory. We have compared cell section diameters and cell density of parafoveal retinal ganglion cells in the deprived and non-deprived eye ofMacaca mulatta after the lids of one eye were sutured between the ages of 1–9 weeks for varying periods of time. The results show a decrease in the size and density of parafoveal retinal ganglion cells after long-term (24 months) visual deprivation. Lid suture of lesser duration (2–56 weeks) had no effect on the size of retinal ganglion cells.

Padilla AJ, Loeb JN. ""{Low}-dose" versus "high-dose" insulin regimens in the management of uncontrolled diabetes. {A} survey." The American Journal of Medicine. 1977;63:843-848. Abstract
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Fisher JN, Shahshahani MN, Kitabchi AE. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: low-dose insulin therapy by various routes." The New England Journal of Medicine. 1977;297:238-241. Abstract

Since in normal persons the hypoglycemic effect of low-dose intramuscular exceeds that of subcutaneous insulin we studied the effect of routes of insulin therapy in diabetic ketoacidosis. Forty-five patients with diabetic ketoacidosis entered a randomized prospective protocol with insulin administered either intravenously, subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Initial priming dose of insulin had to be repeated in two of 15, three of 15 and six of 15 of the intravenous, subcutaneous and intramuscular groups respectively. The intravenous group had a more rapid fall in plasma glucose (P less than 0.01) and ketone bodies (P less than 0.05) during the first two hours. Thereafter, there were no significant differences in the rate of decline of plasma glucose or ketones nor in the time required for glucose to reach 250 mg per deciliter or for complete recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis. The data confirm the efficacy of low-dose insulin therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis and indicate that the optimal route of insulin administration is by initial intravenous combined with subcutaneous or intramuscular.

Terayama Y, Kaneko Y, Kawamoto K, Sakai N. "Ultrastructural changes of the nerve elements following disruption of the organ of {Corti}. {I}. {Nerve} elements in the organ of {Corti}." Acta oto-laryngologica. 1977;83:291-302. Abstract

3-137 days after disruption of the guinea pig organ of Corti by perilymphatic perfusion with 20% streptomycin (SM), ultrastructural changes of the nerve fibers in the organ were observed. Most of nerve fibers began to degenerate after a latent period of 4 days. On the other hand, a number of fibers survived reactively enlarged and later developed into myelinated and unmyelinated fibers by becoming enclosed in Schwann cells which entered the organ of Corti through the habenula perforata. Regeneration and sprouting of the surviving nerve fibers also occurred. The fibers became mature, but atrophied after 60 days and then gradually disappeared. The regenerating fibers were mainly of the myelinated and unmyelinated efferent type. Retrograde degeneration occurred in both afferent and efferent fibers. In the less damaged organ of Corti perfused with 2% SM or Ringer's solution, Schwann cell invasion was not found.

Okech MO, Orinda DA, Gatei DG, Wasunna AO. "Plasma oestradiol-17B and oestrogen receptors in mammary tumours among Africans." East Afr Med J. 1977;54(11):615-20.
Ostenson RC, Fields BT, Nolan CM. "Polymyxin B and rifampin: new regimen for multiresistant Serratia marcescens infections." Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.. 1977;12(6):655-9. Abstract

Polymyxin B and rifampin were given to 12 patients with multi-drug-resistant nosocomial Serratia marcescens infections. Eight cures were achieved; drug hepatotoxicity occurred once; one fatal suprainfection was encountered; and two patients died during therapy of causes related to severe underlying illnesses. Polymyxin B and rifampin were uniformly synergistic in vitro against the infecting strains and against 40 additional clinical isolates of S. marcescens.

Steel CM, Ennis M, Levin AG, Wasunna A. "The mitogenic response of cryopreserved human lymphocytes in a microculture system." Cytobios. 1977;18(70):89-99. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

Maitai CK. "The toxicity of the plant Catha edulis in rats." Toxicon. 1977;15(4):363-6.
KAAYA, G.P. WINGVISTANDJOHNSONGLW. "Clinico-pathological aspects of Trypanosoma congolense infection in goats." Bulletin of animal Health and production in Africa. 1977;25:397-408.
Wanjala C. "Culture, the African Writer and Alienation." Maktaba: Official Journal of the Kenya Library Association. 1977;4(1):22-27.
J.S 1. N. "A Curriculum Development Programme in Physical Education." Plymouth Polytechnic. 1977;2(1):13-20.
Ogana W, Spreiter JR. "Derivation of an integral equation for transonic flows." AIAA Journal. 1977;Vol. 15(No. 2):pp. 281-282.
Ilnicki RD, Justin JR, Michieka RW. "The effects of some dinitroaniline herbicide on kenaf.". 1977.
Onyango OW. "Kenya's Water Problems.". 1977.Website
Mohamed PA,(ed) AIS. "Language Situation in Kenya." Languages et PolitiQues en Afrique Noire. 1977.
Ogana W. "Numerical solution for subcritical flows by a transonic integral equation method." AIAA Journal. 1977;Vol 15(No. 3):pp. 444-446.
Dossaji SF, Kairu MG, Gondwe AT, Ouma JH. "On the evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of Polygonum senegalense." Lloydia (J. of Nat. Prod.). 1977;40(3):290-293.
Okech MO, Orinda DA, Gatei DG, Wasunna AO. "Plasma oestradiol-17B and oestrogen receptors in mammary tumours among Africans.". 1977.
Michieka RW, Ilnicki RD, Justin JR, Zublena J. "Response of kenaf to some preemergence herbicides.". 1977.
and Kettle KDNSFA. ""The vibrational Spectra of mixed crystals of (C6H5)3PMxM1- x(CO)5, where M, M = Cr, Mo, W."." Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 6, 319. 1977.
Wanjala C. "Theatre and Politics." African Perspectives. 1977;1(1):30-38.
OLIECH JS. "Thyrotoxicosis at Kenyatta National Hospital Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1977 Oct;54(10):561-4." East Afr Med J. 1977 Oct;54(10):561-4.. 1977;vol. 54(10):561-564. Abstract

ABSTRAC
A three-year (1974-1977) retrospective study of 163 patients with goiter and signs of thyrotoxicosis was carried out.Of thesepatients, 65 (40%) had confirmed thyrotoxicosis,the rest were euthyroid.Kungu(1) reported 36 cases histologically diagnosed over a period of 5 years(1967-1971).Gitau in a six year study1968-1973) REPORTED 148 cases.This suggests that thyrotoxicosis is on the increase at KNH.One the reasons for the increase may be that the patients are becoming more aware of the disease and therefore reporting to the hospital for treatment.The second reason is that the doctors are increasingly interested in the disease.Thirdly, the introduction of iodised domestic salt may cause some patients to become toxic (iodine stimulation).The majority of patients were treated with antithyroid drugs;if they relapsed or did not respond to medical therpy, surgery or radio iodine were the next methods of treatment.

Burke LF, Clark E. "Ileocolic intussusception—a case report." Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 1977;5:346-347. AbstractWebsite
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Osborne DMP, Monaghan P. "Effects of light and dark upon photoreceptor synapses in the retina of {Xenopus} laevis." Cell and Tissue Research. 1976;173:211-220. AbstractWebsite

Photoreceptor synapses in Xenopus retina were studied after exposure to day/night cycles and continuous light or dark. In the rods, dense-core vesicles appear alongside the synaptic ribbons in animals exposed to light. In dark-adapted rods, electron-dense material is present in the synaptic clefts, but no dense-core vesicles are found associated with the synaptic ribbons. Cone photoreceptors do not show these ultrastructural changes in response to light and dark. Prolonged exposure to light (21 days) causes flattening of the synaptic vesicles associated with the synaptic ribbons in both rods and cones. The results are discussed in the light of what is known about transmitter release from photoreceptors.

Chernenko GA, West RW. "A re-examination of anatomical plasticity in the rat retina." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1976;167:49-62. Abstract

Previous investigators have reported an increase in numbers of amacrine synapses in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rat retina following light deprivation, and an increase in amacrine along with a decrease in bipolar synapses following light damage. Since there are several points of disagreement between the published reports on this subject we undertook a more detailed study of the effects of light deprivation and light damage on the retina. Four groups of eight male albino rat pups (14 days old) were raised for eight weeks under different conditions: (1) unsutured, bright light reared (UB); (2) bilaterally lid-sutured, bright light reared (SB); (3) unsutured, low light reared (UL); and (4) bilaterally lid-sutured, dark reared (SD). The intensity of the light given the UL group was equated with that striking the corneas of the SB group. Light microscopy showed that the retinas of the SB as well as the UB groups had almost complete degeneration of the outer retinal layers, indicating that even low intensity light, when continuous, causes severe retinal damage. The SD group was thicker in many of the retinal layers compared to the UL (control) group. Electron microscopy revealed that there were no significant changes in the incidences of any type of synapse in the IPL following light deprivation or light damage when averaged over total depth. This is in contradiction to the reports of other investigators. However, when the IPL was analyzed by levels, the incidence of amacrine-ganglion synapses was signficantly greater (p less than 0.05) in groups UB and SD, but only in the outer third of the IPL. Thus, extensive postnatal plasticity of IPL synapses in the rat retina did not occur under our experimental conditions. We found, at best, only limited effects which were confined to the amacrine-ganglion synapses.

Kitabchi AE, Ayyagari V, Guerra SM. "The efficacy of low-dose versus conventional therapy of insulin for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis." Annals of Internal Medicine. 1976;84:633-638. Abstract

The effect of low-dose intramuscular insulin therapy was compared with that of high-dose insulin therapy by intravenous and subcutaneous routes in 48 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. A simplified protocol was devised to compare efficacy of the two methods of therapy in a randomized manner. Plasma glucose dropped to less than 250 mg/dl in the low-dose group in 6.7 +/- 0.8 h and in the high-dose group in 4.5 +/- 0.8 h (P = not significant). The amount of insulin necessary to lower plasma glucose to 250 mg/dl was 263 +/- 45 U in the high-dose group and 46 +/- 5 U in the low-dose group. Twenty five percent in the high-dose group and none in the low-dose group developed hypoglycemia. Other biochemical and clinical variables in the two groups were comparable. No treatment complications were noted in the low-dose group. Our studies suggest that low-dose intramuscular insulin therapy is simple and as effective as high-dose therapy in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis without the risk of hypoglycemia and with a diminished incidence of hypokalemia. Furthermore, the favorable response of these patients to low-dose insulin therapy suggests the absence of insulin resistance in diabetic ketoacidosis.

Maany I. "Tardive dyskinesia." Dis Nerv Syst. 1976;37(10):587.
Mosin VI, Radbil' OS. "[Cyclic nucleotides and intestinal function]." Klin Med (Mosk). 1976;54(10):23-8.
Berg CP, Rodden FA. "Purification of D-amino oxidase from Trigonopsis variabilis." Anal. Biochem.. 1976;71(1):214-22.
Holmgren JH. "Automated laundry increases productivity." Mod Healthc (Short Term Care). 1976;5(6):60.
Silverstein E, Friedland J, Lyons HA, Gourin A. "Markedly elevated angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes containing non-necrotizing granulomas in sarcoidosis." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 1976;73(6):2137-41. Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by the generalized formation of granulomas and is accompanied by elevation in the serum in less than half the patients of angiotensin converting enzyme, a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of the decapeptide, angiotensin I, to the pressor octapeptide, angiotensin II, and L-histidyl-L-leucine. Mean activity of angiotensin converting enzyme was elevated generally more than 10-fold in granuloma-containing lymph nodes, but not in lung in which normally it is abundant, in 19 of 20 patients with sarcoidosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes from subjects with sarcoidosis was similar to the enzyme from normal lung and lymph node with respect to activity as a function of pH, inhibition of activity by EDTA and o-phenanthroline, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, and requirement for chloride for activity, but appeared to be more heat labile. The data suggest that the granulomas in sarcoidosis may be the source of the elevated serum enzyme and that cells of the granulomas, particularly the epitheloid cells which appear by electron microscopy to have active protein biosynthesis, may be actively synthesizing the enzyme.

Roseleur OJ, van Gent CM. "Alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated bile acids." Clin. Chim. Acta. 1976;66(2):269-72.
Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Raffle A, Gray J, MacDonald HR. "Letter: First-aid treatment of poisoning." Br Med J. 1976;1(6001):93.
O'Day DH. "Acid protease activity during germination of microcysts of the cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pallidum." J. Bacteriol.. 1976;125(1):8-13. Abstract

Extracts of dormant microcysts of Polysphondylium pallidum demonstrate pH optima for the hydrolysis of casein at 3.5 and 6.0. During germination the intracellular pH 6.0 caseinolytic specific activity does not change significantly. The pH 6.0 protease is also active on azo-albumin, revealing the same developmental pattern with this substrate. Both acid protease activities are excreted during the germination process. Addition of purified nonspecific protease to cultures speeds up germination, suggesting that the excreted protease may play a role in removal of the microcyst wall. When cycloheximide is added to cultures, complete germination (emergence) is stopped whereas the pH 6.0 protease activity still accumulates to between 50 and 60% of the maximum control activity. Although this suggests that post-translational controls might mediate the accumulation of a portion of the pH 6.0 protease increase, mixing and dilution experiments with cell extracts do not reveal the differential presence of soluble activators or inhibitors of this activity at different developmental stages. The presence of tightly bound enzyme-inhibitor complexes for protease B in dormant microcysts has not been ruled out and is currently under study.

Chern CJ, Beutler E. "Biochemical and electrophoretic studies of erythrocyte pyridoxine kinase in white and black Americans." Am. J. Hum. Genet.. 1976;28(1):9-17. Abstract

The mean PNK activity in red blood cells from black subjects was only about 40% of that in whites. Among 51 whites examined, one was found to have enzyme deficiency. The estimated gene frequencies for PNKH (the common allele in whites which codes for higher enzyme activity) and PNKL (the common allele in blacks which codes for lower enzyme activity) were .35 and .65, respectively, for black donors, and .81 and .19, respectively, for white donors, The variant enzyme in persons with enzyme deficiency was associated with an increased rate of degradation in red cells during aging. No other biochemical or electrophoretic differences were detected.

Chern CJ, Beutler E. "Biochemical and electrophoretic studies of erythrocyte pyridoxine kinase in white and black Americans." Am. J. Hum. Genet.. 1976;28(1):9-17. Abstract

The mean PNK activity in red blood cells from black subjects was only about 40% of that in whites. Among 51 whites examined, one was found to have enzyme deficiency. The estimated gene frequencies for PNKH (the common allele in whites which codes for higher enzyme activity) and PNKL (the common allele in blacks which codes for lower enzyme activity) were .35 and .65, respectively, for black donors, and .81 and .19, respectively, for white donors, The variant enzyme in persons with enzyme deficiency was associated with an increased rate of degradation in red cells during aging. No other biochemical or electrophoretic differences were detected.

Jacob JS, McDonald HS. "Diving bradycardia in four species of North American aquatic snakes." Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1976;53(1):69-72.
Cochran DG. "Excreta analysis on additional cockroach species and the house cricket." Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1976;53(1):79-81.
Belaich A, Belaich JP. "Microcalorimetric study of the anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli: growth thermograms in a synthetic medium." J. Bacteriol.. 1976;125(1):14-8. Abstract

A microcalorimetric technique was used for studying the growth of Escherichia coli during anaerobiosis. The growth thermograms obtained are complex and the shape of curves is dependent on the hydrogen lyase activity of the cells. Fermentation balances are given for different culture conditions, and simple growth thermograms are obtained when the hydrogen lyase activity is inhibitied.

Horty JF. "Negligence serves two masters." Mod Healthc (Short Term Care). 1976;5(1):58-60.
Share JB. "Review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome persons." Am J Ment Defic. 1976;80(4):388-93. Abstract

A review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome individuals was presented. Drugs used to modify behavior, as well as drugs used with the goal of affecting cognitive processes, were discussed. Some observations were offered as to the effectiveness of past and current drugs on Down's syndrome and some methodological problems relating to drug studies presented. There have not been any drugs that have demonstrated remarkable improvement in the status of Down's syndrome individuals that have been widely accepted as effective.

Share JB. "Review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome persons." Am J Ment Defic. 1976;80(4):388-93. Abstract

A review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome individuals was presented. Drugs used to modify behavior, as well as drugs used with the goal of affecting cognitive processes, were discussed. Some observations were offered as to the effectiveness of past and current drugs on Down's syndrome and some methodological problems relating to drug studies presented. There have not been any drugs that have demonstrated remarkable improvement in the status of Down's syndrome individuals that have been widely accepted as effective.

Bland RD, Clarke TL, Harden LB. "Rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate and albumin into high-risk premature infants soon after birth: a controlled, prospective trial." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(3):263-7. Abstract

We conducted a controlled, prospective trial to evaluate the effectiveness of rapidly infusing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and salt-poor albumin into high-risk, premature infants in the first 2 hours of life. Fifty-three infants, randomized into one of four treatment groups, received 8 ml. per kilogram of a solution containing either (A) glucose in water, (B) salt-poor albumin, (C) NaHCO3, or (D) a combination of albumin and NaHCO3. After the initial infusion, the babies received no colloid or alkali solutions until 4 hours of age. We managed them supportively with warmth, appropriate oxygen administration, isotonic fluid infusion, and close monitoring. Among the infants who received alkali, 14 of 26 acquired the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 11 died, and four had intracranial hemorrhage. Among babies who received no alkali, RDS occurred in 11 of 27, 5 died, and none had intracranial hemorrhage. These results do not support the common practice of rapidly infusing NaHCO3 into high-risk, premature infants, and they suggest that the early management of such infants needs renewed critical evaluation.

Bland RD, Clarke TL, Harden LB. "Rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate and albumin into high-risk premature infants soon after birth: a controlled, prospective trial." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(3):263-7. Abstract

We conducted a controlled, prospective trial to evaluate the effectiveness of rapidly infusing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and salt-poor albumin into high-risk, premature infants in the first 2 hours of life. Fifty-three infants, randomized into one of four treatment groups, received 8 ml. per kilogram of a solution containing either (A) glucose in water, (B) salt-poor albumin, (C) NaHCO3, or (D) a combination of albumin and NaHCO3. After the initial infusion, the babies received no colloid or alkali solutions until 4 hours of age. We managed them supportively with warmth, appropriate oxygen administration, isotonic fluid infusion, and close monitoring. Among the infants who received alkali, 14 of 26 acquired the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 11 died, and four had intracranial hemorrhage. Among babies who received no alkali, RDS occurred in 11 of 27, 5 died, and none had intracranial hemorrhage. These results do not support the common practice of rapidly infusing NaHCO3 into high-risk, premature infants, and they suggest that the early management of such infants needs renewed critical evaluation.

Bland RD, Clarke TL, Harden LB. "Rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate and albumin into high-risk premature infants soon after birth: a controlled, prospective trial." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(3):263-7. Abstract

We conducted a controlled, prospective trial to evaluate the effectiveness of rapidly infusing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and salt-poor albumin into high-risk, premature infants in the first 2 hours of life. Fifty-three infants, randomized into one of four treatment groups, received 8 ml. per kilogram of a solution containing either (A) glucose in water, (B) salt-poor albumin, (C) NaHCO3, or (D) a combination of albumin and NaHCO3. After the initial infusion, the babies received no colloid or alkali solutions until 4 hours of age. We managed them supportively with warmth, appropriate oxygen administration, isotonic fluid infusion, and close monitoring. Among the infants who received alkali, 14 of 26 acquired the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 11 died, and four had intracranial hemorrhage. Among babies who received no alkali, RDS occurred in 11 of 27, 5 died, and none had intracranial hemorrhage. These results do not support the common practice of rapidly infusing NaHCO3 into high-risk, premature infants, and they suggest that the early management of such infants needs renewed critical evaluation.

Fowler NO, McCall D, Chou TC, Holmes JC, Hanenson IB. "Electrocardiographic changes and cardiac arrhythmias in patients receiving psychotropic drugs." Am. J. Cardiol.. 1976;37(2):223-30. Abstract

Eight patients had cardiac manifestations that were life-threatening in five while taking psychotropic drugs, either phenothiazines or tricyclic antidepressants. Although most patients were receiving several drugs, Mellaril (thioridazine) appeared to be responsible for five cases of ventricular tachycardia, one of which was fatal in a 35 year old woman. Supraventricular tachycardia developed in one patient receiving Thorazine (chlorpromazine). Aventyl (nortriptyline) and Elavil (amitriptyline) each produced left bundle branch block in a 73 year old woman. Electrocardiographic T and U wave abnormalities were present in most patients. The ventricular arrhythmias responded to intravenous administration of lidocaine and to direct current electric shock; ventricular pacing was required in some instances and intravenous administration of propranolol combined with ventricular pacing in one. The tachyarrhythmias generally subsided within 48 hours after administration of the drugs was stopped. Five of the eight patients were 50 years of age or younger; only one clearly had antecedent heart disease. Major cardiac arrhythmias are a potential hazard in patients without heart disease who are receiving customary therapeutic doses of psychotropic drugs. A prospective clinical trial is suggested to quantify the risk of cardiac complications to patients receiving phenothiazines or tricyclic antidepressant drugs.

Zegers PV, Harmet KH, Hanzely L. "Inhibition of IAA-induced elongation in Avena coleoptile segments by lead: a physiological and an electron microscopic study." Cytobios. 1976;15(57):23-35. Abstract

A high resolution growth measuring apparatus was used to demonstrate the inhibition of auxin-induced cell elongation in oat coleoptile segments (Avena sativa L. var Holden) by lead at concentrations ranging from 2 x 10-6 M to 2 x 10-3 M. The inhibition was immediate, having no measurable lag period. Electron micrographs of lead-treated and control segments revealed that in the treated material, lead became localized as electron-dense granules in the cell walls and in vesicles associated with dictyosomes. These granules were found to be lead hydroxide phosphate by electron diffraction techniques. The possible significance of this localization and identification with regard to phosphatase activity is discussed.

Mayes KR, Holdich DM. "The water content of muscle and cuticle of the woodlouse Oniscus asellus in conditions of hydration and desiccation." Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1976;53(3):253-8.
Kokwaro JO. "Euphorbiaceae.". 1976.Website
Brzustowski TA, Lutia MF. "Flow due to a two-dimensional heat source with cross flow in the atmosphere.". 1976. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents a model describing the flow field due to a two-dimensional infinitely long heat source in a stably-stratified atmosphere with a uniform wind cross-flow. The governing equation which is valid for any wind shear is non-linear in its general form and is solved for uniform flow only. The energy equation is not solved but a “source” function is assumed. The results of this model exhibit some of the observed mass fire characteristics such as the inflow window, the pinch effect, the upstream downdraft and a strong dynamic convection column. Blocking and the formation of eddies are shown to be the most important characteristics of the onset of mass fire conditions.

Mbaya VB. "Hepatic changes induced by Schrebera alata (Hochst): a preliminary report on the toxicology of II kau kawa.". 1976. Abstract

Schrebera alata is a deciduous fuel tree from which the Samburu people in Northern Kenya obtain bark for medicinal purposes. A pharmacologically active principle that produces analgesic effects can be extracted from the bark with hot water. When administered to rats daily for a period of 6 weeks, the extract of bark (referred to as II kau kawa by the Samburu) caused reduced activities of succinic dehydrogenase, an enzyme that is involved in oxidative processes, and cholinesterase in heart and liver tissues. Histological sections from the liver revealed extensive cellular degeneration and small areas with necrotic lesions. Only that fraction of the bark extracts which contained components less soluble in alcohol produced such lesions within a 2 weeks period. The same fraction is associated with pharmacological activity. Since hepatic injuries occur frequently and the incidence of primary hepatic carcinoma is high in tropical areas, the role of natural toxins as aetiologic factors for cirrhotic conditions must be adequately clarified. It is apparent that bark from S.alata possesses some toxicity and its effects on the liver indicate it can contribute significantly to prevalent hepatocellular damages.

Okwaro HW, Mbuvi JP, Sombroek WG. "Soils of semi-arid savanna zone of the north-eastern Kenya : site evaluation report.". 1976. Abstract

Recent ground observation and study of ERTS imagery, in connection with national programme for country-wide soils mapping at scale 1: 1,000,000, have yielded substantial new information on the nature and distribution of the soils in the savanna-covered semi-arid plains of the North-Eastern Kenya. The findings differ in several aspects from earlier schematic mapping, notably in the near absence of well-drained calcerous soils and the wide extent of saline/alkali soils in the central-eastern section. The origin of the different soils development at the various geomorphologic levels is discussed, in relation to the character of the sediments as well as the quaternary changes in climate. Also, an outline is given of the significance of such exploratory mapping, on physiographic basis, for the sound planning of range management, wildlife conservation and irrigation development in the area.

D.N. Kariuki and S.F.A. Kettle, & Ti Soi Sang. "Vibrational Spectra of molecular crystals of impure metal carbonyls".". 1976.
Rees BI, Lari J. "Chronic intussusception in children." British Journal of Surgery. 1976;63:33-35. AbstractWebsite
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Hendrickson A, Boothe R. "Morphology of the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in dark-reared monkeys ({Macaca} nemestrina)." Vision Research. 1976;16:517-IN5. AbstractWebsite

Nine infant monkeys were reared in continuous darkness from 2 weeks to 1, 3 and 6 months of age. One monkey was dark-reared from 3 to 7 months after birth. Light microscopic morphological studies of retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) were done on animals sacrificed immediately after emerging from darkness and others that were tested behaviorally before sacrifice. Neither retina nor dLGN showed any obvious changes in cell number, size or staining characteristics when compared to light-reared, age-matched controls. Autoradiographic tracing of labeled retinal ganglion cell synaptic terminals indicated a normal distribution for dark-reared animals.

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