Publications

Found 49486 results

Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
1984
MITEMA PROFSEO. "Mitema, E.S. And Musewe, V.O. (1984). Effects of chronic chloramphenicol administration on weight gains and serum cortisol levels in calves. Br. Vet. J. 140: 437-443.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 1984. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Mitema, E.S., I. Nafstad, J.M. Maribei, (1984). Acute toxicity studies with quinuronium sulphate in laboratory animals and sheep. Toxicology letters 20, 6974.". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1984. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
MITEMA PROFSEO. "Mitema, E.S.; Nafstad, I. and Maribei, J.M. (1984). Acute toxicity studies with Quinuronium sulfate in laboratory animals and sheep. Toxicol. Lett. 20: 69-74.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 1984. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "A Model of Household Choice Among Medical Treatment Alternatives in Rural Kenya.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1984. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Morphological studies on the obligatory parasitic mites of honey bees with a new status of the genus Varroa (Acarina : Mesostigmata). Bull. Zool. Soc. Egypt, 34: 83 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1984. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Mosi, R.O. (1984). Use of milk records for cow and sire evaluation in Kenya. Ph.D. Thesis University of whales.". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 1984. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL, M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Munavu, R.M. and D. Odhiambo, "Physicochemical characterization of Nonconventional vegetable oils for fuel in Kenya".". In: J. Sci. Technol. (Kenya), 5, 45- 52 (1984). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1984. Abstract
   
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M., Williamson P., Penhale J and Murray (1984). Acute cellular and humoral responses to equine streptococcal endometritis. Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1984. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Muraya G. N., Maina F.W., Sekkade-Kigondu C. B., Mati J. K. G. .". In: J. Obs Gyn. East Centr. Africa. 3:69 (1984). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The effect of a low-oestrogen combined pill, progestogen-only pill and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oral glucose tolerance test was studied in 29, 30 and 9 indigenous Kenyan women respectively. Glucose tolerance test was performed before treatment was started and then after 1,3 and 6 months in microgynon users. The mean areas under the glucose curves were also significantly elevated. Significant increase in blood glucose values were noted only at 30 minutes after 6 months of use of the progestogen-only oral contraceptive but the mean blood glucose values were higher than in the control after 1,3 and 6 months of use. However, the mean values of the areas under the glucose curves were significantly elevated after 1,3, and 6 months of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate users showed significantly lower fasting blood glucose values at 60 and 90 minutes after 1 month of use, after which the blood glucose values returned to the pre-treatment values. The mean values of the glucose curve areas showed no significant change. It is concluded that both microgynon and minipill cause relative impairment of glucose tolerance test as early as after 1 month of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate does not impair oral glucose tolerance for at least the first 6 months of use. The implications of these findings are discussed. PIP: Researchers followed 68 women who attended the Family Welfare Clinic at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya to determine if the low estrogen combined oral contraceptive (OC) Microgynon, a progestogen only OC, and Depo-Provera induce changes in the oral glucose test. These women did not take any steroidal contraceptives before entry into the study. Blood glucose levels were significantly higher after 60, 90 and 120 minutes than the control levels for women taking Microgynon. In addition, the mean areas under the glucose curves were substantially elevated after 1, 3, and 6 months above the control (p.002, .005, and .01 respectively). The only significant change in blood glucose levels in women taking the progestogen only OC occurred at 30 minutes after 6 months. Yet the mean areas under the curve were significantly higher than the control after ,1 2, and 3 months (p.005, .05 and .002 respectively). As for Depo-Provera, significantly lowered blood glucose levels only occurred after 1 month at 30, 50, and 90 minutes although no significant changes occurred after 1, 3, and 6 months in the mean areas under the glucose curves. Metabolic change occurred earlier and more often in Microgynon users than progestogen only OC users. This could be due to the progestogen levonorgestrel which has been shown to interrupt glucose metabolism. These changes could possible adversely effect women who are predisposed to developing diabetes, since 1 woman did develop a diabetic curve after 1 month of using Microgynon. Nevertheless no pattern towards abnormal glucose tolerance existed. Standard deviations of areas under the curves indicated that the number of women who develop glucose intolerance may increase with duration of use.
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Musuva, J.K. and Rading, G.O. "The Effects of Welding on the Fatigue crack Growth Rate in a Structural Steel" Proc. 4th Disciplinary Area Seminar, Mechanical/ Production Engineering Sub-Network, Ibadan, Nigeria (January, 1984), pp. 14 - 42.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1984. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. 1984. Superovulation and Embryo Recovery in the postpartum ewe. Vm/Sac 79: 1141-1142.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1984. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Baker, A.A. 1984. Detection of oestrus mating behaviours of entire rams, vasetomised rams and, testosterone treated ewes and wethers. Kenya Vet. 8(1) : 15-17.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1984. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Baker, A.A. 1984a. Effect of reduced daylight length on oestrus occurrence and superovulatory response in ewes treated with FSH-P during the non-breeding season. Vet. Rec. 114 : 401-404.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1984. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., and Baker, A.A. 1984B. Transfer of sheep embryos through a laparoscope. Vet. Record. 114: 401-404.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1984. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., and Baker, A.A. 1984d. Ovarian activity oestrous cycle length and plasma progesterone levels in goats following superovulation. Kenya Vet. 8(1) : 3-24.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1984. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
OGWARI DRMWABEPHILIPH. "Mwabe P.O., Woodcock, C.R. .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1984. Abstract

Mbugua PM, Thairu K, Ng'ang'a JN, Telang BV.

A cholinomimetic substance was isolated from desiccated venom of Dendroaspis polylepis by one-dimensional ascending paper chromatography. The migratory and staining properties of the substance were compared with those of standard acetylcholine. Pharmacological and biochemical identification was carried out on various in vitro and in vivo biological test objects as well as with high-voltage paper electrophoresis. The assay of the cholinomimetic substance was done on both superfused guinea pig ileum and hamster stomach strips. The cholinomimetic substance content was 2.44 - 3.46mg/0.96gm of total protein in the desiccated venom.

PMID: 7100627 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. (1984). Reasons for low levels of hive occupancy in Kenya. Proc. 3 int.Conf. Apic. trop. climates. 61-63 (1985).". In: Proc. xxxth Int. Apic. Congress. p. 56. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. and Ndiritu, D.A. (1984). The use of State lands for apiculture in Kenya.". In: Proc. 3 int. Conf. trop. climates. 235-237 (1985). The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984.
OMBOGA DRZAJAJAMES. ""Mwongozo wa Utengano - a students Swahili Literature study guide, Heinemann Educational Books, 1984, Nairobi.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, . Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1984. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Myristoyl Esters of Lactose", Carbohydrate Research, 125, 253-263.". In: J. Sci. Technol. (Kenya), 5, 45- 52 (1984). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1984. Abstract
   
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ndavi Muia P., Mwalali P.N., Mbugua S.E., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Mati J. K. G.Cervical cytology in a Kenyan rural population. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 3:167, 1984.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 3:167, 1984. uon press; 1984. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Mwalali PN., Mbugua SE et al: Cervical Cytology in a Kenyan Rural Population. J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 3:4:167, 1984.". In: J. of Ob. Gy. E & Centr Afric. 3(2); 63, 1984. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H, Mnjalla JJ.Role of bacterial superinfection during an outbreak of viral conjunctivitis. E.A. Med. J. Vol. 61: 184 - 189, 1984.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol. 61: 184 - 189, 1984. IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Notes to Francis Imbuga's Man of Kafira Nairobi Heinemann.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1984. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Nyangeri, J.P., E.M. Gathuru and D.M. Mukunya, 1984. Effect of latent infection on the spread of Bacterial wilt of Potatoes in Kenya. Trop. Pest management 30 (2): 163 .". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1984. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Sharif SK, McLigeyo SO, Gitonga E, Shah MV, Gitau W. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African. East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):724-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):724-6. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Sharif SK, McLigeyo SO, Gitonga E, Shah MV, Gitau W. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African. East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):724-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):724-6. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: approach to the therapy of diarrhoeal diseases. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: approach to the therapy of diarrhoeal diseases. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: first aid and therapy of poisoning from agricultural insecticides and herbicides. East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):335-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):335-8. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: first aid and therapy of poisoning from agricultural insecticides and herbicides. East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):335-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):335-8. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of histamine receptor antagonists in contemporary times. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jul;61(7):578-82. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jul;61(7):578-82. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of histamine receptor antagonists in contemporary times. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jul;61(7):578-82. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jul;61(7):578-82. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. The development of beta adrenoceptors in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. The development of beta adrenoceptors in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

Omara-Opuene AI, Varma S. "Occurence of Bovine squamous Cell Carcinoma in Kenya." Kenya Veterianarian. 1984;8:5-8. Abstract
n/a
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda JO, Syuto B, Oguma K, Iida H, Kubo S.Comparison of antigenicity of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains.Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984 Jun;47(6):1319-22.". In: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984 Jun;47(6):1319-22. East African Medical Journal; 1984. Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1984). An electron microscopic study of the choriallantoic placenta and subplacenta of the cane rat. (Thryonomys swinderianus Temmick).Placenta 5: 433-442.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1984. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1984). Histology of choriallantoic placenta of the golden rumped elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon chrysophygus, Gunther 1881). Anat. Anz. Jena 157: 395-407.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1984. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Muriuki G., Juma F. D., - Some toxic effects of the alkaloids extracted from Strychnos henningsii Plant .". In: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7. University of Nairobi Press; 1984. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Watkins W. M., Spencer H. C., Kariuki D. M., Sixsmith D. G., Boriga D. A., Kipingor R., Koech D. K. .". In: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7. University of Nairobi Press; 1984. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Ogeto JO, Juma FD, Muriuki G.Practical therapeutics: some investigations of the toxic effects of the alkaloids extracted from Strychnos henningsii (Gilg) "muteta".East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):427-32.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):427-32. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Ojwang P.J., Ogada T., Maina F.W., Mati J.K.G., - Reference Values for Serum Lipids and Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults and Cord Blood of Kenya Africans. E. Africa. Med. J. 61, 637 ( 1984).". In: E. Africa. Med. J. 61, 637 ( 1984). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
PMID: 6595111 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ojwang P.J., OgadaT., Maina F.W., Sekadde_Kigondu C.B , Mati J.K.G. E.A. Med. J. 61 (5): 367, 1984. Reference value for serum lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in adults and cord blood of Kenyan Africans.". In: E.A. Med. J. 61 (5): 367, 1984. uon press; 1984. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE, W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Ojwang PJ, Ogada T, Maina FW, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Mati JK. Reference values for serum lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in adults and cord blood of Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):367-71.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 3:167, 1984. uon press; 1984. Abstract
No abstract available.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE, W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Ojwang PJ, Ogada T, Maina FW, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Mati JK. Reference values for serum lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in adults and cord blood of Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):367-71.". In: E. Africa. Med. J. 61, 637 ( 1984). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
No abstract available.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Basu AK Tubo ovarian shistosomiasis presenting as a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. J. Obstet. Gyn. East. Cent. Afr. 1984:3,44.". In: J. of Ob. Gy. E & Centr Afric. 3(2); 63, 1984. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Basu AK Tubo ovarian shistosomiasis presenting as a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. J. Obstet. Gyn. East. Cent. Afr. 1984:3,44.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1984. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Ouko J.Prediction of Foetal weight by fundal height girth measurements. J. Obst. Gyn. East Cent. Afri. 1984:3, 111.". In: J. of Ob. Gy. E & Centr Afric. 3(2); 63, 1984. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Ouko J.Prediction of Foetal weight by fundal height girth measurements. J. Obst. Gyn. East Cent. Afri. 1984:3, 111.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1984. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "OKOMBO (1984) A Review of Chet. Creiders Studies in Kalenjin Norminal Tonology.' In Journal of African Languages and Linguistics.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1984. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1984) The Role of Local languages in Development.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1984) The Role of Women in Rural Development in Kenya. In Migration, Remittances and Rural Development by Mukras and Oucho (ed.).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Ong'are, J.O., Munyua, W.K. and Wilson, A.J. (1984): A study of the relationship between dipping efficiency and prevalence of Theileria parva in Limuru Division of Kiambu district, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 8(2): 12- 14.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "Ongeri S.K., Otieno L.S. Kinuthia D.M.W., Bhatt S.M.: Pattern of renal disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. The Nairobi Journal of Medicine 1984; 2: 18 .". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine 1984; 2: 18 . Taylor & Francis; 1984. Abstract
PIP: Malaria is the most prevalent and devastating public health problem in Africa despite much research and control effort over the last two decades. In most parts of Africa, individuals should take 200 mg of Proguanil daily together with chloroquine 5 mg/kg per week as prophylaxis. Pregnant women and individuals with underlying disease such as sickle cell making them susceptible to severe or complicated malaria, however, should take just 200 mg Proguanil daily. In hard-core multi-drug resistance areas, mefloquine 250 mg once weekly together with chloroquine 300 mg weekly is recommended as prophylaxis. Since no anti-malarial drug confers absolute protection against infection, however, using mosquito nets impregnated with permethrin, insecticides, and mosquito repellents is also advocated for those at high risk of severe malaria. The need also exists to treat cases of malaria when prevention is unsuccessful. Chloroquine in total dose 25 mg/Kg over three days is the first choice treatment of uncomplicated malaria in 4-aminoquinoline sensitive areas. Amodiaquine 25 mg/Kg over three days is the second line treatment, while pyrimethamine/sulphonamide combinations are useful in areas where there is resistance to 4-aminoquinalines. Finally, quinine 10 mg/kg every eight hours for seven days is the treatment of choice for severe and complicated malaria.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Onyango FE, Ndinya-Achola J, Orinda VA, Musoke RN.Lancefield group B beta-haemolytic streptococcal infections in the newborn at Kenyatta National Hospital (K.N.H.).East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):376-81.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):376-81. IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Onyango FE, Ndinya-Achola JO, Orinda V, Musoke R. Lancefield group B Beta haemolytic Streptococcal infection in the Newborn unit at Kenyatta National Hospital. E.A. Med. J. Vol. 61: 376 - 382, 1984.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol. 61: 376 - 382, 1984. IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Patnaik, J.K., Kiangi, P.M.R. and Nganga, J.K. 1984: The Three Dimensional Temperature Field over Africa; IbkJ., pp. 166 - 1 7 1.". In: The Three Dimensional Temperature Field over Africa; IbkJ., pp. 166 - 1 7 1. SMA; 1984. Abstract
n/a
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide in Kenyan African children with lymphoma. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Jul;18(1):106-7.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Jul;18(1):106-7. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological properties of root and aerial part extracts of Ageratum conyzoides on isolated ileum and heart. A. K. Achola, Rahab W. Munenge, A.M. Mwaura (Fitoterapia Vol. LXV, No. 4 1994).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "Politics and the Law: A Sampling o Pointers from the Bench.". In: Nairobi University Law Journal, Vol. 1:69. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1984. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Populurothrips dynamic and seasonal incidence of the legume bud thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Tryb.) (Thysanoptera: Thripicae) in cowpea fields in Kenya.". In: Kenya J. Sci. & Tech: 5 (1&2) 15-25, 1984. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1984.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Possibilities of using V.P. to solve some of the rural unemployment problems.". In: Paper presented at workshop on vocational Training in Nyeri 3rd . Elsevier; 1984. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "The Potential Market Opportunities for Agricultural By-products in Kenya.". In: Kenya National Academy of SCIENCES. Sirikwa Hotel, Eldoret, 1984. University of Nairobi.; 1984. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Practical therapeutics: some investigations of the toxic effects of the alkaloids extracted from Strychnos henningsii (Gilg) "muteta".Ogeto JO, Juma FD, Muriuki G. East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):427-32.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):427-32. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Practical therapeutics: treatment of complications of malaria.East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):727-30.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):727-30. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Precambrian Geology of the Ishiara area, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences. Vol.2 No.1 pp34-38. Wiley Interscience; 1984. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Precambrian Geology of the Ishiara area, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences. Vol.2 No.1 pp34-38. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1984. Abstract
n/a
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Property systems and social organisations in africa: an essasy on the relative position of women under indigenous and received law" in P. N. Takirambudde (ed.); The Individual Under African Law, Manzini, University college of Swaziland.". In: Paper for the Walter Rodney Seminar Series, African Studies Centre, Boston University, USA Decembe 8. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1984. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Raina N, Das SR, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.Nutritional factors in the etiopathogenesis of amoebic liver abscess in golden hamsters.Indian J Med Res. 1984 Feb;79:216-22.". In: Indian J Med Res. 1984 Feb;79:216-22. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Rees P.H., Pamba H.O., Roberts J.M.D. and Oomen J.:Experience with New Drugs in the Treatment of Schistosomiasis in Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J. R. 1984,.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. R. 1984,. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1984. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Rees PH, Kager PA, Kyambi JM, Ayim EN, Bhatt KM, Schattenkerk JK.Splenectomy in kala-azar. Trop Geogr Med. 1984 Sep;36(3):285-92.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1984 Sep;36(3):285-92. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1984. Abstract
At the beginning of the century, splenectomy was used in the treatment of kala-azar, but now is rarely needed, the major indication being for drug resistant kala-azar. Inadvertent splenectomy prior to the diagnosis of kala-azar continues to occur, probably because of a reluctance to perform splenic aspiration in the investigation of splenomegaly. Five Kenyan children underwent splenectomy for drug resistant kala-azar. All were immediately improved, but one died of overwhelming post splenectomy infection (OPSI) two months later and another of a malignant lymphoma seven months after surgery. The other three patients appear to be cured. Splenectomy was considered in a sixth child with kala-azar because of a Salmonella abscess in the spleen, but the abscess ruptured catastrophically before surgery could be arranged.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "Rees PH, Kager PA, Kyambi JM, Ayim EN, Bhatt KM, Schattenkerk JK.Splenectomy in kala-azar. Trop Geogr Med. 1984 Sep;36(3):285-92.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1984 Mar;36(1):21-35. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1984. Abstract
At the beginning of the century, splenectomy was used in the treatment of kala-azar, but now is rarely needed, the major indication being for drug resistant kala-azar. Inadvertent splenectomy prior to the diagnosis of kala-azar continues to occur, probably because of a reluctance to perform splenic aspiration in the investigation of splenomegaly. Five Kenyan children underwent splenectomy for drug resistant kala-azar. All were immediately improved, but one died of overwhelming post splenectomy infection (OPSI) two months later and another of a malignant lymphoma seven months after surgery. The other three patients appear to be cured. Splenectomy was considered in a sixth child with kala-azar because of a Salmonella abscess in the spleen, but the abscess ruptured catastrophically before surgery could be arranged.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "The Relationship between Population Employment and Economi Growth with an Illustration from Kenya. Population Employment and Economic Growth with an Illustration from Kenya. Prepared for the Rockefeller Founation Conference on population and Labour absorp.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1984. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Renovascular Hypertension at Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: East African Medical Journal. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1984. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Resolution of overlapped current-potential curves for reduction of pyridine carboxylic acid", J.". In: Electroanal. Chem., 17, 1984, 265. Survey Review; 1984. Abstract
n/a
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Review of Lewis Nkosi's Tasks and Masks." In the Native Vol. 2.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1984. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Riyat MS, Kasili EG, Kyambi JM.Experience in the management of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):288-94.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):288-94. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1984. Abstract
At the beginning of the century, splenectomy was used in the treatment of kala-azar, but now is rarely needed, the major indication being for drug resistant kala-azar. Inadvertent splenectomy prior to the diagnosis of kala-azar continues to occur, probably because of a reluctance to perform splenic aspiration in the investigation of splenomegaly. Five Kenyan children underwent splenectomy for drug resistant kala-azar. All were immediately improved, but one died of overwhelming post splenectomy infection (OPSI) two months later and another of a malignant lymphoma seven months after surgery. The other three patients appear to be cured. Splenectomy was considered in a sixth child with kala-azar because of a Salmonella abscess in the spleen, but the abscess ruptured catastrophically before surgery could be arranged.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "RSCTU .". In: the International Council for Distance Education Conference August, 1988 Oslo Norway. Thought and Practice; 1984. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Rutagwenda, T. and Munyua, W.K. (1984): Prevalence of Camel ticks in the Ngurunit area of Marsabit district Northern, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 33: 167- 169.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Rutagwenda, T. and Munyua, W.K. (1984): Prevalence of Camel ticks in the Ngurunit area of Marsabit district Northern, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 33: 167- 169.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1984. Abstract
n/a
N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M. Mbiuki, G.M. Mugera and P.N. Nyaga. Effects of the technique in intestinal anastomosis in cattle. Modern Vet. pr. (1984). 11: 891-895.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1984. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Gandhi BM, Acharya SK, Chawla YK, Nautiyal BL, Tandon BN.Serological studies of Entamoeba histolytica infection in north Indian population.Indian J Med Res. 1984 Dec;80:632-7.". In: Indian J Med Res. 1984 Dec;80:632-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sharma MP, Sarin SK, Acharya SK.Left lobe amoebic abscess of liver–a distinct clinical entity.J Assoc Physicians India. 1984 Jun;32(6):477-80.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1984 Jun;32(6):477-80. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Sinei SKA, Mati JKG, Mungai J, Mailu CKM, Mbugua , Mulandi TN Ndavi PM. Prevalence of anaemia of Pregnancy and the role of Malaria in its aetiology in rural Kenya. J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 3:3:119.1984.". In: J. of Ob. Gy. E & Centr Afric. 3(2); 63, 1984. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "SKADHAUGE, E., WARUI, C.N., KAMAU, J.M.Z. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1984) Function of the lower intestine and osmoregulation in the ostrich:preliminary anatomical and physiological observations. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 69, 809-818.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "The Suitability of the Walter Boughton Distribution for Flood Frequency Analysis in Western Kenya.". In: East Afr. Agr. and Forestry Journal 46(2). International Journal of Climatology; 1984. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M (1984),"Problems of Valuing Property for Insurance Purposes".Ardhi, the Journal of the Department of Land Development, University of Nairobi.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1984. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1981), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1984. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "Taxation for Environmental Conservation: A Nomadic Survey of Determinative Factors fr Kenya: The African Centre for Technology Studies.". In: The Scottish Law Gazette Vol. 52, No. 4: 119. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1984. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""The Legal status of the child in kenya's political economy (with S.B.O. Gutto) in A.M. Pappas (ed.); Law and Status of the Child, New york, United Nations Institute for Training and Research.". In: Paper for the Walter Rodney Seminar Series, African Studies Centre, Boston University, USA Decembe 8. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1984. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. ""The Mission of the church of Jesus christ today from the perspective of the younger churches, with particular reference to those in Africa," The Mission of the church today, Reports of the Yaounde Meeting, 4 - 11 April 1984, ed. Prof. A Ngindu Mushete (K.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1984. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "'The Social Organisation of the Maasai of Kajiado District in Kajiado District Social Cultural Profile. Institute of African Studies, Nairobi, June 1984.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1984. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Socio-Economic Consequences of Kenya's Changed Formal Education Structure. A synoptic review of Kenya's Education policy and structural change to the current 8-4-4 structure: high-lighting the socio-economic consequences.". In: The Kenya Economic Association, Nairobi, (25 pages). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1984. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Socio-Economic Consequences of Kenya's Changed Formal Education Structure. A synoptic review of Kenya's Education policy and structural change to the current 8-4-4 structure: high-lighting the socio-economic consequences.". In: The Kenya Economic Association, Nairobi, (25 pages).; 1984. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

Seelig JM, Marshall LF, Toutant SM, Toole BM, Klauber MR, Bowers SA, Varnell JA. "Traumatic acute epidural hematoma: unrecognized high lethality in comatose patients." Neurosurgery. 1984;15:617-620. AbstractWebsite
n/a
OMBOGA DRZAJAJAMES. ""Ukewenza Katika Mke Mwenza" an analysis of Nyaigotti Chacha's Mke Mwenza, published in Mwamko no.2, 1984.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, . Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1984. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Wafula EM, Ndinya-Achola JO, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Ademba G. How should Primary Health Care Workers diagnose and treat Acute Respiratory infections in children? E.A. J. Vol. 61: 736 - 744, 1984.". In: E.A. J. Vol. 61: 736 - 744, 1984. IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1984. Growth and runner production of everbearing strawberries in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae, 158: 151-156.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani. 1984. Growth and flowering pattern of Liatris corms in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae, 158:249-253.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. Role of the Laboratory in Infectious Disease. Fiji Medical Association Annual Seminar. (14th .". In: Fiji Medical Association Annual Seminar. (14th . IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Wang'ombe JK.Economic Evaluation in Primary Health Care: The Case of Western Kenya Community Based Health Care Project,Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1984. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1984). A stereological comparison of the perfused and immersed avian kidneys. J. Anat. 139: 729-730.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1984.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""What is Literature to Kenyan Historians?" Weekly Review 7 Sept 1984, pp. 17.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1984. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Williamson P., Penhale J.W., Munyua S.J.M. and Murray J.(1984). Acute reaction of mares uterus of bacterial infection. Proceedings of 10th International Congress of Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination. June 10 14 1984. III 477 480.". In: Proceedings of 10th International Congress of Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1984. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Wilmshurst PT, Al-Hasani SF, Semple MJ, Hamblin AS, Kioy PG, Lucas GF, Savidge GF, Webb-Peploe MM. The effects of amrinone on platelet count, survival and function in patients with congestive cardiac failure. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Mar;17(3):317-24.PMI.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1984. Abstract
In a prospective trial, the immediate and long-term haematological effects of amrinone were studied in sixteen patients with refractory cardiac failure. The platelet count was significantly and variably reduced in all patients and the reduction was related to log plasma amrinone concentration. Platelet survival was significantly reduced in those cases studied. No evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or intravascular platelet deposition was observed and the reduced platelet survival was not considered to be the result of an immunological process. Evidence of a marrow response to the reduced platelet count and survival was seen. Although no haemorrhagic symptoms were observed in the patients, the haematological side-effects were considered to be of such severity as to limit the use of this drug in clinical practice.    PMID: 6712864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Workers Participation in Decision Making: Joint Consultation Machinery.". In: paper presented at ARLAK Industrial Relations Seminar, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1984. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "YOUSEF, M.K. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1984) Thermoregulation in working ungulates. In: Stress Physiology in Livestock, Vol. 1, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA, pp. 109-120.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
1983
Gichaga FJ. "Slow Sand Filtration Pilot plant Construction.". In: IRC/MOH/MOWD/UON Seminar. Nairobi; 1983.
Oucho JO. The Kenyan Land Settlement Programme. Geneva: Employment and Development Department, International Labour Organization; 1983.
N.M.Monyonko, J.H.REID. "DO QCD CORRECTIONS DESTROY THE AMPLITUDE ZERO IN THE PROCESS q anti -q-gamma?". In: QCD WORKSHOP,OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY; 1983.
Fisher JN, Kitabchi AE. "A randomized study of phosphate therapy in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1983;57:177-180. Abstract

The use of phosphate therapy in the management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been controversial, particularly with respect to the effect of phosphate intermediates on tissue oxygenation. In a prospective randomized study we evaluated the effect of phosphate (8.5 mmol/h or approximately 6 g phosphate/24 h) (experimental group) vs. no phosphate therapy (control group) in 30 DKA patients, 15 in each group. Various determinations including erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), oxyhemoglobin dissociation (p50), serum phosphate, calcium, lactate, pyruvate, electrolytes, and response time to reach predetermined values for glucose, bicarbonate, and pH were measured at frequent intervals during the first 24 h of therapy and daily for 5 days after metabolic control. Initial electrolytes, glucose, pH, erythrocyte 2,3-DPG, lactate, and p50 were not different in either group. Whereas the experimental group had a greater level of 2,3-DPG than the control group by 48 h, the difference was not statistically significant. Recovery indices, including hours to reach glucose of 250 mg/dl, bicarbonate greater than 15 meq/liter, pH greater than 7.3, and mental alertness, were not different in the two groups nor were the p50 or lactate measurements. The experimental group exhibited significantly lower plasma ionized calcium values during therapy. We conclude that phosphate therapy may accelerate regeneration of erythrocyte 2,3-DPG but in the relatively small number of patients studied it had no demonstrable influence on tissue oxygenation or clinical response to low dose insulin therapy of DKA. Furthermore, the exaggeration of hypocalcemia seen in phosphate-treated patients may be reason for caution in the use of such therapy.

Gichaga FJ. "Conducting Technical Research.". In: CIDA/Kenya Polytechnic/Mombasa Polytechnic Staff Development Seminar. Nairobi; 1983.
Oucho, J.O. and Mukras MS. Migration, Transfers and Rural Development: A case study of Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1983.
Lever E, Jaspan JB. "Sodium bicarbonate therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis." The American Journal of Medicine. 1983;75:263-268. Abstract

Rates of recovery of plasma glucose and bicarbonate levels, arterial pH, and level of consciousness were determined in a retrospective analysis of 95 episodes of severe diabetic ketoacidosis in patients treated with conventional regimens including low-dose insulin, saline, and potassium administration. No significant differences were found between 73 episodes in 52 patients treated with sodium bicarbonate and 22 episodes in 21 patients not undergoing such treatment. In view of these observations, the potential hazards of sodium bicarbonate replacement therapy, and the fact that sodium bicarbonate is still frequently given, the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate treatment in patients with severe diabetic ketoacidosis requires reevaluation.

Levin AG, Jones M, Kirkham DM, Shah T, Peters TJ, Hill ID, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. "Lymphocyte enzyme activities in East African blacks: decrease in 5'nucleotidase and possible relation to immunosuppression." Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.. 1983;77(6):840-4. Abstract

Microanalysis of subcellular organelle marker enzymes was applied to cryopreserved lymphocytes (obtained and processed in the field) from East African blacks with moderate to severe malnutrition and subject to locally endemic parasitic and infectious diseases. An initial study demonstrated that activities of these enzymes, with the partial exception of catalase, were stable to cryopreservation. Cryopreserved and thawed lymphocyte specimens (1 to 3 X 10(6) viable cells) from 26 Africans and 20 Caucasian controls were studied. There was a highly significant decrease in 5'nucleotidase activity in these African subjects. Activity of another plasma membrane enzyme, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and of marker enzymes for other intracellular organelles, was not significantly different between the two groups, indicating that the nucleotidase alteration is highly specific. 5'Nucleotidase activity in a group of 17 East African blacks of high socio-economic status lay between the values obtained in the other two groups and was not significantly different from either. Further studies on 5'nucleotidase showed no evidence that the enzyme is functionally different in Africans. The differences in activity of this enzyme in Africans may reflect the known immuno-suppressive effects of infectious disease and malnutrition or may have a genetic basis which may in turn be associated with the pathogenesis of secondary immunodeficiency.

Ochoro WE. " Environmental Management and Integrated Rural Development in the Eastern and Southern Africa Sub - region.". In: Regional Office for Africa and UNESCO M AB Paris regional seminar. Nairobi, Kenya.; 1983.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "1983 - Clinical presentation of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya. Clinical aspects of Kalaazar in Kenya chapter 5 pg. 37. Kager, Rees, Bhatt, Manguyu, Hock Meyer, Wellde and Lyerly.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1984 Mar;36(1):21-35. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1983. Abstract

At the beginning of the century, splenectomy was used in the treatment of kala-azar, but now is rarely needed, the major indication being for drug resistant kala-azar. Inadvertent splenectomy prior to the diagnosis of kala-azar continues to occur, probably because of a reluctance to perform splenic aspiration in the investigation of splenomegaly. Five Kenyan children underwent splenectomy for drug resistant kala-azar. All were immediately improved, but one died of overwhelming post splenectomy infection (OPSI) two months later and another of a malignant lymphoma seven months after surgery. The other three patients appear to be cured. Splenectomy was considered in a sixth child with kala-azar because of a Salmonella abscess in the spleen, but the abscess ruptured catastrophically before surgery could be arranged.

Taha SM, El-Nakhal MNS, Ishac YZ. "Acid-fermented vegetables.". 1983.Website
Wanjala C. "African Literature and the Tyranny of Change.". In: Language and Literature. Suva: The University of South Pacific Press; 1983.
Tole NM. "Anomalies in the radiation output of a new x-ray tube.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

Cavity ionization methods have been employed to show that the amOUI1l of X-radiation produced by a newly installed x-ray tube was grossly reduced. Qualitative information based on the techniques of radiological photography suggests that there was no fault with the kilovoltage generator and that the tube was therefore the source of the anomaly. Observations of tube current avalanche and sparking at high potentials provide further clue as to the nature of the fault. A discussion of the possible causes of the anomaly is presented. This study demonstrates that, when specialised equipment for detecting the origin of some faults in x-ray machines is not available, radiation dosimetry and sensitometry can provide a most useful alternative.

Ochanda N, EPP H;, Lantieri D, Agatsiva JL. "Application of remote sensing to earth resources monitoring in Kenya.". 1983.Website
Narang S., Seawright J.A., T.K. M, N.L.Willis. "Assignment of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase to chromosome 2 of Anopheles albimanus.Can." J.Genet.Cytol. 1983;25:567.
Abiodun, Adigun Ade; Odingo RS. "Basic Space Sciences In Africa.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

Through space applications, a number of social and economic programmes in education, communications, agro-climatology, weather forecasting and remote sensing are being realized within the African continent. Regional and international organizations and agencies such as the African Remote Sensing Council, the Pan-African Telecommunication Union and the United Nations system have been instrumental in making Africa conscious of the impact and implications of space science and technology on its peoples. The above notwithstanding, discernible interests in space research, to date, in Africa, have been limited to the work on the solar system and on interplanetary matters including satellite tracking, and to the joint African-Indian proposal for the establishment of an International Institute for Space Sciences and Electronics (INISSE) and the construction, in Kenya, of a Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope (GERT). During this “Transport and Communications Decade in Africa,” Africa's basic space research efforts would need to initially focus on the appropriateness, modification and adaptation of existing technologies for African conditions with a view to providing economic, reliable and functional services for the continent. These should include elements of electronics, communications, structural and tooling industries, and upper-atmosphere research. The experience of and collaborative work with India, Brazil and Argentina, as well as the roles of African scientists, are examined.

Ogana W. Calculation of flows past lifting airfoils. Trieste.: ICTP Internal Report; 1983.
Wamola IA, Mirza NB, Ngugi JM, Bwibo NO. "Campylobacter gastroenteritis in Nairobi.". 1983.Website
C.K. M. "Catha edulis. Epiemiologial studies on chewing patterns and habits." International Council in Alcohol and Addition. 1983;1(1):178-180.
Ogana W. Choosing the decay function in the transonic integral equation. Trieste.: ICTP Internal Report,; 1983.
Kiaira JK, Njogu RM. "Comparison of glycolysis in intact and digitonin-permeabilized bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma brucei.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

Digitonin has been used to permeabilize bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma brucei. Such permeabilized parasites revealed a fully-functional glycolytic pathway which catabolized glucose and some phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates. Glucose-starved bloodstream trypomastigotes revealed saturation kinetics with a glucose Km = 0.6 mM and Vmax = 150 natom O/min per 10(8) for intact parasites; Km = 4 mM and Vmax = 100 natom O2/min per 10(8) for permeabilized parasites. Glucose oxidation in intact parasites was stimulated 40% by addition of 3 micrograms digitonin/10(8) parasites. Higher concentrations of digitonin than this inhibited the glucose oxidation. Ten millimolar phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) inhibited the rate of O2 consumption by permeabilized trypanosomes respiring on glucose under aerobic conditions by 50%. It is proposed that glucose oxidation is apparently limited by transport across trypanosomal plasma membrane, and phosphofructokinase is regulated by PEP levels. It is concluded that permeabilization of trypanosomes with digitonin might offer a closer physiological condition for the study of the regulation of glycolysis by using glycolytic intermediates and other chemical compounds which would otherwise not be transported across the membrane(s).

Obel AO. "A comparison of timolol plus hydrochlorothiazide plus amiloride and methyldopa in essential hypertension in black Africans." ropical and Geographical Medicine. 1983;(35):285-91. AbstractWebsite

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O. WS. "Concentration of Heavy Metals in Water, Sediments and Plants of Kenya Lakes.". In: Kenya J. of Science and Technology. Series (A) (1983) (2): 89-94. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1983. Abstract

n/a

J.O. K. "Coumarins from Zanthaxylum usambarense (Engl.) Kokwaro (Rutaceae)." Planta Medica . 1983;47(4):251-253.
E.N. PN. "The Council of National Representatives Brasilia, 6th-10th June 1983.". In: Kenya Nurs J. 1983 Dec;11(2):.; 1983:. Abstract

Kenya Nurs J. 1983 Dec;11(2):23-7.
The Council of National Representatives Brasilia, 6th-10th June 1983.
Ngugi EN.

PMID:
6564282
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Muigai SGS;, Njuguna SK;, Mukunya DM;, Ngugi DN. "Current bean research programmes in Kenya.".; 1983.
Muigai SGS;, Njuguna SK;, Mukunya DM;, Ngugi DN. "Current bean research programmes in Kenya.".; 1983.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Dietary sources of fluoride in Kenya.". In: Fluorosis Research Strategies', Proceedings of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya; S.Likimani, (Ed.) , 32-6 (1983). UoN; 1983. Abstract

Analysis offluoride concentrations in Kenyan waters have been carried out using two methods: the fluoride ion selective electrode method and colorimetric method. Water samplesanalysed were taken from boreholes and rivers in Nairobi. Central and Rift Valley Provincesand from the Rift Valley lakes. The high levels of fluoride content present in the Rift Valley lakes and boreholes would pose a threat if the water is used for drinking or for irrigation purposes. However the fluoride concentrations for most potable waters (especially those derived from rivers) is less than the accepted limits of 0.7-1.8 ppm. In order to account for the high incidence of dental fluorosis in Kenya, it is necessary to determine the fluoride intakefrom the total diet. A method suitable for analyzing fluoride content in foods and plant materials is discussed. Preliminary survey of fluoride concentrations for various foods showed: bananas, 4.2ppm; potatoes, 5.6 ppm; cabbages, 0.3ppm; maize 0.7ppm. High levels of fluoride were found in tea leaves in the range 229-340 ppm per kg. which is quite equivalent to 4.4-7.3 ppm F per 125 c.c. cup of tea. Fluoride concentration in coffee beans is quite low – 6.6 ppm per kg. and sodas, beer, cow’s milk have less than 0.01 ppm.

D.N. Kariuki TNHM & LW. "Dietary sources of fluoride in Kenya.". 1983.
Magoha GAO. The effect of exogenous testosterone on the testicular histology in male rats. . EAMJ; 1983. Abstract

Primary malignant lymphomas of the female breast are rare up to date such tumors have been described in the male. Majority of the malignant tumors of the breast are the well known infiltrating duct carcinoma. This is report of a mammary non-Hodgkins malignant lymphoma in a 35 year old Nigerian female. This tumor had a rapid progression terminating in death seven months after histological diagnosis. The clinical presentation, treatment, prognosis and the differential diagnosis with medullary and poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast are discussed.

Obel AO. "Epidemiology and diabetes mellitus in referral hospital in a tropical developing country. ." Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1983;(14):207-10.
Gichaga FJ. Evaluation of flexible road pavements in Kenya.; 1983. Abstract

Experience from some of the recently completed roads shows that road pavements have at times failed prematurely thereby leading to unplanned expenditure in the exercise of rehabilitating them. This paper outlines results of studies carried out to establish long-term behaviour of road pavements under tropical climatic conditions. The studies involved measurements of elastic deflections, pavement distortion and rutting, cracking as well as establishing traffic loading patterns for typical high standard trunk roads of varying design in Kenya. The results of the studies show that while pavements are weakened by repeated wheel load applications pavements also tend to develop strength with age. The results further showed that for a pavement approaching failure elastic deflections are a function of cracking and rutting; and that higher elastic deflections are obtained during the months of high rainfall and high temperatues. The paper recommends that there is need for road authorities to regularly monitor factors that relate to road pavement performance such as traffic loading, pavement condition, etc. in order to help in the financial planning for pavement strengthening and maintenance works and that the necessary funds should be set aside in the budget. (TRRL)

Dossaji SF, Becker H, Exner J. "Flavone C-glycosides of Phorodendron tomentosum form different host trees,." Phytochemistry. 1983;22(1):311-312. Abstract

Apeginin, three known apigenin C-glycosides and isoschaftoside together with apeginin 4-O-glucoside have been identified in leaves of Phoradendron tomentosum growing on different hosts.

Ndetei DM. "Folie imposee in a Kenyan couple.". 1983.
"Football Sub-Culture: The Case of Sydney Swan Team in New South Wales, Australia ." Football Sub-Culture: The Case of Sydney Swan Team in New South Wales, Australia . 1983.
MULIMBA JAO. "Fractures of the Humerus E.A.M.J. 60 (12): 843, 1983.". In: E.A.M.J. 60 (12): 843, 1983. Springerlink; 1983. Abstract

It has been the view of the Association of Surgeons of East Africa (ASEA) that, like primary health care, there is primary surgery. The unit of provision of primary surgery is the district hospital. The training of surgeons for district hospitals starts at the undergraduate level, leading to the attainment of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (M.B. Ch.B.) degree. After internship the doctor works in a district or provincial hospital for 2-3 years, then trains for the degree of Master of Medicine (M. Med. (Surg.)) for a period of 3 years. The training involves rotation through all branches of surgery, so that the surgeon should be able to handle all aspects of routine surgery in a district hospital. To equip the surgeon further, a period in an outside setting is considered advisable. There are arrangements for regional surgical colleges to standardise the form of surgical training in the ASEA region. To keep surgeons in touch with the outside world, specialist training is done outside the region, but arrangements are being made for localised specialised units to offer this training.

C GJ. "Gatumu J,C(1983)Attitudes of head teachers towards Christian Religious Education in Runyenjes, Embu.". In: M.Ed Research Thesis. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1983. Abstract

Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

T.K. M, Narang S., J.A.Seawright. "A genetic sexing strain of Anopheles albimnus." Proc.XV Intl.Congr.Genet.Abstr. 1983;2:727.
Bowry TR;, Ojwang J;, Lumba M. "HBV infection: prevalence of core antibody and other markers in urban based, black school children in Kenya.". 1983. Abstract

This paper reports a study of 279 sera obtained from children attending five schools in Nairobi, the capital of Kenya which is situated in a non-malarious zone. Their ages ranged from six to 16 years. The surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected in 13 children (4.7%) including seven boys and six girls. The core and surface antibodies were measured by radioimmunoassay on 125 of the samples to study the pattern of infection in childhood and the interrelationships of different parameters of the infection. The core antibody by itself was observed in four children (3.2%). A total of 31 samples (24.8%) had both core and surface antibodies, 19 (15.2%) had only surface antibody. Thus, 48% of all school children tested had serological evidence of past exposure to the virus. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Ojwang PJ;, Onyango FE;, Aluoch JA. "Hypercalcaemia in pulmonary tuberculosis.". 1983. Abstract

uberculosis can affect calcium metabolism, mainly through an enhanced production of active vitamin D. The incidence of hypercalcemia among unselected patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis was investigated, retrospectively, during a ten-year period. Among 67 patients, the mean serum calcium concentration on admission was significantly raised compared to healthy controls (2.51 ± 0.16 (SD) vs 2.43 ± 0.07 mmol/l; p<0.001) and 25% of the patients had hypercalcemia. After one year of successful tuberculostatic treatment the serum calcium values had normalized Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/03009739009178584

"I.O. Kibwage, E. Roets and J. Hoogmartens. Thin layer chromatography of erythromycins and other macrolides. J. Chromatogr. 256:164-171.". 1983. Abstract

The literature on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of macrolides has recently
been reviewed'>'. An improved separation of the components of erythromycin
has been reported by Vanderhaeghe and Kerremans '. The use of high-performance
thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of some macrolides has been the subject of
a recent publication".
The best TLC system known, described for the separation of erythromycins,
uses plates coated with silanized silica gel and methanol-water-15 % ammonium
acetate buffer pH 7.0 (50:20:10) as the mobile phase:'. This system (R-VI in Table I)
allows very good separation of erythromycin A (EA), B (EB) and C (EC), but erythromycin
D (ED) is not separated from EA. Small amounts of acid degradation
products of erythromycin such as anhydroerythromycin A (AEA) and erythromycin
A enol ether (EAEN) were found by high-performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC) of commercial samples'': TLC with system R-VI did not separate AEA
from EB. Preparative chromatography of the mother liquors of the erythromycin
purification indicated the presence of des-N-methylerythromycin A (dMeEA). As this
compound was not separated from erythromycin A with TLC system R-VI, other
mobile phases were examined. In the present study a system using silica gel as the
coating material and diisopropyJ ether-methanol-25 % ammonia (75:35:2) as the
mobile phase was found to separate EA, EB, Ee, ED, EAEN, AEA and dMeEA. The
results obtained with several other mobile phases are also discussed, together with
their application in the identification and purity control of other macrolides

Odhiambo, W. A.;, Chindia ML;, W; GS, Macigo FG;, Akama K. "Injuries Of The Maxillofacial Skeleton In Nairobi, Kenya.". 1983. Abstract

Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.

Gachene CKK;, Barber RG. "Kenya Soil Survey and Department of Soil Science."; 1983.
Kokwaro JO. "Maintaining the balance between Agriculture and the environment.". In: Fifth International Farm Management Congress. Nairobi; 1983.

UoN Websites Search