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WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Transitional Justice for Kenya: What Institutional Framework? (LL.M Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "The State of Constituional Development in Kenya 2000 (Written for a Regional Conference in Kampala, Uganda on Constitutions in Transition in Africa, Central and Eastern Europe.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., (Eds.) Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi: Clairpress, 2002) (Editor).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., (Eds.) Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi: Clairpress, 2002) (Editor).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Gender Question in Judicial Reforms: Access to Justice for all as the Challenge Kenyan Must Rise up to" Paper Written for the Kenya Chapter of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ-Kenya)'s Judicial Reforms Project.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Death Row and Human Righst: Enlarging the Scope of Section 74 of the Kenyan Constitution (LL.B Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""Reforming Family Law in Kenya: the Place of the Repealed Affiliation Act 1959: (Published in Mute, L., and Kibwana, K., (Eds.) (2000) Law and the Quest for Gender Equality in Kenya (Nairobi: Claripress.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Transitional Justice for Kenya: What Institutional Framework? (LL.M Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., (Eds.) Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi: Clairpress, 2002) (Editor).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Kioko, W.M., and Wanjala, S., Recognizing the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Kenya's New Constitutional Order: The Case of the Ogiek (Forthcoming Publication.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Place of Transitional Justice in Kenya's Impending Political Transition" in Kioko,W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi:Clairpress, 2002).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Gender Question in Judicial Reforms: Access to Justice for all as the Challenge Kenyan Must Rise up to" Paper Written for the Kenya Chapter of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ-Kenya)'s Judicial Reforms Project.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "The State of Constituional Development in Kenya 2000 (Written for a Regional Conference in Kampala, Uganda on Constitutions in Transition in Africa, Central and Eastern Europe.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Death Row and Human Righst: Enlarging the Scope of Section 74 of the Kenyan Constitution (LL.B Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""Reforming Family Law in Kenya: the Place of the Repealed Affiliation Act 1959: (Published in Mute, L., and Kibwana, K., (Eds.) (2000) Law and the Quest for Gender Equality in Kenya (Nairobi: Claripress.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Transitional Justice for Kenya: What Institutional Framework? (LL.M Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. ""The Place of Transitional Justice in Kenya's Impending Political Transition" in Kioko,W.M., Mute, L., and Akivaga, K., Building an Open Society: The Politics of Transition in Kenya (Nairobi:Clairpress, 2002).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "The State of Constituional Development in Kenya 2000 (Written for a Regional Conference in Kampala, Uganda on Constitutions in Transition in Africa, Central and Eastern Europe.).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Serodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis live Taenia saginata cysts using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-ELISA. ." Journal of the South African Veterinary Association . 2002;73:201-206.
WANZALA ANYANGOMAUREEN, Ogallo LA, Opijah FJ, Mutemi JN. PERFOMANCE OF THE CMIP5 MODELS IN SIMULATION OF PRESENT AND FUTURE PRECIPITATION OVER THE LAKE VICTORIA BASIN. Nairobi: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2015. Abstract

The usefulness and limitations in climate information are due to uncertainty inherent in the climate system. The reduction of errors increases the reliability of the information. Therefore, for any given region to have sustainable development there is need to apply climate information into its socio-economic strategic plans.
The overall objective of the study was to assess the performance of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) over the Lake Victoria Basin. The data used in the study included the observed point station data, gridded rainfall data from Climate Research Unit, University of East Anglia (CRU) and hindcast data from eight Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) for the period 1971 to 2005 for historical and 2006-2100 for model future projections. The methodology employed included trend analysis, spatial analysis, correlation analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) regression analysis, and categorical statistical skill score.

Wanzala WS, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang'ethe EK, Kang'ethe EK, Zessin KH, Kyule MN, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Taenia saginata cysts in carcases and implications for meat inspection.". 2005.Website
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Zessin KH, N.M. K, Baumann MPO, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Analysis of post-mortem diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2002;1:1-9.
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses of naturally and artificially infected Kenyan cattle and its implication for routine meat inspection method. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2005;9:66-73.
Wanzala W, N.M. K, K.H. Z, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Evaluation of an antigen-ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle." Parasitology Research . 2007;100:539-548. Abstract

A monoclonal antibody-based antigen - ELISA (Ag-ELISA) was studied in kenyan cattle with the objective of evaluating its reliability in diagnosing bovine cysticerconsis. A total of 55 cattle divided into artificially (n=30) and nuturally (n=25) infested animals, were utilized. total dissection was used as gold standard of validity at autopsy. in natural infestations, the essay identified 16 cases

Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "A comparison of meat inspection method and an antigen-ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle." Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences . 2002;2:265-277.
Wanzala W, Hassanali A, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Takken W. "Repellent activities of essential oils of some plants used traditionally to control the brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus." Journal of parasitology research. 2014;2014.
Wanzala W, Takken W, WR M, Pala AO, Hassanali A. "Ethnoknowledge of Bukusu community on livestock tick prevention and control in Bungoma district, western Kenya." Journal of Ethnopharmacoly. 2012;140(2):298-324.
Ward CW. "Aminopeptidases in webbing clothes moth larvae. Properties and specificities of the enzymes of intermediate electrophoretic mobility." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(2):361-9. Abstract

The major group of aminopeptidases (EC 3.4.11.-) of intermediate electrophoretic mobility, from Tineola bisselliella larvae, hav been fractionated into six bands by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the properties of these fractions investigated. They resemble each other in their pH optima of 8.2, their molecular weight of 240 000, their responses to various active site inhibitors and metal cations, and their specificities towards seventeen L-amino-acyl-beta-naphthylamide substrates. The derivatives of methionine, leucine, alanine, lysine, arginine and glutamic acid were those most rapidly hydrolysed. They appear to be true aminopeptidases hydrolysing amino acid amides, dipeptides and oligopeptides from the N-terminal end.

Warfa O, Njai D, Ahmed L, Admani B, Were F, Osano B, Mburugu P, Mohamed M. "Evaluating the level of adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines in the management of Severe Acute Malnutrition at Garissa Provincial General hospital, Garissa, Kenya." Pan African Medical Journal. 2014;17(214). Abstractevaluating_the_level_of_adherence_to_ministry_of_health_guidelines_in_the_management_of_severe_acute_malnutrition_at_garissa_provincial_general_hospital_garissa_kenya.pdf

Introduction: Half of Kenya's high infant and under five mortality rates is due to malnutrition. Proper implementation of World Health Organization's (WHO) Evidence Based Guidelines (EBG) in management of severe acute malnutrition can reduce mortality rates to less than 5%. The objectives were to establish the level of adherence to WHO guideline and the proportion of children appropriately managed for severe acute malnutrition (steps 1-8) as per the WHO protocol in the management of severe acute malnutrition. This was a short longitudinal study of 96 children, aged 6-59 months admitted to the pediatric ward with diagnosis of severe acute malnutrition. Methods: Data was extracted from patients' medical files and recorded into an audit tool to compare care provided in this hospital with WHO guidelines. Results: Non-edematous malnutrition was the commonest presentation (93.8%). A higher proportion (63.5%) of patients was male. Most (85.4%) of patients were younger than 2 years. Patients with non-edematous malnutrition were younger (mean age for non-edematous malnutrition was 16 (± 10.6) months versus 25 (± 13.7) months in edematous malnutrition). The commonest co- morbid condition was diarrhea (52.1%). Overall, 13 children died giving an inpatient case fatality rate of 13.5%. Appropriate management was documented in only 14.6% for hypoglycemia (step1), 5.2% for hypothermia (step 2) and 31.3% for dehydration (step 3). Conclusion: The level of adherence to MOH guidelines was documented in 5 out of the 8 steps. Appropriate management of children with severe acute malnutrition was inadequate at Garissa hospital

Warfa O, Njai D, Laving A, Bashir A, Were F, Wamalwa D, Osano B, Mburugu P, Mohamed M. "Evaluating the level of adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines in the management of Severe Acute Malnutrition at Garissa Provincial General Hospital, Garissa, Kenya." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2014;17:214.
Warfa O, Njai D, Ahmed L, Admani B, Were F, Dalton Wamalwa, Mburugu P, Mohamed M. "Evaluating the level of adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines in the management of Severe Acute Malnutrition at Garissa Provincial General hospital, Garissa, Kenya.". 2014;10. Abstract

Introduction: Half of Kenya's high infant and under five mortality rates is due to malnutrition. Proper implementation of World Health Organization's (WHO) Evidence Based Guidelines (EBG) in management of severe acute malnutrition can reduce mortality rates to less than 5%. The objectives were to establish the level of adherence to WHO guideline and the proportion of children appropriately managed for severe acute malnutrition (steps 1-8) as per the WHO protocol in the management of severe acute malnutrition. This was a short longitudinal study of 96 children, aged 6-59 months admitted to the pediatric ward with diagnosis of severe acute malnutrition. Methods: Data was extracted from patients' medical files and recorded into an audit tool to compare care provided in this hospital with WHO guidelines. Results: Non-edematous malnutrition was the commonest presentation (93.8%). A higher proportion (63.5%) of patients was male. Most (85.4%) of patients were younger than 2 years. Patients with non-edematous malnutrition were younger (mean age for non-edematous malnutrition was 16 (± 10.6) months versus 25 (± 13.7) months in edematous malnutrition). The commonest co- morbid condition was diarrhea (52.1%). Overall, 13 children died giving an inpatient case fatality rate of 13.5%. Appropriate management was documented in only 14.6% for hypoglycemia (step1), 5.2% for hypothermia (step 2) and 31.3% for dehydration (step 3). Conclusion: The level of adherence to MOH guidelines was documented in 5 out of the 8 steps. Appropriate management of children with severe acute malnutrition was inadequate at Garissa hospital.

Warimwe GM, Fegan G, Musyoki JN, Newton CR, Opiyo M, Githinji G, Andisi C, Menza F, Kitsao B, Marsh K, Bull PC. "Prognostic indicators of life-threatening malaria are associated with distinct parasite variant antigen profiles.". 2012. Abstract

PfEMP1 is a family of cytoadhesive surface antigens expressed on erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that causes the most severe form of malaria. These surface antigens play a role in immune evasion and are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of the malaria parasite. Previous studies have suggested a role for a specific subset of PfEMP1 called "group A" in severe malaria. To explore the role of group A PfEMP1 in disease, we measured the expression of the var genes that encode them in parasites from clinical isolates collected from children suffering from malaria. We also looked at the ability of these clinical isolates to induce rosetting of erythrocytes, which indicates a cytoadhesion phenotype that is thought to be important in pathogenesis. These two sets of data were correlated with the presence of two life-threatening manifestations of severe malaria in the children: impaired consciousness and respiratory distress. Using regression analysis, we show that marked rosetting was associated with respiratory distress, whereas elevated expression of group A-like var genes without elevated rosetting was associated with impaired consciousness. The results suggest that manifestations of malarial disease may reflect the distribution of cytoadhesion phenotypes expressed by the infecting parasite population.

Warinda Enock, Dickson M. Nyariki, Stephen Wambua, Reuben M. Muasya, Hanjra. MA. "Sustainable development in East Africa: impact evaluation of regional agricultural development projects in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda." Natural Resources Forum. 2020;44:3-39.
Warinwa F, mwaura F, Kiringe JW, Ndubi AO. "Land Cover Dynamics in the Kirisia Forest Ecosystem, Samburu County, Kenya. ." Advances in Remote Sensing. 2016;5::168-182.
Waris A. "Kenya’s Fiscal Accountability Revisited: A review of the historical erosion of the Country’s Fiscal Constitution .". In: Human Rights and Democratic Governance in Kenya: A Post-2007 Appraisal. Pretoria: PULP; 2015.
Waris A. "International Financial Centers in Developing Countries.". In: Lifting the Veil of Secrecy . Oslo: CMI; 2018.
Waris A. "Taxation and a Clean and Healthy Environment: A Case Study of the Mining of Titanium in Kenya.". In: Contemporary Issues in Environmental Taxation . London: Oxford University Press; 2008.
Waris A, Leaman J. The International Political Economy of Taxation 1945-Present. Berlin: Bregnan; 2013.
Waris A, Kiamba A. "An African Feminist Perspective on Security and Early Warning Mechanisms.". In: Rethinking Global Security: An African Perspective? Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation; 2006.
Waris A, Murangwa H. "Utilising Tax Literacy and Societal Confidence in a State: The Rwandan Model." University of Nairobi Law Journal. 2012.
Waris A. "International Taxation and Global Solidarity .". In: Reader on Global Social Protection. Berlin: Medico International; 2013.
Waris A. Financing Africa. Bamenda: Langaa; 2019. Abstract

Financing Africa's development requires ingenuity, discipline, and an understanding of fiscal
systems–the entirety of government revenues and expenditures, including taxation and debt.
This book makes fascinating what might seem at first glance complex. It describes diverse …

Waris A, Kohonen M, Ranguma J, Mosioma A. Taxation and State Building in Kenya: Using Human Rights to Advance Revenue Capacity. Nairobi: Tax Justice Network; 2010.
Waris A, Thiankolu M. "International Commercial Arbitration in Kenya.". In: Arbitration Law and Practice in Kenya. Nairobi: LawAfrica; 2012.
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Mr. Nicky Nzioki,Mrs.Catherine Kariuki: An Investigation into the process of Compulsory Acquisition and suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; Submitted. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Towards an Understanding of the Informal Housing Markets: A Review of Literature in W.H.O. Olima andV. Kreibich (eds.) Urban Land Management in Africa, Dortmund: University of Dortmund (2002).". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 2002. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Preliminary Suggestions on the implementation of the Land Section of Chapter five of the Constitution of Kenya through Research and Training.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; Submitted. Abstract
The New Constitution of Kenya, Chapter five states that land in Kenya will be held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable. The construction also sets out a number of principles, which will be implemented through a national land policy that developed and reviewed regularly by the government and through legislation. The National Land Policy for Kenya is Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2009, it presents the issues and policy recommendations that were identified, analyzed and agreed by stakeholders. The sessional paper forms the foundation upon which administrative and legislative framework will be built. This is the framework that will drive the critically required land reforms for Kenya. This paper gives a detailed outline of the training and capacity building and research requirements in land management and administration. Its main emphasis being the setting up of a Land Policy research Centre in the light of the new institutional framework suggested in chapter 5 of the Constitution of Kenya and the Sessional paper No.3 of 2009. A suitable land policy centre will undertake research and training for the National Land Commission, in the light of the suggested functions. The paper concludes by suggesting the training and research programmes fro governments and individuals in Kenya and within the continent on land.
Warui CN. "Stereological analysis of the cerebellum of 24-day old rats with propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism.". 2000. Abstractabstract-stereological_analysis_of_the_cerebellum.pdfWebsite

Objective: To investigate the structural parameters of the developing cerebellum in propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism during pre and postnatal stages in 24 day old rat pups. Method: Hypothyroidism was induced by feeding the breeding dams with PTU in water before and during copulation, pregnancy and lactation and the pups through the dams and ingestion in water. The number of control and treated dams and pups was five for each dam group and twelve and thirteen for pups respectively. The whole cerebellum was dissected out from the pups and processed routinely for histological examination and morphometric analysis. The total volumes of cerebellum, intracerebellar nuclei and cerebellar compartments were estimated by Cavalieri method. The mean numerical densities of neurones and neuroglia in the intracerebellar nuclei and Purkinje, granule and combined stellate and basket cells in cerebellar cortex were estimated using optical disector and the total numbers calculated as the product of the respective numerical densities and reference volumes. Results: The treated dams and pups had relatively lower mean body weights and etraiodothyronine (T4) serum concentrations. The serum Triiodothyronine (T3) was normal and lower in the treated dams and pups respectively. The differences in the respective body weights and dam T4 concentration in treated dams and pups were significant (p<0.05) compared to the control. Morphometric results showed that the mean volumes of cerebellum, intracerebellar nuclei, white matter, internal granular layer, molecular layer and the cerebellar cortex were lower and the differences between the values for each parameter were significant (p<0.05) in the treated pups compared to the control. The mean numerical densities of neurones and neuroglia in the intracerebellar nuclei (Nvne; Nvgl) and the combined stellate and basket cells (Nvsb) in the cerebellar cortex were relatively higher and the mean values for the respective numerical densitys of Purkinje and granule cells (Nvpu; Nvgr) were relatively lower in the treated pups compared to the control. On the other hand the treated pups had relatively lower values for the respective total numbers of neurons (Nne), neuroglia (Ngl), Purkinje (Npu), granule (Ngr) and the combined stellate and basket (Nsb) cells compared to the control. The differences between the respective values for Nvne, Nvsb, Npu, and Ngr, were significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: These results show that rat pups with PTU-induced hypothyroidism have relatively lower mean values for the structural parameters in the cerebellum when compared to control pups. This confirms that growth and maturation of the cerebellum is dependent on the maintenance of normal T4 and T3 levels, underscores the magnitude of the deviations from the normal and sheds light on possible structural limitations in the cerebellum in

Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Mutune MN, Otieno RO. "Prevalence of ecto-and haemo-parasites of free-range local ducks in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2017;29(7).
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Otieno RO, Ngotho JW. "Multiple anthelmintic resistances on a goat farm in Kenya." Veterinary Parasitology. 1998;75:191-197.
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Bogh HO, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM, Thamsborg SM, Nansen P. "Efficacy of morantel sustained release trilaminate bolus against gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy calves in Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 1997;29:129-140.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Munyua WK, Otieno RO, Maina AN, Mutune MN. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in indigenous chickens slaughtered at live bird markets of Nairobi County, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(233).
Waruiru RM;, Ngotho JW;, Weda EH, Mbuthia PG, Kogi JK. "Effects Of Development Of Resistance To Levamisole And Benzimidazole Anthelmintics On The Pathogenicity And Survival Of H. Contortus." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1998;46:133-138.Website
Waruiru RM, Rurangirwa F, Jasmer D, T C MG, J M N, Thimbyu PM, Ruvuna F, T C C. "Resistance To H. Contortus Infection In Goats On Artificial Infection: Preliminary Findings.". 1987. Abstract

Natural infection with Haemonchus contortus was monitored in 300 kids using worm egg counts per gram (EPG) from the age of 2 months to one year. Some kids had low counts 201 ñ 118.2 while others had high count 601.9 ñ 199.9 EGP. Eleven goats from thelow counts group A and nineteen from the low count group B were cleared of worm infestation using Invermectin under complement. The two groups were then artificially infected with 500 larvae per kid from same (H. contortus) isolate. Individual goats within the groups had low EPG throughout the study indicating resistance to the challenge. Goats in group A had significantly lower EPG (725 ñ 212.5) than group B (1643.2 ñ 463.4) P(t=1.80.05) throughout the period. This could reflect a few group B goats with very high EPG rather than general difference between the groups. The indication by individual goats of greater resistance to (H. cortortus) than others provided an important direction for future research.

Waruiru, R.M., Maingi, N., Karanu, F., Gichanga EJ, Ndegwa CK. The incidence of thiabendazole and fenbendazole resistance in field populations of Haemonchus contortus. Na1robi, Kenya; 1991.
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Munyua WK. "The efficacy of triclabendazole and oxyclozanide against F. gigantica in naturally infected dairy cattle in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1994;42:205-209.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Mutune MN, Mavuti SK, Otieno RO. "Prevalence of ecto- and haemo-parasites of free-range local ducks in Kenya. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(126).
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nguhiu JM, Wamboi P. "Haemato- biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):18-25.
Waruiru RW, Mutune M, Kilelu ES. "Rift Valley fever virus antibody analysis in Machakos district.". 2003.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Karanja DN, Ngotho JW, Weda EH. "Helminth parasite infections of sheep in Kangundo Division of machakos District, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1997;45:115-119.
Waruiru RM, Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Nzalawahe J, Murugami JW, Njagi LW, Mdegela RH, Mavuti SK. "Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 2017;5(4):217-223.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Xu C, Mulei IR, Evensen, Mutoloki S. "First detection and isolation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus from farmed rainbow trout in Nyeri County, Kenya. ." Journal of Fish Diseases. 2019;2019:1-8.
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Otieno RO, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM. The prevalence and intensity of infection with F. gigantica in cattle in Kiambu District, Kenya. Arusha, Tanzania; 1997.
Waruiru RM, Murigu MM, Nana P, Nga’nga’ CJ, Ekesi S, N. M. "Laboratory and field evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of amitraz- resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus decoloratus." Veterinary Parasitology. 2016;225:12-18.
Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Ogolla KO. "Effects of anticoccidial drugs on gross and histopathological lesions caused by experimental rabbit coccidiosis." SOJ Veterinary Sciences . 2018;4(3):1-9.
Waruiru, R.M., Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Murugami JW, Mavuti SK, Ngowi HA, Mdegela RH, Maina KW, Otieno RO. "Helminth parasites of farmed fish and water birds in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 2018;6(3):06-12.
Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW. "Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminth infestations of free range domestic ducks in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2018;30(4).
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Mavuti SK, Njagi LW. "Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminth infestations of free range domestic ducks in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2018;30(66).
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Njoro SM, Ngatia TA, Weda EH, Ngotho JW, Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and lungworms in wild and domestic ruminants in a game ranching farm in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Kenya. 1995;43:253-259.
Waruiru, R.M., Maingi, N., Gichanga EJ. "Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in sheep in three districts of Kenya.". In: The Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Na1robi, Kenya; 1990.
Waruiru RM, Munyua WK, Gathumbi PK, Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Okumu PO, Wanyoike M, Gichure JN, Kitala P, Mailu S. "Farmer practices that influence risk factors, prevalence and control strategies of rabbit coccidiosis in central Kenya. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(134).
Waruiru RM, Kogi JK, Weda EH, Ngotho JW. "Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a goat farm in Kenya.". 1988. Abstract

The anthelmintic efficacy of benzimidazoles, levamisole, rafoxanide and ivermectin was evaluated on an institutional farm in Kenya using faecal egg count reduction test, larval cultures and a controlled slaughter trial. The results of this study indicated simultaneous resistance of Haemonchus contortus against benzimidazoles, levamisole and rafoxanide and Trichostrongylus columbriformis and Oesophagostomum sp. against levamisole on the same farm. Injectable and orally administered ivermectin was effective against the benzimidazole and levamisole resistant H. contortus

Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Wanja DW, Mwadime JM, Ngowi HA. "Fish husbandry practices and water quality in central Kenya: potential risk factors for fish mortality and infectious Diseases." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International . 2020;2020.
Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW. "Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminth infestations of free range domestic ducks in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2018;30(4).
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Weda EH, Kimoro CO. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and liver flukes in calves in Mathira Division of Nyeri District, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1993;41:291-296.
Waruiru RM, Murugami JW, Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Ngowi HA, Mdegela RH. "Predation and its associated risk factors in fish farms in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies. 2017;4(8):209-214.
Waruiru RM;, Maingi N;, Karanu F;, Gichanga EJ;, Ndegwa CK. "The Incidence Of Thiabendazole And Fenbendazole Resistance In Field Populations Of Haemonchus Contortus."; 1991.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Mwadime JM, Wanja DW, Ngowi HA. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 2019;7(2):295-301.
Waruiru RM, Ngotho JW, Weda EH, Otieno RO. "Resistance to Levamisole and benzimidazole anthelmintics by H. Contortus in sheep in central Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production. 1997;45:181-185.
Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Maina JG, Mbaria JM. "Evaluation of fish farmer management practices in Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 2017;5(3):165-170.
Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Ogolla KO, Okumu PO, Chebet J, Kitala PM. "Efficacy of suphachloropyrazine, amprolium hydrochloride, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and diclazuril against experimental and natural rabbit coccidiosis. ." Hindawi Journal of Veterinary Medicine . 2018;2018.
Waruiru RM, Ngotho JW, Mutune MN. "Effect of urea-molasses block supplementation on grazing weaner goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. ." Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2004;71:285-289.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Mulei IR, Njagi LW, Mwihia EW, Evensen, Gamil AAA, Mutoloki S. "Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from farmed rainbow trout and tilapia in Kenya is identical to European isolates." Journal of Fish Diseases . 2018;2018:1-10.
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Thamsborg SM, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM, Bogh HO, Nansen P. "The effects of anthelmintic treatment on nematode parasite and live weight gains dairy calves under field conditions in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production. 1996;44:125-133.
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Otieno RO, Ngotho JW, Bogh HO. "Comparative efficacies of closantel, ivermectin, oxfendazole, thiophanate and levamisole against thiabendazole resistant H. Contrortus in sheep." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 1996;28:216-220.
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Otieno RO, Ngotho JW. "Seasonal availability of gastrointestinal nematode larvae to cattle on pasture in the central highlands of Kenya." Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2002;69(2):141-146.
Waruiru RM, Munyua WK, Mavuti SK, Otieno RO, Mutune MN, Maina VM. "Effects of medicated urea-molasses block supplementation on productivity and gastrointestinal nematode infestation of sheep in central Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 2017;29(161).
Waruiru, R.M., Maingi N, Gichanga EJ. "The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in sheep in three districts of Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1991;39(4):423-428.1991._the_prevalence_of_anthelmintic_resistance_in_sheep_in_three_districts_of_kenya.pdf
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Ayuya AM, Kimoro CO. "Fatal haemonchosis in heifers in Kiambu District, Kenya: A case study." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1993;41:263-265.
Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Otieno RO, Gitari RN. "Efficacy of copper oxide wire particles against predominant gastrointestinal nematodes of indigenous goats in Kenya." Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. 2017;4(12):522-526.
Waruiru RM, Kyvsgaard NC, Thamsborg SM, Nansen P, Bogh HO, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM. "The Prevalence and Intensity of Helminth and Coccidial Infections in Dairy Cattle in Central Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

A survey of gastrointestinal parasite infections of young (<6 months old), immature (6–12 months old) and adult (>12 months old) dairy cattle on 16 farms in Kiambu District, Kenya was conducted during a dry season (September 1991 to January 1992) and during a wet season (March to July 1992). The survey was based on monthly coproparasitological examination of cohorts and worm counts in tracer calves. The effects of age, sex, farm and season on the prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccidial infections were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts revealed that the overall prevalences were: strongyles (including trichostrongyles) (85.5%), liver flukes (Fasciola gigantica) (34.0%), coccidia (30.9%) and tapeworms (9.6%). Eight species of the protozoan Eimeria were identified, the most prevalent species being E. bovis and E. zuernii. The most prevalent nematode genera were Haemonchus, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum and Trichostrongylus. Season, farm and age of the animals had a significant (p<0.05) influence on the intensity of infection with strongyles, liver flukes and coccidia, whereas the sex of the animals had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the prevalence or intensity of infections. A higher intensity of infection with strongyles and coccidia was found in the wet season than in the dry season (p<0.05). The age-specific intensity was in the following order: for strongyles, immature animals of 6–12 months of age had the highest egg counts, followed by young calves and adults. Calves had significantly (p<0.05) higher oocyst counts than immatures or adults. Liver fluke egg counts did not differ significant (p>0.05) between immatures and adult cattle.

Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Aboge GO. "Efficacy of ivermectin, liquid paraffin, and carbaryl against mange of farmed rabbits in central Kenya." Hindawi Journal of Tropical Medicine.. 2019;2019.
Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Mutune MN, Otieno RO. "Prevalence of ecto- and haemo-parasites of free-range local ducks in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2017;29(7).
Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Maina JG, Mbaria JM, Otieno RO. "Prevalence of ecto- and endo-parasitic infections of farmed tilapia and catfish in Nyeri County, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development.. 2017;29:122.
Waruiru RM;, Maingi N;, Karanu F;, Gichanga EJ;, Ndegwa CK. "The Incidence Of Thiabendazole And Fenbendazole Resistance In Field Populations Of Haemonchus Contortus."; 1991.
Waruiru RM, Gathumbi JK, Mulei IR, Mbuthia PG, Eriksen GS, Mwihia EW, Maina JG, Mutoloki S, Ludvig JL. "Occurrence and levels of aflatoxins in fish feeds and their potential effects on fish in Nyeri, Kenya." Toxins. 2018;2018.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Ngatia TA, Gichohi CM, Kamundia PW, Mutune MN, Otieno RO. "Prevalence and intensity of Paracamallanus species infection in farmed and wild catfish." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2011;35:25-32.
Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Ogola KO, Chebet J, Wanyoike M, Aboge GO. "Prevalence, control and risk factors associated with rabbit mange in Kiambu and Nyeri counties, Kenya. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2018;30(108).
Waruk JLM, Machuki Z, Mesa C, Juno JA, Anzala O, Sharma M, Ball BT, Julius Oyugi, Kiazyk S. "Cytokine and chemokine expression profiles in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation are altered in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected subjects with active tuberculosis." Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2015;95(5):555-61. Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infects nearly 2 million people annually and is the most common cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. Tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics cater to HIV-uninfected individuals in non-endemic countries, are expensive, slow, and lack sensitivity for those most affected. Patterns of soluble immune markers from Mtb-stimulated immune cells are not well defined in HIV co-infection. We assessed immune differences between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals with active TB utilizing IFNγ-based QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) testing in Nairobi, Kenya. Excess QFT supernatants were used to measure cytokine and chemokine responses by a 17-plex bead array. Mtb/HIV co-infected participants were significantly less likely to be QFT+ (47.2% versus 84.2% in the HIV-uninfected group), and demonstrated lower expression of all cytokines except for IFNα2. Receiver operator characteristic analyses identified IL-1α as a potential marker of co-infection. Among HIV-infected individuals, CD4+ T cell count correlated weakly with the expression of several analytes. Co-expression analysis highlighted differences in immune profiles between the groups. These data suggest that there is a unique and detectable Mtb-specific immune response in co-infection. A better understanding of Mtb immunology can translate into much needed immunodiagnostics with enhanced sensitivity in HIV-infected individuals, facilitating their opportunity to obtain live-saving treatment.

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