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Angeyo, H.K, Mukhono, P.M, Musyoka, D., Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Trace Quantitative and Exploratory Analysis by Multivariate Chemometric Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry Applied to Malaria and Radiogeothermic Diagnostics.". In: RIAO/OPTILAS 2013 VIII Iberoamerican Conference on Optics and XI Latin-american Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Applications. 22; 2013. Abstract
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Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Analysis and Spectral Imaging Approaches to Disease Diagnostics: Forays into Malaria and Cancer.". In: LAM 10 International Workshop: Optics Photonics and Lasers in Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. 13-18 January 2014, Dakar, Senegal; 2014. Abstract
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Angeyo KH, Kaniu MI. "Challenges in rapid soil quality assessment and opportunities presented by multivariate chemometric energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectroscopy." Geoderma. 2015;241–242:32-40. Abstract

There is, especially in precision agriculture, an increasing demand world over for affordable sensors for in situ (field deployable) soil quality assessment (SQA) applicable at an ecological scale due to the interplay between soil quality and environmental degradation. Although spectrometric (particularly optical) techniques offer the opportunity to meet this demand due to their high analytical versatility, their utility in rapid SQA is limited by the complexity of the soil matrix, and the interpretation of the resulting spectra and (usually) multivariate quality assurance (i.e. SQA) data. In this paper, we examine the utility of spectrometric techniques for soil analysis and critique their applicability to rapid SQA; in particular, we appraise their potential for development towards intelligent portable SQA systems for in situ application. We then evaluate in this perspective the applicability of a new method we have recently developed namely chemometrics energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrometry (EDXRFS) for SQA, emphasizing its potential for realizing rapid intelligent sensor architecture for in situ SQA. We conclude that a point of care soil sensor that infers soil properties, and intelligently modulates precision agriculture may be realized by integrating the EDXRFS spectroscopy method to a portable XRF spectrometer.

Angeyo KH, Bhatt B, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via machine-learning-enabled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).". 2018;(Published Online: 03 June 2019). Abstract

Nuclear forensics (NF) is an analytical methodology that involves analysis of intercepted nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) so as to establish their nuclear attribution. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid, minimally invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to overcome these limitations with the aid of machine-learning (ML) techniques. In this paper, we report the development of ML-enabled LIBS methodology for rapid NF analysis and attribution in support of nuclear security. The atomic uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm, and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures of uranium for rapid qualitative detection of trace uranium concealed in organic binders and uranium-bearing mineral ores. The limit of detection of uranium using LIBS was determined to be 34 ppm. A multivariate calibration strategy for the quantification of trace uranium in cellulose and uranium-bearing mineral ores was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN, a feed forward back-propagation algorithm) and spectral feature selection: (1) uranium lines (348 nm to 455 nm), (2) uranium lines (380 nm to 388 nm), and (3) subtle uranium peaks (UV range). The model utilizing category 2 was able to predict the 48 ppm of uranium with a relative error prediction (REP) of 10%. The calibration model utilizing subtle uranium peaks, that is, category 3, could predict uranium in the pellets prepared from certified reference material (CRM) IAEA-RGU-1, with an REP of 6%. This demonstrates the power of ANN to model noisy LIBS spectra for trace quantitative analysis. The calibration model we developed predicted uranium concentrations in the uranium-bearing mineral ores in the range of 54–677 ppm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the LIBS spectra (200–980 nm) utilizing feature selection of the uranium-bearing samples collected from different regions of Kenya clustered into groups related to their geographic origins. The PCA loading spectrum revealed that the groupings of these samples were mainly due to rare earth elements, namely, cerium, dysprosium, praseodymium, promethium, neodymium, and samarium. ML-enabled LIBS therefore has utility in field NF analysis and attribution of uranium in NRM under concealed conditions.

Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki. "Development of Laser Education and Research Towards Biophotonics at Nairobi.". In: 12th International conference on Education and Training in Optics and Photonics. 22; 2013. Abstract
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Angeyoa KH, Garib S, Mustapha AO, Mangala JM. "Feasibility for direct rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and scattering analysis of complex matrix liquids by partial least squares.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The greatest challenge to material characterization by XRF technique is encountered in direct trace analysis of complex matrices. We exploited partial least squares (PLS) in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry to rapidly (200 s) analyze lubricating oils. The PLS–EDXRFS method affords non-invasive quality assurance (QA) analysis of complex matrix liquids as it gave optimistic results for both heavy- and low-Z metal additives. Scatter peaks may further be used for QA characterization via the light elements.

Angima C, Wakobwa AM. "Risk management practices and marine premium growth of insurance firms in Kenya." nternational Journal of Creative Research And Studies. 2018;2(11):51-61.
Angima, C., Mwangi, J.W., Kaijage, Ogutu M. "Actuarial risk management practices, underwriting, risk and performance of P & C insurance firms in East Africa." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(22):207-226.
Angima C. "Do size and age affect performance of general insurance firms in East Africa?" International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2018;7(7):8-18.
Angima, C., A M. "Nature of fraud and its effects in the medical insurance sector in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2016;6(2):33-44.
Angima, C., Mwangi, J.W., Kaijage, Ogutu M. "Effects of pricing and reinsurance practices on performance of general insurance firms in East Africa." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(7):28-40.
Angima C B, Mwangi M. "Actuarial Risk Management Practices and Financial Performance of Property and Casualty Insurance Firms: Identification of a Moderating Variable." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2016;6(2):126-132.
Angu C, Muthama JN, Mutai BK. The Interconnection among Aerosols, Urbanization and Weather. Lambert Academic Publishing; ISBN-10:3330026537; 2017.
Angwere OW, Koech OK. "ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF CHARCOAL PRODUCTION AND USE ON THE TRANSITION TO A GREEN ECONOMY IN KENYA." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2016;19(2016):327-335.
Ang’u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Kong’ani LNS. "Effects of civil conflicts on global oil prices and their impact on the energy sector." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):12-18.
Ang’u C, Muthama NJ, Mutai BK. "Aerosol optical depth patterns associated with urbanization and weather in Nairobi and Lamu." J. Meteorol. Related. Sci.. 2016;8:26-40.Website
Anjili CO, Ngumbi PM, Kaburi JC, Irungu LW. "The phlebotomine sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Kenya." Journal of vector borne diseases. 2011;48(4):183-189. AbstractJournal of vector borne diseases

Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are endemic in some parts of Kenya, where they are transmitted by phlebobotomine sandflies of genus Phlebotomus. This review is a compilation of the currently known distribution of phlebotomine sandflies in the parts of Kenya that have been studied, from the time sandflies were first reported in the country. So far 48 species of sandflies have been identified falling in the genera Phlebotomus Rondani & Berte and Sergentomyia Franca & Parrot. Genus Phlebotomus in Kenya is represented in five subgenera, namely Phlebotomus, Larroussius, Synphlebotomus, Paraphlebotomus and Anaphlebotomus. Genus Sergentomyia has the largest number of sandflies, and is represented in four subgenera, namely Sergentomyia, Sintonius, Grassomyia and Parvidens.

Anne H, Henriette SA. "‘Pulling Apart? Treatment of Pluralism in CEDAW and Maputo Protocol’ .". In: Women’s Human Rights: CEDAW in International, Regional and National Law . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2013.
Anne N, David M, Naomi G, Grace N. "Training ECD in-service Teachers in ICT skills:First foot forward.". In: Utilization of open and distance learning in addressing educational challenges in kenya towards fulfilment of the vision 2030. University of Nairobi, kenya; 2013. Abstract

Kenya government developed vision 2030 with the aim of transforming Kenya into a middle-income industrialized country. This vision is likely to be an illusion unless Kenya invests in education and training. Countries that have succeeded in harnessing the potential of ICT have been said to have taken a positive step towards a greatly expanded economic growth, improved human welfare and stronger forms of democratic governance. ICT has been correlated with enhanced human development and a major driving force of national growth. Kenya government has invested a lot of funds in the development of ICT infrastructure. This investment is likely not to bear fruits unless the training of teachers is put on the forefront. There should therefore be an emphasis of training teachers in ICT because they are the central forces in tapping the learning potentials created by ICT. Teachers for all levels from pre-primary to university must be trained in ICT if the vision is to be realized. Support for the pre-school education from the government is a recent phenomenon especially in curriculum development. This is because this level of education has been taught by untrained teachers for a long time therefore resulting to poor quality of education. The first effort noted towards this end was the experimental preschool education project that was carried out by the Ministry of education Science and Technology and the Bernard Van Leer Foundation between 1972 and 1982. A later development was on the National Early Childhood Development Policy Framework of 2006 which provided coordination of the different stakeholders in ECD at all levels. As the government continues to support this level of education, it is important to find out the part that it is playing in ensuring that this education is relevant to the changing needs of the students. This will only be possible if the government ensures that teachers have effective techniques, tool and assistance that can help them develop ICT activities that are able to improve student learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the ICT skills possessed by the ECD teachers. Further, the study explored the integration of ICT in teaching and learning of preschool children in selected Kenyan preschools. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to gather the required information from the ECD teachers who were in their training sessions. The sample consisted of 395 pre-school teachers. The findings indicated that only (39.17%) of the teachers had any knowledge in ICT. Most of the teachers (86.99) reported that there they had not attended any government sponsored ICT workshop during their teaching professions. All the teachers felt that their teaching would be highly enhanced by ICT integration in teaching and learning. They also expressed their interest in availing themselves for ICT training should an opportunity arise. Based on these findings, it was recommended that there is need for the government to invest more in the training of pre-school teachers in ICT integration.
Key words: information and communication technology (ICT), pre-school children, Pre-school teachers, Teacher training

Anne K, Ken M. "The Motorcycle and Mobility: A Blessing or A Curse.". In: Eastern Africa Transport Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2015.abstract-_motorcyles_a_blessing_or_a_curse.pdf
Anne Fischer, Ivette Santana-Cruz, Wambua L, Cassandra Olds, Charles Midega, Matthew Dickinson, Praphat Kawicha, Zeyaur Khan, Masiga D, Joerg Jores, Bernd Schneider. "Draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” strain Mbita1, the causative agent of Napier grass stunt disease in Kenya." Genome announcements. 2016;4(2):e00297-16.
and Anne Hellum IIPK-M. "TURNING THE TIDE: ENGENDERING THE HUMAN RIGHT TO WATER AND SANITATION." IELRC. 2015:32-80.
Anne W Muohi, Gerd‐Peter Zauke, Hans‐Jurgen Brumsack, Mavuti KM. "Bioaccumulation of trace elements in Arthrospira fusiformis algal blooms in Lakes Bogoria and Sonachi, Kenya: Evaluation and verification of toxicokinetic models." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2018;23(4):277-286.
Anne Wanjiku Ngari. A study of supply chain management practices at the University of Nairobi. UNES Chiromo Conference Center; Forthcoming.abstract_scm.pdf
Anne Wanjiru Mbwayo, Mathai M, Lincoln. I Khasakhala, Mary Wangari Kuria, Vander Stoep A. "Mental Health in Kenyan Schools: Teachers’ Perspectives." Global Social Welfare. 2019;7:157-163.
Anonymous. "Traditional remedies for tick-borne cattle diseases in Kenya.". In: A field manual of traditional animal health care practices. Nairobi: ITDG and IIRR; 1996.
and Another FM. "Planning for Neutral Money Supply in African Economies with Special Application to Kenya." The Indian Economic Journal. 1993;41(1).
Anselm OJ. 1. Being And Meaning .; 1991.
Anselm OJ. "The Notion Of Freedom From An African Cultural Perspective ." Culture And Quest . 1997.
Anselm OJ. "The Unreasonable Defense Of Terrorism And Government Obligations ." World Peace, Problems Of Global Understanding And Prospects Of Harmony. 2005;I.
Anselm OJ. "“Reducing War and Terrorism by Mitigation through Knowledge”, .". In: at the Second Annual CUEA Philosophy Conference, Philosophy of War and Peace, 15-17 November 2007. CUEA Nairobi; 2007.
Anselm OJ. The philosophy of the near death experience . Pune india; 1996.
Anselm OJ. "Notes On Context ." The South African Journal Of Philosophy . 1996;Vol15 No. 2.
Anselm OJ. “Responsibility and Development”, . Catholic Univeersity of Eastern Africa Nairobi; 2006.
Anselm OJ. "Common Good as a Mean To Peace ." Culture And Quest . 2001;Sept.
Anselm OJ. "Justification Of Legal Justice ." Hekima Vol II No. 1 . 2003;Vol II No. 1.
Anselm OJ. "“Accountability Responsibility, and Integrity In Development: The Ethical Challenges In Sub-Sahara Africa And Beyond” .". In: The Ethical Challenges In Sub-Sahara Africa And Beyond. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, ; 2006.
Anteby M, Garip F, Martorana PV, Lozanoff S. "Individuals’ {Decision} to {Co}-{Donate} or {Donate} {Alone}: {An} {Archival} {Study} of {Married} {Whole} {Body} {Donors} in {Hawaii}." PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42673. AbstractWebsite

BackgroundHuman cadavers are crucial to numerous aspects of health care, including initial and continuing training of medical doctors and advancement of medical research. Concerns have periodically been raised about the limited number of whole body donations. Little is known, however, about a unique form of donation, namely co-donations or instances when married individuals decide to register at the same time as their spouse as whole body donors. Our study aims to determine the extent of whole body co-donation and individual factors that might influence co-donation.Methods and FindingsWe reviewed all records of registrants to the University of Hawaii Medical School’s whole body donation program from 1967 through 2006 to identify married registrants. We then examined the 806 married individuals’ characteristics to understand their decision to register alone or with their spouse. We found that married individuals who registered at the same time as their spouse accounted for 38.2 percent of married registrants. Sex differences provided an initial lens to understand co-donation. Wives were more likely to co-donate than to register alone (p = 0.002). Moreover, registrants’ main occupational background had a significant effect on co-donations (p = 0.001). Married registrants (regardless of sex) in female-gendered occupations were more likely to co-donate than to donate alone (p = 0.014). Female-gendered occupations were defined as ones in which women represented more than 55 percent of the workforce (e.g., preschool teachers). Thus, variations in donors’ occupational backgrounds explained co-donation above and beyond sex differences.ConclusionsEfforts to secure whole body donations have historically focused on individual donations regardless of donors’ marital status. More attention needs to be paid, however, to co-donations since they represent a non-trivial number of total donations. Also, targeted outreach efforts to male and female members of female-gendered occupations might prove a successful way to increase donations through co-donations.

Anthon S, Lund JF, Helles F. "Targeting the poor: taxation of marketed forest products in developing countries.". 1982. Abstract

In this article, we investigate whether taxation of households’ production of marketed forest products in developing countries is likely to assist in achieving the general development objectives of resources conservation and poverty alleviation. Based on an empirical study on such taxation in a village in Tanzania, we develop and solve a theoretical analytical model to analyse taxation, when households’ access to alternative income generating opportunities is heterogeneous. Findings are that taxation adversely affects income equality and has an ambiguous effect on the level of resource utilisation.

Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Mburu J, Yazan E, Majaliwa MGJ, MacOpiyo L, Bamutaze Y. "Drivers of forage availability: An integration of remote sensing and traditional ecological knowledge in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda." Pastoralism. 2015;5:19. Abstract
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Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Joseph Kyagulanyi, GJ Mwanjalolo Majaliwa, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J. "Spatio-temporal dynamics of forage and land cover changes in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda." Pastoralism. 2014;4:6. Abstract
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Anthony Egeru, Osaliya R, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, Oliver Wasonga, Barasa B, Said M, Aleper D, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo G-J. "Assessing the spatio-temporal climate variability in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region in north-eastern Uganda." International Journal of Environmental Studies. 2014;71:490-509. Abstract
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Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Gabiri G, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, JGMM. "Land Cover and Soil Properties Influence on Forage Quantity in a Semiarid Region in East Africa." Applied and Environmental Soil Science. 2019;2019.
Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, Majaliwa MGJ. "Abundance and diversity of native forage species in pastoral Karamoja sub-region, Uganda.". 2015. Abstract
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Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, Tabuti JRS, Majaliwa MGJ. "Piospheric influence on forage species composition and abundance in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda." Pastoralism. 2015;5:12. Abstract
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ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "NGO's and Consumer Issues in Africa Today- in Voices From Africa, Issues Number 2, NGOs and Grassroots Development, Published by UN Non-Governmental Liaison Services, Geneva, Switzerland.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1972. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Recurrent Costs of Public Investment and Budget Rationalization in Kenya, Proceedings of a Workshop organized by the Kenyan Economic Association. ( Co-edited with LewisOdhiambo of Kenya School of Journalism, University of Nairobi).". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1988. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Privatization in Africa, with Basic Books(K)Ltd.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2007. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "The Role of Credit: IDS Occasional Paper No. 6.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1972. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Problems of Rural Industries: A Case Study of Kakamega District, Western Province, Kenya- for the Annual Social Science Conference Of the Eastern African Universities, Dar-es-Salaam, December.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1973. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Privatization in Kenya, published by Basic Books(K)Ltd. (Nairobi 1998).". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1998. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "NGO's and Consumer Issues in Africa Today- in Voices From Africa, Issues Number 2, NGOs and Grassroots Development, Published by UN Non-Governmental Liaison Services, Geneva, Switzerland.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1972. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "The African Entrepreneur- IDS Occasional Paper No. 6.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1972. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Privatization in Kenya, published by Basic Books(K)Ltd. (Nairobi 1998).". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1998. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Antonine Obiero, Jeremiah Kalai UO. "Strategies Used in Maintaining Students' discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research (IJSSER). . 2018;3(11):6346-6366.
Antonini A, Stryker M. "Rapid remodeling of axonal arbors in the visual cortex." Science (New York, N.Y.). 1993;260:1819-21. Abstract
n/a
Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Antony Rono, Ogutu C, Weke P. "On Compound Distributions for Natural Disaster Modelling in Kenya." International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. 2020;2020. AbstractWebsite

Kenyan communities are exposed to natural disasters by an amalgamation of factors such as poverty, aridity, and settlements in areas susceptible to natural disasters or in areas with poor infrastructure. This is expected to increase due to the effects of climate change. In an attempt to explain some of these variabilities, we model the extreme damages from natural disasters in Kenya by developing a compound distribution that takes into account both the frequency and the severity of the extreme events. The resulting distribution is based on a threshold model and compound extreme value distribution. For frequency of events exceeding a threshold of 150,000, we found that it follows a negative binomial distribution, while severity of exceedance follows a generalized Pareto distribution. This distribution fits the data well and is found to be a better model for natural disasters in Kenya than the traditional extreme value threshold model.

Antony Rono, Ogutu C, Weke P. "On Compound Distributions for Natural Disaster Modeling in Kenya." International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. 2020;2020. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Kenyan communities are exposed to natural disasters by an amalgamation of factors such as poverty, aridity, and settlements in areas susceptible to natural disasters or in areas with poor infrastructure. This is expected to increase due to the effects of climate change. In an attempt to explain some of these variabilities, we model the extreme damages from natural disasters in Kenya by developing a compound distribution that takes into account both the frequency and the severity of the extreme events. The resulting distribution is based on a threshold model and compound extreme value distribution. For frequency of events exceeding a threshold of 150,000, we found that it follows a negative binomial distribution, while severity of exceedance follows a generalized Pareto distribution. This distribution fits the data well and is found to be a better model for natural disasters in Kenya than the traditional extreme value threshold model.

Anyamba TJC, VDM V, Saarbrucken M. "Diverse Informalities."; 2008.
Anyamba, TJC KAK;. "Nairobi: From a Railway Yard to a Metropolis.". 1995.
Anyamba TJC. African Urban Qualities.; 2010.
Anyamba TJC, Kamweru AK. "Nairobi: From a Railway Yard to a Metropolis.". In: Africa 2000: Towards the Millenium. University of Cape Town, South Africa; 1995.
Anyamba TTC. "Trends in Low Cost Housing in Africa."; 1993.
Anyango SO, Muthui R, Nyunkuri E. "Sustainability of charcoal production in the Arid and semiarid lands of Kenya: A policy Dilemma." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journa. 2019;6(4).
Anyango SO. " Water pollution and management status of rivers in the greater Nairobi area .". In: Regional workshop on remote sensing and GIS technologies . Nairobi, Kenya; 1998.
Anyango SO, Orindi V. "Biofuels Production as a Mitigation Strategy: The Potential Impacts on Food Security and Environmental Sustainability in Kenya .". In: National conference on the Environment . Nairobi, Kenya; 2008.
Anyango B;, Keya SO;, Widdowson D;, Wangaruro S;, Mugane C;, Karani FN. "Current Status of Legume Inoculant Production in Kenya.".; 1985.
Anyango SO, Orindi V. "Impact of climate change on food security, A regional perspective for Africa .". In: the International Climate Change Experts Workshop. Seigburg, Bone, Germany; 2008.
Anyango B;, Keya SO;, Owino F. "Nodulation Survey of Nitrogen Fixing Tre es in Kenya."; 1986.
Anyango OS, Aloo T, C B, Chin, C. K. "Niche differentiation for improved crop growth and yield in arid and semi arid lands of Kenya. ." African Journal for Environmental studies and development . 2008;Vol 1(no. 1 ISSN: 1995-1329.):24-26.
Anyango SO, Kiplagat J. "Natural Resources Governance in Kenya: The Assessment of the Fisheries Resources Subsector ." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences . 2019;24(3):25-30.
Anyenda EO, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Nguyen TTT, et al. "Exposure to daily ambient particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients: A longitudinal study." Atmospheric Environment. 2016;140:pp 34-41.
Anyenda EO, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Nguyen TTT, et al. "Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016;13:800.
Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Katende M, Mutua GN, Ruzagira E, Stevens G, Simek M, Price M. "Sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing.". 2010. Abstract

HIV rapid tests (RT) are a quick and non-technically demanding means to perform HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) but understanding their limitations is vital to delivering quality VCT. Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing at four sites in East Africa. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Masaka District, Uganda; a sugar plantation in Kakira, Uganda; Coastal Villages in the Kilifi District of Kenya; and the Urban slum of Kangemi located West of Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Six thousands two hundred and fifty five consenting volunteers were enrolled into the study, and 675 prevalent HIV infections were identified. Results: The RT sensitivity tended to be high for all assays at all sites (97.63-100%) with the exception of the Uni-Gold assay (90.24% in Kangemi, 96.58% in Kilifi). Twenty four RT results were recorded as ‘weak positives’, 22 (92%) of which were negative by ELISA. There was a high rate of RT false positives in Uganda (positive predictive values ranging from 45.70% to 86.62%). Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of the RT varied significantly across sites. The rate of RT misclassification in Uganda suggests that a multiple test algorithm may be preferable to a single test as screener for HIV VCT.

Anzala AO, Ball TB, Rostron T, O’Brien SJ, Plummer FA, study group NHIV, Rowland-Jones SL. "The 64I allele of the CCR2 chemokine receptor is strongly associated with delayed disease progression in a cohort of African prostitutes.". 1998.Website
Anzala O, Mutua GN, Oyugi FJO, Mohamed BF, Achia T, Stover J. "What impact would an HIV/AIDS vaccine have on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Kenya?". 2012. Abstract

To estimate the potential impact of an HIV/AIDS Vaccine in Kenya. Design: The Kenyan HIV/AIDS epidemic was modeled using the most current data from national sources including epidemiology and behavioral surveillance. The model’s baseline projection was validated against adult HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics and ge- neral population surveys. The model was used to analyze the effects of scaling up current pre- vention programs and adding potential HIV vac- cines with varying levels of effectiveness and coverage. Results: Even with full scale-up of currently available prevention, care and treat- ment programs, new infections will continue to burden Kenya. The introduction of a partially ef- fective AIDS vaccine could significantly alter the trajectory of the epidemic. Conclusion: The game changing impact that an AIDS vaccine could have on the AIDS epidemic in Kenya under- scores the importance of sustaining political support and financial investment to accelerate HIV/AIDS vaccine research and development.

and ANZALA ODERAASO. "A survey of legionella pneumophila among pneumonia patients at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86(12):565-571. Abstract

To determine the occurrence of L. pneumophila among pneumonia patients at Kenyatta National Hospital and any association with possible risk factors. Design: A cross- sectional descriptive study. Setting: The study was conducted from March to June 2007, at the medical ward of Kenyatta National Hospital. Analysis of samples was done at the University of Nairobi Institute of Tropical and Infectious Diseases (UNITID) serology laboratories. Subjects: All adult patients who were admitted to the medical ward of the hospital with a provisional diagnosis of pneumonia. Results: The study indicated that up to 9.2% (11 out of 120) of the pneumonia patients admitted at the hospital were infected with L.pneumophila. At a confidence limit of 0.05, there was statistical significance in the number of pneumonia patients infected with L. pneumophila and exposure to air conditioners (p= 0.003). Twenty two point five eight per cent of patients who were exposed to air conditioners were positive for L. pneumophila urinary antigen. There was a statistical significance between exposure to air conditioners and location of work area (p= 0.001)). Thirty eight point four six per cent of those who worked indoors were exposed to air conditioners at their places of work. There was also statistical significance in the number of pneumonia patients infected with L. pneumophila and a history of a past or concurrent respiratory illness (p= 0.021). Conclusion: Exposure to air conditioners and a history of past or concurrent respiratory illness were found to predispose one to infection. This should raise the index of suspicion among clinicians as they obtain a patient’s medical history. Most of those exposed to air conditioners are exposed at their places of work in urban centres, hence the need for health education and public awareness on routine inspection and maintenance of such facilities. There is need for a larger multi-centre study on the prevalence of infection by L. pneumophila in pneumonia patients (both community acquired and nosocomial), existence of co- infection and the antibiotic susceptibility of isolated organisms

Anzala AO, Simonsen JN, Kimani J, Ball TB, Ngugi EN, Bwayo JJ, Nagelkerke N, Kakai NJD, Plummer FA. "Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Accelerated HIV-1 Disease Progression.". 2000.
Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Katende M, Mutua GN, Ruzagira E, Stevens G, Simek M, Price M. "Sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing.". 2010. Abstract

HIV rapid tests (RT) are a quick and non-technically demanding means to perform HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) but understanding their limitations is vital to delivering quality VCT. Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing at four sites in East Africa. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Masaka District, Uganda; a sugar plantation in Kakira, Uganda; Coastal Villages in the Kilifi District of Kenya; and the Urban slum of Kangemi located West of Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Six thousands two hundred and fifty five consenting volunteers were enrolled into the study, and 675 prevalent HIV infections were identified. Results: The RT sensitivity tended to be high for all assays at all sites (97.63-100%) with the exception of the Uni-Gold assay (90.24% in Kangemi, 96.58% in Kilifi). Twenty four RT results were recorded as ‘weak positives’, 22 (92%) of which were negative by ELISA. There was a high rate of RT false positives in Uganda (positive predictive values ranging from 45.70% to 86.62%). Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of the RT varied significantly across sites. The rate of RT misclassification in Uganda suggests that a multiple test algorithm may be preferable to a single test as screener for HIV VCT.

Anzala O, Bashir MF OOBJJJWGMGOMF. "CD4 and CD8 T - Lymphocyte distribution among healthy Kenyans enrolling in an HIV vaccine trial.". In: International Conference AIDS. Bangkok, Thailand; 2004.
Anzeze DA, Onyari JM SPMGPW. "Adsorption of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solutions by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): Equilibrium and Kinetic studies,." International Journal of Environmental Pollution and Remediation. 2014;Volume 2,(DOI: 10.11159/ijepr.2014):9p.
Anzeze DA, Onyari JM SPMGJW. "Equilibrium and Kinetics studies for the biosorption of aqueous Cd (II) ions onto Eichhornia crasippes biomass,." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;Volume 7(Issue 1 Ver. II. (Feb. 2014)):29-37.
Anzeze DA, Onyari JM SPMGJW. "Biosorption of Zn (II) ions from aqueous solutions by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crasippes): Equilibrium and Kinetic studies,." International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research,. 2014;Vol. 8(No. 2 Sep. 2014,):224-233.
AO O, SK S, SO ML, Gitonga E, Shah MV GW. "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African.". In: East African Medical Journal 61(9): 724-726, 1984. b) 1985 2. University of Nairobi.; 1984.
AO O, M N, Kipruto E, IO O, FA A, C O, O. D, DO O, K I, IK N, BA E. "Ecological niche modelling of Rift Valley fever virus vectors in Baringo, Kenya." Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2016;6:32323.
AO 59. O, P W, LW G. "Oral Health status and oral health related quality of life of adults patients at Mathari Hospital Dental Unit." Academic Research journal ofmulti-displinary. 2018;5(4):117-130.
AO O, SK S, SO ML, Gitonga E, Shah MV, Gitau W. "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African.". 1984.Website
AO Mulimba, Othieno-Abinya NA, Nyong’o AO. "A 15 – YEAR RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF OSTEOGENIC SARCOMA IN KENYA." Africa Journal Medical Practice. 1994;1(3). Abstract

Cases of osteogenic sarcoma were studied as reported in the Kenya Cancer Registry covering a period of 15 years between January 1976 and December 1990. There were 271 cases with 113 (41.5%) coming from the Kikuyu community. The male to female ratio was 1.3 to 1 and the median age was 17 years. The tribal bias suggests either a genetic aetiology or a common environmental factor.

Afri J Med Prac, 1994; 1 (3): 73-7

Introduction

Osteosarcoma is the most common sarcoma of bone worldwide. It occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence. during childhood and adolescence. 1-3 A biphasic pattern is observed with this tumour. The childhood and adolescent tumour is commonly observed arising in the epiphyses of long bone during the growth spurt . A small peak occurs in the elderly which is commonly associated with paget ‘s diseases or arises in prior radiation therapy ports or associated with exposure to thorotrast.4

Apart from the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) based study by Gakuu in 1980, 5 no information is available on the clinic-epidemiological picture of asteosarcoma in East Africa. A study was therefore, designed to look into some preliminary information about osteosarcoma in Kenya.

Materials and Methods

The source if this information was the Kenya Cancer registry (January 1975 to December 1990). Details were scrutinized about histology, sex, hospital of reporting, tribe, age and involved site(s).

Results
There were a total of 271 cases of osteogenic sarcoma consisting of 151 males and 177 females (Male : Female = 1.3:1). Three cases had no gender identified. The Kikuyu predominate (42%) followed by Kamba (12%) as province, as shown in table 1. Most cases were reported from Nairobi province, as shown in table 2.

Cases were registered in all age groups (range 3 – 87 years) though the second decade accounted for 140 out of 244 (57%) of those whose ages were known (table 3). The median age was 17 years and mean age 19.5 years. Age distribution by tribes was fairly similar (table 4). The femur and tibia were most commonly involved, followed by the jaws (figure1).

Head and face involvement was then analyzed in greater details. The median age this time was 22 and mean age 27.3, only 26.5%of cases being recorded in second decade and 38.2% in third decade (Table 5). The Kikuyu were stillleading in head and facial involvement. It is however noteworthy that 40% of Luos now presented this way (table 6).

Aong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, J.N K. "Nutrient contents of raw and processed products from Kenyan potato cultivars ." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2009;16:877-886.potato_nutrients.pdf
AOSA E. "'Management in Africa: Contextual Factors and their Influence''.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Management, Volume 1. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract

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Aosa EA, Arasa RM, Machuki VN. "Participatory orientation to strategic planning process: Does it pay?" Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;Vol. 1(7),:198-204. Abstract

It is postulated that a participatory orientation to the strategic planning process could influence the realization of the expected strategic planning outcomes. Past studies investigating the relationship between strategic planning and performance mainly focuses on the direct relationship between these two variables. This study examines the influence of employee participation on the expected relationship between strategic planning and strategic planning outcomes. The study was carried out in Kenya, within the insurance sector. A structured questionnaire was used to gather the required data from 31 firms. Study findings reveal that
employee participation does influence the strength of the relationship between strategic planning and strategic planning outcomes and this influence is statistically significant.
Key words: Strategic planning process, participation, insurance, Kenya

AOSA E. "Contextual Influence on Strategic Planning: Porter's Industry Analysis Model in the Kenyan Setting.". In: Moi University Business Journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

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AOSA E. "'Banking in Kenya: An Industry at Crossroads?".". In: Banking Times. Volume 2. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract

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AOSA E, Bagire V, Awino Z. "The interaction of Personal factors, Structure and Performance in NGOs." DBA Africa Management Review. 2012;Vol 2 No 3, :pp 25-41. Abstract

There are various elements that interact to render performance outcomes in
Nongovernmental organizations. These could be organizational, personal and
environmental factors. This study set out to examine the interaction of personal factors,
structure and the likely performance outcomes so as to inform strategy theory and practice
in nongovernmental organizations. We tested for the interaction of personal factors namely
tenure, education, profession and age, structures of NGOs classified as national,
international and network and performance outcomes. The data was drawn from 113
NGOs operating in Uganda. The results showed that under the different structure settings
personal factors differed in their strength of predicting performance. Save for education
under network structure, the rest of the factors had very low and insignificant coefficients.
The study raised questions for further investigation into the behavior of Nongovernmental
organizations and the influence of personal factors. The outcomes provide rich insights for both scholars and practitioners towards a better understanding of this growing sector in African countries. We recommend further empirical examinations of strategy elements in NGOs.
Key words: Personal factors, Structure, Performance, Strategy, Non-governmental organizations

AOSA E. "'Kenyan Banks Choose Their Way'.". In: Banking Times Volume 3,. Nairobi: Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract

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Aosa EA. "Strategic Management within Kenya Firms."; 2011. Abstractstrategic_management_within_kenya_firms.pdf

This study investigated strategic management practices within large, private manufacturing companies in Kenya. A total of 73 companies (both local and foreign) were surveyed. Personal interviews were conducted with top managers in all these companies. The findings revealed that large manufacturing companies had adopted strategic management. However, there were variations in the practices. Foreign companies were more involved and committed to strategic management than the local ones. The local companies (especially family ones) exhibited heavy financial orientation in their plans (cash flow projections and extended budgeting). Differences in organizational factors were cited as explanations for the observed
variations in strategic management practices.
Key words: Strategic Management, Firms, Development, Planning, Kenya

AOSA E. "'The Influence of the Linkage Between Strategy and Budgeting on Implementing Strategic Decisions.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management Vol. 3. January/April. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

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Aosa EA, Machuki V, Letting N. "Board Diversity and Performance of Companies Listed in Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2012;Vol. 2 No. 11(June). Abstract

This study examined the relationship between Board diversity and financial performance of firms listed in the Nairobi Stock Exchange. Data on Boards’ age, gender, educational qualifications, study specialization, and board specialization as well as the companies’ financial performance were obtained from 40 companies using a structured questionnaire. Using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression, the results show that there is a weak positive association between board diversity and financial performance. Overall, the results indicate a statistically not significant effect of board diversity on financial performance except for the independent effect of board study specialization on dividend yield. The results partially concur with agency and resource dependency theories of corporate governance as well as similar empirical studies. Ensuing implications for theory, policy and practice as well as methodology are also discussed.
Key Words: Board of Directors’ Diversity, Financial Performance, Listed Firms, Kenya

AOSA E. "'Strategy: Customer or Competitor Supremacy?". In: Marketing Review. Kisipan, M.L.; 2010. Abstract

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AOSA E. "'Management Involvement, Training and Company Effectiveness in an African Context'',.". In: Journal of African Finance and Economic Development 1(2). Fall. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract

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AOSA E. "'Information Technology and Business Strategy'.". In: Management Science Review. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract

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Aosa EA, Machuki VN. "The influence of the external environment on the performance of publicly quoted companies in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;Vol. 1(7), :pp. 205-218. Abstractthe_influence_of_the_external_environment_on_the.pdf

This study investigated the effect of the external environment on corporate performance. Based on a survey of 23 companies listed on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, three environmental dimensions of complexity, dynamism and munificence were used to describe Kenya’s business environment. Performance implications of these environmental dimensions were then examined. The study reports that for the surveyed companies, varying degrees of external environmental complexity, dynamism, and munificence exist which tend to be mostly manifested in economic factors, competitive rivalry, market factors, technological factors, regulatory factors as well as threat of new entrants. Consequently, these
factors appeared to have great influence in the companies’ strategic decision making. However, the
overall results for the effect of external environment on corporate performance were statistically not
significant. Based on the findings, implications of the study and suggestions for further study are
presented.
Key Words: External environment, corporate performance, publicly quoted companies, Kenya

AOSA E. "'The Role of Government in Business''. In Kibera F. (Ed.) Introduction to Businees: A Kenyan Perspective. Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management Vol. 3. January/April. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract

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Aosa EA, Machuki VN, Letting NK. "Firm-Level Institutions and Performance of Publicly Quoted Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2012;Vol. 2 ( No. 21). Abstractfirm-level_institutions_and_performance_of_publicly_quoted_companies_in_kenya.pdf

Firm-level institutions constitute the internal organizational environment which define the context in which
strategic decisions are made and implemented. Effective and successful strategy implementation requires apt institutionalization of the strategy. Logically, firm-level institutions have an indirect effect on corporate
performance through their direct effect on strategy implementation. In this study, a direct effect of the firm-level
institutions on corporate performance was investigated. Based on a survey of 23 companies listed on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, ten firm-level institutions were captured under two broad dimensions of administrative systems and resource competencies. Performance implications of these firm-level institutions were then examined. The study reports that for the surveyed companies, most of the firm-level institutions were manifest to a large extent.
The results also indicate that a very strong positive relationship exists between firm-level institutions and various indicators of corporate performance. However, the overall results for the effect of firm-level institutions on corporate performance were statistically not significant. The results partially concur with pertinent theories as well as similar empirical studies. Based on the findings, implications for theory, methodology, and managerial practice as well as areas for further study are identified.
Key words: Firm-Level Institutions, Corporate Performance, Publicly Quoted Companies, Kenya

AOSA E. "'Marketing and Strategy'.". In: Marketing Review. Nairobi: Kisipan, M.L.; 2010. Abstract

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AOSA E, V.Bagire, Awino ZB. "The strategy – resource configurations and performance implications in Nongovernmental Organizations." Crown Research in Education. 2012; 2(3): 105-112. Abstractthe_strategy_-_resource_configurations_and_performance_implications_in_non_governmental_organization.pdf

Configurations are composed of organizational elements that render certain outcomes collectively rather than individually. This study set out to establish the implications of strategy and resource configurations on performance of Nongovernmental organizations. We tested for strategy with the sub variables of resources as predictors of performance in the tangible and intangible sub domains. Using interaction terms, results revealed that different configuration settings rendered into various performance outcomes. Strategy –tangible resource models had high coefficients but were not significant in predicting tangible, intangible and main performance. On the contrary strategy – intangible resources were significant with other domains save with intangible performance. The three way interaction term was not significant although with high prediction power across the performance variables. We conclude that configuration approach offers promise in better understanding of the performance of NGOs. The study outcomes have rich insights for both scholars and practitioners. We recommend further empirical examinations of strategy elements in the NGO sector.
Key words: Strategy, Resources, Configurations, Performance, Nongovernmental organizations, Intangible
resources, Tangible resources

AOSA E. ""Rationale and Business Implications of the Renewed East African Co-operation'.". In: Marketing Review. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract

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Apata(6) AO, Muobeleni TN, A A Fabuyide, Ogunmuyiwa EN, G.O.Rading, Jain PK, Witcomb WJ, Cornish LA. "Development of VC-Ni Eutectic Alloys for Wear Resistance." Advanced Materials Research, 1019. 2014:347-354.
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "F. A. Okalebo, H. A. Rabah, A. N. Guantai, C. K. Maitai, I. O. Kibwage, J. W. Mwangi and W. Masengo. The antimalarial and antimicrobial activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Clematis brachiata extracts. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutic.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "F. A. Okalebo, A. N. Guantai, C. K. Maitai, I. O. Kibwage. Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae). East African Journal of Botany. 2 (1): 279 .". In: East African Journal of Botany. 2 (1): 279 . East Afri. J. Botany; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The leaves and old stems of Cletmatis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) are chewed in Kenya for the management of toothache and sore throat. An infusion of the leaf is drunk for the management of headaches and abdominal disorders.  The study was done to determine the scientific rationale for the use of the plant as an analgesic and for the management of abdominal disorders.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to the hot plate and tail pressure tests for antinociceptive activity and guinea pig wheal test for local anesthetic activity.  The effects of the extracts on the isolated rabbit jejunum were also studied.  The extracts of the leaf and stem were found to have significant local anesthetic and antinociceptive activity. The extracts had spasmolytic effects on the isolated rabbit jejunum.  These findings support the traditional uses of the plant which could be subjected to bioactivity guided isolation for analgesic, local anaesthetic and spasmolytic compounds.  Key words: Clematis; Ranunculaceae; plant extracts; antinociceptive; local anesthesia; spasmolytic
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "Grace N. Thoithi and Faith A. Okalebo. Country case study: Kenya. In: 2009 FIP Global Pharmacy Workforce Report. No. 5.4. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), Hage, Netherlands.". In: FIP Global Pharmacy Workforce Report. No. 5.4. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), Hague, Netherlands; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of stavudine at the two dose levels in patients attending HIV Comprehensive Care Centre, in the largest public hospital in Kenya. Data on CD4 cell counts, drug adverse events and opportunistic infections were collected retrospectively from the records of 810 adult patients distributed in three study groups: patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 40 mg BD stavudine; patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine; and patients weighing < 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients weighing ≥ 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg stavudine in the same weight category (4.2 % vs 16.7 %, p < 0.001). Patients weighing < 60 kg were more likely to experience drug toxicity than those ≥ 60 kg when given 30 mg stavudine (12.8% vs 4.2 %, p<0.001). Occurrence of any adverse drug reactions was also significantly associated with age greater than 45 years (HR = 2.16, CI:1.41-3.31, p<0.001), co-morbidities (HR = 2.16, CI:1.06-4.38, p < 0.001), treatment with isoniazid (HR = 2.07, CI:1.09-3.96, p<0.001) and severe (WHO stage IV) immunosuppression (HR=1.45,CI:0.86-2.45, p<0.001). The onset of drug related toxicities, for all study arms, was principally in the first year of commencing therapy, for example 76 % of all cases of peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed within 12 months of treatment. The study demonstrated similar immunologic outcomes in the treatment groups given either 30 or 40 mg stavudine, with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya. Key words Low-dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "Oscar Mayunzu, D. Shitanda, F. Okalebo and L. Simiyu. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant properties of Extracts of Mondia whytei roots. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (X): XX-XX, 2010. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (x): xx-xx, 2010 ISBN 16.". In: Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (x): xx-xx, 2010. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of Mondia whytei (M. whytei) root barks were screened for their inhibitory effects on some fungal and bacterial strains. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC25923), Escherichia coli (E. coli) 0157:H7 (PSSCMI 0032), Bacillus subtillus, Candida albicans and Asparagus niger were used as test organisms. The water extract lacked significant activity against all organisms except Staphylococcus. aureus where the water extract exhibited the highest activity. However, the ethanol extract had significant activity against Candida albicans and Asperigillus niger with minimuminhibitory values of 58.59 and 14.65 μg/ml respectively. Methanol had high Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of less than 14.65 and 14.7 μg/ml for Asperigillus niger and E. coli respectively. From the results it was concluded that activity varied with the solvent used. Contrary to previous reports, the plant seems to lack significant antibacterial activity except against E. coli. The popularity of a herbal recipe is not always a measure for its potency. However, M. whytei had antifungal activity since the ethanol and methanol extracts showed significant activity against the tested strains of fungi. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was also evaluated using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. M. whytei exhibited substantial inhibition of the DPPH activity with EC50 of 413 mg/l for the crude extracts. The results suggest that M. whytei has significant antioxidant activity as demonstrated by the DPPH assay. This antioxidant activity of the crude extracts can be attributed to the presence of 2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzaldehyde that is a known antioxidant in the root extracts.  Key words: Aqueous, ethanol extract, methanol extract
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "test.". In: Vol 2 (2) pages 024-031. eamj; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of stavudine at the two dose levels in patients attending HIV Comprehensive Care Centre, in the largest public hospital in Kenya. Data on CD4 cell counts, drug adverse events and opportunistic infections were collected retrospectively from the records of 810 adult patients distributed in three study groups: patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 40 mg BD stavudine; patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine; and patients weighing < 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients weighing ≥ 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg stavudine in the same weight category (4.2 % vs 16.7 %, p < 0.001). Patients weighing < 60 kg were more likely to experience drug toxicity than those ≥ 60 kg when given 30 mg stavudine (12.8% vs 4.2 %, p<0.001). Occurrence of any adverse drug reactions was also significantly associated with age greater than 45 years (HR = 2.16, CI:1.41-3.31, p<0.001), co-morbidities (HR = 2.16, CI:1.06-4.38, p < 0.001), treatment with isoniazid (HR = 2.07, CI:1.09-3.96, p<0.001) and severe (WHO stage IV) immunosuppression (HR=1.45,CI:0.86-2.45, p<0.001). The onset of drug related toxicities, for all study arms, was principally in the first year of commencing therapy, for example 76 % of all cases of peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed within 12 months of treatment. The study demonstrated similar immunologic outcomes in the treatment groups given either 30 or 40 mg stavudine, with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya. Key words Low-dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "Wanyama P. Juma, Hoseah M. Akala, Fredrick L. Eyase, Lois L. Muiva, Matthias Heydenreich, Faith A. Okalebo, Martin Peter, Douglas Walsh, Mabel Imbuga, Abiy Yenesew. Terpurinflavone: an antiplasmodial flavone from the stem of Tephrosia purpurea. Phytochemi.". In: Manuscript number PHYTOL-D-00140R1. Phytochemistry Letters; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} 1. Introduction Tephrosia Pers (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) is a large tropical and sub-tropical genus estimated to contain about three hundred species (Waterman and Khalid, 1980; Abou-Douh et al., 2005) out of which thirty species are found in Kenya (Tarus et al., 2002). The extracts of some Tephrosia species have shown various biological activities including antiplasmodial (Muiva et al., 2009), antibacterial (Abou-Douh et al., 2005) anticancer (Santram et al., 2006) and insecticidal activities (Delfel et al., 1970). The taxon T. purpurea is among the most widely used Tephrosia species in traditional medicine (Damre et al., 2003). Various biological activities including antibacterial (Hegazy et al., 2009; Chinniah et al., 2009), antidiabetic and antioxidant (Pavana et al., 2009), immunomodulatory (Damre et al., 2003), anti-inflammatory (Damre et al., 2003) and cancer chemopreventive activities (Chang et al., 2000) have been reported for extracts and pure compounds from this plant. T. purpurea. is rich in prenylated flavonoids including flavones (Hegazy et al., 2009; Pelter et al., 1981), flavanones (Pelter et al., 1981; Gupta et al., 1980), chalcones (Chang et al., 2000; Pelter et al., 1981) and rotenoids (Ahmad et al., 1999). In the search for compounds with antiplasmodial activity from Kenyan plants, the stem of T. purpurea has been investigated. This report is on the isolation and characterization of a new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone (1), with antiplasmodial activity along with three known flavonoids. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The stem extract of Tephrosia purpurea showed antiplasmodial activity against the D6 (chloroquinesensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 10.47  2.22 mg/ml and 12.06 2.54 mg/ml, respectively. A new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone, along with the known compounds lanceolatin A, -semiglabrin and lanceolatin B have been isolated from this extract. The new compound, terpurinflavone, showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.12  0.28 mM (D6) and 6.26  2.66 mM (W2). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
Appiah-Opong R., NyarkoA.K., Yeboah-Manu D, Addo GA, Otchere ID, Kissi-Twum A. "In vitro antimycobacterial activity and toxicity of eight medicinal plants against pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacterial strains." . International Journal of Mycobacteriology,. 2016;5(5 (2016) ):S106-S107.
Appleton S, Bigsten A, Manda DK. "Educational E xpansion and Economic Decline: Returns to Education in Kenya, 1978 - 95.". In: Centre for the Study of African Economies, Working Paper Series, No. 99/. Oxford University, Britain.; 1999.
Araka E, Oboko R, Maina E, Gitonga RK. " A Conceptual Educational Data Mining Model for Supporting Self-Regulated Learning in Online Learning Environments." https://www.igi-global.com/. 2021:15. Abstract

Self-regulated learning is attracting tremendous researches from various communities such as information communication technology. Recent studies have greatly contributed to the domain knowledge that the use self-regulatory skills enhance academic performance. Despite these developments in SRL, our understanding on the tools and instruments to measure SRL in online learning environments is limited as the use of traditional tools developed for face-to-face classroom settings are still used to measure SRL on e-learning systems. Modern learning management systems (LMS) allow storage of datasets on student activities. Subsequently, it is now possible to use Educational Data Mining to extract learner patterns which can be used to support SRL. This chapter discusses the current tools for measuring and promoting SRL on e-learning platforms and a conceptual model grounded on educational data mining for implementation as a solution to promoting SRL strategies.

Aranga M. Factors affecting the performance of marketing communication tools: a case of selected dairy firms in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi ; 2004. Abstract

This study focuses on the marketing communication tools pursued by selected milk processing firms in Kenya. The theory articulated in this article suggests that marketing communication tools and factors affecting their performance are two important considerations. Taking this as a standpoint, the author predicted the use of similar marketing communication tools whose performances are influenced by the same factors. An empirical test of this theory using data collected from the milk processors operating in Nairobi yields data consistent with the view that the milk processors use similar marketing communication elements and their performance are influenced by similar factors.

ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "Realizing competitiveness through Operations Management (currently under preparation).". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1998. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "An Application of The Transportation Model: The case of Inter-factory Transfer of Bulk Whole Milk at The Kenya co-operative Creameries (KCC) Limited (MBA Research project paper of the University of Nairobi).". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "" Computerization and the efficiency of the Nairobi stock exchange", a conference paper in Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries (1993), published by Vedams Books International.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1993. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "The Physical Ditribution Problems: The Need and th Application of Linear Programming Techniques (An M.B.A. Independent Paper of the University of Nairobi,.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. ""Manufacturing strategy for enhanced competitiveness", a conference paper presented at the 8th Annual Management Conference (2001), organized by the Makerere University Business School.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1998. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries, Nairobi, Kenya, Presented a paper.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
Arasa, J.N., Mulinge MM, Odiemo LO. "African Refugee Students’ Conceptions of Democracy: Implications for Conflict mitigation. ." African Renaissance. 2012;9(3-4):15-34.
Arasa R. M., Aosa E, V.N. M. "Participatory Orientation to Strategic Planning Process: Does It Pay?". Business Administration and Management Journal, Vol. 1(10), pp. 319-327; 2011. Abstract
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Arasio RL, Kaufmann B, Otieno DJ, Wasonga OV. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. 2018;Vol. 119(No. 2).
Arasio RL, Kaufman B, Otieno DJ, Wasonga OV. "Understanding the emergence and evolution of pastoral community groups from the perspective of community members and external development actors in northern Kenya. ." Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (JARTS). 2018;119(2)(ISSN 2363-6033):53-66.
Archary D, Seaton KE, Passmore JAS, L Werner, A Deal, Dunphy LJ, Arnold KB, NL Yates, Lauffenburger DA, P Bergin, Liebenberg LJ, Samsunder N, Mureithi MW, M Altfeld, Garrett N, Karim AQ, S Abdool Karim, L Morris, Tomaras GD. "Distinct genital tract HIV-specific antibody profiles associated with tenofovir gel." Mucosal immunology. 2016.
the of Architecture PAS. "Positioning the African School of Architecture.". In: African Architecture Conference . Kumasi, Ghana; 2010.
warming and the emergence of ancient pathogens in arctic GC’s. "Oyugi JO, Hongyu Qiu and David Safronetz." Medical Hypotheses . 2007.
Arias M, Kitala P, Baboon K, Lekolol I, Okoth E, Bulimo DW, Gallardo C, Pelayo V, Macharia JM, Omore A, et al. "Comparison of African swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in South-west and Central Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110:198-205. AbstractWebsite
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Ariga E. "Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of some weeds on germination, root and shoot growth of selected crops.". In: 16th Biennial Weed Science Society Conference for Eastern Africa. Kampala, Uganda; 1997.
Ariga ES, Okeyo AM, Waithaka MM, Kyalo AM. "Agricultural technology, economic viability and poverty alleviation in Kenya.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

The major challenges facing Kenya today are poverty and unemployment. About 50% of the rural population and 30% of the urban population live below the poverty line. With 80% of the population being rural the poverty problem is overwhelming. The country has been unable to generate adequate employment and wage employment has been declining over the recent past. While in the 1970s the growth rate of employment was about 4% per annum, in the current decade, the growth rate has been about 1.9% per annum, which is below the population growth rate estimated at about 3%. The country has also witnessed declining growth in income per capita. While in the 1960s per capita income grew at 2.6% p.a. this declined to 0.4% in 1980s. Between 1990 and 95 the decline was even more dramatic at negative 0.3% (Kenya, 1997). The poverty line is defined here as the value of consumption of food and non-food items below which individuals cannot afford the recommended energy intake plus a minimum allowance for non-food consumption. The poverty line has been estimated at about US$ 200 and 300 for rural and urban areas respectively (GoK, 1998). This translates to less than one US$ per day. Of Kenya’s total land area of 57.6 million hectares, 9.4 million or about 16% is classified as high and medium potential land for agriculture. The remaining area estimated at 84% makes up the arid and semi arid lands (ASALs). Out of the ASALs 48 million hectares, about 9 million hectares can support crop production, 15 million hectares is adequate for livestock production while the rest is dry and only useful for nomadic pastoralism. The ASAL supports about 20% of the population, 50% of livestock and 3% of current agricultural output and 7% of commercial output. ASALs have low natural fertility which are prone to compaction and vulnerable to erosion. The agriculture sector dominates the economy and contributes virtually to all the stated national goals including achievement of national and household food security, industrialization by year 2020 as well as provision of employment opportunities. Currently, agriculture accounts for about one-third of the gross domestic product, employs more than two-thirds of the labour force, accounts for almost 70% of the export earnings (excluding refined petroleum), generates the bulk of the country's food requirements and provides significant proportion of raw materials for the agricultural based industrial sector. Overall, the smallholder sub-sector contributes about 75% of the total value of agricultural output, 55% of the marketed agricultural output and provides just over 85% of the total employment in agriculture. The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to The sector’s ability to contribute effectively to the national goals hinges on identifying and implementing measures which promote high and sustainable growth rate. Mellor (1990) asserted that agricultural productivity growth is normally the major source of sustained improvements in rural welfare. Three sources of agricultural growth can be identified in Kenya. One is the expansion of cultivated area. The second is substitution or switching towards higher valued commodities. The third is intensification. The first source of agricultural growth is currently extremely limited. The cultivable land available to open up has diminished over the years with rapidly rising population estimated at about 3% per annum to the extent that the land holdings are becoming sub-optimal economic units and there is ever increasing temptation to migrate to the marginal and fragile zone. Moreover, irrigation development which could help in increasing cultivable land has been very slow due to the seemingly high cost associated with it. Commodity substitution will contribute significantly to growth only if the input and output markets function in a way to allow the producers and the private sectors respond appropriately to the market signals. This is expected to occur if the on-going structural adjustment programmes succeed in limiting government intervention to its core functions (of public good nature) and allowing the private sector to take up the production, marketing and distribution role. Most agricultural growth will therefore come from the third source: increased output per unit land area. The realization of this growth potential will hinge on shifting rapidly from resource based to science and knowledge-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to

Ariga ES, Narla R, Amuyunzu P. "Efficacy of herbicide (nicosulfuron) in the control of weeds in maize (Zea mays L).)." E. Afr. agric. For. J.. 2014; 80(3):127-133.
Ariga ES;, Ransom JK;, Odhiambo GD;, Abayo G;, Ndungu DK. "Potential of using cotton and other trap crops for Striga hermonthica management in cereals in Kenya."; 1997.
ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "Study of brucellosis in pastoral community and evaluation of the usefulness of clinical signs and symptoms in differentiating it from other flu-like diseases.". In: journal. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2000. Abstract
A study of differentials causing flu-like symptoms (malaria, typhoid, streptococcal infections and rheumatoid arthritis) in 488 patients from a pastoralist area is presented. The potential usefulness of clinical signs, symptoms and diagnostic tests in ruling-in or ruling-out these diseases was investigated in the District hospital and three outlying health dispensaries. For each patient a detailed clinical history plus diagnostic tests for brucellosis, typhoid, streptococcal infections and rheumatoid arthritis, and for some patients, malaria were conducted. Incidence levels of these diseases were estimated using laboratory test results; brucellosis, 13%: typhoid, 40%: streptococcal infections, 6%: malaria, 9%: and rheumatoid arthritis, 10%. Brucellosis could not be differentiated clinically from the other flu-like diseases but rheumatoid arthritis could.
Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

Arimi SM, Koroti E, Kangethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ. "Risk of infection with Brucella abortus and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 associated with marketing of unpasteurized milk in Kenya.". 2005. Abstract

As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in central Kenya and screened for antibodies to Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) OI57:H7. The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterisation, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTl) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (Pf.R) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins. The prevalence of antibodies to B. abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTl. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus greatly reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.

ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "Assessment of the Rose-Bengal plate test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis in health facilities in Narok District, Kenya.". In: journal. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1998. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "Isolation and characterization of group B streptococci from human and bovine sources within and around Nairobi.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
Group B streptococci (GBS) were isolated from bovine bulk milk and from vaginas and throats of antenatal and postnatal women using TKT and rapid GBS media. Sixty three of 529 (12%) bovine milk samples, 9 of 48 (19%) vaginal and 3 of 48 (6%) throrat samples were positive. Both bovine and human beta hemolytic isolates were characterized biochemically and serologically. Pigment production was characteristic of both human and bovine beta haemolytic isolates. The majority (88%) of human isolates fermented salicin and not lactose and most bovine isolates were either lactose positive/salicin positive (41%) or lactose positive/salicin negative (38%). Human and bovine isolates were 100% and 85% typable respectively. Serotype distribution was similar in the bovine and human populations with serotype Ia, Ic and III being most common in both. Fermentation of sugars showed major differences between bovine and human isolates but similarity in serotype distribution suggests some genetic relationship.
Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. " Arimi, S.M; Koroti, E; Kang'ethe, E.K; Omore, A.O; McDermott, J.J; Macharia, J.K; Nduhiu, J.G; Githua, A.M ."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common

Arimi SM, Fricker CR, Park RWA. "Study of haemolytic activity of some Campylobacter spp. on blood agar plates.". 1990. Abstract

A total of 152 strains of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. laridis and C. fetus subsp. fetus were tested for haemolysis on blood agar plates. Distinct haemolysis was detected in 92.% (96/104) of strains of C. jejuni and 21.7% (5/23) of strains of C. coli on sheep blood heart infusion agar after incubation for 4 d microacrobically at 42°C. Haemolysis was also detected on horse blood heart infusion agar. Haemolysis was not detected at 37°C except with one of 50 strains of C. jejuni tested at this temperature, which was weakly positive. Campylobacter laridis was not haemolytic; C. fetus subsp. fetus, which does not grow at 42°C, showed no haemolysis at 37°C. Blood agar (Oxoid, BA Base No. 2) was not suitable for testing for haemolysis by these organisms. A microaerobic gas mixture containing hydrogen is better than that containing nitrogen because the medium has a brighter colour, making haemolysis casier to detect. There was no synergistic haemolysis with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus agalactiae. The plate haemolysis test as described here may aid differentiation within the thermophilic campylobacters

ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Raw milk as a source of Staphylococcal enterotoxins in consumer milk.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1992. Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 183 of 300 raw milk samples collected at the Kenya Cooperative Creamery (Dandora). Ninety seven percent of the 183 strains isolated  were assayed for the production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D. Seventy two (74.2 %) of these were found to produce either a single or a combination of enterotoxins. Raw milk is a potential source of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in milk and milk products especially if there is defective pasteurization.
ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, A MRKABURIAHF. "A longitudinal study of milk somatic cell counts and bacterial culture from cows on smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1996. Abstract
As part of an integrated study on health and production of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in central Average milk yield was low (5.8 kg/day; median = 5kg/day) and lactation length was long (20 months). Clinical mastitis risk was low (1% per month). Somatic cell counts (SCC) were high (median = 620 x 103); the previously suggested threshold of 300 000 cells/ml would classify 71% of quarters as positive for subclinical mastitis. Bacteria were commonly isolated, with S. aureus as the most common pathogen isolated (22.1% of all samples). Infections with mastitis pathogens, cow-age and milk yield were associated with increases in SCC. However, S. aureus was the only mastitis pathogen associated with decreased milk yield. Few specific mastitis control measures were applied. The only farm-level variable associated with high SCC was the method of drying off. Gradual drying off decreased SCC.
Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

Arimura H. "Correlation between molecular size and interferon- inducing activity of poly I:C." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):457-66. Abstract

Electron microscopy showed that commerical poly I: C consisted of molecules varying in length from less than 0.05 nm to more than 5 nm and also in morphology . To clarify the relationship between its molecular size and interferon-inducing activity, poly I: C was sonicated or fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the molecular length distribution and interferon-inducing activity of each preparation was determined in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that (1) poly I : C molecules 0.1-0.3 nm long were the most effective for interferon induction; (2) sonication of poly I : C reduced its molecular length and also the interferon-inducing activity, the degree of reduction varying in different fractions; and (3) the interferon-inducing activity of poly I: C of 0.1-0.3 nm obtained by sucrose density gradient centrifugation was higher than that poly I: C of corresponding length prepared by sonication.

Ari̇foğlu Y, Gezen F, Gönül C, Sevi̇nç Ö, İş M. "The {Case} of {Unilateral} {Double} {Superior} {Cerebellar} {Artery}." Duzce Tip Facultesi Dergisi. 2002;4:26-27. Abstract

The superior cerebellar artery is the most constant artery arising from the vertebrobasilar system. Its variation is reported very rarely. In this cadaver study, a fifty-five years old man having duplication of superior cerebellar artery is presented. This report describes its duplication, as one of its anomalies. Additionally, the anatomy and relationship of superior cerebellar artery with various structures are given.

Armah FA, Henneh IT, Amponsah IK, Biney RP, F M, J A, W A, Ahmed MA, Adokoh CK, Adukpo G, O AD, Gathumbi PK. "Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Effects and Subchronic Toxicity of the Aerial Parts of Psychotria ankasensis J.B.Hall (Rubiaceae) in Murine Models." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;Volume 2021, Article ID 5543320, 18 pages.armah_et_al_2021.pdf
Arne B, Kimuyu P, Lundvall K. "What to do with Informal Sector." Development Policy Review. 2004;22(6):701-715.

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