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HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Ngugi's Ideal Audience and the Post-Colonial Reality." In The Yearbook of English Studies. Vol.27.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1997. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Ngugi's Ideal Audience and the Post-Colonial Reality." In The Yearbook of English Studies. Vol.27.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1997. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
NJUGUNA DRGEORGENGUGI. "NGUGI, G.N. Effects of Property and The Management of the commons. The Policy Dialogue Context. In Sottas, B. (ed) Actor Orientation In Resource Management, A Reader: Laikipia Research Programme (1995).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. Survey Review; 1995. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CHEGE DRGITAOGEORGE. "Nguhiu M. and Gitao C.G.1987. Acute cellulitis as a complication of footrot in cattle. Modern Vet. Pract. Vol. 68 No.2, 110-111.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1987. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu Mwangi,J.A.;Munyua,S.J.M;Mbithi,P.M.F.;Mbiuki,S.M.;Mogoa,E.G.M.(1991). How to improve the prognosis of ventral Abdominal hernias in large animals: .". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu- Mwangi, J.A.; Gitao, C.G. (1987): Acute cellulitis as a complication of foot rot in cattle.Mod.Vet. Pract. (1987) 68(2) 110-111.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1987. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi J., Mbithi P.M.F., Wabacha J.K., and Mbuthia P.G. 2012. The Challenges of balancing between productivity and claw health of dairy cows in modernized husbandry in smallholder farming units. In the Proceedings of the Faculty of Veterinary medi.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
The study was carried out between November 2008 and April 2009 to investigate the occurrence and pathology due to Echinostomum revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens. One hundred and fifty six (156) indigenous chickens were purchased from various farms and markets in A thorough post mortem examination was performed on each bird and the isolated worms from the ceaca, large intestines, cloaca and oviduct were identified and quantified.  Tissues were collected for histopathology, processed, examined and the severity of the lesions determined. Echinostoma revolutum was recovered in 3/156 (1.9 %) birds examined in the ceaca and large intestines but not in cloaca and oviduct. Affected birds originated from market birds in Kiambu. They caused heamorrhages and typhylo-enteritis in the affected birds. Other worms observed from these organs were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis isolonche, Heterakis dispar, Subulura brumpti, Raillietina echinobothrida and Hymenolepis contaniana. The trematodes are reported in Kenya for the first time.
M DRMOGOAEDDYG, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Nguhiu-Mwangi J.A., Munyua S.J.M., Mbithi P.M.F., Mbiuki S.M., Mogoa E.G.M., (1991): How to improve the prognosis of ventral abdominal hernias in large animals: modified overlapping technique. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 39: 315-320.". In: Proc. 9th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1991. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi J.A.; Mbiuki.S.M., Maina, J.N.(1991):Complications, management and prognoses of distal limb wounds in cattle. Bull.Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (1991)39(3) 299-305.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
The healing of forty full-thickness skin wounds in the distal parts of the limbs was evaluated in ten experimental calves, and observations were also made in similar wounds of nine clinical cases of cattle. All the wounds were distal to the hock and the carpus. Those in the clinical cases were mainly punctures or small laceration wounds. Septic fetlock arthritis, growth of exuberant granulation tissue, bone periostitis, tendon involvement, cellulitis, necrosis and loss of skin were the ensuing complications in the healing process of these wounds. In some cases, large blood vessels were exposed after skin loss, predisposing them to the risk of rupture and blood loss. These complications were observed to negatively influence the prognosis of wounds of the distal parts of the limbs and grossly affected the performance of eh animal as a whole. Proper management of these wounds to avoid the complications and improve the prognosis included shaving liberally round the wounds, thorough wound cleansing, topical antisepsis, dressing and bandaging to protect and immobilize the wound area and also included a course of systemic antibiotics.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J. and Tsigadi, S.A. Categorizing Wounds to Improve Clinical Management and Prognostic Outcome: A Retrospective Study Kenya Veterinarian: vol 30 (issue 2), 2006).". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Conference. 2004 Kabete Nairobi. University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
Trauma and surgeries are common causes of wounds that require proper management to prevent complications, economic losses, pain and suffering, death or euthanasia of the affected animals. A retrospective study of 243 wounds in cattle, sheep and goats treated between 1981 and 2006 is described. It describes practical clinical methods of categorizing and correlating wounds based on their management, complications, and prediction of prognosis. Location of a wound in the body is one of the most important factors that determine the mode of management, possible complications and anticipated outcome. Approximately 22% of the wounds were located on the ventral abdomen and thoracic regions and these healed rapidly due to good drainage of exudates. Periarticular and articular wounds constituted 17.3% and required protective and supportive bandages to prevent contamination and minimize movement. Wounds in areas prone to gross contamination constituted 14.3%, took long to heal and had a high incidence of suture dehiscence. The type of wound meant the state in which it was, while the level of tissues involved determined depth. About 46.1% of wounds involved areas with scarcity of tissue and healed slowly, while sepsis and abscessation formed 39.2% of the wounds and healed after prolonged treatment. Wounds involving dense muscular tissue were 23.6% and these healed within 3 weeks of treatment, but skin-deep wounds made 6.7% and healed within 2 weeks. Those involving the bone were 4.5% and took an average of 16 weeks to heal. Bites and gangrenous wounds were unmanageable and frequently resulted in high patient mortality, while partially granulating wounds healed rapidly. Wounds penetrating to any body cavity were best managed closed rather than open. Effective wound management-entailed debridement of deep-seated necrotic tissue, removal of foreign materials or special surgery to enhance drainage. The complicating factors included presence of subcutaneous emphysema, oedema, sepsis, foreign bodies, maggots and abscesses. Location, type and depth of wounds are therefore useful factors for categorizing wounds and these factors influence management and prognostic outcomes.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2007. Prevalence of sole haemorrhages and its correlation with subclinical laminitis in dairy cows. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 55 (4): 232-243.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2007. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2008. Factors associated with occurrence of claw disorders in dairy cows under smallholder production systems in urban and peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya. Veterinarski Arhiv, 78 (4): 3.". In: Veterinarski Arhiv. Veterinarski Arhiv; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2008. Laminitis in cattle: An insidious but devastating claw disease syndrome affecting productivity of the dairy cow. 2008 JKUAT Scientific Conference on Agriculture and Value Addition. p.". In: JKUAT Scientific Conference on Agriculture and Value Addition. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2008. Prognostic indicators and the importance of trimming in non-infective claw disorders in cattle. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 32 (1): 26 -40.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2008. The status and effects of laminitis on claw health of dairy cows in smallholder units in Nairobi and the peri-urban districts. A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Confer.". In: 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, FVM, UON. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2009. Prevalence of laminitis and the patterns of claw lesions in dairy cows in Nairobi and the peri-urban districts. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 57: 199-208.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2009. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., P.M.F. Mbithi, J.K. Wabacha, and P.G. Mbuthia 2007. Radiographic features of laminitis claws of dairy cows around Nairobi. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 31 (2): 72 -78.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2007. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A. (1986): which toxic factors cause death during small bowel obstruction: Vet.Med.( 1986) 81(11): 1020,1022,1024-1025.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1986. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., Gathumbi, P.K., Kihurani, D.O., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1989): Atypical (cutaneous) Actinobacillosis in cattle: Clinical observations, diagnosis and treatment in eighteen cases. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Afr.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1989. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., Kihurani, D.O., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1990): Prognosis indicators and economic implications of advanced bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma after radical surgery, The Kenya Veterinarian, 14:23-25.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., Kihurani, D.O., Mbithi, P.M.F. Mbiuki, S.M. and Mogoa,E.G.M. (1991): Factors used to predict prognosis and economic outcome of surgery for advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 39.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A.; Byagagaire S.D.(1989);Analgesia for bone resection: The use of Rompun and local Anaesthetics. Sing Vet.J.(1989)13:75.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A.; Mbithi, P.M.F. (1990): Anaesthesia in urinary tract disease. The Kenya Veterinary (1990) 14:28-31.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A,; Byagagaire, S.D.(1990).Feasibility and prognosis of limb amputation in cattle and a goat. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (1990)28:391-393.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A,;Gathumbi,P.K.;Kihurani,D.O.;Mbithi,P.M.F.;Mbiuki,S.M.(1989): Atypical (Cutaneous) actinobacillosis in cattle: Clinical observation , diagnosis and treatment in eighteen cases. Bull.Anim.Hlth.Prod. Afr. (1989) pp 119-121.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.(1988):Excessive fibrotic periostitis as a complication of distal limb abscess in a cow .Mod.Vet. Pract. (1988)69(2) 98-99.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1988. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.; Byagagaire, S.D. (1989): Effective management of severe ocular wound sepsis in cattle. Bull anim.Hlth.Prod.Afr.( 1989) 37:47-49.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.; Byagagaire, S.D.(1988):Unusual cause of acute frothy bloat and complications of rumen puncture. Mod.Vet. Pract.(1988) 69 (1)33-34.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1988. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.; Kihurani,D.O., Mbithi,P.M.F, Mbiuki,S.M.(1990):Prognosis indicators and economic implications of advanced Bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma after radical surgery. The Kenya Veterinarian (1990) 14:23-25.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.; Mbithi,P.M.F.(1989).Effect of location on severity and prognosis of limb cellulitis in six cows. Vet.Rec. (1989)125:151-152.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.;Kihurani, D.O.;Mbithi, P.M.F.;Mbiuki,S.M.;Mogoa. E.G.M (1991): Factors used to predict prognosis and economic outcome of surgery for advanced bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (1991) 39(4)435 -439.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.;Mbiuki,S.M.;Mutwiri,G.K.(1991).Bovine carpal hygroma: Involvement of extensor carpi radials and facilitated surgical excision. Bull.Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.(1991)39(3) 293-297.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
The healing of forty full-thickness skin wounds in the distal parts of the limbs was evaluated in ten experimental calves, and observations were also made in similar wounds of nine clinical cases of cattle. All the wounds were distal to the hock and the carpus. Those in the clinical cases were mainly punctures or small laceration wounds. Septic fetlock arthritis, growth of exuberant granulation tissue, bone periostitis, tendon involvement, cellulitis, necrosis and loss of skin were the ensuing complications in the healing process of these wounds. In some cases, large blood vessels were exposed after skin loss, predisposing them to the risk of rupture and blood loss. These complications were observed to negatively influence the prognosis of wounds of the distal parts of the limbs and grossly affected the performance of eh animal as a whole. Proper management of these wounds to avoid the complications and improve the prognosis included shaving liberally round the wounds, thorough wound cleansing, topical antisepsis, dressing and bandaging to protect and immobilize the wound area and also included a course of systemic antibiotics.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.;Munyua,S.J.M,;Mbithi,P.M.F.( 1990): Ways of improving the prognosis of ventral hernias in food animals. The Kenya Veterinarian (1990) 14: 20-22.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
ANGELINE DRAYWAK. "Nguku SW, Wanyoike-Gichuhi J, Aywak AA.Biophysical profile scores and resistance indices of the umbilical artery as seen in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101.; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The role of Biophysical Profile Score and resistive index of the umbilical artery for monitoring pre-eclampsia patients. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ten cases during a three month period. RESULTS: Normal biophysical profile scores were found in 93 (84.5%), and 17 (17.5%) cases had abnormal scores ranging from mild to severe foetal distress. Resistive index of umbilical artery (RI-UA) were normal in 72 (66.1%) and high resistive index accounted for 33.9%. Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) was a prominent finding accounting for 30.5%. A positive relationship was shown to exist between IUGR and RI-UA and also with severity of hypertension with P-values < 0.05. Resistive index of umbilical artery was positively related to the duration of illness confirming its dependence on chronicity (P = 0.004). Resistive index of umbilical artery proved to be an earlier indicator of foetal compromise before any foetal distress becomes obvious. CONCLUSION: Regular obstetrical ultra sound foetal surveillance in pre-eclampsia patients is important for foetal wellbeing. Doppler evaluation of high risk patients is more sensitive test than the biophysical profile score. PMID: 16771106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Nguluu, S.N., Ikombo, B.M., Kinama, J.M., Wambua, J.M., Karanja, D., Kitheka, A., Njuguna, E., Ndunda, Rundiri, L. and Nzioka,M. (1997). Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) for Kiomo sub-location of Mwingi District to identify and prioritise the farmers p.". In: Proc. of Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) held in Kampala, Uganda, Sept.1999. (ISBN No 9966-879-27-7) pp. 220-226. University of nairobi; 1997. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Nguta, J.M., J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, J. D. Kabasa, S.G. Kiama: Cytotoxicicity of antimalarial plant extracts from Kenyan biodiversity to Brine Shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae).". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Nguu E.K., Olembo, N.K and Osir, E.O Isolation and characterization of lipophorin from Adult tsetse fly haemolymph J.Comp.Phys. and Biochem. Vol 998 No. 4, pp. 811-814.". In: Scand J Immunol Suppl. 1992;11:41-7. East African Medical Journal; 1991. Abstract
The haemolymph of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, contains a high (lipophorin) and a low molecular weight protein of high densities, 1.11 and 1.29 g/ml, respectively. The purification of the proteins was achieved by a combination of density gradient ultracentrifugation and reported gel permeation chromatography. The lipophorin is of high molecular weight (M(r) integral of 600,000) and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin I (M(r) integral of 250,000) and apolipophorin II (M(r) integral of 80,000) both of which are glycosylated. Lipophorin also has a pI of 6.1. However, electrophoresis under non-denaturing and denaturing conditions showed the low molecular weight protein to be a single polypeptide chain (M(r) integral of 23,000). Amino acid analysis revealed a relatively high content of the acidic amino acids as well as serine and glycine. The protein contained lipids as shown by Sudan Black staining but was unglycosylated. Using rabbit antiserum against the isolated protein in immunodiffusion and immunoblotting experiments, no cross-reactivity was detected with haemolymph samples from insects representing six orders. In conclusion, the finding of lipophorin suggests that, although flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements. However, the results for the low molecular weight protein indicate that the protein is unique to Glossina, suggesting that it may have an important role in the physiology of this insect and is therefore a significant target for vector management.
KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Nguu EK, Osir EO, Imbuga MO, Olembo NK.The effect of host blood in the in vitro transformation of bloodstream trypanosomes by tsetse midgut homogenates.Med Vet Entomol. 1996 Oct;10(4):317-22.". In: Med Vet Entomol. 1996 Oct;10(4):317-22. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
Midgut homogenates prepared from Glossina morsitans morsitans, that had previously been fed on different host blood samples, were tested for their abilities to transform bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei into procyclic (midgut) forms in vitro. Compared to rat and goat blood samples, eland blood had the least capacity to support trypanosome transformation, whereas buffalo blood showed intermediate capacity. Fractionation of rat blood showed the importance of the cellular portion since both rat and eland red blood cells (RBCs) supported the process. Virtually no transformation was observed in rat and eland plasma or serum fractions. Suspending rat blood cells in eland plasma led to a reduction in parasite transformation rates. Further experiments showed that the RBC membranes were also capable of supporting the process. These results clearly show the important role played by blood, especially the red blood cells, in the transformation of bloodstream trypanosomes. In addition, the low transformation rates observed in eland blood is due to an inhibitory factor(s) present in the plasma fraction.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES, O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Nguu, E.K., Ochanda , J.O., Osir, E.O and Olembo, N.K: Isolation and properties of a 23 KD haemolymph protein from tsetsefly G.M morsitan. Sci. Applic.Vol. 13, No 2: pp 189-197.". In: Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1993 Jun;105(2):309-16. East African Medical Journal; 1992. Abstract
1. Larval development in Glossina species occurs in utero with the mature third instar larva being deposited after a developmental period of 7 days. 2. In this study, the patterns of cuticular protein synthesis during larval development were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. 3. From the results, four types of cuticle proteins were identified: those specific to larval, pupal and adult cuticles, and others common to all the stages. 4. Few cuticular proteins were synthesized between the first and second larval instars. By the third larval instar (two days before larviposition), a large number of proteins (Mr < or = 30 kDa) were induced. These proteins persisted up to the brown pupal stage and showed a rapid decline thereafter. Most of the proteins with molecular weights Mr < or = 30 kDa were undetectable at apolysis (5 days after larviposition). 5. By day 15 of the pupal stage, the number of cuticle proteins was very small. The protein profile during the pupal stages remained relatively constant. This was probably due to the fact that the pupal cuticle does not provide any protection since it is itself enclosed at all times within the protective puparium.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Nguu, E.K., Ochanda,J.O., Osir, E.O and Olembo, N.K; Purification and properties of a low molecular weight lipoprotein from adul tsetse fly haemolymph.". In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1990. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
Wamitila KW. Nguvu ya Sala. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 1999.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Ngwena A.G.M., Patel N.B. and Wango E.O. (1996). Luteinising hormone levels in Trypanosoma congolense infected goats.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi,Kenya. Abstr. B-10. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

MARY DROMOSA. "Ng\.". In: Research Teaser: Mainstreaming Chronic Poverty. IDS Policy Brief Issue No. 2. Nairobi:. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2003. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
Anyango OS, Aloo T, C B, Chin, C. K. "Niche differentiation for improved crop growth and yield in arid and semi arid lands of Kenya. ." African Journal for Environmental studies and development . 2008;Vol 1(no. 1 ISSN: 1995-1329.):24-26.
Mulwa M. "The Niche in Mobile Money Adoptions.". In: AIBUMA 2012 Conference, School of Business University of Nairobi. Kenyatta International Conference Centre (KICC), Nairobi Kenya; 2012.
O. OW. "The Niche of Sociology in the Climate Change Debate." The Professional Journal. 2011;Vol. 3(2):21-26.
PeRRin MR. "Niche separation in African parrots.". In: Proceedings of the 12th Pan-African ornithological congress. Avian Demographic Unit RawsonvilleCape Town; 2008:. Abstract
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NZIOKI MRNICKY, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Nicky Nzioki, Agnes Maganjo, Catherine Kariuki, (1992) A review of current accessibility legislation in Kenya. Report of the CIB Expert Seminar on Building Non-Handicapping Environments, Harare 1992. Independent Living Institute. www.independentliving.org.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
NZIOKI MRNICKY, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE, MURIGU D(MRS) JENNIFER. "Nicky Nzioki, Catherine and Jennifer Murigu (2006), .". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 2006. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
NZIOKI MRNICKY, MURIGU D(MRS) JENNIFER. "Nicky Nzioki, Catherine and Jennifer Murigu (2006), .". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 2006.
NZIOKI MRNICKY, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE, MURIGU D(MRS) JENNIFER. "Nicky Nzioki, Catherine and Jennifer Murigu (2006), .". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 2006.
Upadhyaya R, Tavasci D, Toporowski J. "Niebyl, Money and Development.". In: SOAS Department of Economics Working paper series 157.; 2008.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Nielson JR, John GC, Carr JK, Lewis P, Kreiss JK, Jackson S, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha D, Panteleef D, Bodrug S, Giachetti C, Bott MA, Richardson BA, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaught Journ. Virol. 73: 4393-4403, 1999.". In: Overbaught Journ. Virol. 73: 4393-4403, 1999. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
Untreated maternal syphilis during pregnancy will cause adverse pregnancy outcomes in more than 60% of the infected women. In Nairobi, Kenya, the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women of 2.9% in 1989, showed a rise to 6.5% in 1993, parallel to an increase of HIV-1 prevalence rates. Since the early 1990s, decentralized STD/HIV prevention and control programmes, including a specific syphilis control programme, were developed in the public health facilities of Nairobi. Since 1992 the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women has been monitored. This paper reports the findings of 81,311 pregnant women between 1994 and 1997. A total of 4244 women (5.3%) tested positive with prevalence rates of 7.2% (95% CI: 6.7-7.7) in 1994, 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9-7.7) in 1995, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.3-4.8) in 1996 and 3.8% (95% CI: 3.6-4.0) in 1997. In conclusion, a marked decline in syphilis seroprevalence in pregnant women in Nairobi was observed since 1995-96 (P<0.0001, Chi-square test for trend) in contrast to upward trends reported between 1990 and 1994-95 in the same population. PIP: This study presents the trend in syphilis prevalence among 81,311 pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya, from 1994 to 1997. Clinic nurses performed syphilis serology using a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test in 10 NCC clinics and Chi square; these were used to study trends over time. Results showed that a total of 4244 women (5.3%) tested positive with prevalence rates of 7.2% (95% CI: 6.7-7.7) in 1994, 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9-7.7) in 1995, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.3-4.8) in 1996, and 3.8% (95% CI: 3.6-4.0) in 1997. Thus, a significant decrease in syphilis seroprevalence among pregnant women in Nairobi was observed since 1995-96, by contrast with the rising trend in syphilis prevalence reported in 1990 and 1994-95 in the same population. This decline was attributable in large part to the syphilis control program initiated in Nairobi in June 1992, which focused on sexual behavior modifications, changes in health care seeking behavior and improved health care services.
M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Nightingale KW, Ayim EN, Kyambi JM, Amolo JG, Miller JR.The three cases of conjoined twins of Nairobi 1976-1979.East Afr Med J. 1981 Dec;58(12):960-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Dec;58(12):960-6. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1981. Abstract
At the beginning of the century, splenectomy was used in the treatment of kala-azar, but now is rarely needed, the major indication being for drug resistant kala-azar. Inadvertent splenectomy prior to the diagnosis of kala-azar continues to occur, probably because of a reluctance to perform splenic aspiration in the investigation of splenomegaly. Five Kenyan children underwent splenectomy for drug resistant kala-azar. All were immediately improved, but one died of overwhelming post splenectomy infection (OPSI) two months later and another of a malignant lymphoma seven months after surgery. The other three patients appear to be cured. Splenectomy was considered in a sixth child with kala-azar because of a Salmonella abscess in the spleen, but the abscess ruptured catastrophically before surgery could be arranged.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Nijhawan S, Arora A, Acharya SK, Mukhopadhyyay S.Colon carcinoma presenting as a fever of unknown origin.J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr;13(2):243-4.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr;13(2):243-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
We describe a case of Budd-Chiari Syndrome due to hepatic venous blockage in which there were multiple space-occupying lesions on CT simulating tumour deposits. Ultrasound directed liver biopsy and laparoscopy proved these to be areas of haemorrhagic necrosis consistent with Budd-Chiari Syndrome without any evidence of malignancy. The CT finding of multiple large focal non-enhancing areas in liver does not always indicate tumour deposits in a patient suspected to have Budd-Chiari Syndrome.
"Nile Basin Initiative (NBI), Regional Soil Erosion Workshop and Watershed Management.". In: Nile Basin Initiative (NBI), Regional Soil Erosion Workshop and Watershed Management. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2006.
"Nile Basin Initiative micro-grants Regional Capacity-building Workshop.". In: Nile Basin Initiative micro-grants Regional Capacity-building. Cairo Egypt.; 2006.
MARY MWIANDI. "The Nile waters: a factor in socio-economic development of Western Kenya, 1959-2000.". In: The River Nile in the Post-Colonial Age: Conflict and Cooperation among the Nile Basin Countries . London: I.B. Tauris; 2010.
Dufitumukiza, A., Wanjala, G., Khatete I. "Nine year basic education policy interventions and students’ enrolments rates at lower secondary level: A lesson from Rwanda." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies, . 2021;2(1):94-112.
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. "Nineteen (19) chapters in African Religion part I (bound lecturers prepared for the Faculty of External Studies, Department of Education, University of Nairobi, ready for publication.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1990. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Ajuoga P, Ogacho A, Aduda B, Mwabora JM. Niobium Doped Effects of Doping Concentration on the Optical Properties of. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

The optical band gaps and crystal structure were investigated on niobium doped TiO2 (for atomic niobium concentrations ranging from 0.02 –0.06 at. % in the composite) prepared by high temperature diffusion method. The Nb:TiO2 films displayed an enhanced visible light absorption with a red shift of 18.2 nm of the optical absorption edge from 394 nm for pure TiO2 film to 412.2 nm for 0.04 at. % niobium concentration representing a band gap lowering of 0.181eV due to the donor–type behavior of niobium. As the niobium concentration increased, the enhancement in light absorption at the investigated concentration range goes through a maximum at 0.04 at. % of Nb5+ with minimum band gap of 3.017eV. Despite higher rutilization, at the doping temperature of 850oC used, crystal sizes (39–43 nm) obtained from X-ray diffraction spectra depicted a significant increase in surface areas which is attributed to retardation of anatase - rutile phase transformation caused by Nb:TiO2 matrix.

Nduati RW;, John GC;, Mbori-Ngacha D. "Nipple disease in HIV-1 infected women.". 1999.Website
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Nishiyama Y, Moriyasu M, Ichimaru M, Iwasa K, Kato A, Mathenge SG, Chalo Mutiso PB, Juma FD.Quaternary isoquinoline alkaloids from Xylopia parviflora.Phytochemistry. 2004 Apr;65(7):939-44.". In: Phytochemistry. 2004 Apr;65(7):939-44. UN-HABITAT; 2004. Abstract
From the quaternary alkaloidal fraction of the bark and the root of Xylopia parviflora (Annonaceae), four isoquinoline alkaloids, xylopinidine, dehydrocoreximine, N, N-dimethylanomurine and N-methylphoebine were isolated along with the known compounds, pycnarrhine, lotusine, 6,7-dimethoxy-2-methyl-isoquinolinium salt, 1,2-dehydroreticuline, (-)-phellodendrine, (+)-tembetarine, (-)-litcubine, (+)-magnoflorine, tetradehydroreticuline, (-)-oblongine, (+)-menisperine, (+)-N-methylcorydine, stepharanine, (+)-xanthoplanine, dehydrodiscretine, jatrorrhizine and palmatine. 3,4-Dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-methyl-isoquinolinium and N-methylpurpuerine were isolated as natural products for the first time. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Nishiyama Y, Moriyasu M, Ichimaru M, Iwasa K, Kato A, Mathenge SG, Chalo Mutiso PB, Juma FD.Secondary and tertiary isoquinoline alkaloids from Xylopia parviflora. Phytochemistry. 2006 Dec;67(24):2671-5. Epub 2006 Sep 11.". In: Phytochemistry. 2006 Dec;67(24):2671-5. Epub 2006 Sep 11.Click here to read. UN-HABITAT; 2006. Abstract
From the secondary and tertiary alkaloidal fractions of the root and the bark of Xylopia parviflora (Annonaceae), the isoquinoline alkaloids, 10,11-dihydroxy-1,2-dimethoxynoraporphine and parvinine were isolated, along with 39 known alkaloids. Their structures were determined on the basis of analysis of spectroscopic data.
Nguta, J.M. 2019. "Nitrate Poisoning due to Ingestion of Cabbages (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata L.) (Brassicaceae) in Kitui County, Kenya." The Scientific World Journal. 2019;2019:pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8716518.
DR. MISRA ANILK. "Nitrate reductase activity in the roots and leaves of Sorghum biocolor.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 1986. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Nitrates/nitrites and Nitrosamines in foodstuff, and their public health implications. KIFST bulletin No. May 1982.". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Patel NB. "Nitric oxide: A new biological messenger." East African Medical Journal. 1994;17:75-76.
Eunice G, Gachene CKK, Jesse TN, Omondi SM. "Nitrogen Fixation by Natural Populations of Acacia Senegal in the Drylands of Kenya Using 15N Natural Abundance.". 2013. Abstract

Nitrogen (N) fixation was estimated for three Acacia senegal (L.) (A. senegal) Willd. varieties (A. senegal var. senegal, kerensis, and leiorhachis) growing naturally in different sites in the dryland areas of Kenya. The quantities of N2 fixed were estimated by the 15N natural abundance method, using leaves as the sampling material. Balanites aegyptiaca (B. aegyptiaca) was selected as the reference species growing in the same area. Soil samples were also collected under A. senegal trees for nodule assessment. Leaf 15N natural abundance values (δ15N) were significantly different between A. senegal and B. aegyptiaca. These values averaged 6.35, 4.67, and 3.03% for A. senegal var. kerensis, leiorhachis, and senegal, respectively, and were lower than those of the adjacent reference species. There were also significant differences in the amount of N2 fixed (%Ndfa) among the varieties. A. senegal var. senegal showed the highest levels of N2 fixation with a mean of 36% while A. senegal var. kerensis and leiorhachis had equal estimates of 25%. However, no nodules were observed in the collected soil samples. Leaf N values were significantly different among the varieties with a mean of 2.73, 2.46, and 4.03% for A. senegal var. kerensis, leiorhachis, and senegal, respectively. This study shows that the three varieties of A. senegal are able to fix N2 in their natural ecosystems and the differences could probably be due to soil properties and nutrient availability under the different environments. The species can hence be utilized as plantations in agriculture and land rehabilitation programs.

Dommergues Y, Keya SO, Freire J, Diem Hoang G, Dreyfus B. "Nitrogen fixation in tropical agriculture and forestry.". 1987. Abstract

Nitrogen compounds comprise from 40 to 50 percent of the dry matter of protoplasm, the living substance of plant cells. For this reason, nitrogen is required in large quantities by growing plants and is indeed the key to soil fertility. Non-nitrogen-fixing plants, for example cereals, obtain all the nitrogen they need from the soil. In Senegalese conditions this uptake was estimated to be as follows: 79-132 kg N ha/crop for pearl millet; 74-84 kg N ha/crop for rice; 134 kg N hdcrop for sorghum; and 121-139 kg N ha/crop for maize. Nitrogen-fixing plants, essentially legumes, take a part of the nitrogen they require from the atmosphere, the other part being provided by the soil."

Chemining’wa1 GN, Mwangi2 PW, MMWK, George N. Chemining’wa1*, Peter W. Mwangi2 MM3 JM2WKG. "Nitrogen fixation potential and residual effects of selected." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR). 2013;Vol. 3(No. 2):14-20, 2013.2013-nitrogen_fixation_potential_and_residual_effects_of_selected4.pdf
Chemining’wa GN, Mwangi PW, Mburu MWK, Mureithi JG. "Nitrogen fixation potential and residual effects of selected grain legumes in a Kenyan soil." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research . 2013;3(2):14-20.nitrogen_fixation_potential_and_residual_effects_of_selected.pdf
Keya SO, Ssali H. "Nitrogen level and cultivar effects on nodulation, dinitrogen fixation and yield of grain legumes: I. Cowpea cultivars.". 1985. Abstract

N fixation was studied by the 15N method in Vigna unguiculata cv. ERI-2, Vita 4 and Machakos 74 grown in a field which had been fallow for 3 years and given 20 or 100 kg N/ha. The higher N rate reduced nodulation in all cv., with effects differing somewhat between cv., and increased DM and N yield/plant and uptake of non-fertilizer soil N, with least and greatest effect in cv. ERI-2 and Machakos 74, resp. The amount of N fixed was 50.5, 73.7 and 60.7 kg/ha at the low N rate and was 69.7, 74.5 and 100% lower at the high N rate in the 3 cv., resp.

NJOMO MRKARUKUGEORGE. "Nitrogen Mineralization potential ((No), mineralization rate constant (K) and time taken for half of the mineralizable nitrogen to be mineralized in four Kenya soils (Luvisols, Andosols, Ferralsols and.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract

This study uses CROPWAT model to predict water use in rainfed agriculture and simulate irrigation requirement for tomato production in Kabete Field Station. The model predicted increased irrigation requirement for tomato crop of 33.1, 28.1 and 36.6 mm water, in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd 10-day periods of development stage, respectively. The crop evapotranspiration (ETc) requirements by tomato crop were predicted at 456.5 mm for the short rainy season while actual evapotranspiration (ETa) was 232.1 mm for the short rains giving a yield response factor of 0.49. The model suggested an addition of 253.7 mm of irrigation water in order to realize optimal tomato yields as the crop experienced an irrigation deficiency of 48.8%. The moisture deficit at harvest was 63.6 mm of water which resulted in total yield reduction of 51.3%. In relation to actual yields calculated, the mean potential optimal tomato yields in the study area were 23.3 Mg/ha with proper soil management and adequate water supply. The suggested supply system was at 10 days irrigation interval/stage where the soils were irrigated just below or above field capacity. Rainfall losses and irrigation requirements would be reduced to 41.9 and 267.7 mm, with minimum water deficit at harvest of 15.5 mm and an irrigation efficiency of 100%. At this point, ETa would equal ETm and optimal tomato yield would be obtained with yield losses predicted at 0.1%. Yield gap analysis revealed that radiation, sunshine and temperature are favourable for crop production, but the heavy dependence on rainfall makes the area very vulnerable to drought.

and GKN, Mochoge BO. "Nitrogen Mineralization Potential (No) in Three Kenyan Soils, Nitisols, Ferralsols and Luvisols." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(4).
Kitonyo OM, Sadras VO, Zhou Y, Denton MD. "Nitrogen supply and sink demand modulate the patterns of leaf senescence in maize." Field Crops Research. 2018;225:92-103.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Nitrogen use in maize-pigeonpea intercrop in semiarid conditions of Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the International Edible Legume (IELC)/4th World Cowpea Congress held on 17 . University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Nitrogen use in maize-pigeonpea intercrop in semiarid conditions of Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the International Edible Legume (IELC)/4th World Cowpea Congress held on 17 . Taylor & Francis; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Niyi Osundare: Cautious Paths through the Bramble: A Critical Classification of Style Theories and Concepts," The African Book Publishing Record 2005/4: 325.". In: The African Book Publishing Record 2005/4: 325. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract

The article examines some preponderant elements that create an impression that Ngugi wa Thiong'o's novel, Devil on the Cross, is orally narrated. More often than not associated with oral discourse, these elements are the narrative voice, biblical allusions, oral literature and the confessional mode. As a result of preponderant oral elements in a form of written discourse, there is not only intersection between oral and written discourse but also an interface between the two modes of transmission of literary works, oral and written, in the novel. Consequently, the article calls for further research into the implications this interface has for the two modes of transmission of literary works.

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Niyi Osundare: Two Plays," The African Book Publishing Record XXXIII/2/2007: 120.". In: The African Book Publishing Record XXXIII/2/2007: 120. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

This essay looks at Somali oral poetry, using poetry now committed to writing primarily from B. W. Andrzejewski and I. M. Lewis

KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "NJAGI JOAN MURUGI, NGUGI MATHEW PIERO, KIBITI CROMWELL MWITI, NGERANWA N. J. JOSEPH, NJAGIELIUD N. MWANIKI, NJUE M. WILSON, MAINA DAVID AND GATHUMBI PETER KARURI HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF CAESALPINIA VOLKENSII ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC MICE.". In: Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Suppl 2, 2012, 69-74. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2012. Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder caused by inherited and/or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the target cells. Most conventional therapies for the management of type II diabetes include oral hypoglycemic drugs, exercise, diet and physical intervention therapies such as Acupuncture. Insulin is used in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs are expensive and have numerous side effects. Through ages different communities have used medicinal herbs for diabetes mellitus management. Today herbal remedies are gaining popularity because the efficacy of conventional medicine ison the wane. This study was designed to bioscreen aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii for its hypoglycemic potential. Its in vivo toxicity was also evaluated. Ethnobotanical and pharmacological information on the plant was gathered from the local traditional herbal practitioner. The three tested dose levels (50, 100, and 150mg/kg body weight) lowered blood glucose levels appreciably. Phytochemical screening results show that the aqueous extract has phytochemicals associated with antidiabetic activity. The analysis of trace metal composition of the aqueous extracts showed that it contained Manganese, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Chromium and Vanadium, all of which aid in lowering blood glucose levels. Preliminary in vivo histopathological analysis established that the extracts had no toxic effects on the organs and tissues. The study has established that the aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii are effective and safe for management of diabetes mellitus.Keywords: Caesalpinia volkensii, in vivo toxicity, antidiabetic activit
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi L.W., Nyaga P.N., Bebora L.C., Mbuthia P.G. and Minga U.M. 2012. Effect of immunosuppression on Newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status. International Scholarly Research Network in Veterinary Science (ISRN), Volume .". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
This study was carried out to verify the possibility that ducks are sources of Newcastle disease (ND) virus infection for chickens in mixed flocks. Immunosuppressed (IS) and non immunosuppressed (NIS) birds, at three different antibody levels (medium, low and absent) were used; the titres having been induced through vaccination, and Immunosuppression done using dexamethazone. Each of the 3 respective groups was further divided into 2 groups of about 12 ducks each: one challenged with velogenic ND virus; the other not challenged. Selected ducks fromall groups had their antibody titres monitored serially using hemagglutination inhibition test, while two birds from each of the challenged groups were killed and respective tissues processed for ND viral recovery, using chicken embryo fibroblasts. In general, antibody titres of IS and NIS challenged ducks were significantly higher than their unchallenged counterparts (P<0.05). Non-challenged pre-immunised ducks had a progressive decrease in antibody levels; non-immunised ducks did not seroconvert. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from livers and kidneys of the challenged ducks throughout the experimental period; indicating a possibility of viral excretion, especially when the birds are stressed. It, therefore, provides another possible model of viral circulation within mixed flocks.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L. W., P.N.Nyaga, P.G.Mbuthia, L. C. bebora, J.N. michieka, J.K.kibe and U.M.Minga. 2010. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in village indigenous chickens in varied agro-ecological zones in Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural development 22 (05.". In: Livestock Research for Rural development. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2010. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., Mbuthia, P.G., Bebora, L.C., Nyaga, P.N., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2005. A study of effectiveness of seven disinfectants against possible bacteria contaminants of coops premises inhabited by indigenous chickens and ducks. The Kenya Veterin.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., Mbuthia, P.G., Nyaga, P.N, Bebora, L.C., Michieka, J.N., Minga, U.M. 2008. Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in the tissue of carrier ducks. A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008,.". In: the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N, Mbuthia, P.G., Bebora, L.C., Michieka, J.N., Minga, U.M. 2010. A retrospective study of factors associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks in village indigenous chickens. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa58: 22-3.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2010. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., P.G. Mbuthia, L.C.Bebora, P.N. Nyaga, U.M. Minga and J.E. Olsen. 2004. Carrier status for Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in free range farm and market healthy indigenous chickens and ducks. East African Medical Journal, 81 .". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., P.G. Mbuthia, L.C.Bebora, P.N. Nyaga, U.M. Minga and J.E. Olsen. 2004. Sensitivity of Listeria species recovered from indigenous chickens to antibiotics and disinfectants. East African Medical Journal, 81 (10): 534-537.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi,L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Mbuthia, P.G., Bebora, L.C., J.N. Michieka, J.K.kibe, A.K.Munene, and U. M.minga. 2008. Newcastle disease virus and antibody levels in matched sera, ovules and mature eggs of indigenous village chickens. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 3.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Njambi L, Kariuki M.M, Masinde S. Ocular findings in children attending occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 21-26.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. University of Nairobi.; 2009. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Njambi L, Kariuki M.M, Masinde S. Ocular findings in children attending occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 21-26.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology.; 2009. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njanja, J.C., Gathuma,J.M., Gitau, G.K. Njeruh, F.M. and Kinuthia, R.N. (2003). Pastrolists.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medince 1: 23, 1970. au-ibar; 2003. Abstract
No abstract available.
JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Njenga F G & Othieno C J. (2005). Mental Health Research in Africa, pp 298-302. In Eds. Njenga F G, Acuda W, Patel V & Maj M. Essentials of Clinical Psychiatry for sub-Saharan Africa. Masson. Milano, Italy.". In: Journal. Equinet; 2005. Abstract
This chapter captures the origins and current status of mental health research in Africa and emphasizes the challenges, current and past, pointing out ways in which they might be overcome. It also gives brief hints to think further on the potential of mental health research in Africa. Of course, the chapter is not intended to be a comprehensive overview or a complete guide to research.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Njenga FG, Nicholls PJ, Nyamai C, Kigamwa P, Davidson JR. Post-traumatic stress after terrorist attack: psychological reactions following the US embassy bombing in Nairobi: Naturalistic study. Br J Psychiatry. 2004 Oct;185:328-33.". In: Naturalistic study. Br J Psychiatry. 2004. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Njenga FG, Nyamai C, Kigamwa P.Terrorist bombing at the USA Embassy in Nairobi: the media response. East Afr Med J. 2003 Mar;80(3):159-64.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Mar. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Njenga L.W., Maina D.M., Kariuki D.N., Mwangi F.K. "Aluminium exposure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya".". In: Journal. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Njenga M.J. Munyua S.J.M., Karioki, D.I., Gachuiri, C.K. Wahome R.G., and Kiniiya (1987). The Economics of Mastitis control in Central Kenya. Proc. of Anim. Prod. Soc. Kenya 26 27th Nov. 1987. Vol XVII p 114 117.". In: Prod. Soc. Kenya 26 27th Nov. 1987. Vol XVII p 114 117. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1987. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Njenga M.J., Munyua, S.J.M., Mutiga, E.R., Gathuma, J.M., Kang.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1999. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Njenga M.J., Thaiya A., Gathura, P., Kuria J. and R.G. Wahome, 2006.". In: Report of the faculty of veterinary medicine on anthrax outbreak in Maragua district, Kenya. FVM Reports, CAVS, UON, January 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Njenga Munene and Wahome R.G., 2002. Napier grass production and Silage Making. Radio listening Groups, 2002.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
JOHN PROFNJENGAMUNENE. "Njenga Munene John., Manuel Eduardo.Rodriguez.Zea., Tomomi Kawano., Yoshitaka Omata , Atsushi Saito, Yukata Toyoda ,Takeshi Mikami (1999). Identification of carbohydrates on Eimeria stiedai sporozoites and their role in the invasion of cultured cells in v.". In: Journal of South African Veterinary Association 71 (1): 47-52. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1999. Abstract
A case of dystocia resulting in rupture of he middle uterine artery and subsequent death in a cow is reported
N DRKANGETHERACHEL. "Njenga, F.G., Kang.". In: East African Medical Journal. Vol.8.No.4., pp188. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N DRKANGETHERACHEL. "Njenga, F.G., Kang.". In: East African Medical Journal. June. Vol.80 No.6, 281. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Njenga, J. M. and Tsuma, V. T. (2004). Sudden death following rupture of the middle uterine artery, in a bovine dystocia. Kenya Veterinarian 26: 27-28.". In: IHE/TU Delft, The Netherlands. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
n/a
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Njenga, J.M., Bwangamoi, O., Mutiga, E.R., Kang.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1993. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Njenga, J.M., O. Bwangamoi, E.K. Kang.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1995. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Njenga, L. W., Maina, D. M., Kariuki, D. N. and Mwangi, F. K., Aluminium exposure from Vegetables and Fresh raw vegetable Juices. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment (JFAE). 5(1) (2007) 84-87.". In: Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment (JFAE). 5(1) (2007) 84-87. UoN; 2007. Abstract

Drinking of fresh vegetable raw juices for both cleansing and cure therapy has become very common in Kenya. Fresh raw vegetable juices have been recommended because they can boost the required minerals and vitamins in the body. This work was carried out to evaluate the amount of labile aluminium content in fresh raw vegetable juices and compare it with the total aluminum in vegetables. In addition, another objective was to determine the amount of aluminum leached out from aluminium pots during cooking. Out of 18 different vegetables analyzed, total aluminium ranged from 0.096 mg g-1 to 1.06 mg kg-1; carrots contained the lowest values while parsley contained the highest values. Labile aluminium in fresh raw vegetable juice ranged from 0.003 mg ml-1 to 0.181mg ml-1 and this gave 1 to 30% of the total aluminium. The amount taken per day during juice therapy, either as a detoxifier or a cure, ranged from 0.95 mg day-1 to as high as 40.22 mg day-1. But levels as high as 321.78 mg can be consumed depending on the volume of the juice consumed per day. The total aluminium consumed during juice therapy was found to be higher than that recommended by WHO. Aluminium pots were found to leach out some aluminium and the amount leached out was found to depend on the storage time and the age of the pot.

Key Words: Aluminium in vegetables, Nairobi, Kenya, vegetable juices, total and labile aluminium.

MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njenga, M.J., Munyua, S.J.M., Mutiga,E.R., Gathuma, J.M., Kangethe, E.K. Mugera, G.M., Bwangamoi, O. and Mitaru, B.N. (1999). Semen characteristics of goats with subacute , acute and chronic besnetiosis. Jl. S.Afr. Vet.Ass., 70: 18-20.". In: journal. FARA; 1999. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
NJOKI DRGITONGAPAULINE. "Njenga, M.J., Wabacha, J.K., Abuom, T.O., Ndurumo, S.M., Gitonga, P.N. and Kirui, G. Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 4th Biennial Scientific conference2004. Taylor & Francis; 2004.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Njenga, M.J.; Kangethe, E.K.; Bwangamoi, O Munyua,S.J.M; Mugera, G.M. and Mutiga, E.R. 1999. Experimental transmittion of Besnoitia carprae in goats. Jl. South African Vet. Ass. 70 (4): 160-163.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1999. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Njenga, M.J.; Munyua, S.J.M.; Bwangamoi, O.; Kangethe,E.K.; Mutiga, E.R. and Wamukoya, J.P.O. 1999. Prevalence of besnoitiosis in domestic ruminants in Kenya: a preliminary survey. J. S. Afri. Vet. Ass. 70 (4) 151- 153.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1999. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Njeru SN, Otieno SA, Karimurio J. Prevalence of significant refractive errors in high school students, Meru municipality, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Dec; 15(2): 40-45.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of significant refractive errors in high school students in Meru Municipality, Kenya. Design: Cross-sectional, School based study. Setting:   High school students in Meru Municipality, Meru central District, Kenya. Subjects: 164 high school students of age range 13-18 years from Form one and Form three classes. Results:  The prevalence of significant refractive errors was 8.5% with girls contributing 5.5% and boys 3.0%. The pattern of significant refractive errors showed that myopia was the leading cause decreased visual acuity at 78.6% followed by astigmatism at 14.3% and last was hypermetropia with 7.1%. The proportion significant refractive errors was higher (71.4%) in the older age group of 15-18 years than lower age group of 13-16 years (28.6%). Conclusions:  Significant refractive errors are a common cause visual impairment in secondary schools in Meru Municipality. Myopia was found to be the leading cause of decreased visual acuity (VA <6/12).  
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Njeru, E.K. The Importance of Controlled Trials in Medicine. East Afr. Med. J. 1996; 73: 153-154 (Editorial).". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1996; 73: 153-154 (Editorial). Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
Both malaria and undernutrition are major causes of paediatric mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. The introduction of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITBN) during a randomized controlled trial on the Kenyan coast significantly reduced severe, life-threatening malaria and all-cause childhood mortality. This paper describes the effects of the intervention upon the nutritional status of infants aged between 1 and 11 months of age. Seven hundred and eighty seven infants who slept under ITBN and 692 contemporaneous control infants, were seen during one of three cross-sectional surveys conducted during a one year period. Standardized weight-for-age and mid-upper arm circumference measures were significantly higher among infants who used ITBN compared with control infants. Whether these improvements in markers of nutritional status were a direct result of concomitant reductions in clinical malaria episodes remains uncertain. Never-the-less evidence suggests that even moderate increases in weight-for-age scores can significantly reduce the probability of mortality in childhood and ITBN may provide additional gains to child survival beyond their impressive effects upon malaria-specific events.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Njeru, E.K., Eldridge, G., Ngugi, E.N., Plummer, F.A., Moses, S. STD Partner Notification and Referral In Primary Level Health Centers in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Dis. 1995 Jul-Aug;22(4):231-5.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 1995 Jul-Aug;22(4):231-5. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Controlling sexually transmitted diseases requires that partners of patients with a sexually transmitted disease be notified and treated. However, many countries in the developing world lack the infrastructure and resources for effective partner referral. GOAL OF THIS STUDY: To provide information on rates of partner referral in primary-level health centers in Kenya, to identify characteristics of patients with sexually transmitted diseases who inform their partners about the need for treatment, and to evaluate the impact of a brief counseling intervention on rates of partner notification. STUDY DESIGN: Two-hundred-fifty-four patients presenting for treatment of a sexually transmitted disease were given 5 to 10 minutes of additional counseling on the importance of referring partners for sexually transmitted disease treatment. All patients who returned for follow-up 1 week later were interviewed to determine whether they had notified their sex partners. RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent of patients who returned for follow-up reported they had referred their partners for treatment of a sexually transmitted disease. The highest rates of partner notification occurred among women attending maternal child health/family planning clinics and married men and women attending general outpatient clinics. CONCLUSION: Strengthening and directing counseling toward women in maternal child health/family planning clinics and married men and women in general clinics may be an effective and inexpensive way to increase partner notification in the developing world. PIP: In developing countries, patient referral is a more feasible means of notifying partners of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clients than the costly, labor-intensive provider referral approach. However, enhancement strategies such as education and counseling, contact cards, educational materials, follow-up, and monetary incentives may be necessary. To assess the impact of brief counseling on patient referral rates, a study was conducted at five primary health care centers in low-income areas of Nairobi, Kenya. All 254 STD patients who attended the clinic in a two-week period in 1992 were enrolled in the study. Subjects were given 5-10 minutes of counseling, asked to identify their sexual partners, and given a return appointment for the following week. Of the 93 patients who returned to the clinic and provided partner referral data, 63 (68%) reported they informed their partner of the need for STD treatment and 54 (58%) claimed that their partners had been treated. Multivariate analysis indicated that partner notification rates were highest for females, married individuals or those with regular partners, and maternal-child health/family planning clinic patients. Although 84% of unmarried men, 66% of unmarried women, and 47% of married men were infected by a casual sex partner, only 35% of those in the casual partner group attempted notification. Before the study, only 15% of partners presented to the clinics for treatment as a result of partner referral. This provides some evidence of the effectiveness of the counseling strategy, at least for married men and women, although more detailed guidelines on methods of partner notification are recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Njeru, E.K., Mutiso, V.M., Saidi H, Mak.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg.2008; 3: 3-9. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008.
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Njeru, J.L., Mungai, D.N., Liniger, H.P., and Ongwenyi, G.S., 2000. The influence of vegetation on the water resources of the Naro Moru river catchment. Part III (pp. 181-190), In: Gichuki, F.N. Mungai, D.N., Gachene, C.K.K. and Thomas, D.B. (Eds.), Proce.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2000. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Njeru, R.W., D.M. Mukunya and E.M. Gathuru, 1988. Etiology and chemical control of Cercospora leaf spot of the ornamental bellies of Ireland (Molucella leavis L.) Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4 .". In: Proceedings of 1st Plant Pathology Society of Kenya Conference, 23-24 Nov. 1989. Nairobi, Kenya. 15P. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1988. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "NJERUH, F.M. and GATHUMA, J.M. (1987). Serodiagnosis of livestock hydatidosis by the use of indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bull. An. Hlth. Prod. 35: 124 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1987. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., and Gathuma, J.M. (1987). Serodiagnosis of hydatidosis in livestock by the indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bull. Anim. Hlth. Afr. 35 124 .". In: journal. FARA; 1987. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., and Gathuma, J.M. (1987). Serodiagnosis of hydatidosis in livestock by the indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bull. Anim. Hlth. Afr. 35 124 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) suitable for use in identification of cooked and autoclaved meat samples using antisera to thermostable muscle antigens (TMA) is described. Goat antisera to TMA of various species were tested against homologous and heterologous partially purified thermostable muscle antigens (PTMA) in an indirect EIA. Goat anti-eland and anti-cattle TMA sera were the poorest in differentiating other species PTMAs. Identification of various species PTMAs could be achieved using a battery of goat anti-TMA sera, where homologous goat anti-TMA serum fails to differentiate some of the PTMAs tested.
MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1986). Diagnosis of hydatidosis in Kenya I. The role of indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) based on a thermostable antigen E. Afr. Med. J. 63 (5) 311 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1986). Diagnosis of hydatidosis in Kenya II. An Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) based on a thermostable antigen E. Afr. Med. J. 63 (5) 318 .". In: journal. FARA; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1986). Diagnosis of hydatidosis in Kenya II. An Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) based on a thermostable antigen E. Afr. Med. J. 63 (5) 318 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G.( 1990). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for livestock hydatidosis based on a partially purified thermostable antigen. (Bull. Anim. Hlth. Afr.,38, 7-10.).". In: journal. FARA; 1990. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M., Okelo, G.B.A. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1989). Diagnosis of human hydatid disease in surgically confirmed cases by use of indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test based on a thermo-stable lipoprotein (.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M., Okelo, G.B.A. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1989). The amino acid and fatty acid composition of a thermostable lipoprotein (.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M., Okelo, G.B.A. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1989). The amino acid and fatty acid composition of a thermostable lipoprotein (.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medince 1: 23, 1970. au-ibar; 1989. Abstract
No abstract available.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "NJERUH, F.M., GATHUMA, J.M., TUMBOH-OERI, A.G. and OKELO, G.B.A. (1989). Purification and partial characterization of a thermo-stable lipoprotein (.". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M., Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. and Okelo, G.B.A. (1989). Purification and partial characterization of a thermostable lipoprotein (.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M., Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. and Okelo, G.B.A. (1989). Purification and partial characterization of a thermostable lipoprotein (.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medince 1: 23, 1970. au-ibar; 1989. Abstract
No abstract available.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma,J.M., Gathura,P.B. Kyule, M.N. and Hammergerg, B. (1998). The application of monoclonal antibodies in identification of a hydatid cyst antigen found in boiled sera from individuals with hydatid disease and its significance in diagnos.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1989). Diagnosis of hydatid disease in livestock by use of indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test and its possible application in the control of hydatid disease in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (Special i.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Njeruh, F.M., Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1989). Diagnosis of hydatid disease in livestock by use of indirect haemaglutination test and its possible application in the control of hydatid disease in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. (Special issue):.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Okelo, G.B.A. and Gathuma, J.M. (1989). Usefulness of the indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis E. Afr. Med. J. 66, 310 .". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh,F.M., Gathura, P.B. and Gathuma,J.M.(1989). Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) based on two E. granulosus antigens in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis. East Afri. Med. J. 66: 738-744.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Nji PCF, Kamau RK, Ruminjo JK. Risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology among women attending Colposcopy Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 16-21.". In: J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 16-21. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Nji PCF, Kamau RK, Ruminjo JK. Risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology among women attending Colposcopy Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 16-21.". In: J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1993; 10: 16-21. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

Jerono P. "Njia ya Mwongo.". In: Kurudi Nyumbani na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus; 2007.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "NJIRU ABK, CHINDIA ML. Late presentation of patients with oral Squamous cell Carcinoma. African Journal Oral Health , 3:118-121, 2002.". In: African Journal Oral Health , 3:118-121, 2002. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Njiru, B.N., Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Knols, B.G.J., 2006, Trapping of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae with odour-baited MM-X traps in semi-field conditions in western Kenya. Malaria Journal, 5 (1): 39. http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/14.". In: Malaria Journal, 5 (1): 39. http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-5-39.pdf. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary education institutions so that evidence-based research can be applied at the grassroots level.
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Njiru, J. and D.M. Mukunya, 1989. Variation in Collectotrichum coffeanum, the cause of coffee berry disease as shown by eletrophoretic separation of extracellular proteins of different isolates. Proceedings of the 1st Plant Pathology Society of Kenya Conf.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Plant Pathology Society of Kenya Conference, 23 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1989. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Njiru, M., Ojuok, J.E., Okeyo-Owuor, J.B., Muchiri, M., M. J. Ntiba and Cowx, I.G. Some biological aspects and life history strategies of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in Lake Victoria, Kenya.". In: Afri. J. Ecol, 44, 1-8. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Njogu PM, Thoithi GN MJWKFNKIOKSTYMHNMJMA. "Njogu PM, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Kamau FN, Kibwage IO, Kariuki ST, Yenesew A, Mugo HN, Mwalukumbi JM. ." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2011;14(3):89-94.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "Njoka J. T. 2003: The Worship of God through Agriculture .Chapter 2 pages 19-40. In the Book .". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2003. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "Njoka T. 1990: Range management in Kenya. Page 60-63: In Wildlife Research for sustainable Development.-Edited by G.T. Grootenhuis, S.G. Njuguna and P.W. Kat. Published by KARI, KWS, NMK.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1990.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Njoka, T,J. and P.I.D. Kinyua, 2006. The logistic model-generated carrying capacities, maximum sustained offtake rates and optimal stocking rates for Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Njoka, T.J., Muriuki, G.W., Reid, R.S. & Nyariki, D.M. (2003). The use of sociological methods to assess land-use change: A case study of Lambwe Valley, Kenya. Journal of Social Sciences, 7(3), 181-185.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract
.
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Njoroge E.M. (1993) A study of experimental water intoxication in calves.". In: MSc Thesis, University of Nairobi. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Njoroge E.M. (2001) Evaluation of Ultrasonographic Diagnosis, Treatment Methods and Epidemiology of Cystic Echinococcosis in Sheep and Goats.". In: PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
In an attempt to establish the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis, a study was conducted in slaughter animals in three divisions of northern Turkana, Kenya. A total of 5752 goats, 588 sheep, 381 cattle and 70 camels were examined at slaughter. Echinococcus granulosus metacestodes were found in 19.4% of the cattle, 3.6% of sheep, 4.5% of goats and 61.4% of camels. The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in cattle, sheep and goats was higher in Lokichogio than in either Kakuma or Central divisions. On the other hand, the prevalence of the disease in camels was higher in Central (84.6%) than either Lokichogio (70.6%) or Kakuma (50%). The differences in prevalence rates in different study areas are attributed to differences in environmental conditions, livestock stocking intensity and cross-border migration of livestock
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Njoroge E.M., Chema S., Gathuma J.M. (2000) A Study on the Deployment of Kenyan Veterinarians who Qualified Between 1988 and 1993.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian 19: 7 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
A study was done to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts in goats using ultrasonography. A total of 1,390 goats were examined, 43,6 % (606/1,390) of them from north-western Turkana, Kenya, and 56,4% (784/1,390) from Toposaland, southern Sudan. Hydatid cysts were visualized in 1,82 % (11/ 606) of the goats from north-western Turkana and 4,34% (34/784) of those from Toposaland. Unlike abattoir surveys, the prevalence data obtained in this study were unbiased because entire flocks were examined. The lower prevalence rate of the disease in goats from Turkana was attributed to the hydatid disease control programme in that area, which is absent in Toposaland.
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Njoroge E.M., Maribei J.M. and Mbugua P.N. (1997) Pathological Changes of Calves Suffering from Experimental Water Intoxication.". In: Oderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 64(2): 110 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Njoroge E.M., Maxson-Sage A., Wachira T.M., Zelye E.E., Weber E.P., Smith G., P.M.F. Mbithi and Gathuma J.M. (2000). Determination of sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in diagnosis of hydatid cysts in the liver and right lung of sheep and goa.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

Ultrasound examination of the liver and right lung followed by postmortem examination was performed in 300 animals (16 sheep and 284 goats). Thirty one (10.3%) were positive for hydatid cysts on ultrasound examination and 46 (15.3%) were positive on postmortem examination. Twenty-one hydatid positives on postmortem examination were falsely identified as negatives on ultrasound examination. Of the 254 animals negative on postmortem examination 6 (2.4%) were falsely identified as positive on ultrasound examination. The Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound examination in detection of hydatid cysts in sheep and goats was 54.36% and 97.645 respectively. The positive predictive value was 80.64% while the negative predictive value was 92.19%.

M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Njoroge E.M., Mbithi P.M.F., Gathuma J.M., Wachira T.M., Magambo J.K. and Zeyhle E. E. (2000) Application of Ultrasonography in Prevalence Studies of Hydatid Cysts in Goats in Northwestern Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland Southern Sudan.". In: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 67: 251-255. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
A study was done to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts in goats using ultrasonography. A total of 1,390 goats were examined, 43,6 % (606/1,390) of them from north-western Turkana, Kenya, and 56,4% (784/1,390) from Toposaland, southern Sudan. Hydatid cysts were visualized in 1,82 % (11/ 606) of the goats from north-western Turkana and 4,34% (34/784) of those from Toposaland. Unlike abattoir surveys, the prevalence data obtained in this study were unbiased because entire flocks were examined. The lower prevalence rate of the disease in goats from Turkana was attributed to the hydatid disease control programme in that area, which is absent in Toposaland.
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Njoroge E.M., Zeyhle E., Magambo J.K., Githaiga L.W., Muli R. (1999) Animal Diseases In a Pastoral Community - A Guide For Students and Other Paraveterinary Personnel.". In: Publishers: African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, KENYA. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Water intoxication is a condition that is common in cattle, and has also been reported in other domestic animals and man. A comprehensive description of the condition is lacking. For a better understanding of the condition, this paper reviews work that has been reported previously by various authors.
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Njoroge EM, Mbithi PM, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Gathura PB, Magambo JK, Zeyhle E.(2002). A study of cystic echinococcosis in slaughter animals in three selected areas of northern Turkana, Kenya.". In: Vet Parasitol. 2002 Feb 27;104(1):85-91. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
In an attempt to establish the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis, a study was conducted in slaughter animals in three divisions of northern Turkana, Kenya. A total of 5752 goats, 588 sheep, 381 cattle and 70 camels were examined at slaughter. Echinococcus granulosus metacestodes were found in 19.4% of the cattle, 3.6% of sheep, 4.5% of goats and 61.4% of camels. The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in cattle, sheep and goats was higher in Lokichogio than in either Kakuma or Central divisions. On the other hand, the prevalence of the disease in camels was higher in Central (84.6%) than either Lokichogio (70.6%) or Kakuma (50%). The differences in prevalence rates in different study areas are attributed to differences in environmental conditions, livestock stocking intensity and cross-border migration of livestock
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Njoroge GK, Njagi EN, Orinda GO, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Kayima JK. Environmental and occupational exposure to lead. East Afr Med J. 2008 Jun;85(6):284-91.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):163-4. uon press; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the status of environmental and occupational lead exposure in selected areas in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Kariobangi North, Babadogo, Waithaka and Pumwani for assessment of environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and Ziwani Jua Kali works for assessment of occupational lead exposure. Olkalou in Nyandarua District was the covariate study area. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and eight children and adults participated. RESULTS: Blood lead levels (BLLs) obtained for the entire sample (n = 308) ranged from 0.4 to 65 microg/dl of blood. One hundred and sixty nine (55%) of the total sample had levels equal to or below 4.9 microg/dl, while 62 (20%) of the sample had levels ranging from 5.0 to 9.9 microg/dl. Blood lead levels above 10 microg/dl were recorded in 77 (25%) of the total sample. Within Nairobi, 32 (15.3%) of the study subjects in areas meant for assessment of environmental lead exposure had levels above the WHO/CDC action levels of 10 microg/dl of blood. The mean BLL for the occupationally exposed (Ziwani Jua kali) was 22.6 +/- 13.4 microg/dl. Among the workers, 89% had BLLs above 10 microg/dl. In general, 15% of the entire sample (for both environmental and occupational groups) in Nairobi had BLLs above 15 microg/dl. The covariate group at Olkalou had a mean BLL of 1.3 +/- 0.9 microg/dl. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of environmental lead exposure to the general public is high in Nairobi compared to Olkalou where non exposure was reported. Occupational lead exposure has been identified to be at alarming levels and urgent intervention measures are recommended.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Njoroge GK, Njagi EN, Orinda GO, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Kayima JK.Environmental and occupational exposure to lead.East Afr Med J. 2008 Jun;85(6):284-91.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Jun;85(6):284-91. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the status of environmental and occupational lead exposure in selected areas in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Kariobangi North, Babadogo, Waithaka and Pumwani for assessment of environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and Ziwani Jua Kali works for assessment of occupational lead exposure. Olkalou in Nyandarua District was the covariate study area. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and eight children and adults participated. RESULTS: Blood lead levels (BLLs) obtained for the entire sample (n = 308) ranged from 0.4 to 65 microg/dl of blood. One hundred and sixty nine (55%) of the total sample had levels equal to or below 4.9 microg/dl, while 62 (20%) of the sample had levels ranging from 5.0 to 9.9 microg/dl. Blood lead levels above 10 microg/dl were recorded in 77 (25%) of the total sample. Within Nairobi, 32 (15.3%) of the study subjects in areas meant for assessment of environmental lead exposure had levels above the WHO/CDC action levels of 10 microg/dl of blood. The mean BLL for the occupationally exposed (Ziwani Jua kali) was 22.6 +/- 13.4 microg/dl. Among the workers, 89% had BLLs above 10 microg/dl. In general, 15% of the entire sample (for both environmental and occupational groups) in Nairobi had BLLs above 15 microg/dl. The covariate group at Olkalou had a mean BLL of 1.3 +/- 0.9 microg/dl. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of environmental lead exposure to the general public is high in Nairobi compared to Olkalou where non exposure was reported. Occupational lead exposure has been identified to be at alarming levels and urgent intervention measures are recommended.
MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Njoroge N, Kemoli A.M. The prevalence of ECC among 3 to 5 year-olds in Kiambaa division, Kenya. E Afr Med J, 2010; 87(3): 134 -137.". In: The Kenya Accountant, Vol. 1:14; Vol.2. E Afr Med J; 2010.
K. DRNJOROGEPETER. "Njoroge PK, Olenja J, Kibaru J. November, 2005. Obstetric Fistula: An Avoidable Outcome of the Three Classic Delays. Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa Vol. 19 No. 1:1-45 January 2006.". In: Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa Vol. 19 No. 1:1-45 January 2006. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2006. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "NJOROGE W, NDAVI PM, KARANJA JG, MATI JKG. The incidence of cervical extropion among women on contraceptive methods in two periurban areas in Nairobi. J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00.". In: J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; Submitted. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Njoroge W, Ndavi PM, Karanja JG, Mati JKG: The incidence Of Cervical Ectropion Among women on contraceptive Methods In Tow Peri Urban Areas in Nairobi; J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 16 No. 1, 48: 2003.". In: East Cert Afr. vol. 16 No. 1, 48: 2003. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
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N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "Njoroge, B. N. K. .". In: Proceedings of the American Chemical Society Symposium, Division of Environmental Chemistry, San Diego,California,. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1986. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.

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