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Obino VK. "Natural Gas Hydrates: Technical Review and Prospects in Asia." International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). 2021;10(01):290-299.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Natural Hazards and the Art of Forecasting.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Kenya Meteorological Society; 2009.
Kiboi JG. "Natural History and Outcome of an Aneurysmal SAH." Natural History and Outcome of an Aneurysmal SAH. 2013.
Gasper MA, Kunwar P, Itaya G, Lejarcegui N, Bosire R, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Slyker J, Overbaugh J, Horton H, Sodora DL, John-Stewart G, Lohman-Payne B. "Natural killer cell and T-cell subset distributions and activation influence susceptibility to perinatal HIV-1 infection." AIDS. 2014;28(8):1115-24. Abstract

To determine neonatal immunologic factors that correlate with mother-to-child-transmission of HIV-1.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "NATURAL KILLER CELLS AND SELECTED ENZYME/ METABOLITE PROFILES IN HIV INFECTION AND PROGRESSION TO AIDS (Mecha, Ezekiel Onyonka. (MSc. Hons), UON.". In: M.Sc. Thesis.; 1989. Abstract

Abstract   Acquired immune Deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of grave psychological and economic concern. It effects all sectors of the community namely education, military, health, transport and communication. To date, it is estimated that 40 million people are infected with the virus globally of which 28.5 million resides in Sub Saharan Africa   This study sought to evaluate the role of Natural killer cells in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. It

Wanjiku Ng'ang'a, Anni Laine LC. Natural Language Generation from OpenMath.; 2006. Abstract
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Githiri SM, Kimani PM, Saxena KB. "Natural out-crossing in dwarf pigeonpea."; 1991. Abstract

Natural out-crossing rate in pigeonpea was studied at ICRISAT Center using plant stature (tall plants in dwarf progenies) as the genetic marker. The data indicated natural out-crossing rates of 9.7% to 24.1% with a pooled value of 13.1% in the six populations studied. These data were comparable to earlier studies at the same site using stem colour and growth habit as genetic markers in tall pigeonpea cultivars thus suggesting that foraging of insect pollination vectors is not influenced by plant type. The implications of natural out-crossing on breeding and maintenance of genetic purity of cultivars is discussed.

M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Natural outcrossing in dwarf pigeonpea. Euphytica: 53: 37 - 39.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Natural outcrossing in dwarf pigeonpea. Euphytica: 53: 37 - 39.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M. DRGUANTAIERIC, Chibale K. "Natural product-based drug discovery in Africa: the need for integration into modern drug-discovery paradigms.". In: Drug Discovery in Africa. Springer: Germany. (Pp. 101-126). Springer: Germany; 2012.
Derese S, Kerubo L, Yenesew A, Machumi F, Midiwo JO. "Natural Products from Plant Diversity and their Potential in Management of Neglected Diseases.". 2011. Abstractmidiwo_et_al._napreca_abstracct.pdfNatural Products from Plant Diversity and their Potential in Management of Neglected Diseases

Conventionally, neglected diseases are considered as a group of 13 infectious diseases that are . endemic in the low income populations in the tropical developing world. They can be classified as those caused by trypanosomal parasites, helminthes, bacteria and viruses. They cause death to an estimated 0.5- 1m people annually. Trypanosomal diseases are represented by Kala-azar or visceral leshmaniasis, African sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) and Chaga's disease (American trypanosomiasis); the current drugs for these diseases are relatively toxic even though the disease is not that lethal. Helminth infections include schistosomiasis treated with the inexpensive praziquantel but which cannot stop re-infection; onchocerciasis (river blindness), on which anthelmintic treatment is being tried; dracunculiasis (guinea worm), which should have been eradicated in 2009; lymphatic filiriasis (elephantiasis), managed by anthelmintic treatments. The others are soil transmitted worms such as ascariasis (round worms), trichuriasis (whipworms) and hookworms which are really best controlled by good hygienic practices. Leprosy, trachoma, Buruli ulcer and cholera represent the prevalent bacterial problems. Viral infections are yellow and dengue fevers caused by flavivirus transmitted by Aedes aegyptii and Japanese encephilitis caused by a flavivirus transmitted by Culex tritaeniorhynchus; the viral infections can be controlled through vaccination (WHO, 2008).

Mustapha AO, Narayana DGS, Patel JP, Otwoma D. "Natural Radioactivity in Some Building Materials in Kenya and the Contributions to the Indoor External Doses.". 1997. AbstractNatural Radioactivity in Some Building Materials in Kenya and the Contributions to the Indoor External Doses

Against a background of growing concern over the health risks associated with exposure to natural sources of radiation, a study has been carried out in Kenya in which the activity concentrations of the major radionuclides in some natural building materials are determined. Different types of rock and soil samples were analysed with a gamma ray spectrometer. Typical activities, so far encountered, are in the ranges: 50 to 1500 Bq.kg-1 for 40K; 5 to 200 Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra; and 5 to 300 Bq.kg-1 for 232Th. The external gamma ray absorbed doses in indoor air, and the corresponding effective dose equivalents in a typical dwelling are presented. The need for further studies is also discussed.

Muigua K. "Natural Resource Conflicts in Kenya: Effective Management for Attainment of Environmental Justice.". In: Third Scientific Conference of the Association of Environmental Law Lecturers in African Universities. School of Law, Karen Campus; 2015.
Mulwa, M R, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "NATURAL RESOURCE CURSE IN AFRICA: DUTCH DISEASE AND INSTITUTIONAL EXPLANATIONS.". In: AGRODEP.; 2016.
Onjala J. "Natural Resource Discoveries: Whither East African Infrastructure?". In: The Indian Ocean Rim as a New Frontier: How prepared is Africa? Mombasa, Kenya; 2012.
Nyangena W. "Natural Resource Management and Climate Change in Africa.". In: 3 volumes on conference plenary papers, Natural Resources and Climate Change. AERC publication; 2012.
Syagga PM. "Natural resources and development.". 1992.
Syagga PM. "Natural Resources and Employment."; 1992.
Anyango SO, Kiplagat J. "Natural Resources Governance in Kenya: The Assessment of the Fisheries Resources Subsector ." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences . 2019;24(3):25-30.
Musuva P, Chepken C, Getao K. "A naturalistic methodology for assessing susceptibility to social engineering through phishing." The African Journal of Information Systems. 2019;11:2. Abstract
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Omoni DGM. "The Nature and Meaning of Research." Phamacotherapy & Drug Information. 2000;11(5):40-42.
MWANGI DRISAACKARANJA. "NATURE AND SCOPE OF INTEGRATED, SECTORAL AND SPATIAL PLANNING UNDER COUNTY GOVERNMENT ACT NO 17 2012.". In: 2nd National Conference on Planning Under a Devolved System of Government in Kenya. Imperial Hotel; 2013. Abstract

The paper is about the nature and scope of planning under the County Government Act No 17 2012.It focuses on preparing the plans covered in Sections 108, Section 109 and Section 110 this law. The bias is obviously, on methodology of preparing county integrated development plan (CIDP) given the importance placed on the plan in sustainable socio-economic development and environmental management under devolved system of government. The author’s own practical experience and viewpoints on integrated (development) planning as a researcher and practicing planner has informed this focus. The paper has demonstrated that there are advantages in preparing CIDP, county sectoral plans (CSP) and county spatial plans (CSPP) under one county planning project or programme. The objective of this approach in the paper is to draw attention of conference participants to reflect and share their own practical experiences in integrated (development) planning during plenary discussions. A comment on city and municipal plans which are prepared under Section 111 is highlighted before possible structure of organization for county planning presented. One of the conclusions of the paper is that nature and scope of integrated, sectoral and spatial planning in the counties predispose CIDP, CSP and CSPP better prepared as one county planning project or programme and not as three separate projects/ programmes, one for each. The three plans share common phases and steps in the planning methodology which encompass CP-ISED and CP-TPKS models discussed in the paper.The paper makes a key recommendation, among others that, it is cost effective to prepare the three county-wide plans under one county planning project or programme and not as three separate undertakings as this has possibilities of saving counties significant percentage (%) proportion of the budget allocated for county planning.

Makoude PA, Akunda EM, Nyamongo DO, Hay FR, Oeba V. "Nature of dormancy in seeds of Sesamum latifolium (Gillet.". 2010. AbstractNature of dormancy in seeds of Sesamum latifolium (Gillet

Sesamum latifolium is a progenitor of the cultivated Sesamum indicum. The plant has medicinal value, is used as forage, and is a potential donor of genes for crop improvement. The seeds of this species do not germinate readily when harvested and sown under standard conditions. Inability to germinate hampers the exploitation of this species in crop improvement programmes as well as viability assessments by genebank curators and seed stockists. Various dormancy release mechanisms were tested on the germination of seeds of Sesamum latifolium with a view to determining the nature of dormancy and the appropriate release mechanism in this species. Pre-stored and freshly harvested seeds were used. An imbibition experiment assessed the permeability of the seed coat to water. Optimum germination temperatures were determined using a two-way thermogradient plate. Effects of surgical exposure of the embryonic axis, nipping away from the embryonic axis, and gibberellic acid application were also tested. The studies revealed that the seeds of this species have non-deep physiological dormancy and require alternating temperatures together with surgical exposure of the embryonic axis, gibberellic acid, or dry after-ripening. The appropriate dormancy release procedure when testing for seed viability of this species through a germination test is recommended

Angima, C., A M. "Nature of fraud and its effects in the medical insurance sector in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2016;6(2):33-44.
Lowe NK. "The nature of labor pain." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2002;186:S16-S24. AbstractWebsite

A somewhat paradoxic aspect of childbirth is the association of this physiologic process with acute pain. The experience of pain during labor is the result of complex processing of multiple physiologic and psychosocial factors on a woman's individual interpretation of nociceptive labor stimuli. The nature of labor pain, particularly its physiologic and psychologic influences, is reviewed in the context of a multidimensional framework of the pain experience and an understanding of the origin of labor pain stimuli, of potential adverse effects of the pain response, and of the concepts of suffering and comfort. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:S16-24.)

S. PROFNTEEREJACOB. "The Nature of P.E in the Public Schools of England during the 19th Century. University of Manchester, 1981.". In: University of Manchester, 1989. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1981. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Migosi J, Makinda H. "Nature of Research Productivity among Academic Staff in Selected Public and Private Universities in Kenya." Kenya Journal for Education Planning, Economics and Management. 2011;4(4):60-71.
Maragia, S. CKGK, Ndurumo MM. "Nature, Outcomes, and Perceived Effectiveness of Mentoring Programs in Higher Institutions of Learning: A Case of Moi University.". Kenya Journal of Education, Planning, Economics and Management. Vol. I, No. I. ISSN 20745400; 2010. Abstract
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KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Nayak NC, Dutta Gupta S, Tandon A, Dasarathy S, Acharya SK.Pathology of subacute hepatic failure.Indian J Gastroenterol. 1993 Dec;12 Suppl 3:11-4.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 1993 Dec;12 Suppl 3:11-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract

J Hepatol. 1993 Sep;19(2):291-300.Click here to read Links A prospective randomized double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of propranolol in patients with portal hypertension undergoing long-term endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) for recurrent variceal bleeding. Consecutive patients with portal hypertension (Child's class A or B) due to cirrhosis (n = 72), non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis (n = 29) and extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (n = 13) attending the liver clinic of a tertiary care center were included in the study. All patients had had at least one documented episode of variceal bleed in the previous 4 weeks. Fifty-eight patients received propranolol and 56 received placebo in addition to weekly EST. Rebleeding occurred in 12 (21%) patients in the placebo group and 10 (17%) patients in the propranolol group during a mean follow-up period of 24.4 +/- 10.4 months in the former and 23.8 +/- 9.2 months in the latter group (P > 0.1). The number of episodes of rebleeding (14 in the placebo and 12 in the propranolol group) were also similar (P > 0.1). The median bleeding-free period was more than 40 months in both treatment groups (P > 0.1). The mean transfusion requirements and the number of hospital admissions for rebleeding were also similar in the two treatment groups (P > 0.1). Complete obliteration of varices was achieved in 44 (78.9%) patients in the placebo group and 43 (75.5%) patients in the propranolol group (P > 0.1). Recurrence of new varices was seen in two patients in the placebo and in three of those in the propranolol group. Seven patients in the placebo group and five in the propranolol group died (P > 0.1). Complications related to EST were similar in the two treatment groups but additional adverse effects were observed in the propranolol group. The cumulative incidence of rebleeding in the placebo group was 12.7 and in the propranolol group it was 11.2 per 100 patient years of follow-up. It is concluded that the addition of propranolol in patients with portal hypertension and fair hepatic function on long-term EST does not confer any additional benefit.

Amiri S. "Naye Huyo M ’ me Mwenzangu.". In: Alidhani Kapata na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: EAEP; 2007.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Naziriwo B.B., Wandiga S.O., Gatari M.J.G., Madadi O.V., Ssebuwufu P.J., Determination of trace metal concentrations in waters of Nakivubo Channel and Lake Victoria using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis.". In: Poster presentation, European conference on X-Ray Spectrometry (XRS2007), Cavtat, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 16-20 June 2008. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
In an effort to understand the pollution levels in waters of Nakivubo channel in Kampala, Uganda and Lake Victoria (Fig 1) concentrations of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Pb were determined using convectional EDXRF and TXRF analysis. Water samples were collected with a 1-litre Van Don sampler (code, 1077) and transferred into polyethylene containers that were stored in an ice cooled box. Five samples were obtained at each sampling site and were all stored at -21 0C until analysis. Filtration on cellulose filter gave a particulate deposit that was analyzed for trace metals on a convectional EDXRF spectrometer. Pre-concentration and evaporation at 50 0C were used for extraction of dissolved metal content that was analyzed on TXRF. Samples of the unfiltered water were treated with HNO3 and H202 in a process for extracting total trace metal content that was subsequently prepared and analyzed on TXRF. Spectra from the spectrometers were analyzed for the trace elements of interest and elemental quantification was achieved using Quantitative X-ray Analysis software from International Atomic Energy Agency. The results showed high concentrations of particulate Fe and Mn, and relatively low Zn upstream the Nakivubo Channel. These were lower in the Lake Victoria waters. At the shores of Lake Victoria the dissolved Fe and Zn were higher than in the channel. The concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn in Lake Victoria were below the USEPA maximum contamination limits of 0.3, 0.05 and 5 mg/L respectively. However, Fe at the mouth of Nakivubo Channel was high and in general the quantified total elemental concentrations increased upstream along the channel. This meant increased water pollution input upstream and along the channel.
Nyasani PJ. NB Examinations Techniques and Guides. Nairobi: Nairobi Bookmen; 1987.
Bulimo W. NCBI Nucleotide Sequences.; Submitted. Abstract
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Bulimo W. NCBI Protein Sequences.; Submitted. Abstract
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GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ndarathi, C.M., and, P. G. Mbuthia, 1994. Individual bovine specific autogenous vaccines therapy against cutaneous bovine papillomatosis. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 64 (3): 218 .". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch and Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 28th August 1995. Sponsored by Coopers (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1994.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ndarathi, C.M., and, P. G. Mbuthia, 1994. Mycoplasma ovipnuemoniae pneumonia in sheep. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 64 (3): 256 .". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch and Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 28th August 1995. Sponsored by Coopers (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1994.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "NDATHE, J.K., F.B. MWAURA, J. NSUBA, L. BERGA, P.NDOLO, S.L. DOTY AND G.N. KAMAU 2010.Uptake and distribution of selected heavy metals by sweet potato plant varieties under greenhouse conditions Int. J of BiochemiPhysics. 18 :21 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "NDATHE, J.K., F.B.MWAURA, J. NSUMBA, L. BERGA, P. NDOLO & G.N. KAMAU 2O09. Electrochemical monitoring of heavy metal ion solutions containing sweet potato plant varieties under in vitro conditions. pp 1 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi M, Mwangi A, Mutio E et al: A working Document for the 5th ECSAOGS Post-Conference Symposium on Reduction of Maternal Mortality through Provision of Timely and Appropriate Care for Obstetric Emergencies in Health Facilities in ECSAOGS/ECSACON member.". In: 5th East and Central, South Africa Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society International Conference, 22-27, Feb. 2003, Mombasa Kenya; J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 17 Supplement 1: 43: 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ndavi Muia P., Mwalali P.N., Mbugua S.E., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Mati J. K. G.Cervical cytology in a Kenyan rural population. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 3:167, 1984.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 3:167, 1984. uon press; 1984. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

MUHENJE PROFOLENJAJOYCE. "Ndavi P.; Muia, E.; Olenja, J.M.; Curtis S; Kizito, P.; Hyslop, A; Ng.". In: In Factors That Contribute To The Utilization Of Quality Reproductive Health Care. Chapter 4 pages 23-35. 2003. Measure Evaluation. University of Nairobi Press; 2003. Abstract
NTRODUCTION: Family Health International developed a simple checklist to help family planning providers apply the new medical eligibility criteria (MEC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) contraceptive method. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five providers in four countries participated in focus groups to field test the checklist. Before participating in a discussion about the checklist, each provider was given a copy of the checklist, its instructions and hypothetical client scenarios. Providers used the checklist to answer questions about the client scenarios in order to determine if they understood the checklist and if they would correctly determine IUD eligibility for women in updated categories of eligibility on the basis of the checklist. RESULTS: Providers found the checklist easy to use and thought that it would enhance identification of eligible IUD users. Nevertheless, many providers relied on prior knowledge of IUD eligibility rather than the checklist recommendations. Providers only correctly determined eligibility for new categories of IUD use 69% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: The IUD checklist is a useful job tool for providers, but training and effective dissemination of the WHO MEC should precede its introduction to ensure that it is correctly used.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Dlamini D, Khumalo P: A Reproductive Health Needs Assessment; A Report of Findings from the Kingdom of Swaziland, August, 2002.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Dlamini D, Khumalo P: Report of Maternal Death Review in the 13 Kingdom of Swaziland, December, 2002.". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Kigondu CS, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jesencky K. Ojwang SBO,Gachara M Survey of attitude of Kenya Medical doctors on family (FP): Secondary data analysis.J. Obst. Gyn. East. Cent. Afr. 1995:38-44.". In: College of Health Sciences, UON, 1971-1995.II: GYNAECOLOGY AND FAMILY PLANNING. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Kigondu CS, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jesencky K. Ojwang SBO,Gachara M Survey of attitude of Kenya Medical doctors on family (FP): Secondary data analysis.J. Obst. Gyn. East. Cent. Afr. 1995:38-44.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Muia E, Olenja J. Kizito P, Hyslop A, Curtis S, Nganga S: An analysis of Training in the Provision of Family Planning Services in Factors that Contribute to the Utilization of Quality RH Care: Finding from Further Analysis of the Service Provisi.". In: East Cert Afr. vol. 16 No. 1, 48: 2003. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
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M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Muia EG, Olenja J: A rationale for a clinically and public health applied medical anthropology (part 1) J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 9, 2: 85-87, 1991.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991:68, 69. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

In this study, a total of 519 patients were interviewed. 82.5% had incomplete abortion. The implication of abortion especially when induced is emphasised. Economic implications that are contributed by the youth are stressed. 83.6% of the patients had not used any contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is stressed. The role of the physician in providing contraception and appropriate contraceptive knowledge is discussed. PIP: A study of 519 consecutive women admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with the diagnosis of abortion revealed that the majority were young and had a history of nonuse of contraception. Abortion was incomplete in 428 (83%) of cases; 60 (12%) cases involved sepsis. Women 20-24 years of age accounted for 221 (43%) of the abortions; the other two most represented age groups were 25-29 years (28%) and 14-19 years (17%). 460 (89%) of the abortion patients had never used a contraceptive method. The most frequently cited reasons for nonuse were desire for pregnancy (48%), no conscious reason (13%), procrastination in getting to a family planning clinic (8%), no knowledge of family planning (6%), and fear of side effects (6%). Of the 64 cases of failed contraception, 27 were using the pill, 25 had an IUD in place, and 8 were relying on the rhythm method. Among contraceptive users, the major sources of information about contraception were nurses (52%), radio and newspapers (19%), and other women (15%). Only 4% indicated that a physician had discussed family planning with them. Given the resource drain that treatment of incomplete abortion can place on Kenya's health care system and the risk of abortion-induced pelvic infection and subsequent infertility, Kenya's health workers should be encouraged to be more aggressive in promoting family planning use among young women.

M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Mwalali PN., Mbugua SE et al: Cervical Cytology in a Kenyan Rural Population. J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 3:4:167, 1984.". In: J. of Ob. Gy. E & Centr Afric. 3(2); 63, 1984. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Oyieke JBO, Munyao G and Kigondu CS: Coagulation Studies in Hypertensive Disease in Pregnancy in Kenyatta National Hospital; J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 16 No. 1, 32: 2003.". In: East Cert Afr. vol. 16 No. 1, 32: 2003. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
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M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM: A Review of the Feasibility of Algorithmic Management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STIs) in Primary Health Care Systems in Africa: J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 13 No. 1:39, 1997.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1997; 74: 634-638. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM: A survey of knowledge, attitude, practice and provision of family planning methods by Kenyan medical doctors: Secondary Data Analysis: Thesis for the Master of Science in Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University o.". In: J. Obstet. Gyna East Afr. 10(2): 65 1992,. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract

PIP: In this study, 273 university students (161 men and 112 women) were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire to determine their knowledge, attitude, and practice concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The mean age of the men was 22.4 +or- 1.6 years and that of the women was 22.1 +or- 1.6 years. 97.4% of the students were sexually experienced. Knowledge of common STDs was high, but knowledge of their signs, symptoms, and consequences was low. 24.5% of the male and 3.7% of the female students had had an STD. The principal sources of information on STDs included books, films, and TV for 39.6% of the students and teachers for 16.8% of the students. Parents played a very minimal role. It is suggested that primary and secondary school students be taught about STDs as part of reproductive health education and that such education be continued at the college level in order to increase the awareness among young people. author's modified

M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM: Thesis for the University of Nairobi Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynaecology: 1986.". In: MMed Thesis, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, 1987. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1986. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM: Women and Pregnancy: wanted and unwanted: in Women and Health in Kenya: Developing an action agenda by Rogo K.O and Muganda R. CSA 1994.". In: East Afr.Med.J. 71(10: 667-670, October 1994. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ndavi,PM, Kyobe.j, Munyao,G., OyiekeBO, Sekadde-Kiogndu, CB. Coagulation studies in Hypertensive Disease of pregnancy.J.Obs Gyn, Centr. Africa. 16(2003),.". In: J.Obs Gyn, Centr. Africa. 16(2003),. uon press; 2003. Abstract
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Ndeereh, D.R., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Kihurani, D.O. (2000): The evaluation of 4-Aminopyridine for the reversal of Xylazine sedation in goats. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 55 (1): 23-26.". In: Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Ndeereh, D.R., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Kihurani, D.O. (2001): The reversal of xylazine hydrochloride by yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine in goats. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 72 (2): 64-67.". In: Proceedings of the First Scientific Symposium of the European College of Equine Internal Medicine. In Tierarztliche Praxis, 32; 80-81. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to asses their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four shall East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15 % 40aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25mg/kg to Group 4. The hohimbine/40aminopyridine combination was also used to antangonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the peal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-sigificantly (p>0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produce better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged. Key words: small East African goats, xylazine antagonists, xylazine hydrochloride, yombine, 4-aminopyridine.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Ndegwa a,id others: (1998) Dilemmas of Deciding Stakeholders: Governance and open access to common Property. Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal. Vol.8, Special Number.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Ndegwa and others (1998) Stakeholders in the Limelight: Principles of Actor-Centred Resource Management. Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal. Vol.8. Special Number.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Ndegwa E. (1989) Institutional Arrangements for Regional (Sub-national) Development Planning: Case study from Kenya. United Nations Centre for I Ionian Settlements (Habitat) Nairobi.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1989. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Ndegwa E.N. (2000) Political Processes, District Develdpmeht Planning and Programmes Implementation. A paper Presented at the Training Workshop on District Development Planning and Plan Preparation in Kenya held at Nyalniruru Lodge. Kenya.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Ndegwa E.N. (2001) Framework for Human Settlements Data Analysis. A paper Presented at the Training Workshop on District Planning and Plan Preparation in Kenya held at Nyahururu Lodge. Kenya from 26 February-2 March 2001.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2001. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Ndegwa E.N. (2001) Framework for Infrastructure Data Analysis. A paper Presented at the TrainingWorkshop on Distiv;! Planning and Plan Preparation in Kenya held at Nyahururu Ledge. Kenya from.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2001. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Ndegwa, E. (1997) Planning of Suslainable Land Management: User Nexxls and-Possibilities-Experiences from Kenya. In International Institute lor Acnvspace Survey and Earth Sciences (ITC) Vol. .1/4.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1997. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

M DRMUNYUASJ. "Ndegwa, E., Munyua S. J. M. and Mulei, C.M. (1999). Prevalence of various microbial isoaltes from goat milk samples in central Kenya highlands. Presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya held at KARI Centre, Naivasha, 10-11/3/99.". In: Presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya held at KARI Centre, Naivasha, 10-11/3/99. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass.; 1999. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Ndegwa, E.N., Mulei, C.M. and Munyua, S.J.M. (2000). The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in Kenya.". In: J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass. 71 (1):25-27.; 2000.
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Ndegwa, J.M., Tchombe, T., Kabuage, L.W., Mukkibi-Muka, G. and Kosgey, I.S. (1998). Improvement of indigenous poultry production in Sub-Saharan Africa. A paper presented at the International Course on Intensive Poultry Production held at the Centre for In.". In: A paper presented at the International Course on Intensive Poultry Production held at the Centre for International Agricultural Development Cooperation (CINADCO), Kibbutz Shefayim, 4th March . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Ndele JK, Yoshioka K, Fisher JW.Hydrogen peroxide in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):143-6.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vol. 19, No. 1 pp 8-12, 1996. University of Nairobi Press; 1996. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Nderi GJ, Gichuhi S, Kollman M, Matende I. Outcome of glaucoma surgery at Mombasa Lighthouse for Christ Eye Center .". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to evaluate the outcome of glaucoma surgeries in a centre for eye care in Kenya.   DESIGN: Retrospective case series.   SETTING: The study was conducted at Mombasa Light House for Christ Eye Centre- Kenya.   SUBJECTS: All patients diagnosed to have glaucoma and managed by surgery between 2004-2007.   MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records from 2004 to 2007 were retrieved and data collected on the surgeries done using a structured questionnaire. 2008 was left for follow up to avail a one year minimum follow up time. Analysis was done using SPSS version 13.   RESULTS: 265 operations were recorded in this period. 213 were retrieved and the outcomes analysed. There was good IOP control over the follow up period with a gradual rise post operation, though the pressures remained within normal. Most of the patients were controlled with no need for medications, or much less medication use.   The average intra-ocular pressure at two year follow up was 15.0mmHg against a baseline of 28.7mmHg (p< 0.001). 29 eyes (13.6%) required medication for intra-ocular pressure control. One type of medication was able to control the pressures post operatively. Surgery reduced topical antiglaucoma medication use by 72%.     CONCLUSION: Intra-ocular pressure was well controlled surgically for the two year follow up.   RECOMENDATIONS: Surgical intervention can be taken as a first option for glaucoma control in our set up, especially as most of our patients present late.
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D M, Ongecha F A, Khasakhala L, Syanda J, Mutiso V, Othieno C J, Odhiambo G & Kokonya D A (2007). Bullying in public secondary schools in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Vol. 19 (1), 45-55.". In: Journal. Equinet; 2007. Abstract
Background: The prevalence and frequency of bullying in Nairobi public secondary schools in particular and in Kenyan schools in general is not known. Knowledge of the extent of the problem is essential in developing effective interventions. Aim: To study the prevalence and frequency of bullying in Nairobi public secondary schools, Kenya. Methods: A self-report sociodemographic questionnaire and the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire of 1991 were administered to 1 012 students from a stratified sample of public secondary schools in Nairobi. Results: Between 63.2% (640) and 81.8% (828) of students reported various types of bullying, both direct and indirect, with significant variations found for sex, age, class and year of study, whether in day or boarding school, and the place where bullied. Being bullied was significantly associated with becoming a bully, in turn. Discussion: Bullying is highly prevalent in Kenyan schools. Further studies are needed to characterise bullies and victims in terms of personality and environmental factors that may be associated with or conducive to bullying, as well as to determine the long-term prognosis for both bullies and victims. Further research is also required to determine the most appropriate intervention.
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D M, Othieno C J & Kilonzo G. Mood disorders. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 190-213.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 190-213. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D M, Othieno C J, Kilonzo G & Mburu J. Epilepsy, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 348-359.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 348-359. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D M, Othieno C J, Kilonzo G & Mburu J. Epilepsy, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 348-359.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 348-359. CHAK Times; 2006. Abstractthe_african_textbook_of_clinical_psychiatry_and_mental_health_2.pdf

Mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense developed a severe anaemia 1 week after infection, which persisted till treatment with diminazine aceturate when the packed cell volume (PCV) recovered to pre-infection levels. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the plasma levels of the acute phase proteins (APP), serum amyloid P-component (SAP) and haptoglobin (Hp). The initial peak levels of Hp and SAP were attained 7 and 12 days post-infection (DPI), respectively. Thereafter SAP levels decreased significantly to near pre-infection levels, but later increased even after treatment to give a second peak 34 DPI after which there was a decline till the study was terminated. The Hp levels on the other hand decreased to an intermediate level after the initial peak increasing to a second peak 22 DPI. Thereafter Hp decreased significantly following diminazine aceturate treatment to reach pre-infection levels within 5 days post-treatment. This indicates that T. congolense-infected mice develop severe anaemia accompanied by an acute phase response leading to an increase in SAP and Hp but that following treatment divergent responses occurred indicating differences in the pathways for stimulation of the APP. Haptoglobin was shown to be an earlier indicator of infection and a better marker in monitoring the response to treatment.

R DROWITIFREDRICK, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D M, Othieno C J, Owiti F, Sebit M B, Kilonzo G. Organic disorders, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 329-347.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 329-347. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
R DROWITIFREDRICK, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D M, Othieno C J, Owiti F, Sebit M B, Kilonzo G. Organic disorders, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 329-347.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 329-347. University of Nairobi; 2006.
M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D. M, Othieno C J, Kathuku D M & Dech H. Trans-cultural Psychopathology and Mental Health Services .". In: Paper presented at the XI World Congress of Psychiatry, August 6-11, 1999, Hanburg, Germany. Equinet; 1999. Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei D. M., Kathuku D. M., Othieno C. J. Et al (1998). Final report on economic politico-social aspects of illicit drug trades i n Kenya. A United Nations Drug Control Programme Study. University of Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at the XI World Congress of Psychiatry, August 6-11, 1999, Hanburg, Germany. Equinet; 1998. Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

M PROFNDETEIDAVID, W DRKURIAMARY. "Ndetei DM, Ongecha FA, Mutiso V, Kuria M, Khasakhala LI & Kokonya DA (2007). The challenges of human resources in mental health in Kenya. South African Psychiatry Review, 2007: 10:33-36.". In: South African Psychiatry Review, 2007: 10:33-36. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007. Abstract
The desire for self-mutilation in the absence of any discernible psychopathology is relatively rare. Self-mutilation is most commonly a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology such as depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, transexuality, body dysmorphic disorder and factitious disorder. In this article, a case in which a 29-year-old single Kenyan lady of African origin demanded a surgical operation to modify and reduce the size of her external genitalia is presented. Although female genital mutilation is still widespread in the country, this case is of interest in that the woman did not seek the usual circumcision but sought to specifically reduce the size of her labia minora so that she could feel like a normal woman. The unique challenges in her management are discussed. Possible aetiological factors in patients who demand surgical removal or modification of parts of their bodies without an obvious cause is discussed.
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Gakinya B, Ndumbu A, Omar A, Kokonya DA, Ongecha FA, Mutiso V, Oketch V, Mwangi J.Traumatic grief in Kenyan bereaved parents following the Kyanguli School fire tragedy. World Psychiatry. 2004 Feb;3(1):50-3. PMID: 16633455 [PubMed].". In: World Psychiatry. 2004 Feb;3(1):50-3. Equinet; 2004. Abstract
Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V, Ongecha FA, Kokonya DA, Omar A, Gakinya B, Mwangi J. Psychometric properties of an African symptoms check list scale: the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. <br>DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study.  <br>SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up.  <br>SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members.  <br>RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V, Ongecha FA, Kokonya DA, Omar A, Gakinya B, Mwangi J. Psychometric properties of an African symptoms check list scale: the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2006. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. <br>DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. <br>SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. <br>SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. <br>RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V, Ongecha FA, Kokonya DA, Omar A, Gakinya B, Mwangi J. Psychometric properties of an African symptoms check list scale: the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7. PMID: 16866223 [PubMed - indexed.". In: Africa Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies, 6(1): 54-63. 2007. Equinet; 2006. Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Ndetei DM, Rono RC, Mwangi SW, Ototo B, Alaro J, Esakwa M, Mwangi J, Kamau A, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V. Psychological effects of the Nairobi US embassy bomb blast on pregnant women and their children. World Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;4(1):50-2.". In: World Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;4(1):50-2. Equinet; 2005. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi/Africa Mental Health Foundation, Ralph Bunche Road, P.O. Box 48423-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; A descriptive study was carried out in pregnant women who were affected by the 1998 bomb blast in Nairobi, Kenya, and their babies who were in utero at the time of the blast. The psychological effects of the event on the exposed women were severe. After three years, the average score on the Impact of Event Scale - Revised was still higher than 29 for the three subscales combined, suggesting that most of the study group was still suffering from clinical post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The scores on all Childhood Personality Scale (CPS) subscales were significantly higher in children of the study group than in controls. The mothers' PTSD symptom levels at one month after the blast correlated with the children's CPS profiles.

CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH, DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Ndetei DM, Rono RC, Mwangi SW, Ototo B, Alaro J, Esakwa M, Mwangi J, Kamau A, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V.Psychological effects of the Nairobi US embassy bomb blast on pregnant women and their children.". In: World Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;4(1):50-2. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH, DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Ndetei DM, Rono RC, Mwangi SW, Ototo B, Alaro J, Esakwa M, Mwangi J, Kamau A, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V.Psychological effects of the Nairobi US embassy bomb blast on pregnant women and their children.". In: World Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;4(1):50-2. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Ndetei, C.J. , Opere, A.O. and Mutua F.M. (2007): Flood frequency analysis in Lake Victoria basin based on tail behaviour of distributions. Journal of KMS, vol., pp.44-54. ISSN 1995-9834.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS. "Ndetei, DM, Mburu, JM, Kathuku DM, Kangethe R, Owino SO & Hagengimana (1995) Psychotrauma Training of Trauma in Rwanda. University of Nairobi and United Nations Development Fund for Women.". In: University of Nairobi and United Nations Development Fund for Women. CHAK Times; 1995. Abstract

Boar spermadhesin AWN-1 is a sperm surface-associated 14.7-kDa lectin and a major protein of porcine seminal plasma. AWN-1 binds to beta-galactosides and to porcine zona pellucida glycoproteins, suggesting that this protein might play a role in the primary binding of spermatozoa to the egg's external glycoprotein matrix. We have produced a collection of murine monoclonal antibodies against purified AWN-1. Five monoclonal antibodies recognized sequential antigenic determinants. All these epitopes were located at the C-terminal region of AWN-1 (residues 109-123) by competitive ELISA using overlapping synthetic peptides that cover the complete 133 amino acid sequence of the lectin. In a structural model of spermadhesin AWN-1, the polypeptide stretch 109-123 is fully solvent-exposed, providing a reasonable explanation for its high immunogenicity. In addition to epitope mapping, we have employed anti-AWN monoclonal antibodies for immunolocalization of the protein in the genital tract of inseminated sows. Clusters of AWN epitopes were occasionally found attached to the epithelium of the uterotubal junction and the adjacent lower isthmus. However, neither AWN-1 nor other seminal plasma proteins were found in the isthmic fluid collected 10-26 h after insemination. These results suggest that the whole amount of seminal plasma proteins are absorbed by the epithelium of the female genital tract, supporting the claim that removal of seminal plasma components from spermatozoa might be a major event in both in vitro and in vivo sperm capacitation.

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ndeto G.W., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., et al J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:58, 1982 Prolactin release in subjects with uterine fibroid.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:58, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ndeto G.W.T., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M. Prolactin response in patients with hypertensive disease in pregnancy J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:166, 1982.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:166, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya- Achola JO, Nsanze H, Okelo GBA, Some transfusion hazards in and around Nairobi. E.A. Med. J. Vol. 57, No. 1, 1980.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol. 57, No. 1, 1980. IBIMA Publishing; 1980. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Darrell JH. Epidemiological Markers of Klebsiella Infecting Hospital Patients. E.A. Med. J. 63: 22 - 28. 1986.". In: E.A. Med. J. 63: 22 - 28. 1986. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Ghee AN, Kihara AN, Krone MR, Plummer FA, Fisher LD, Holmes KK.High HIV prevalence, low condom use and gender differences in sexual behaviour among patients with STD-related complaints at a Nairobi Primary Health Care Clinic. Internation.". In: Health Care ClinicInternational Journal of STD and AIDS 8: 506-14, 1997. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Of 22,274 patients > or = 12 years old attending a Nairobi primary health care (PHC) clinic, 1076 (4.8%) had STD-related complaints, of whom 980 underwent assessment of risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and infrequent condom use. Gonorrhoea, chancroid, syphilis seroactivity, trichomoniasis, or objective signs of STD were found in 78%, and HIV seropositivity in 15% of men and 19% of women. Most women were married, living with a spouse; while most men were single, or married, but living separated from a spouse. Among married men, last sex was with a female sex worker (FSW) or casual partner for 60% not living with a spouse and 26% living with a spouse (P<0.005). Two or more partners during the past year were reported by 82% of men and 25% of women (P <0.001), and 55% of men and 11% of women reported the last partner was high risk. HIV seropositivity among both genders was associated with numbers of partners, and among women, with being widowed or divorced. Only 3% reported use of a condom with the last partner. Among men whose last sex was with a FSW, 74% said the reason for not using a condom was not having one. Thus, infrequent condom use, low condom availability, and gender differences in behaviour necessitate modifying development policies that separate families; and better coordination between family planning, PHC, and AIDS/STD programmes, with improved supply, social marketing and community-based distribution of condoms in high-risk settings for STD/HIV prevention.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Kasili EG.Acute Leukaemia in pregnancy -A case report from Kenyatta National Hospital. E.A. Med. J. Vol. 53 No. 11, Nov. 1976.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol. 53 No. 11, Nov. 1976. IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
To monitor clinically significant isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibilities, all specimens sent to microbiology laboratory of the Kenyatta National Hospital were cultured on appropriate media. The susceptibility of the isolates was performed on Muller Hinton or diagnostic sensitivity test (DST) agar using comparative discs diffusion technique. The results were then entered into Microbe Base 2 computer programme. A total of 7416 clinically significant isolates were collected from 1991 to 1995. The most commonly isolated organisms were E.coli, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus aureus. Most of these hospital acquired infections had multiple resistance to conventional antimicrobials, namely, penicillin, tetracyclines, gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and ampicillin. The resistance pattern was high among both gram negative and positive bacteria isolates. Beta-lactamase production amongst them were 51%, 69.3%, 79.6% respectively. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 39.8%. Addition of clavulanic acid to amoxycillin increased Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility three fold. The emergence of multiple drug resistance calls for a continuous monitoring and reviewing of antibiotic policy in the hospital and the country at large.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Kihara AN, Fisher LD, Krone MR, Plummer FA, Ronald A, Holmes KK.Presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of genital ulcer disease (GUD) in a primary health care setting in Nairobi.Int J STD AIDS. 1996 May-Jun;7(3):201-5.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 1996 May-Jun;7(3):201-5. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
Of 22,274 patients 12 years of age or older attending a primary health care clinic in Nairobi, 1076 (4.8%) complained of symptoms suggesting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Of these, 518 females and 462 males underwent complete clinical evaluation, and 78% had objective microbiologic or clinical evidence of STD, including 168 (17.1%) with genital ulcer disease (GUD). Presumptive specific clinical diagnoses on initial physical examination in cases of GUD were chancroid (131 patients), syphilis (25), genital herpes (15) and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) (1). Clinical diagnoses correlated only weakly with microbiological and serological diagnoses. Haemophilus ducreyi was isolated from 51 (41%) of the 125 with a clinical diagnosis of chancroid, and 4 (22%) of 18 with a diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, or LGV (P = 0.13). The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test was reactive in 6 (24%) of 25 with a clinical diagnosis of syphilis, 18 (12.3%) of 146 with a diagnosis of chancroid or herpes, and 37 (4.7%) of 786 without a genital ulcer (P < 0.001, GUD vs no GUD). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for presumptive clinical diagnosis of chancroid, relative to H. ducreyi isolation, were 93%, 16%, and 41%; and for diagnosis of syphilis, relative to reactive RPR, were 25%, 88% and 25%. Specific treatment based on presumptive specific clinical diagnosis frequently was inadequate for syphilis among patients with GUD and reactive RPR test. Syndromic treatment of GUD with antimicrobial combinations active against both chancroid and syphilis would be preferable to treatment with single drugs based on presumptive specific clinical diagnoses for this population. PIP: During a 12-month period in 1990-1991 in Kenya, 1076 of 22,274 patients (4.8% of all patients over 12 years of age) presented at the Langata Health Center in Nairobi with symptoms of a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Researchers analyzed data on 980 of these patients whose records had complete data to assess the use of presumptive specific clinical diagnosis in the management of STDs in a primary health clinic. 17.1% (168) had genital ulcer disease (GUD). Men were more likely to have a GUD than women (24.7% vs. 10.4%). Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, was isolated in the cultures of 40% of the patients with a presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of chancroid compared with 17% of those with a presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, or lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) (p = 0.02). The clinical diagnoses of these two GUDs had only a weak correlation with microbiological and serological diagnoses (p = 0.13). 24% of patients with a presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of syphilis, 31% of those with a presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of chancroid, 6% of those with a specific clinical diagnosis of genital herpes or LGV, and 4.7% of those who had no GUD disease tested positive for syphilis (p 0.001, GUD vs. no GUD). Among patients with syndromic diagnosis of GUD, the presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of chancroid had a high sensitivity (91%), low specificity (24%), and low positive predictive value (40%). Among patients with syndromic diagnosis of syphilis, the presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of syphilis had a low sensitivity (25%), higher specificity (87%), and low positive predictive value (24%). 13% of patients with positive cultures for H. ducreyi did not receive a recommended or effective drug for chancroid. 82% of patients who tested positive for syphilis did not receive a recommended drug for syphilis. Based on these findings, the researchers conclude that syndromic treatment of GUD with use of antimicrobial combinations active against both chancroid and syphilis is a better course of treatment than use of single drugs based on presumptive specific clinical diagnoses for this population.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Kungu A, Kivindu CM. Malignant Granular Cell Tumour (Granular Cell Myoblastoma) E. A. Med. J Vol. 55, No. 12. 1978.". In: E. A. Med. J Vol. 55, No. 12. 1978. IBIMA Publishing; 1978. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Mbalu M.Pattern of wound infection in Burns Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, 1974. E.A. Med. J. Vol. 55. No. 9. 1978.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol. 55. No. 9. 1978. IBIMA Publishing; 1978. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H, Mnjalla JJ.Role of bacterial superinfection during an outbreak of viral conjunctivitis. E.A. Med. J. Vol. 61: 184 - 189, 1984.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol. 61: 184 - 189, 1984. IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Omari MA, Odhiambo FA, Murage E, Mutere AN Survey of penicillin resistant pneumococci at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1997 Mar;74(3):151-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Mar;74(3):151-3. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
During a four year period, a survey of antibiotic sensitivity patterns in clinical isolates of pneumococci was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. The isolation and characterisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae was done using standard laboratory procedures. Sensitivity testing was by disc diffusion method using discs supplied by Oxoid. During the period, 45 clinical isolates were recorded. This figure is somewhat lower than the expected rate of pneumococcal isolation at the hospital. Penicillin resistance of 24% among the pneumococcal isolates was recorded. Among the antibiotics tested, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, erythromycin and chloromphenicol had highest activity against the pneumococci. Surprisingly low sensitivity rates were recorded for trimethoprim/ sulphamethoxazole and cefuroxime. Implications of these findings in the management of pneumococcal infections are discussed.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO. A review of ethical issues in AIDS research. EAMJ 68(9): 735 -740, 1991.". In: EAMJ 68(9): 735 -740, 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO. AIDS research: Are we in the right direction? EAMJ 1994.". In: EAMJ 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO. Typing methods for the genus Klebsiella for use in clinical bacteriology. Thesis MSc. Medical Microbiology, University of London. 1981.". In: Thesis MSc. Medical Microbiology, University of London. 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Ndiritu, C.G., S.W. Mbogwa, P.D. Sayer (1977) Extragenitally located transmissible venereal tumour in dogs. Modern Vet. Practice. 940-946.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
JOHN MRNDOLOISAAC. "Ndolo, I.J. (1985): Water Balance and Rice Yields in a Tropical Environment: A Case Study of Mwea Irrigation Settlement, M.Sc. Thesis.". In: Agric. Jour. Vol. 41: (81-90). Association of Africa Universities; 1985. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
JOHN MRNDOLOISAAC. "Ndolo, I.J. (1989): A Dependable Cumulative Soil Water Balance Model for Rice. Paper Presented at WMO Seminar, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: African Urban Quarterly Journal. Association of Africa Universities; 1989. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
JOHN MRNDOLOISAAC. "Ndolo, I.J. (1998): Some Aspects of the Urban Microclimate of Nairobi City.". In: African Urban Quarterly Journal. Association of Africa Universities; 1998. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Nduati R, and Mbori-Ngacha D. Prevention Of Breastmilk Transmission of HIV: Balancing the Benefits and the Risks In: Essex M, Mboup S, Kanki PJ, Kalengayi MR, (eds). AIDS in Africa. 2nd Ed.". In: Book. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); Submitted. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Nduati R, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Richardson B, Overbaugh J, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Onyango FE, Hughes J, Kreiss J.Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2000 Mar 1;283(9):1167.". In: JAMA. 2000 Mar 1;283(9):1167-74. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
CONTEXT: Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to occur through breastfeeding, but the magnitude of risk has not been precisely defined. Whether breast milk HIV-1 transmission risk exceeds the potential risk of formula-associated diarrheal mortality in developing countries is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of breast milk transmission of HIV-1 and to compare mortality rates and HIV-1-free survival in breastfed and formula-fed infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized clinical trial conducted from November 1992 to July 1998 in antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya, with a median follow-up period of 24 months. PARTICIPANTS: Of 425 HIV-1-seropositive, antiretroviral-naive pregnant women enrolled, 401 mother-infant pairs were included in the analysis of trial end points. INTERVENTIONS: Mother-infant pairs were randomized to breastfeeding (n = 212) vs formula feeding arms (n = 213). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Infant HIV-1 infection and death during the first 2 years of life, compared between the 2 intervention groups. RESULTS: Compliance with the assigned feeding modality was 96% in the breastfeeding arm and 70% in the formula arm (P<.001). Median duration of breastfeeding was 17 months. Of the 401 infants included in the analysis, 94% were followed up to HIV-1 infection or mortality end points: 83% for the HIV-1 infection end point and 93% to the mortality end point. The cumulative probability of HIV-1 infection at 24 months was 36.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29.4%-44.0%) in the breastfeeding arm and 20.5% (95% CI, 14.0%-27.0%) in the formula arm (P = .001). The estimated rate of breast milk transmission was 16.2% (95% CI, 6.5%-25.9%). Forty-four percent of HIV-1 infection in the breastfeeding arm was attributable to breast milk. Most breast milk transmission occurred early, with 75% of the risk difference between the 2 arms occurring by 6 months, although transmission continued throughout the duration of exposure. The 2-year mortality rates in both arms were similar (breastfeeding arm, 24.4% [95% CI, 18.2%-30.7%] vs formula feeding arm, 20.0% [95% CI, 14.4%-25.6%]; P = .30). The rate of HIV-1-free survival at 2 years was significantly lower in the breastfeeding arm than in the formula feeding arm (58.0% vs 70.0%, respectively; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of breast milk transmission of HIV-1 was 16.2% in this randomized clinical trial, and the majority of infections occurred early during breastfeeding. The use of breast milk substitutes prevented 44% of infant infections and was associated with significantly improved HIV-1-free survival.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Nduati R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Oyieke J, Maina K, Kamenga C . High antenatal HIV testing does not translate into increased NVP uptake. In international Conference on AIDS and STDs in Africa (ICASA) Nairobi , Kenya 2003N. Rutenberg1, M. Siwale, C. Kankasa, R. N.". In: Proceedings of the XV International AIDS Conference Bankok, Thailand 11-16 July 2004. [WePeE6837]. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Nduati R, Richardson BA, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Onyango FE, Kreiss J.Effect of breastfeeding on mortality among HIV-1 infected women: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2001 May 26;357(9269):1651-5.". In: Lancet. 2001 May 26;357(9269):1651-5. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract

{ BACKGROUND: We have completed a randomised clinical trial of breastfeeding and formula feeding to identify the frequency of breastmilk transmission of HIV-1 to infants. However, we also analysed data from this trial to examine the effect of breastfeeding on maternal death rates during 2 years after delivery. We report our findings from this secondary analysis. METHODS: Pregnant women attending four Nairobi city council clinics were offered HIVtests. At about 32 weeks' gestation, 425 HIV-1 seropositive women were randomly allocated to either breastfeed or formula feed their infants. After delivery, mother-infant pairs were followed up monthly during the first year and quarterly during the second year until death, or 2 years after delivery, or end of study. FINDINGS: Mortality among mothers was higher in the breastfeeding group than in the formula group (18 vs 6 deaths, log rank test

A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Nduati RW and WAMOLA I.A. Bacteriology of acute septic arthritis J. Trop. Paed 37: 172-175, 1991.". In: J. Trop. Paed 37: 172-175, 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
In a study of septic arthritis infants formed the bulk of patients though, notably, neonates were not encountered. Gram-negative bacterial of the Salmonella species, especially Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella species were the most important cause of septic arthritis in infants. Staphylococcus aureus was also isolated. The combination of blood cultures and joint aspirate cultures resulted in very high rate (72 per cent) of bacteria isolation. It is strongly recommended that every effort should be made to obtain two bacteriological specimens for culture to improve bacteriological diagnosis of the disease.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Nduati RW, Bhatt GJ, Osborne CM Accidents and Poisoning. In: Primary Health Care: A manual for medical students and other health workers. Ed. Mukelebai K, Bwibo NO, Onyango FE. 2nd edition, UNICEF.". In: Book. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Nduati RW, John GC, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, Welch M, Ndinya-Achola J, Moses S, Holmes K, Onyango F, Kreiss JK.Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells in breast milk: association with immunosuppression and vitamin A deficiency.J Infect Dis. .". In: J Infect Dis. 1995 Dec;172(6):1461-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
Breast milk samples from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive women were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to determine the prevalence and determinants of HIV-1-infected cells in breast milk. Breast milk samples (212) were collected from 107 women, and 58% of the samples had detectable HIV-1 DNA. The proportion of HIV-1-infected cells in the milk samples ranged from 1 to 3255/10(4) cells. Breast milk samples with detectable HIV-1 DNA were more likely to be from women with absolute CD4 cell counts of < 400 (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-7.0). Severe vitamin A deficiency (< 20 micrograms/dL) was associated with a 20-fold increased risk of having HIV-1 DNA in breast milk among women with < 400 CD4 cells/mm3 (95% CI, 2.1-188.5). Women with CD4 cell depletion, especially those with vitamin A deficiency, may be at increased risk of transmitting HIV-1 to their infants through breast milk.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Ndugwa CM, Nduati RW, Bhat GJ. HIV infection and AIDS in children. In: Primary Health Care: A manual for medical students and other health workers. Ed. Mukelebai K, Bwibo NO, Onyango FE. 2nd edition, UNICEF.". In: Book. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Ndumu D., Baumung R., Wurzinger M., Drucker A., Okeyo M., Semambo D., and S.". In: Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, Deutscher Tropentag 2006,University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany, October 11-13, 2006. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2006. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Ndumu, D., Wurzinger, M., Baumung, R., Drucker, A., Okeyo, A., M., Semambo, D.,K., S.". In: 55th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production (EAAP), Uppsala, Sweden, 5. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2005. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Ndung.". In: 10th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, 113-17 November 2006, Nairobi, Kenya. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute; 2006. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Ndung.". In: East African Medical Journal 67:907-911. African Meteorological Society; 1990. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a chewing stick and a tooth brush in plaque control. The study composed of two groups of 11 and 8 children aged 13 to 16 years who were randomly selected from a peri-urban school near Nairobi. Results showed that, except for the participants with moderate amounts of plaque, the net changes in the mean number of surfaces with a given plaque score were more when the participants were using a toothbrush than when they were using a chewing stick. For the group of participants who started using a chewing stick before they changed to the toothbrush, there were no significant net changes in the mean number of surfaces with a given plaque score except for those surfaces which had mild plaque deposits. It is concluded that for the patients with severe plaque deposits, the toothbrush is more efficacious than the chewing stick in plaque control. However, for those patients with moderate plaque deposits, the chewing stick is as efficacious as the toothbrush in plaque control.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "NDUNG'U PM GATHECE LW, CHINDIA ML. Reasons to study Dentistry: Presentattitudes and Career goals among University of Nairobi Dental students. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2003.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2003. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Ndungu T K Kofi-Tsekpo W M and Mbugua P M (1985): Irradiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and other medicinal products: Methods and approach for Kenya Proc. 6 th Ann. Med. Sci. Conf., KEMRI/KETRI .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract
Anderson AJ, Harvey AL, Mbugua PM. Fasciculin 2, a polypeptide from green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom, causes an increase in the twitch response of mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations to indirect stimulation. Intracellular recording reveals that fasciculin 2 augments neuromuscular transmission by increasing the amplitude and duration of endplate potentials. Its action is not reversed by washing. Interactions with neostigmine confirm that fasciculin 2 acts as an anticholinesterase. It has no presynaptic actions on transmitter release or postsynaptic receptor blocking actions. On chicken muscle preparations, fasciculin 2 has no anticholinesterase actions. Because of this selectivity and its apparent irreversibility, fasciculin 2 should be useful in characterizing different forms of acetylcholinesterase. PMID: 2986055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Ndurumo M. S., Mande J.D., Kihurani D., and Abuom T.O. Antidrool cheiloplasty; Plastic Surgery of the Canine Lip. Poster presentation.". In: KVA conference 2006,Mombasa. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
A. DRKITAAJAFREDM. "Ndurumo SM, Mande JD and Kitaa JMA. Use of a Tiemann.". In: KVA conference 2005 Nairobi. au-ibar; 2005. Abstract
   
MULI MRMUTISYAJOSEPH. "Ndutu J.M. (1991). The Fate of Applied Phosphorus in some acid soils of Kenya. Discovery and Innovation Journal 17:80-87.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
The influence of soil type, vegetation and landuse on infiltration rate into soils of the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Likipia District, Kenya was investigated during the dry and the wet seasons by double cylinder infiltrometer. Infiltration rates significantly differed between soils and sites in both areas, and were highest under tree/bush, intermediate on open grass and lowest on bare ground. Cultivation temporarily increased infiltration above that of tree/bush sites. Bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and organic carbon significantly influenced infiltration in both areas, but soil cracking and swelling in Sirima during the dry and the wet season respectively, partially obscured the influence of the physical parameters on infiltration rate
MULI MRMUTISYAJOSEPH. "Ndutu, J.M. and Keter J.K.A (1989). Forms of phosphorus in some Kenya soils. Discovery and innovation Journal 15: 36-43.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1989. Abstract
The influence of soil type, vegetation and landuse on infiltration rate into soils of the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Likipia District, Kenya was investigated during the dry and the wet seasons by double cylinder infiltrometer. Infiltration rates significantly differed between soils and sites in both areas, and were highest under tree/bush, intermediate on open grass and lowest on bare ground. Cultivation temporarily increased infiltration above that of tree/bush sites. Bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and organic carbon significantly influenced infiltration in both areas, but soil cracking and swelling in Sirima during the dry and the wet season respectively, partially obscured the influence of the physical parameters on infiltration rate
MULI MRMUTISYAJOSEPH. "Ndutu,J.M. (1991). Phosphorus adsorption properties of some acid soils of Kenya. Discovery and innovation Journal. 17: 60-66.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
The influence of soil type, vegetation and landuse on infiltration rate into soils of the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Likipia District, Kenya was investigated during the dry and the wet seasons by double cylinder infiltrometer. Infiltration rates significantly differed between soils and sites in both areas, and were highest under tree/bush, intermediate on open grass and lowest on bare ground. Cultivation temporarily increased infiltration above that of tree/bush sites. Bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and organic carbon significantly influenced infiltration in both areas, but soil cracking and swelling in Sirima during the dry and the wet season respectively, partially obscured the influence of the physical parameters on infiltration rate
Onyango MO, Mito CO, Baki P, Ouma G. "Near Real-time Tropospheric Water Vapour Profiling using a Ground-based GPS Receiver." International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2017;38(23):6697-6713. Abstractnear_real_time_tropospheric_water_vapour_profiling_using_a_ground_based_gps_receiver.pdfTaylor &amp; Francis

This article presents a remote-sensing tool employing an artificial neural networks algorithm for near real-time determination of the relative humidity (RH) profile above a site using global positioning system (GPS) data recorded by a ground-based GPS receiver. GPS data were processed to obtain Integrated Water Vapour. The integrated water vapour in conjunction with ground level information for temperature, pressure, and RH was fed as inputs to the developed neural network which in turn generated the instantaneous RH profile, at six standard pressure levels of 100, 150, 200, 300, 500, and 700 hPa, as output. GPS and radiosonde data for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to train the system while the same data for 2011 were used to validate the system. The relative humidity profile results for 2011 generated using GPS data and the neural network, upon comparison
with recorded in situ radiosonde RH profile measurements for the same days and times in the year 2011, had root mean square error of less than 4%, which falls within the margin of error of the Vaisala RS92 Radiosonde’s humidity measurement regime.

Onyango MO, Mito CO, Baki P, Ouma G. "Near real-time tropospheric water vapour profiling using a ground-based GPS receiver." International journal of remote sensing. 2017;38:6697-6713. Abstract
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J.SITUMA. "The Neccessity and Sufficiency of Kantian of Ethics." Haki, Nairobi. 2016.
Nguhiu-Mwangi JA, Mbithi PMF, Mbiuki SM. "Necrosis and sloughing of skin associated with limb cellulitis in four cows and a calf: predisposing causes, treatment and prognosis.". 1991. Abstract

Four cows and a calf with non-suppurative limb cellulitis were observed subsequently to suffer skin necrosis and sloughing in the affected limbs, either on or distal to the metacarpus or metatarsus. In comparison with six cows with suppurative Corynebacterium pyogenes limb cellulitis, topical therapy or the cases with skin necrosis and sloughing was adequate and the prognosis was good, when compared with the rigorous systemic therapy applied to the cows with suppurative cellulitis, some of which died. The skin necrosis and sloughing resulting from limb cellulitis seemed to be encouraged by the paucity of tissue between the skin and the bone, by the poor vascularity of the area, and by the causative bacteria.

PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Necrotrophic fungi from Kenyan endemic and rare plants.". In: Sydowia 52(2): 286 - 304. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Munyua MSJ, Farrah K, Kahiu IG. "The Need and Possible Modalities Of Establishment of Community Based Delivery Of Veterinary Services And Inputs In The Arid And Semi Arid Areas In Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

Veterinary services and inputs in the ASAL, as most other services in the rest of the country, has for sometime now been offered fr ee, with the Governme nt meeting the costs of drugs, service, disease control and surv eillance and employment and deployment of personnel. This structure and mode of deliver y of services, which is based on extension packages tested in the sedentary and semi-s edentary production systems, has proved to be impractical and unsustainable. The situati on is compounded by the collapse of basic infrastructure, including service delivery sy stems and insecurity and the “almost total control” of livestock marketing by middlemen. The provision of veterinary inputs and servic es is unlikely to improve if the present delivery systems are left in place. Thus there is need to empower the animal health technicians (AHTs) and selected livestock producers in the pa storal areas to be service and input providers. This is especially critic al now that the donor nations, international financial institutions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), which are deeply entrenched in the process of economic a nd social change, are insisting on reduced Government spending, right sizing Govern ment service delivery personnel and privatization of deliver y of goods and services. The alleviation or easing of the current liv estock production constraints alone, however, will not serve the livestock producers if the current livestock marketing system remains in place. This system is between an “informed and wealthy middlemen” and “unaware and often desperate livestock producers”. The od ds have to be made more even through regular provision of current livestock market informati on and training of livestock producers (and their school age children whenever possible) in the art of livestock pricing. It is our humble opinion that the current marketing and the veterinary services delivery system has to evolve to become truly pa rticipatory if livestock productivity, food security, increased rural income s and improved quality of life is to be come a reality in the ASAL areas. This will not only ease pr oduction and marketing constraints currently facing farmers but also stabil ize their economic base and change their socio-economic status to one that gives them hope of rising to the next notch in their hierarchy of needs.

Odada EO. "Need assessment for climate information on decedal timescales and longer.". 2000. AbstractNeed assessment for climate information on decedal timescales and longer

Societal needs for climate information on decadal timescales is confirmed in terms of its potential value and relevance as a driver in sector decision-making, but such information is currently lacking. Predictions and observationally based analyses for decadal climate variability and change are needed. In addition, the following issues have been identified as those that must be addressed in order to facilitate effective use of climate information on decadal timescales in the decision-making processes of different socio-economic sectors: building effective partnership systems linking stakeholders, users and decision-making sectors and climate information providers; more research and investment is to translate information of large-scale decadal variations into the regional and local scales required for decisions; maintaining and sustaining the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), in particular, enhancement of the global ocean observing system; and, ways to assemble, check quality, reprocess and reanalyse datasets relevant to decadal prediction. Ways of securing climate observing systems particularly in least developed regions are urgently needed.

Opere AO, Mutua FM, Ogallo LA. "The need for a flood forecasting system in Kenya." Journal of African Meteorological Society. 2003;6(1):6-14.
O DROPEREALFRED, M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "The need for a flood forecasting system in Kenya (revised).". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, March 2002. International Journal of Climatology; 2002. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
O DROPEREALFRED, M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "The need for a flood forecasting system in Kenya (revised).". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, March 2002. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2002. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

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