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NW N, J N-M, AN K, M O, C M, T C, MJ O, JM O, S K. " Culture of Kenyan Goat (Capra hircus) Undifferentiated Spermatogonia in Feeder-Free Conditions." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022;9.
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Bwihangane A, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Tareken G, Nicholas S, Bacigale S, Svitek N. " Mitochondrial DNA variation of indigenous goat populations from Peste-des-petits-ruminants outbreak in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo." Livestock research for rural Development. 2018;30(1).
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M SM, AA A, CK O, IM M, TM M. " Utility of sonohysterography in evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding." Obstet Gnecol Rep. 2018; 2: DOI(10.15761):OGR.1000127.
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Too KV, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. " Vicoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering & Technology. 2012;Vol. 4 (No. 10 ISSN 2041-3238). Abstract

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M SM, AA A, CK O, IM M, TM M. ") Utility of sonohysterography in evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 2018;2(1).
Wanjala W Cornelius, Teresa Akeng'a, George O Obiero, Lutta. KP. "). Antifeedant activities of Erythrinaline alkaloids from Erythrina latissima against Sporodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera noctuidae)." Records of Natural Products. 2009;3(2):96-103.
Nicholas B, Derrick S, Dorcas C, Patrick M, Joshua O, Thomas LF. "). Food Safety & Animal Welfare in the Pork Value Chain of Nairobi.". 2021:DOI: 10.17638/datacat.liverpool.ac.uk/1441.
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T.N. O. ". Foreign Direct Investment in developing countries: Analytical experience of Western Theoretical research assessments and international statistics. .". 2006;(St .P Petersburg state university of Economics and Finance, St. Petersburg,):2006-176 pages. (Monograph).
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. ". Liquid chromatographic separation of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 2006;58(10) (supp/1 ):105.
Kamau FN, Njogui PM, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO, Kariuki ST, Yenesew A, Mugoi HN, Mwalukumb JM. ". Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae).". 2011. Abstract

Root and stem extracts of Girardinia diversifolia exhibited varying degrees of activity against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three compounds namely ~-sitosterol, 7bydroxysitosterol and 3-bydroxystigmast-5-en-7-one, were isolated from the petroleum ether root extract. The present study gives scientific credence to the traditional use of Girardinia diversifolia in the management of microbial infections.

CR N, T C, JA S, PA W, D F, N P, FJ K, K M. ".Coma scales for children with severe falciparum malaria.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Mar-Apr;91(2):161-5. uon press; 1997. Abstract

{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55

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Thecla A, O KG, Alice O-O. "10. Principal component analysis of the effects of flooding on food security in agrarian communities of south eastern Nigeria." International Journal of Hydrology. 2018;2(2):205-212.
Ngowi BV, Tonnang HEZ, Khamis F, Mwangi EM, Nyambo B, Ndegwa PN, Subramanian S. "14.5 Population dynamics of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Its Parasitoids Along Altitudinal Gradients of the Eastern Afromontane." Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods. 2017:231.
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Mburu MM, Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Alexandra Hiscox, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "2-Butanone as a carbon dioxide mimic in attractant blends for the Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus." Malaria journal. 2017;16(1):351.
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Mutai P, Heydenreich M, Thoithi G, Mugumbate G, Chibale K, Yenesew A. "3-Hydroxyisoflavanones from the stem bark of Dalbergia melanoxylon: Isolation, antimycobacterial evaluation and molecular docking." Phytochem. Lett.. 2013;6:671-675.
SWALEH AMIRI, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "3. Androgyny and Women’s Identity in Ari Katini Mwachofi’s Mama Ee." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;1(8):1-12 .
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Chindia ML, Wagaiyu EG, ocholla Tom, Opondo F, Kihara E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. "5. A Thematic Analysis of Utendi wa Mwana Kupona: A Swahili/Islamic Perspective." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;vol. 4(No. 28):Journal of Education and Practice.
Amenya HZ, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Thoithi GN, Gathumbi PK. "A 56-Day Oral Toxicity Study of the Aqueous Extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez in Ratsb." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016;Volume 2016(Article ID 7403087, 10 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7403087).
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TIMAMMY RAYYA. "6. Gender Perspective in Selected English and Kiswahili Stories." The Nairobi Journal of Literature, UoN. 2013;7(1):pgs107-117.
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Upadhyaya MK, Toivonen PMA. "85 Flower formation in Primula vulgaris.". 2002.Website
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Nansen P, Kyvsgaard NC, Thamsborg SM, Munyua WK, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM, Bogh HO. "An abattoir survey of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in the central highlands of Kenya.". 1997. AbstractWebsite

The gastrointestinal tracts of 672 crossbred cattle were obtained from various abattoirs in Kiambu District, Kenya from August 1992 to July 1993, and examined for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. Eight nematode species were found in 583 (86.8%) of the animals. The nematodes were, in order of prevalence: Haemonchus placei (67.0%), Cooperia pectinata (53.0%), Cooperia punctata (41.7%), Oesophagostomum radiatum (38.4%), Trichostrongylus axei (24.3%), Nematodirus helvetianus (19.6%), Trichuris globulosa (9.7%) and Strongyloides papillosus (3.6%). The intensity of the nematode infection was moderate; the mean burden being less than 7000 worms. H. placei accounted, on average, for 52.3% of the total burden. The total burden was least during the dry seasons and increased gradually during the rainy seasons. Adult H. placei persisted in the host throughout the year and there was no indication of hypobiosis. The heaviest gastrointestinal worm burdens were detected in 1.5- to 3-year-old animals. These findings are discussed with regard to their relevance for strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle.

T.M. 26. W, et al. "Abattoirs and echinococcosis and Nairobi dogs." Transactions of the Royal Society Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1994;88:166-167.
Mwaura FM, Tungani JO, Sikuku D, Woomer PL. "Acceptability of cereal banks as a marketing intervention among smallholders in western Kenya.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

A new impetus is emerging with regard to the potential role that agricultural producer associations might play in improving rural economies. For this study, the use of cereal banking to improve accessibility to premium markets was assessed and the factors influencing farmers' decisions to join them were evaluated. The methodology involved a baseline survey of 213 smallholder maize producers in Bungoma district, western Kenya, plus a logit model analysis to predict the probabilities of farmers joining a cereal bank. Membership of other local community-based organizations and the actual harvests achieved strongly influence farmers' decisions to join a cereal bank.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo J, Rogo K, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya." Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 2006;16(2):681-5. Abstract

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Dimba EAO, Yengopal V, Joshua E, Thavarajah R, Balasundaram S. "Access and management of HIV-related diseases in resource-constrained settings: a workshop report." Oral diseases. 2016;22:206-210. Abstract
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Thavarajah R, Joshua E, Balasundaram S, Dimba E, Yengopal V. "Access and management of HIV-related diseases in resource-constrained settings: a workshop report.". 2016. Abstract
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Chamandy L, Frank A, Blackman EG, Carroll-Nellenback J, Liu B, Tu Y, Nordhaus J, Chen Z, Peng B. "Accretion in common envelope evolution." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2018;480:1898-1911. Abstract
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Ejlertsen M, Thamsborg SM, Githigia SM. "Accuracy of an anaemia scoring chart applied on goats in sub-humid Kenya and its potential for control of Haemonchus contortus infections.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

We tested the practical application of an anaemia scoring chart (the FAMACHA© chart) as a method for controlling Haemonchus contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions in a sub-humid area of Central Kenya. The objectives were: (1) to test the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart in identifying anaemic goats (PCV ≤ 18); (2) to quantify the proportion of goats left untreated at farm level when using the chart. On each of two farms, Small East African goats of various ages were allocated to two treatment groups; a FAMACHA© group (F1 (n = 34) and F2 (n = 31) on farms 1 and 2, respectively) and a control group (C1 (n = 34) and C2 (n = 30)). In F1 and F2 goats with a FAMACHA© score of 3, 4 or 5 were treated with anthelmintic after scoring. In C1 and C2 goats were treated every 4 weeks from 15 February to 20 July. Every 2 weeks all goats were scored with the FAMACHA© chart and weighed. Furthermore, faecal samples were collected for faecal egg counts (FEC) and blood samples were collected for packed cell volume (PCV) determination. H. contortus was found to be the predominant nematode on both farms. The mean FECs were higher on farm 1 compared to farm 2, while in contrast the mean PCV levels were lowest on farm 2. The latter was most likely due to the presence of Fasciola spp., flea and tick infections on farm 2. The accuracy of the chart was evaluated by using PCV as the gold standard for anaemia (PCV ≤ 18%). The mean percentage of false-negative scorings per sampling was 0.7% on farm 1 and 1.6% on farm 2, while the mean percentage of false-positive scorings was 9.7% and 21.4%, respectively. It is most likely that the accuracy of the chart was negatively affected by the concurrent parasite infections on farm 2. The mean proportion of untreated goats per sampling was 89% and 77% on farm 1 and farm 2. It was concluded that the FAMACHA© chart can be a valuable tool for decision-making in control of H. contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions, without morbidity or mortality unacceptable to the farmer. The application may further reduce the risk of development of anthelmintic resistance by increasing refugia. However, caution should be taken under conditions where other anaemia-causing parasites are present (e.g. Fasciola spp. and ecto-parasites), since this possibly decreases the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart

Taha SM, El-Nakhal MNS, Ishac YZ. "Acid-fermented vegetables.". 1983.Website
Towett PK, Kanui TI, Ole Maloiy GM, Juma F. "Activation of mu, delta or kappa opioid receptors by DAMGO, DPDPE, U-50488 or U-69593 respectively causes antinociception in the formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Data available on the role of the opioid systems of the naked mole-rat in nociception is scanty and unique compared to that of other rodents. In the current study, the effect of DAMGO, DPDPE and U-50488 and U-69593 on formalin-induced (20 μl,10%) nociception were investigated. Nociceptive-like behaviors were quantified by scoring in blocks of 5 min the total amount of time (s) the animal spent scratching/biting the injected pawin the early (0–5 min) and in the late (25–60 min) phase of the test. In both the early and late phases, administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg of DAMGO or DPDPE caused a naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. U-50488 and U-69593 at all the doses tested did not significantly change the mean scratching/biting time in the early phase. However, in the late phase U-50488 or U-69593 at the highest doses tested (1 or 5 mg/kg or 0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg, respectively) caused a statistically significant and naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. The data showed that mu, delta or kappa-selective opioids causes antinociception in the formalin test in this rodent, adding novel information on the role of opioid systems of the animal on pain regulation.

Towett PK, Kanui TI, Ole Maloiy GM, Juma F, Ole Miaron JO. "Activation of mu, delta or kappa opioid receptors by DAMGO, DPDPE, U-50488 or U-69593 respectively causes antinociception in the formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber." Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2008;91(4):566-572. Abstract

Data available on the role of the opioid systems of the naked mole-rat in nociception is scanty and unique compared to that of other rodents. In the current study, the effect of DAMGO, DPDPE and U-50488 and U-69593 on formalin-induced (20 μl,10%) nociception were investigated. Nociceptive-like behaviors were quantified by scoring in blocks of 5 min the total amount of time (s) the animal spent scratching/biting the injected pawin the early (0–5 min) and in the late (25–60 min) phase of the test. In both the early and late phases, administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg of DAMGO or DPDPE caused a naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. U-50488 and U-69593 at all the doses tested did not significantly change the mean scratching/biting time in the early phase. However, in the late phase U-50488 or U-69593 at the highest doses tested (1 or 5 mg/kg or 0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg, respectively) caused a statistically significant and naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. The data showed that mu, delta or kappa-selective opioids causes antinociception in the formalin test in this rodent, adding novel information on the role of opioid systems of the animal on pain regulation.

Towett PK, Kanui TI, Juma F, Ole Miaron JO. "Activation of mu, delta or kappa opioid receptors by DAMGO, DPDPE, U-50488 or U-69593 respectively causes antinociception in the formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Data available on the role of the opioid systems of the naked mole-rat in nociception is scanty and unique compared to that of other rodents. In the current study, the effect of DAMGO, DPDPE and U-50488 and U-69593 on formalin-induced (20 μl,10%) nociception were investigated. Nociceptive-like behaviors were quantified by scoring in blocks of 5 min the total amount of time (s) the animal spent scratching/biting the injected pawin the early (0–5 min) and in the late (25–60 min) phase of the test. In both the early and late phases, administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg of DAMGO or DPDPE caused a naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. U-50488 and U-69593 at all the doses tested did not significantly change the mean scratching/biting time in the early phase. However, in the late phase U-50488 or U-69593 at the highest doses tested (1 or 5 mg/kg or 0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg, respectively) caused a statistically significant and naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. The data showed that mu, delta or kappa-selective opioids causes antinociception in the formalin test in this rodent, adding novel information on the role of opioid systems of the animal on pain regulation.

Zhao S, Tian H, Ma L, Yuan Y, Yu RC, Ma M. "Activity-{Dependent} {Modulation} of {Odorant} {Receptor} {Gene} {Expression} in the {Mouse} {Olfactory} {Epithelium}." PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69862. AbstractWebsite

Activity plays critical roles in development and maintenance of the olfactory system, which undergoes considerable neurogenesis throughout life. In the mouse olfactory epithelium, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) stably expresses a single odorant receptor (OR) type out of a repertoire of ∼1200 and the OSNs with the same OR identity are distributed within one of the few broadly-defined zones. However, it remains elusive whether and how activity modulates such OR expression patterns. Here we addressed this question by investigating OR gene expression via in situ hybridization when sensory experience or neuronal excitability is manipulated. We first examined the expression patterns of fifteen OR genes in mice which underwent neonatal, unilateral naris closure. After four-week occlusion, the cell density in the closed (sensory-deprived) side was significantly lower (for four ORs), similar (for three ORs), or significantly higher (for eight ORs) as compared to that in the open (over-stimulated) side, suggesting that sensory inputs have differential effects on OSNs expressing different OR genes. We next examined the expression patterns of seven OR genes in transgenic mice in which mature OSNs had reduced neuronal excitability. Neuronal silencing led to a significant reduction in the cell density for most OR genes tested and thinner olfactory epithelium with an increased density of apoptotic cells. These results suggest that sensory experience plays important roles in shaping OR gene expression patterns and the neuronal activity is critical for survival of OSNs.

Muthuma DK, Thoithi GN, Amugune BK, Gathumbi PK. "Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity of Dichloromethane-Methanol Root Bark Extract of Teclea trichocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) in Rats." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2015;18:75-80.
Mudimba TN, Mbaria J, Maitho T, Taderera T. "Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of aqueous extracts of Carpobrotus edulis in Sprague Dawley rats." The Journal of Pharmacology. 2020;9(4):265-269 .
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis. In Textbook of Periodontology Pg 94. 2nd Edition. T.R. Gururaja Rao. All India Publishers and DistributorsCHENNAI (MADRAS) 2001.". In: Book Chapter. African Meteorological Society; 2001. Abstract
This paper gives general information on the location of Kenya, its demography, economy, organisation of health services, general health policy, health financing, oral health infrastructure, problems that hamper health financing and proposals on how to solve these problems. Further, a summary of health status of the Kenyan people is given based on the results of studies. The mean DMFT for the rural and urban populations is low and there is no evidence of an increase or decrease. Similarly, the prevalence of periodontitis is low (1-10%), with no increase. Ulcerative lesions are rare (0.12%). The most common birth defects are cleft lip and palate. Oral cancer is very low, accounting for 2% of all malignancies. Comparative studies have not demonstrated any dramatic change in the frequency of oral cancer for the last 25 years. Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent oral lesion amongst HIV/AIDS patients. In June 2003, Kenya formulated a National Oral Health Policy, which gives direction on how to improve the oral health status of the citizens.
B O, T.M W. "Acute oral toxicity and anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach). Hindawi." Evidence-based Complementary Alternative Medicine. 2020;2020:https:/doi.org/10.1155/2020/5651390.
Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiya AG. "Acute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in Cattle and Mice.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn (Solanaceae), commonly known as the ‘apple of Peru’ is widely associated with livestock poisoning. The clinical signs associated with its poisoning in ruminants appear within 6 hours of ingestion and are circling, tremors of the hind limbs, tachycardia, bloat, convulsions, coma and death. However, there is no published information on the toxicology of this plant in Kenya. This study documents Nicandra physaloides toxicity in two different zero-grazed dairy cattle herds that were inadvertently fed on Napier grass contaminated with Nicandra physaloides. In addition to the case studies, the toxicity of the aqueous extracts from the different parts of Nicandra physaloides was studied under experimental conditions in mice. The 24 hour median lethal dose (LD50) was determined after intra-peritoneal injection (i.p.) of the aqueous extracts of the plant into white Swiss mice and found to be 1820, 2580 and 3620 mg/kg body weight for the leaves, fruits and whole plant respectively. The clinical signs in mice appeared within 30 minutes of inoculation and included coat, decreased locomotor activity, increased respiratory rate, gasping for air and leaping into the air before collapsing into coma and death. There were similarities in the symptoms of the spontaneous poisoning in cattle and in the experimentally induced poisoning in mice.

Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiya AG, Gakuya DW. "Acute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in Cattle and Mice. ." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2009;33: 1-6.
Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Karanja DN, Gakuya DW. "Acute Toxicity Study of Nicandra physaloides(L) Gaertn in mice and cattle." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2009;33:1-6.
Katz MA, Marangu D, Attia EF, Bauwens J, Bont LJ, Bulatovic A, Crane J, Doroshenko A, Ebruke BE, Edwards KM, Fortuna L, Jagelaviciene A, Joshi J, Kemp J, Kovacs S, Lambach P, Lewis KDC, Ortiz JR, Simões EAF, Turner P, Tagbo BN, Vaishnavi V, Bonhoeffer J. "Acute wheeze in the pediatric population: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data." Vaccine. 2019;37(2):392-399.
Thaiya AG, Nyaga PN, Maribei JM, Ngatia TA, Kamau JPM, Kinyuru JM. "Acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity of Solanum incanum L in sheep in Kenya.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

A study was carried out to determine the toxicity of unripe fruits of Solanum incanum L in sheep. The sheep were orally drenched with dried unripe fruits powder of S. incanum L at dose rates varying from 1,200mg to 3,600 mg/Kg /day for 9 weeks. Clinical signs were observed daily while blood with and without anticoagulant was taken weekly for haematological and biochemical analysis. Clinical signs started on day two with bloat. All sheep groups showed bloat and coughing. Signs of cerebellar hyperplasia were manifested in 25%, 75% and 25% of sheep in groups 2, 3, and 4 respectively, manifested by staggering gait, lateral recumbency, leg paddling movements, coma and death. The mortality rate was 25% for group 2 and 100% for groups 3 and 4. All sheep groups had pneumonia, froth in the bronchi, lung emphysema and congestion in the brain, liver and kidneys while groups 3 and 5 had hemorrhagic ulcers on distal abomasum to proximal duodenum and hemorrhagic enteritis from duodenum to colon. On histology, all sheep showed necrosis of the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and Wallerian degeneration of neurons; lung emphysema and interstitial pneumonia, hemorrhagic enteritis, tubular necrosis in the kidneys and hepatocyte necrosis. The results indicate that S. incanum L is highly toxic to sheep and allowing sheep to graze on the plant is dangerous to their health.

Thaiyah AG, Nyaga PN, Maribei JM, Ngatia TA, Kamau JPM, Kinyuru JM. "Acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity of Solanum incanum L in sheep in Kenya." Kenya Veterinarian. 2011;35:1-8. Abstract
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Juma FD, Nganga JN, Mathenge SG, Kato A, Tachibana Y, Ichimaru M, Moriyasu M, Nishiyama Y. "Acyclic triterpenoids from Ekebergia capensis.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

From the dried bark of Ekebergia capensis, two novel acyclic triterpenoids, 2,3,22,23-tetrahydroxy-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-6,10,14,18-tetracosatetraene and 2-hydroxymethyl-2,3,22,23-tetrahydroxy-6,10,15,19,23-pentamethyl-6,10,14,18-tetracosatetraene were isolated, along with known cyclic triterpenoids. The structures of these two new triterpenoids were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

Celum C, Kiarie, J.W, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated
and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to
suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels,
suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV Daily acyclovir therapy did not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1, despite a reduction
in plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.25 log10 copies per milliliter and a 73% reduction in the
occurrence of genital ulcers due to HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00194519

Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2010;362(5):427-39. Abstract

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1.

Tung CS, Chu KM, Tseng CJ, Yin TH. "Adenosine in hemorrhagic shock: possible role in attenuating sympathetic activation." Life Sci.. 1987;41(11):1375-82. Abstract

Changes in plasma purine nucleoside level, autonomic activity and hemodynamic reactions were studied in pentobarbital anesthetized rabbits during hemorrhagic shock. Shock was elicited by bleeding the animals to a mean blood pressure of 40 mmHg and maintained until 60% of the maximum bleeding volume in the reservoir had been taken up spontaneously. The remaining shed blood was reinfused thereafter. Norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), adenosine (AD) and uric acid were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection, fluorometry or UV absorbance. The results showed hemorrhagic shock caused a significant rise in plasma NE, E, AD, and uric acid levels, but the magnitudes and time profiles were different among them. Plasma NE and E increased during the shock compensatory period then declined in the decompensation period whereas adenosine and its metabolite uric acid were elevated persistently during both periods. It is concluded that a balance between autonomic activity and tissue metabolism is important in the maintenance of hemodynamics during shock.

Mwabu G, Tura M, Aredo D, Tsegaye W, TG, Mwangi W. "Adoption and Continued Use of Improved Maize Seeds: Case Study of Ethiopia ." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2010;5(17):2350-2358.
Torsney E, Hu Y, Xu Q. "Adventitial progenitor cells contribute to arteriosclerosis." Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2005;15:64-68. Abstract

Accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of vascular progenitor cells in the development of arteriosclerosis, including transplant arteriosclerosis, angioplasty-induced restenosis, vein graft atherosclerosis, and spontaneous atherosclerosis. Recently, it was found that the adventitia of the arterial wall contains a large number of progenitor cells, which can differentiate into smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo. These progenitor cells were able to migrate from the adventitia into the intima, where they accumulate to contribute to atherosclerotic lesions of vein grafts in apoE-deficient mice. Thus, these cells may be a source of smooth muscle cells and might have implications for cellular, genetic, and tissue engineering approaches to vascular disease.

Wafula EM, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nzanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DT, Ademba GR, Pamba A. "Aetiology of acute respiratory infections in children aged below 5 years in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985.Website
Wafula EM, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nzanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DT, Ademba GR, Pamba A. "Aetiology of acute respiratory infections in children aged below 5 years in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985.Website
Thairu PK. The African and The AIDS Holocaust. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers ; 2007.
M. MJ, Tiagha WE, Mwaura M. "African Banking Systems." a chapter in a book titled MANAGEMENT OF ORGANISATIONS IN AFRICA . 1995;Vol.2 .
Bishop RP, Hemmink JD, Morrison WI, Weir W, Toye PG, Sitt T, Spooner PR, Musoke AJ, Skilton RA, Odongo DO. "The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes." Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2015;4(3):333-42. Abstract

African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. 'Deep 454 pyrosequencing' of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva.

Thairu K. The African Civilization (Utamaduni wa Kiafrika). Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau ; 1978.
Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Kilonzo G, Mburu J, Tarek O. The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. Nairobi: African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF); 2006.the_african_textbook_of_clinical_psychiatry_and_mental_health_2.pdfWebsite
Greenfield C, Wankya BM, Musoke R, Osidiana V, Nyangao J, Tukei PM, Owino N. "An Age Related Point Prevalence Study Of Markers Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection In Kenya.". 1986.Website
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C, Tisdell CA, Sankar U, Srivastava M. "Agricultural Commercialisa tion in Developing Countries, Household Food Consumption and Nutrition: A Kenyan Case Study.". In: Leading Economic Issues: Essays in Honour of Professor Chandra Srivastava. New Delhi: B. R. Publishin g Corporation; 2003.
DN Kareithi, Salifu D, N Owuor, Subramanian S, Tonnang EZH. "An algorithm for data reconstruction from published articles–Application on insect life tables." Cogent Mathematics & Statistics. 2019;6(1):1701377. AbstractWebsite

Data collection in life table experiments is generally time-consuming and costly such that data reconstruction of published information provides an avenue to access the original data for purposes of further investigation. In this paper, we present an algorithm that reconstructs life table raw data using a summary of results from published articles. We present the steps of the development and implementation (in the R computer language) of the algorithm, its scope of application, assumptions, and limitations. Statistical background of the algorithm is also presented. The developed algorithm was then applied to reconstruction of life table data of two insect species, Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca, from published information. Welch’s two-sample t-test was applied to test the difference between the original and reconstructed data of the insect life stages. C. Partellus results were not significantly different, but, for B. fusca, pupa development time, and larva and pupa development rate were significantly different at the 95% confidence level. It is concluded that the algorithm could be used to reconstruct original data sets from cohort life table data sets of insects, given published information and sample sizes.

Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Killeen GF, Knols, B.G.J. "Allomonal effect of breath contributes to differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae." Malaria Journal. 2004;3:1.
Leucci E, Cocco M, Cleef PV, Bellan C, Rijik AV, Falco GD, Onnis A, Joshua Nyagol, Byakika B, Lazzi S, Tosi P, Kricken HV, Leoncini L. "Altered expression of mirnas in c-MYC negative Burkitt lymphoma cases." Virchows Archives. 2007;451(2):119.
Mutembei H, Tsuma V, Kios D. "Alternative Follicle Stimulating Hormone Dose Rate for Embryo Production in Dairy Cattle." Journal of Dairy & Veterinary Sciences. 2019;10(3):1-7.mutembei-kios_2019.pdf
Lund JF;, Carlsen K;, Thorsen BJ. "Alternative indkomster til skovbruget på Vallø Stift.". 2009. Abstract

Denne arbejdsrapport er et af produkterne fra projektet ”Alternative indkomster til skovbruget: Case- og feasibility-studier”. Projektet er finansieret af Skov- og Naturstyrelsen og bliver realiseret af Skov & Landskab, Københavns Universitet, i samarbejde med Centre for Tourism and Culture Management, Handelshøjskolen København. Vallø Stift er en af projektets case-ejendomme og nærværende rapport er et resultat bl.a. af et tæt produktudviklingssamarbejde mellem Vallø Stift, Skov & Landskab og Centre for Tourism and Culture Management. Der blev i Juni 2008 afholdt en temadag på Vallø Stift for at give et praktisk eksempel på en oplevelsesøkonomisk produktudviklingsproces. Vallø Stift har en særlig historie som Kongeligt Frøkenstift for ugifte døtre af dansk adel og med Dronning Margrethe II som nuværende protektor. Vallø Slot kan som ejendom dateres tilbage til 1200-tallet, og det nuværende slot og omkringliggende bygninger kan dateres tilbage til 1700 tallet. Med et jordtilliggende på 4 200 ha er Vallø Stift blandt landets største godser. Ejendommens primære produktion er landbrug og skovbrug. Den sekundære produktion indbefatter bl.a. salg af fødevareprodukter med et særligt Vallø brand, som indbefatter garanti for dyreetisk forsvarlige produktionsmetoder og høj kvalitet. Ejendommen ligger umiddelbart Syd for Køge, skovene har et højt besøgstal, parken, slottet og bygningerne heromkring har en række æstetiske og landskabelige kvaliteter og en spændende historie. Disse egenskaber giver mulighed for at udbyde en række oplevelser, som er særlige for Vallø Stift. Der udbydes allerede nu en række oplevelsesrelaterede produkter på ejendommen. De inkluderer udlejning af jagt, udlejning af arealer til campingplads, tilladelse til fotografering og filmoptagelser omkring hovedbygningen, større selskaber og events i parken, absolut eksklusive arrangementer på slottet, udstedelse af ridekort til skovene samt mulighed for benyttelse af betalingshundeskov. I forbindelse med dette projekt er yderligere muligheder for oplevelsesrelaterede produkter blevet analyseret og i enkelte tilfælde allerede afprøvet. Hen gengives kort en samlet konklusion for de analyserede produkter: - Sæsonmarked: Vallø Stift’s produktion og afsætning af udvalgte kvalitetsfødevarer er allerede i god gænge. Med udgangspunkt i erfaringer indsamlet i dette projekt, fx fra Løndal, vurderes det at det på sigt kan danne rygraden i fx et påskemarked (æg og lam) med fokus på kvalitetsmadvarer - Tematiserede børnefødselsdage: Vallø Stift’s beliggenhed, opland, historie og slottets og skovenes æstetiske kvaliteter er et godt grundlag for denne ydelse. Det vurderes dog, at skal det lønne sig for alvor skal der satses på ret eksklusive versioner og etableres velfungerende samarbejder med en guide/instruktør. - Hundeskove har allerede her under projektet vist sig interessante som nye betalingsydelser målrettet specielle grupper af hundeejere. Det vurderes, at kan man fastholde det gode samarbejde kan der være grundlag for udvidelser både rettet mod almindelige hundeluftere såvel som hundesportsfolk. 3 - Live Rollespil er en mulig udnyttelse af de to pladser i Skovhusvænge. Det vurderes dog, at beliggenhed og rollerspillernes efterspørgsel gør, at en rentabel brug nok primært vil kunne lade sig gøre ved at udleje arealet til enkeltstående lejre og spil. - Mountainbikere anvender ganske ofte Skovhusvænge. Størstedelen af brugerne er ikke organiserede og ikke bosiddende i det umiddelbare opland. Det betyder manglende ejerskabsfølelse og ansvar for lokaliteterne på Vallø, og mulighederne for konstruktive aftaler med og selvjustits blandt brugerne begrænsede. Det vurderes derfor der p.t. ikke er basis for rentable samarbejdsaftaler med de mountainbikere, der bruger området. Muligheden for mountainbikerute kan overvejes når/hvis mountainbikere i/omkring Køge organiserer sig. - Træklatring er en lille niche-sportsgren, der potentielt kan vokse sig større og Skovhusvænge er igen et interessant område. På grund af de store krav til sikkerhed mv. vurderes det, at aktiviteter på dette område alene kan gøres rentable gennem samarbejde med professionelle specialister, som lejer adgang til skovparten. - Eventarrangementer er en mulig videreudvikling af de eksklusive selskabsarrangementer Vallø Stift allerede har. Det vurderes dog at muligheden skal anvendes med omtanke for fortsat at sikre betalingsvilje for netop det eksklusive brand. - Nye aktiviteter omkring campingpladsen kan være med til at øge dens værdi og dermed forpagtningsindtægterne. Skovlegepladser, trætophytter og andre ting er mulige måder at differentiere campingpladsen fra andre, men det vurderes som en risikabel investering umiddelbart.

Mwangi JW, P. K. Gathumbi, Kibwage IO, Thoithi GN, Oketch-Rabah HA. "Alternative medicines and prostate enlargement-Prunus africana emphasis." Pharm. J. Kenya. 2001;(March):26-31.
Ross N, Iwuoha EI, Ikpo CO, Baker P, Njomo N, Mailu SN, Masikini M, Matinise N, Tsegaye A, Mayedwa N, Waryo T, Ozoemena KI, Williams A. "Amplification of the discharge current density of lithium-ion batteries with spinel phase Li (PtAu) 0.02 Mn1. 98O4 nano-materials." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:178-183. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
In this study the synergistic and catalytic properties of a novel nano-composite cathode material of nominal composition Li(M)xMn2-xO4 (M = Pt-Au; x # 0.2) has been explored. Li(PtAu)xMn2-xO4 nanomaterial for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIB) was synthesized by incorporation of the Pt-Au (1:1) nanoparticles onto the spinel phase LiMn2O4. Ultra-low scan rate (0.01 mV s−1) cyclic voltammetry of the cathode material in 1 M LiPF6 (in 1:1 EC:DMC), showed four sets of redox peaks, which reflect the typical redox process of the active material in the spinel structure due to lithium intercalation and deintercalation. The Li/Li(PtAu)0.02Mn1.98O4 cell had less polarization as it effectively accommodates the structural transformation during Li+ ion charge and discharge. The Li(PtAu)0.02Mn1.98O4 cathode showed an increase in discharge currents densities with an exchange current density, i0, value of 2.8 × 10−4 A cm−2 …

Epiu I, Tindimwebwa JV, Tindimwebwa JV, Mijimbi C, Chokwe T, Lugazia E, Ndarugirire F, Twagirumugabe T, Dubowitz G. "Anaesthesia in Developing countries ." Value in Health . 2015;18(7):A679.
Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5(3):104-110.
Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Wahome RG,... "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." … Pollution and Human …. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Clean air is important for human health and well-being, air pollution has increased in many parts worldwide and thus posing a significant threat people's health. In Kenya, the traffic police officers who constantly un covered stand on road junctions continuously expose …

Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K, Michael Gatari. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5:104-110. Abstract
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Mukaria SM, Thenya T, Raphael G Wahome, Karatu K, Michael Gatari. "Analysis and Perception of Health Impact of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Traffic Police in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5(3):104-110.
Mukabana, W.R., Takken W, Knols, B.G.J. "Analysis of arthropod blood meals using molecular genetic markers." Trends in Parasitology. 2002;18:505-509.
L K, WR M, WA H, T L, LW I, Orago AA, FH C. "Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatellite loci." Insect molecular biology. 1999;8(2):287-297. AbstractPubMed link

We analysed genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae populations using microsatellite loci to determine whether the Rift Valley restricts the flow of genes. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were significant, and were most likely to be due to the high frequency of null alleles observed. An. arabiensis populations occurring between 40 and 700 km apart across the Eastern arm of the Rift Valley were not differentiated (pair-wise F(ST) range: 0.0033-0.0265, P > 0.05). Neither were An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Ghana (F(ST): 0.0063, P > 0.05) despite a geographical separation of about 5000 km. In contrast, significant differentiation was observed between An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Kilifi (about 700 km apart; F(ST) = 0.1249, P < 0.01), suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow.

Kaua, CG., Thenya, Mutune JM. "Analysis of Informal Microfinance Institutions Structures in Relation to Performance in Tharaka South Subcounty, Kenya. ." European Journal of Sustainable Development . 2020;9(3):457-475.
Thuo AK, Kimenju JW, Kariuki GM, Karuku GN, Wendot PK, Melakeberhan H. Analysis of nematode assemblage in Kenyan Vertisol, Cambisol and Arenosol soil groups: II- Diversity, abundance and seasonal variations-a. Cape Town- South Africa on May 2014 ; 2014.
Thuo AK, Kimenju JW, Kariuki GM, Karuku GN, Wendot PK, Melakeberhan H. Analysis of nematode assemblage in Kenyan Vertisol, Cambisol and Arenosol soil groups: II- Edaphic factors influencing nematode communities-b. CAPE TOWN ON MAY 2014 ; 2014.
THUKU FM, Butt F, Guthua SW, Chindia M. "An Anatomic study of the Facial Nerve Trunk and Branching Pattern in an African population." J. CranioMaxillofacial Trauma and Reconstruction Open (CMTR Open 2018). 2018:e31-e37.
Okahara M, Kiyosue H, Mori H, Tanoue S, Sainou M, Nagatomi H. "Anatomic variations of the cerebral arteries and their embryology: a pictorial review." European radiology. 2002;12:2548-2561. AbstractWebsite
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T A, L O, I O, I O, J O’o. "Anatomical Pattern of Dorsal Metatarsal Arteries in a black Kenyan Population." J Morphol Sci. 2019. Abstract

Introduction Knowledge of anatomical variations in the origin and in the course of the dorsal metatarsal arteries (DMTAs) is valuable for many procedures, including reconstructive surgeries and flap selection. However, there is a paucity of data on these arteries among black Africans. Materials and Methods The present study studied the origin and the location of DMTAs in 30 formalin-fixed cadaveric feet of adult black Kenyans at the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Results Dorsal metatarsal arteries were present in all of the cases. Of the right dorsalis pedis artery (DPA), in the majority of the cases, the 1st DMTA arose as the continuation of the DPA, while the 2nd to 4th DMTAs were given off as branches from the arcuate artery (AA). On the left feet, in the majority of the cases, the 1st DMTA arose as the continuation of the DPA, while the rest were given off as branches from the AA. In relation to the dorsal interossei muscles, all of the the arteries were either within the muscle fibers (53%) or beneath them (47%), on the right side. On the left side, the 1st DMTA was above the muscles in 40% of the cases; within the muscles in 53%; and beneath the muscles in 7%. The 2nd and 3rd DMTAs were above the muscles in 57% and in 53% of the cases, respectively. Conclusion These results reveal that the DMTAs show variation in their origin and position relative to the dorsal interossei muscles. These variations display bilateral asymmetry.

J O’o, J M, I O, T A. "Anatomical Variations of the Fifth Lumbar Artery in a sample Kenyan population." Ann Afr surg. 2022;19(2):100-107. AbstractWebsite

bstract
Background: Anatomical variations of lumbar arteries predispose them to iatrogenic injury during endovascular intervention or surgery. Due to limited morphological data on lumbar arteries in our setting, we aimed to determine their variant anatomy among Kenyans.

Methods: We performed the study on 90 cadaveric specimens and 120 computed tomography (CT) scans. Cadavers were dissected to expose the aorta and the lumbar arteries emerging from them. The number, origins, location relative to the vertebral bodies, and relations to aortic bifurcation were determined in cadavers and CT scans. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 21.0).

Results: On average, 3 (3/90 [3.3%]), 4 (63/90 [70%]) or 5 (24/90 [26.7%]) pairs of lumbar arteries were observed among the cadaveric specimens, whereas 4 (100/120 [83.3%]) or 5 (20/120 [16.7%]) pairs were observed in CTs. Differences in the number of pairs observed in the cadaveric versus CT study were not statistically significant (P = .542). There were no sex differences in the number of lumbar artery pairs observed in CT scans (P = .178). The first 3 lumbar artery pairs had a single-origin, whereas the fourth lumbar artery had a common-stem origin. The first, second, and third lumbar arteries mostly originated at the upper third of their respective vertebral bodies. The fourth lumbar artery predominantly originated at the lower third.

Conclusion: Our study's findings show unique variation in the lumbar arteries' relation to the vertebral bodies and the distances between artery pairs.

Level of evidence: IV (cross-sectional study).

Clinical relevance: Variations in the anatomy of the lumbar arteries should be taken into consideration, especially in surgical or interventional procedures to avoid inadvertent injury of the vessels.

Turney BW. "Anatomy in a {Modern} {Medical} {Curriculum}." Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England. 2007;89:104-107. AbstractWebsite

Anatomy in undergraduate education has been in decline for many years. Some suggest that it has fallen below a safe level. Balances between detail and safety, and assimilation and application of anatomy have yet to be established as the methods of teaching undergo another metamorphosis. For doctors, the human body is the focus of investigation and intervention on a daily basis; for this reason, the study of anatomy in some form will continue to be essential to safe medical practice. It is necessary for core knowledge of anatomy to be assimilated by all doctors in order to practice and communicate safely. It may be true that most doctors do not need to dissect a cadaver or study a prosection in order to practice, but if it can improve their understanding of what they do and why they do it, this surely has to be of benefit both for the safety of the patient and satisfaction of the doctor as a professional. Integration of newer teaching modalities and modern technology will encourage interest and retention of anatomical knowledge and its clinical relevance. Anatomy has a promising future in postgraduate specialist and surgical training. Detailed knowledge should be integrated into specialist training when it is clinically relevant allowing specialists of the future to practice safely and accurately and also to provide a strong base for future clinical developments.

Mweu MM, Nielsen SS, Halasa T, Toft N. "Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2012;106:244-250. Abstractinc_prev_paper.pdf

Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd-level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, ˇ, and recovery rate for S. agalactiae infection.
Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed. There was an increasing trend in both the incidence and prevalence of S. agalactiae over the study period. Per 100 herd-years the value of ˇ was 54.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.0–63.7); entry rate 0.3 (95% CI 0.2–0.4); infection-related exit rate 7.1 (95% CI 5.6–8.9); non-infection related exit rate 9.2 (95% CI 7.4–11.5) and recovery rate 40.0 (95% CI 36.8–43.5). This study demonstrates a need to tighten the current controls against S. agalactiae in order to lower its incidence.

Nderitu JH, Kabira J, Tigoni David Kipkoech, MKU T, Mathenge S. ANNUAL PLANNING WORKSHOP FOR NCST SEED POTATO PROJECT. THIKA: KARI; 2013.annual_planning_workshop_for_ncst_seed_potato_project_final.pdf
Tole NM. "Anomalies in the radiation output of a new x-ray tube.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

Cavity ionization methods have been employed to show that the amOUI1l of X-radiation produced by a newly installed x-ray tube was grossly reduced. Qualitative information based on the techniques of radiological photography suggests that there was no fault with the kilovoltage generator and that the tube was therefore the source of the anomaly. Observations of tube current avalanche and sparking at high potentials provide further clue as to the nature of the fault. A discussion of the possible causes of the anomaly is presented. This study demonstrates that, when specialised equipment for detecting the origin of some faults in x-ray machines is not available, radiation dosimetry and sensitometry can provide a most useful alternative.

Vogel JP, Oladapo OT, Pileggi-Castro C, Adejuyigbe EA, Althabe F, Ariff S, Ayede AI, Baqui AH, Costello A, Chikamata DM, Crowther C, Fawole B, Gibbons L, Jobe AH, Kapasa ML, Kinuthia J, Kriplani A, Kuti O, Neilson J, Patterson J, Piaggio G, Qureshi R, Qureshi Z, Sankar MJ, Stringer JSA, Temmerman M, Yunis K, Bahl R, Gülmezoglu AM. "Antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of imminent preterm birth in low-resource countries: the case for equipoise and the need for efficacy trials." British Medical Journal Global Health. 2017;2(3). AbstractWebsite

The scientific basis for antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) for women at risk of preterm birth has rapidly changed in recent years. Two landmark trials-the Antenatal Corticosteroid Trial and the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids Trial-have challenged the long-held assumptions on the comparative health benefits and harms regarding the use of ACS for preterm birth across all levels of care and contexts, including resource-limited settings. Researchers, clinicians, programme managers, policymakers and donors working in low-income and middle-income countries now face challenging questions of whether, where and how ACS can be used to optimise outcomes for both women and preterm newborns. In this article, we briefly present an appraisal of the current evidence around ACS, how these findings informed WHO's current recommendations on ACS use, and the knowledge gaps that have emerged in the light of new trial evidence. Critical considerations in the generalisability of the available evidence demonstrate that a true state of clinical equipoise exists for this treatment option in low-resource settings. An expert group convened by WHO concluded that there is a clear need for more efficacy trials of ACS in these settings to inform clinical practice.

Keywords: antenatal corticosteroids; neonatal mortality; preterm birth.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Onyambu CK, Tharamba NM. "Antenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Anomalies on Ultrasound Screening.". In: Midwifery. London: IntechOpen; 2021.
Thoithi, G.N., Maingi, N., Gathumbi, P.K., Mwangi, J.W., Kibwage IO. "The anthelmintic activity of extracts from some medicinal plants of Kenya.". In: 9th Symposium of the Natural Product Research Network for Eastern and Central Africa (NAPRECA). Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
Thoithi, G.N., Maingi, N., Karume, D., Gathumbi, P.K., Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO. "Anthelmintic and other pharmacological activities of the root bark extracts of Albizia anthelmintica Brongn." The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2003;5:60-66.2003._anthelmintic_and_other_pharmacological_activities_of_the_root_bark_extracts_of_albizia_anthelmintica_brongn.pdf
Thoithi GN, Maingi N, Karume D, Gathumbi PK, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO. "Anthelmintic and other pharmacological activities of the root bark extracts of Albizia anthelmintica Brongn." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2002;5:60-66.
Thoithi, G.N., Maingi N, Karume D, Gathuma PK, J.W. M, Kibwage IO. "Anthelmintic and other pharmacological activities of the root bark extracts of Albizia anthelmintica Brongn. ." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2002;5(3):60-66.
Bjørn, H., Maingi N, Thamsborg SM. "Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep and goats in Denmark.". In: 24th Inter Norden Sheep Conference. .Aarhus, Denmark.; 1996.
Maingi N, Bjørn H, Thamsborg SM, Bøgh HO, Nansen P. "Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Denmark." Small Ruminant Research. 1997;23:171-181.1997._anthelmintic_resistance_in_nematode_parasites_of_sheep_in_denmark.pdf
Oglesby L, Ananga A, Obuya J, Ochieng J, Cebert E, Tsolova V. "Anthocyanin accumulation in muscadine berry skins is influenced by the expression of the MYB Transcription factors, MybA1, and MYBCS1." Antioxidants. 2016;5(4):35.
Oglesby L, Ananga A, Obuya J, Ochieng J, Cebert E, Tsolova V. "Anthocyanin accumulation in muscadine berry skins is influenced by the expression of the MYB Transcription factors, MybA1, and MYBCS1." Antioxidants. 2016;5(4):35.
Tohamy SA, Abdel Malek AK, Hassan FZ, Abdel Baky A. "Anthropometric characteristics of the mentally retarded children.". 1990.Website
Tarkang PA, Okalebo FA, Ayong LS, Agbor GA, Guantai AN. "Anti-malarial activity of a polyherbal product (Nefang) during early and established Plasmodium infection in rodent models." Malaria Journal. 2014;13:DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-456. Abstract2014_-_antimalarial_activity_of_polyherbal_nefang.pdf

Background: The emerging resistance of Plasmodium species to currently available anti-malarials remains a public health concern, hence the need for new effective, safe and affordable drugs. Natural products remain a reliable source of drugs. Nefang is a polyherbal anti-malarial of the Cameroonian folklore medicine with demonstrated in vitro antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities. It is composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, Ocimum gratissimum (leaves). This study aimed at investigating the suppressive, prophylactic and curative activities of Nefang in Plasmodium infected rodent models.

Methods: Systemic acute oral toxicity of Nefang aqueous and ethanol extracts was assessed in mice up to a
dose of 5,000 mgkg−1 body weight. BALB/c mice and Wistar rats were inoculated with Plasmodium chabaudi
chabaudi and Plasmodium berghei, respectively, and treated with Nefang, the Mangifera indica bark/Psidium
guajava combination and a Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extracts (75, 150, 300 and 600 mgkg−1 bwt). Their
schizonticidal activity was then evaluated using the Peter’s 4-day suppressive test). The prophylactic and curative (Rane’s Test) activity of Nefang was also evaluated by determining the parasitaemia, survival time, body weight and temperature in pre-treated rodents.

Results: Acute oral toxicity of the extract did not cause any observed adverse effects. Percent suppressions of
parasitaemia at 600 mgkg−1 bwt were as follows (P. berghei/P. chabaudi): Nefang – 82.9/86.3, Mangifera indica bark/Psidium guajava leaf combination extract – 79.5/81.2 and Psidium guajava leaf – 58.9/67.4. Nefang exhibited a prophylactic activity of 79.5% and its chemotherapeutic effects ranged from 61.2 – 86.1% with maximum effect observed at the highest experimental dose.

Conclusion: These results indicate that Nefang has excellent in vivo anti-malarial activities against P. berghei
and P. chabaudi, upholding earlier in vitro antiplasmodial activities against multi-drug resistant P. falciparum
parasites as well as its traditional use. Hence, Nefang represents a promising source of new anti-malarial
agents.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Nefang, Acute toxicity, Malaria, In vivo antiplasmodial activity, Suppressive
activity, Prophylactic activity, Curative activity, Combination phytotherapy

Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Tankeo SB, Seukep JA, Voukeng IK, Dzotam JK, Isemeki J, Derese S, Omolle RA, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Antibacterial activities and structure–activity relationships of a panel of 48 compounds from Kenyan plants against multidrug resistant phenotypes." SpringerPlus. 2016;5(1):1-15.
Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Tankeo SB, Seukep JA, Voukeng IK, Dzotam JK, Isemeki J, Derese S, Omolle RA, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Antibacterial activities and structure–activity relationships of a panel of 48 compounds from Kenyan plants against multidrug resistant phenotypes." SpringerPlus. 2016;5(1):1-15. AbstractFull text link

In the current study forty eight compounds belonging to anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, benzoquinones, flavonoids (chalcones and polymethoxylated flavones) and diterpenoids (clerodanes and kauranes) were explored for their antimicrobial potential against a panel of sensitive and multi-drug resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations on the tested bacteria were conducted using modified rapid INT colorimetric assay. To evaluate the role of efflux pumps in the susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria to the most active compounds, they were tested in the presence of phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN) (at 30 µg/mL) against selected multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria. The anthraquinone, emodin, naphthaquinone, plumbagin and the benzoquinone, rapanone were active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of bacteria with MIC values ranging from 2 to 128 μg/mL. The structure activity relationships of benzoquinones against the MDR Gram-negative phenotype showed antibacterial activities increasing with increase in side chain length. In the chalcone series the presence of a hydroxyl group at C3′ together with a methoxy group and a second hydroxyl group in meta orientation in ring B of the chalcone skeleton appeared to be necessary for minimal activities against MRSA. In most cases, the optimal potential of the active compounds were not attained as they were extruded by bacterial efflux pumps. However, the presence of the PAβN significantly increased the antibacterial activities of emodin against Gram-negative MDR E. coli AG102, 100ATet; K. pneumoniae KP55 and KP63 by >4–64 g/mL. The antibacterial activities were substantially enhanced and were higher than those of the standard drug, chloramphenicol. These data clearly demonstrate that the active compounds, having the necessary pharmacophores for antibacterial activities, including some quinones and chalcones are substrates of bacterial efflux pumps and therefore should be combined to efflux pump inhibitors in the fight against MDR bacterial infections.

Keywords:

Anthraquinones Benzoquinones Chalcones Antibacterial activities Multidrug resistance Efflux pump inhibitor

Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Tankeo SB, Seukep JA, Voukeng IK, Dzotam JK, Isemeki J, Omolle RA, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Antibacterial Activity and Structure-Activity Relationships of a Panel of 48 Compounds from Kenyan Plants against Multidrug Resistant Phenotypes." SpringerPlus. 2016;5:901.omosa_et_al._springerplus_paper.pdf
Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Mugo HN, Kibwage. IO. "Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Dombeya torrida ( J. F. Gmel) and Hydnora abyssinica (A. Braun)." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2014;3(1):14-18.
Kibwage IO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Mugo HN. "Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Dombeya torrida (J.F. Gmel) and Hydnora abyssinica (A. Braun)." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2014;3(2303-9841):14-18.abstract.pdf
Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Antibacterial and antifungal study of Dombeya torrida (J.F. Gmel) and Hydnora abyssinica (A. Braun). ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2014;3(1):14-18.
Wanjala W Cornelius, Teresa Akeng'a, George O Obiero, Lutta KP. "Antifeedant Activities of the Erythrinaline Alkaloids from Erythrina latissima against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera noctuidae)." Records of Natural Products. 2009;3(2):96. Abstract

The antifeedant activities of the Erythrina alkaloids from the seeds, seed pods and flowers of Erythrina latissima were investigated in laboratory dual-choice bioassays using third-instar Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae. The new compound (+)-11β-methoxy-10-oxoerysotramidine (1) from the flowers, showed potent dose dependant activity at concentration 500≥ ppm while (+)-10, 11-dioxoerysotramidine (2) also new from the flowers showed potent dose dependant activity at concentration 100≥ ppm. Three known compounds (+)-erysotrine,(+)-erysotramidine,(+)-erythraline,(+)-11β-hydroxyerysotramidine showed potent dose dependant antifeedant activity at concentrations 100≥ ppm while (+)-10, 11-dioxoerysotrine and (+)-11βhydroxyerysotramidine also a known compounds showed potent dose dependant antifeedant activity at concentrations 300≥ ppm. Three known compounds (+)-11β-methoxyerysotramidine,(+)-8-oxoerythraline and (+)-15 (16) β-D-glucoerysodine showed no appreciable change in antifeedant activity with concentration change.

Amugune BK, Thoiti GN, Mwangi JW, Omosa LK, Kibwage IO. "Antimicrobial Activity and Bioactive Constituents of Alectra sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze Methanol Extract." 3. 2013;16(1026-552X):61-68.alectra_sessiliflora.pdf
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, L.K.Omosa, Kibwage IO. "Antimicrobial Activity and Bioactive Constituents of Alectras sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze Methanol Extract." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 2013;16 :61-68.amugune_et_al.pdf
Matasyoh LG, Matasyoh JC, Wachira FN, Kinyua MG, Muigai Thairu AW, TK. M. "Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum L. from different populations of Kenya." Afr. J. Trad. CAM . 2008;5(2):187-193.
Maima AO, Ndwigah SN, Thoithi GN, Kamau FN, Kibwage IO. "Antimicrobial Properties of Some Medicinal Plants of the Luo Community of Kenya." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2014;3(4):112-115.
Gichangi PB, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ombete J, Nagelkerke NJ, Temmerman M. "Antimicrobial prophylaxis in pregnancy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with cefetamet-pivoxil in pregnant women with a poor obstetric history." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1997;177(3):680-4. Abstract

This study was undertaken to measure the impact of a single oral dose of cefetamet-pivoxil on pregnancy outcome in a population with substantial rates of low birth weight and high prevalence rates of maternal infections.

T.M.Munyao. ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY IN CHOLERA IN KENYA.. NAIROBI: NAIROBI; 1986.
Gichuki H.K., Nyamu DG, Amugune BK, T M. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria that infect diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2018;7(2):34-40.
Claeys G, Taelman H, Gichangi P, Tyndall M, Ombete J, Verschraegen G, Temmeperman M. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from men with urethritis in Kenya." Sex Transm Infect. 1998;74(4):294-5.
Weinberg GA, Spitzer ED, Murray PR, Ghafoor A, Montgomery J, Tupasi TE, Granoff DM, EM W. "Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Haemophilus isolates from children in eleven developing nations. BOSTID Haemophilus Susceptibility Study Group." Bull. World Health Organ.. 1990;68(2):179-84. Abstract

The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 426 isolates of Haemophilus species, which were collected as part of a worldwide study of the etiology of acute respiratory disease in children in selected developing countries, were determined. Eleven antibiotics were tested using the recently described Haemophilus Test Medium. There was a low prevalence of antibiotic resistance; 6% of strains were resistant to ampicillin, and 1.6% were resistant to chloramphenicol. Strains resistant to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol were recovered only from Thailand. Susceptibility to penicillin G was also determined; the minimum inhibitory concentrations for penicillin and ampicillin were concordant within one 2-fold dilution in 97% of the isolates. Thus, Haemophilus isolates were as susceptible to penicillin G as they were to ampicillin, and penicillin resistance was infrequent overall. These data provide support for the current protocols for the management of acute respiratory infections in children in developing countries, in which penicillin G is a first-line agent.

KARIUKI HELLENNYAMBURA. ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITIES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS USING ANIMAL MODELS. Titus I. Kanui PD, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Pain represents the symptom for the diagnosis of several diseases conditions and is widely accepted as one of the most important determinants of quality of life. Plants have been claimed to have analgesic effects by several communities in East Africa and a great number of the people use plants for management of painful conditions.

The aim of this study was to establish the antinociceptive activities of nine plants used in traditional medicine as a painkiller using tail flick test.

Of the nine plants tested in the tail flick test, the root extracts of Toddalia asiatica, Senna singueana and Rhus natalensis showed significant antinociceptive effects at dose 200 mg / kg while T. asiatica at 100 mg / kg dose exhibited highly significant effect (p < 0.001) compared to the control animals and this was comparable to the reference drug morphine (5 mg / kg).

In the hot plate test Senna singuaenae at 200 mg / kg dose showed significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive effect while Toddalia asiatica roots extract showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) compared to the vehicle treated mice. The antinociceptive effect of T. asiatica was comparable to that of morphine (5 mg / kg) and of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) (100 mg / kg).
In this study the acetic acid induced writhing test was used to screen the roots and leaves of T. asiatica, plant parts that are commonly used in traditional medical practice. The percentage inhibition was higher (56.3%) at 100 mg / kg of the roots compared to (46.21%) the dose of 200 mg /kg of the leaf extract suggesting that the roots is more potent than the leaf extract. The results also indicated that T. asiatica has peripheral pain modulatory effect.
Roots extract of T. asiatica at 200 mg / kg caused significant antinociceptive effects in the early phase of the formalin test while the 100 mg / kg extract caused a highly significant antinociceptive effect in the late phase. This was comparable to that of the reference drugs indomethacin (50 mg / kg) and ASA (100 mg / kg). The formalin test results suggest that T. asiatica roots extract has both peripheral and central sites of action.
The results of the present study indicate that the roots extracts of T. asiatica possess antinociceptive activity in chemical, thermal, and inflammatory models of pain and that the effects of the extract showed dose-dependent antinociceptive effects. The effects were comparable to those of the reference drugs used ASA, morphine and indomethacin.
The observed antinociceptive effects of T. asiatica roots extract are due to the presence of biologically active chemical compounds in the extracts. In order to identify the active compounds, the roots extract of T. asiatica was fractionated by column chromatography roots and the fractions tested for activity. The polar and non-polar fractions both exhibiting similar antinociceptive activities. The antinociceptive effects of the fractions were comparable to the effects of the morphine and ASA in the tail flick test. The hexane/ dichloromethane (1:1) fraction showed very highly significant antinociceptive effects (p < 0.001) with 50 mg / kg and the 100 mg / kg doses compared to the vehicle treated animals. This effect was comparable to that of ASA and morphine which were used as positive controls. The antinonociceptive effects of the polar fractions (dichloromethane / methanol; 1:1) were also highly significant (p < 0.001) with the 50 mg / kg while the 100 mg / kg dose being highly significant (p < 0.01). However, the fractions with moderate polarity (the fraction eluted with dichloromethane) did not show significant effect compared to the vehicle treated animals.
The roots extract of T. asiatica fractions were purified and yielded seven compounds, four alkaloids and three coumarins. The coumarins, labeled as HK 3 (Isopimpinellin) and HK 5 (6-(3-methylbut-2enyloxy)-8-methoxy2h-chromen-2-one), showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the tail flick test while HK 6 (6,7-dimethoxy-5-(3-methyl-2-oxobutyl) HK7 (8-Acetonyldihydrochelerythrine) and HK 18 (6-(2, 3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-5,7-dimethoxy-2H-chromen-2-one)) had significant antinociceptive effects compared to the vehicle treated animals. The alkaloids HK 15 (8-oxochelerythrine) and HK 13 (dihydrochlerythrine) showed very highly significant antinociceptive effects with HK 13 showing the most potent antinociceptive effects in the tail flick test. The structure elucidation of compounds of Toddalia asiatica was done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
The compound HK 6 is a new compound and it exhibited significant antinociceptive effects when compared to the vehicle treated controls. Compound HK13 (dihydrochlerythrine) was for the first time isolated from T. asiatica and the structure ellucidated. It is also the first time the compound has been assayed for antinociception and exhibited very highly significant effects. No motor, neurological, or other behavioral deficits were observed with the extracts as well as the compounds of T. asiatica.
Data obtained from this study established the analgesic properties of the crude extracts of which the roots of T. asiatica was he most active. From this plant the active compounds have been isolated and identified withdihydrochlerythrine, being the most active compound. More tests to evaluate on the safety and toxicity on dihydrochlerythrine and related compounds need to be conducted in animals before conventional clinical trials can be undertaken.
This study therefore authenticates the use of Toddalia asiatica in the management of pain since it contains compounds which have shown antinociceptive activities.

Key words:
Antinociception, Toddalia asiatica, mice, alkaloid, coumarin, antinococeptive, dihydrochlerythrine

Tarkang PA, Atchan APN, Kuiate J-R, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Agbor G. "Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value." Adv. Pharmacol. Sci.. 2013;Article ID 678458.
Machumi F, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich M, Kleinpeter E, Khan S, Tekwani BL, Walker LA, Muhammad I. "Antiparasitic and anticancer carvotacetone derivatives from Sphaeranthus bullatus.". 2012.Website
T-S. F, M. DRGUANTAIERIC, M. N, et al. "Antiplasmodial and antitumor activity of dihydroartemisinin analogs derived via the aza-Michael addition reaction." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.. 2011;21 :2882-2886. Abstract

A series of dihydroartemisinin derivatives were synthesized via an aza-Michael addition reaction to a dihydroartemisinin-based acrylate and were evaluated for antiplasmodial and antitumor activity. The target compounds showed excellent antiplasmodial activity, with dihydroartemisinin derivatives 5, 7, 9 and 13 exhibiting IC50 values of 610 nM against both D10 and Dd2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Derivative 4d was the most active against the HeLa cancer cell line, with an IC50 of 0.37 lM and the highest tumor specificity.

Yenesew A, Twinomuhwezi H, Kabaru JM, Akala HM, Kiremire BT, Heydenreich M, Peter. "Antiplasmodial and larvicidal flavonoids from Derris trifoliata.". 2009.Website
Yenesew A, Twinomuhwezi H, Kabaru JM, Akala HM, Kirimire B, Heydenreich M, Peters MG, Eyase FL, Waters NC, Walsh DS. "Antiplasmodial and larvicidal flavonoids from Derris trifoliata." Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2009;23(3):001-006.
Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Application of differential equation modelsto the population dynamics of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid - Diadegma semiclausum (Helllen).". In: The 5th International Workshop on “Management of Diamondback Moth and other Crucifer Insect Pests”. Beijing, China; 2007.
Mary T. Simiyu, Nyongesa FW, Birech Z, Njenga L, Ilin N, Thomas F. Krauss, Pitruzzello G, Aduda BO. "Application Of Molasses In Improving Water Purification Efficiency Of Diatomaceous Earth-Waste Ceramic Membranes.". In: EAI International Conference on Innovations and Interdisciplinary Solutions for Underserved Areas (INTERSOL 2022) . Nile University Of Nigeria Abuja ; 2022. Abstract

The World Health Organization predicts that 90.0% of the 2.3 million people who die annually due to water-borne diseases come from developing countries. At the same time fluorosis occurrence in the world’s geological fluoride belts has left many people maimed due to drinking highly fluoridated water. This work reports on the use of molasses in making carbon-activated diatomaceous earth waste (DE-waste) ceramic membranes with improved mechanical strength and water purification efficiency. The fabricated diatomaceous membranes were soaked in molasses for 24.0 hours and fired at 600.0 for 3.0 hours. The carbon-activated membranes were used to filter water contaminated with Escherichia coli, Rotavirus, and sodium fluoride. The activated carbon obtained in this work had a bulk density of 450.0 kg/m3 and it reduced the porosity of the DE-waste membranes by 18.0%. The activated carbon improved the modulus of rupture (MOR) of the DE-waste membrane by 47.8% and the average pore size of the active DE-waste membrane was 18.4 nm. The filtration process was found to be dependent on the contaminant’s size, concentration, and the external pressure applied to the water during the filtration process. The filtration efficiency of >99.9 in E. coli was concentration and pressure. Membranes reported efficiency of 97.1% and 98.9% in deflouridation and Rotavirus filtration. Thus, molasses is potential material in fabrication of water membranes

E.M N, P.M.F M, J.M G, T.M W. "Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan.". 2000. Abstract

Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 67:251-255 A study was done to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts in goats using ultrasonography. A total of 1 390 goats were examined, 43,6 % (606/1390) of them from north-western Turkana, Kenya, and 56,4 % (784/1390) from Toposaland, southern Sudan. Hydatid cysts were visualized in 1,82 % (11/ 606) of the goats from north-western Turkana and 4,34 % (34/784) of those from Toposaland. Unlike abattoir surveys, the prevalence data obtained in this study were unbiased because entire flocks were examined. The lower prevalence rate of the disease in goats from Turkana was attributed to the hydatid disease control programme in that area, which is absent in Toposaland. Keywords: Goats, hydatid cysts, Kenya, north-western Turkana, prevalence, southern Sudan, Toposaland

H. A, T. T. Applying Genetic Algorithm to Labeling. Nairobi, Kenya; 1997.
Zachariah R, Reid T, Van den Bergh R, Dahmane A, Kosgei RJ, Hinderaker SG, Tayler-Smith K, Manzi M, Kizito W, Khogali M, Kumar AMV, Baruani B, Bishinga A, Kilale AM, Nqobili M, Patten G, Sobry A, Cheti E, Nakanwagi A, Enarson DA, Edginton ME, Upshur R, Harries AD. "Applying the ICMJE authorship criteria to operational research in low-income countries: the need to engage programme managers and policy makers." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2013;18(8):1025-8.applying_the_icmje_authorship_criteria_to_operational_research_in_low-income_countries_the_need_to_engage_programme_managers_and_policy_makers.pdf
Ocholla S, Jumba G, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Wadegu MO, Mukunzi S, Majanja JM, Opot B, Osuna F, Muthoni J, Njiri J, Mwangi J, Kibet K, Coldren R. The Appropriateness of WHO influenza B vaccine component to Kenya in 2011-2012. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: In the 1980’s, influenza B viruses were discovered to belong to two evolutionary groupings (B/Victoria/2/87-like viruses and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses) that continue to co-circulate globally in the human population. These viruses exist as independent lineages. Information about lineage of circulating influenza B viruses in a country is important for determination of the appropriateness of either a trivalent or a quadrivalent vaccine composition for that country.Objective: To genetically analyze the HA1 of influenza B viruses isolated in Kenya during the 2011-2012 season with reference to WHO vaccine strains recommended for Kenya.Method: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens obtained from patients meeting WHO definition criterion for ILI were screened by real-time PCR for influenza B viruses. Influenza B virus positive samples were inoculated onto MDCK cells and the lineages of the isolates determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI). To confirm the lineages, HA1 gene segments of selected isolates were amplified by PCR and sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics tools.Results: Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all the 24 influenza B viruses that circulated between 2011- 2012 were closely related to B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine Strain. Comparison of the HA1 amino acid sequences of influenza B viruses with the reference vaccine strain (B/Brisbane/60/2008 lineage) revealed substitutions at 19 amino acid positions. FLU-MBG-11-02-010 had R188K amino acid change in the 120-loop antigenic receptor binding site relative to B/Brisbane vaccine reference strain. FLU-MBG-12-05-011 had V124I amino acid change in the 120-loop antigenic receptor binding site relative to the vaccine reference strain. The majority (87.5%) had I146V/A amino acid change in the 150-loop antigenic receptor binding site. All the Kenyan isolates had D197N amino acid change in the 190-helix antigenic receptor site. The other fifteen positions that showed polymorphisms were outside of the antigenic sites with these mutations being randomly distributed among the isolates.Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that the WHO vaccine strain recommendations for the southern hemisphere were appropriate for use in Kenya.

Mans BJ, Featherston J, Kvas M, Pillay K-A, de Klerk DG, Pienaar R, de Castro MH, Schwan TG, Lopez JE, Teel P, others. "Argasid and ixodid systematics: implications for soft tick evolution and systematics, with a new argasid species list." Ticks and tick-borne diseases. 2019;10:219-240. Abstract
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Mans BJ, Featherston J, Kvas M, Pillay KA, de Klerk DG, Pienaar R, de Castro MH, Schwan TG, Lopez JE, Teel P, others. Argasid and ixodid systematics: Implications for soft tick evolution and systematics, with a new argasid species list. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 10: 219–240.; 2019. Abstract
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Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C. "arital Status, Farm Size and other Influences on the Extent of Cash Cropping in Kenya: A Household Case Study." Indian Development Review. 2004;2(2):205-221.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Lwande W, Hassanali H. "Aromatic plants of Kenya II: Volatile constituents of leaf oil of Psiadia punculata (D.C.) Vatke." J. BiochemiPhysics. 1999;8:32-33.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Addae-Mensah I, Achenbach H, Lwande W, Hassanali. H. "Aromatic plants of Kenya III: Volatile and some non-volatile constituents of Croton sylvaticus." H. Hassanali.. 1998;1:41-43.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Addae-Mensah I, Achenbach H, undefined, Hassanali H. "Aromatic plants of Kenya IV: Volatile and some non-volatile constituents of the stem bark of Synadenium compactum NE Br. Var. compactum." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 1999;1(1):5-7.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka-Volterra model." Ecological Modelling . 2008;220:60-70.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka–Volterra model." Ecological Modelling. 2009;220(1):60-70. Abstract

The Lotka–Volterra model was applied to the population densities of diamondback moth
(DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) and its exotic larval parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum
(Hellen) data that was collected earlier by icipe's DBM biological control team. The
collections were done for 15 months before the release and 36 months after release of the
parasitoid in two areas; in Werugha, Coast Province of Kenya and Tharuni, Central Province
of Kenya, respectively. For each area in pre-and post-release periods, we estimated Lotka ...

Ogendo KN, Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ, Tweya H, Kizito W, Murkomen B, Ogutu O. "Assessment of Community Led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93.
Muthumbi W, De Boever P, D'haese I, D'hooge W, Verstraete W, Comhaire F, Pieters JG, Top EM. "Assessment of the estrogenic activity of flue gases from burning processes by means of the yeast based human estrogen receptor (hER) bioassay.". 2002.Website
Kavoo DM, Ali SH, Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ, Tweya H, Kizito W, Ogutu O, Tauta CN. "An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely collected data in Machakos County, Kenya ." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
Narang S., Seawright J.A., T.K. M, N.L.Willis. "Assignment of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase to chromosome 2 of Anopheles albimanus.Can." J.Genet.Cytol. 1983;25:567.
Folayan MO, Tantawi ME, Schroth R, Kemoli AM, Gaffar B, Amalia R, Feldens CA. "Association between environmental health, ecosystem vitality and early childhood caries." Front Pediatr. 2020;2020; 8:196.(2020; 8:196.):2020; 8:196.
Hori D, Tsujiguchi H, Kambayashi Y, Kitaoka M, et al. "The association between lifestyles and mental health using General Health Questionnaire 12-items are different dependently on age and sex: a population-based cross-sectional study." Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 2016;21(6):410-421.
Folayan M, Tantawi ME, Schroth RJ, Vukovic A. "Associations between early childhood caries and malnutrition and anaemia: a global perspective." BMC Nutrition J. 2020;2020:=;6:16.(2020:=;6:16.):2020:=;6:16.
Yadav G, Saskin R, Ngugi E, Kimani J, Keli F, Fonck K, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M, Moses S, others. "Associations of sexual risk taking among Kenyan female sex workers after enrollment in an HIV-1 prevention trial." JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2005;38:329-334. Abstract
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Malonza I, Keli F, Kaul R, Kimani J, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA, Temmerman M, Moses S. "Asymptomatic STDs and HIV Among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2000. Abstract
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Mwaniki JM, TIMAMMY RAYYA, Ndung'u MN. "Athari za Mtagusano Kati ya Jamii na Ekolojia Katika Ushairi wa Mberia: BaraJingine na Rangi ya Anga." East African Journal of Swahili Studies. 2019;Volume 4(1):23-34.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Athari za Ndani na za Kilimwengu: Ujenzi wa Jadi ya Ushairi wa Kiswahili." . https:// creative commons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ . 2017:116-132.
Falk E, Thim T, Kristensen IB. "Atherosclerotic plaque, adventitia, perivascular fat, and carotid imaging." JACC. Cardiovascular imaging. 2009;2:183-186. Abstract
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Virmani R, Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, Finn AV, Gold HK, Tulenko TN, Wrenn SP, Narula J. "Atherosclerotic {Plaque} {Progression} and {Vulnerability} to {Rupture} {Angiogenesis} as a {Source} of {Intraplaque} {Hemorrhage}." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2005;25:2054-2061. AbstractWebsite

Observational studies of necrotic core progression identify intraplaque hemorrhage as a critical factor in atherosclerotic plaque growth and destabilization. The rapid accumulation of erythrocyte membranes causes an abrupt change in plaque substrate characterized by increased free cholesterol within the lipid core and excessive macrophage infiltration. Neoangiogenesis is associated closely with plaque progression, and microvascular incompetence is a likely source of intraplaque hemorrhage. Intimal neovascularization is predominantly thought to arise from the adventitia, where there are a plethora of pre-existing vasa vasorum. In lesions that have early necrotic cores, the majority of vessels invading from the adventitia occur at specific sites of medial wall disruption. A breech in the medial wall likely facilitates the rapid in-growth of microvessels from the adventitia, and exposure to an atherosclerotic environment stimulates abnormal vascular development characterized by disorganized branching and immature endothelial tubes with “leaky” imperfect linings. This network of immature blood vessels is a viable source of intraplaque hemorrhage providing erythrocyte-derived phospholipids and free cholesterol. The rapid change in plaque substrate caused by the excessive accumulation of erythrocytes may promote the transition from a stable to an unstable lesion. This review discusses the potential role of intraplaque vasa vasorum in lesion instability as it relates to plaque rupture.

Virmani R, Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, Finn AV, Gold HK, Tulenko TN, Wrenn SP, Narula J. "Atherosclerotic {Plaque} {Progression} and {Vulnerability} to {Rupture} {Angiogenesis} as a {Source} of {Intraplaque} {Hemorrhage}." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2005;25:2054-2061. AbstractWebsite

Observational studies of necrotic core progression identify intraplaque hemorrhage as a critical factor in atherosclerotic plaque growth and destabilization. The rapid accumulation of erythrocyte membranes causes an abrupt change in plaque substrate characterized by increased free cholesterol within the lipid core and excessive macrophage infiltration. Neoangiogenesis is associated closely with plaque progression, and microvascular incompetence is a likely source of intraplaque hemorrhage. Intimal neovascularization is predominantly thought to arise from the adventitia, where there are a plethora of pre-existing vasa vasorum. In lesions that have early necrotic cores, the majority of vessels invading from the adventitia occur at specific sites of medial wall disruption. A breech in the medial wall likely facilitates the rapid in-growth of microvessels from the adventitia, and exposure to an atherosclerotic environment stimulates abnormal vascular development characterized by disorganized branching and immature endothelial tubes with “leaky” imperfect linings. This network of immature blood vessels is a viable source of intraplaque hemorrhage providing erythrocyte-derived phospholipids and free cholesterol. The rapid change in plaque substrate caused by the excessive accumulation of erythrocytes may promote the transition from a stable to an unstable lesion. This review discusses the potential role of intraplaque vasa vasorum in lesion instability as it relates to plaque rupture.

Faxon DP, Fuster V, Libby P, Beckman JA, Hiatt WR, Thompson RW, Topper JN, Annex BH, Rundback JH, Fabunmi RP, Robertson RM, Loscalzo J. "Atherosclerotic {Vascular} {Disease} {Conference} {Writing} {Group} {III}: {Pathophysiology}." Circulation. 2004;109:2617-2625. AbstractWebsite
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THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "Atieno F.O. , Robin Reid and Njoka J.T. And E. Harris 2002: Land use trends and their effects on range vegetation; the case of Greater Amboseli Ecosystem: Paper presented at the Annual GL-CRSP Conference in Guadalajara, Mexico, 16th - 18th March 2002.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2002. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
Bose S, Yap L-F, Fung M, Starzcynski J, Saleh A, Morgan S, Dawson C, Chukwuma MB, Maina E, Buettner M, Wei W, Arrand J, Lim PVH, Young LS, Teo SH, Stankovic T, Woodman CBJ, Murray PG. "The ATM tumour suppressor gene is down-regulated in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma." J. Pathol.. 2009;217(3):345-52. Abstract

A micro-array analysis using biopsies from patients with EBV-positive undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and from cancer-free controls revealed down-regulation of tumour suppressor genes (TSG) not previously associated with this disease; one such gene was the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. Q-PCR confirmed down-regulation of ATM mRNA and ATM protein expression in tumour cells was weak or absent in almost all cases. In NPC cell lines, however, ATM was down-regulated only in the EBV-positive line, C666.1, and in none of five EBV-negative lines. In vitro infection of EBV-negative NPC cell lines with a recombinant EBV was followed by the down-regulation of ATM mRNA and protein, and only EBV-positive cells showed a defective DNA damage response following gamma-irradiation. Our data suggest that loss of ATM function could be an important step in the pathogenesis of NPC, and may have implications for the treatment of this disease.

Murray PG, Woodman CB, Stankovic T, Teo SH, Young LS, Lim PV, Arrand J, Wei W, Buettner M, Maina E, others. "The ATM Tumour Suppressor Gene Is Down-regulated In EBV-associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.". 2009. Abstract
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TOM DONDICHO. "Attitudes of Maasai pastoralists towards Amboseli National Park.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Mila,7: 49-56.; 2006.
TOM DONDICHO. "Attitudes of Maasai pastoralists towards Amboseli National Park.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Mila,7: 49-56.; 2006. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
JW A, AG T, TO A, CM M. "Atypical Actinobacillosis in a cow. A case report. Bull." Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. . 2011;50:471-473.
Tanaka K, Nagata D, Hirata Y, Tabata Y, Nagai R, Sata M. "Augmented angiogenesis in adventitia promotes growth of atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein {E}-deficient mice." Atherosclerosis. 2011;215:366-373. Abstract

{OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests that exaggerated formation of vasa vasorum (VV) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether augmented angiogenesis in the adventitia could promote hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerotic lesion formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we analyzed the time course of VV development in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. VV proliferation was observed only after atherosclerotic lesion formation. Next, we investigated whether forced perivascular angiogenesis could promote plaque progression. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (100 μg/body) incorporated in acid gelatin hydrogel microspheres (AGHM) (bFGF+AGHM group

Mwangi J, Ndithia HK, Kentie R, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2018. Abstract
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Ndithia HK, Versteegh MA, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2019. Abstract
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Temu CK, F.J.Gichaga. "Axle Load Study along the Nairobi-Thika Road (A2) ." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(2).
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