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THUITA MRTHENYA. "Thenya, T., 1997:Landuse Dynamics of the Ewaso Ngi'ro system, Effects on Biodiversity Conservation and Tourism Management: A Biodiversity review, "Paper for KWS from a study carried out under a link between Laikipia Research Programme (Nanyuki) and Kenya.". In: Proc. Of the 9th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya. PP 176-178,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract

Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.

Thuita FM, Mwadime RK, Wang'ombe JK. "Influence of Access to Microfinance Credit by Women on Household Food Consumption Patterns in an urban low income setting in Nairobi, Kenya." European International Journal of Science and technology. 2013;2(3):79-88.microfinance_credit.pdf
THUKU FM, Butt F, Guthua SW, Chindia M. "An Anatomic study of the Facial Nerve Trunk and Branching Pattern in an African population." J. CranioMaxillofacial Trauma and Reconstruction Open (CMTR Open 2018). 2018:e31-e37.
Thumbi SM, Samuel M, Jung'a, Joseph O, Mosi, Reuben O, McOdimba F. "Spatial distribution of African Animal Trypanosomiasis in Suba and Teso districts in Western Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Background: Studies on the epidemiology of African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) rarely consider the spatial dimension of disease prevalence. This problem is confounded by use of parasitological diagnostic methods of low sensitivity in field surveys. Here we report a study combining highly sensitive and species specific molecular diagnostic methods, and Geographical information system (GIS) for spatial analysis of trypanosome infection patterns, to better understand its epidemiology. Blood samples from 44 and 59 animals randomly selected from Teso and Suba districts respectively were screened for trypanosomes using PCR diagnostic assays. Spatial distribution of the positive cases was mapped and average nearest neighbour analysis used to determine the spatial pattern of trypanosome cases detected. Findings: Trypanosome prevalence of 41% and 29% in Suba and Teso districts respectively was observed. T. vivax infections were most prevalent in both areas. Higher proportions of T. brucei infections (12%) were observed in Suba, a known sleeping sickness foci compared with 2% in Teso. Average nearest neighbour analysis showed the pattern of trypanosome infections as random. An overlay with tsetse maps showed cases lying outside the tsetse infested areas, mostly being cases of T. vivax which is known to be transmitted both biologically by tsetse and mechanically by biting flies. Conclusion: These findings suggest a need to design control strategies that target not just the biological vector tsetse, but also the parasite in cattle in order to clear the possibly m

Thumbi S, Amimo JO, Inyangala BO, Junga JO, Mosi RO. "Socio-economic characteristics and perceptions of cattle keepers and constraints to cattle production in Western Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

A cross-sectional survey was done in two Districts in Western Kenya to determine the socio-economic characteristics and perceptions of the cattle types kept. This involved socio-economic profiles of households, herd structure, reasons for keeping specific types of cattle and production and marketing constraints together with desired policy interventions to address the constraints. A total of 210 farmers randomly selected were interviewed. The data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System program. The majority of farmers (84%) were males. The households surveyed had an average family size of 8 (± 4.7) members. The mean land holding was 7.8 acres, with 98% of them owning the land. Most of the farmers (64%) in the two districts were literate and were involved in farming (95%) as the primary livelihood. The majority (80%) of the households preferred keeping indigenous zebu cattle over the exotic cattle. The first three reasons for keeping zebu cattle were, in that order, work, especially ploughing (91%), milk (74%) and as a repository for wealth (32%), which accounted for about 62% of the respondents. Diseases (86%), inadequate and low quality feed (12%) and high cost of drugs (2%) were the major constraints to livestock productivity. The farmers also identified lack of market (48%), poor infrastructure (39%) and misuse by the middlemen traders (12%) as main marketing constraints. The survey showed that there is need for the effective implementation of policies on adequate financial aid and regulation of farm input prices to the farmers as well as improved livestock extension services to enhance the production of ruminant livestock.

THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Karugia J. T. (2003). A Micro-level Analysis of Agricultural Intensification in Kenya: The Case of Food Staples. Final Report, Lund University, Sweden.". In: Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. African Meteorological Society; 2003. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Kimenju, Simon Chege, Hugo De Groote, Joseph T. Karugia, Stephen Mbogoh and David Poland (2005). .". In: Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. African Meteorological Society; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Thuo S, Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W. "Job scheduling in grid computing using simulated annealing.". 2012. Abstract
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THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Otieno D.J., Willis Oluoch-Kosura, Joseph T. Karugia, Adam G. Drucker and J.E.O. Rege (2006) .". In: Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. African Meteorological Society; 2006. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Thuo JKN, Aleri JW, Kitaa JMA, Mulei CM. "Seasonality and occurrence of canine babesiosis in Nairobi and its environs in changing climatic patterns." Kenya Veterinarian. 2014;38:18-23. Abstract
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THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Karugia, Joseph T. (1990). .". In: Proceedings of 23rd International Conference of Agricultural Economics, Sacramento, California in August 10-16, 1997. African Meteorological Society; 1990. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Karugia, Joseph T. (1997). .". In: Proceedings of 23rd International Conference of Agricultural Economics, Sacramento, California in August 10-16, 1997. African Meteorological Society; 1997. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Thuo AK, Kimenju JW, Kariuki GM, Karuku GN, Wendot PK, Melakeberhan H. Analysis of nematode assemblage in Kenyan Vertisol, Cambisol and Arenosol soil groups: II- Diversity, abundance and seasonal variations-a. Cape Town- South Africa on May 2014 ; 2014.
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Phiri, P.M., J.T. Karugia and W.A. Oluoch-Kosura (2001). .". In: In Proceedings of a workshop on ``Food Distribution Networks in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA)" held at the Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, August 20th 2002. African Meteorological Society; 2001. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Thuo BM, Thoithi GN, Maingi N, Ndwigah SN, Gitari RN, Otieno RO. "In vitro anthelmintic activity of Albizia gummifera, Crotalaria axillaris, Manilkara discolor, Teclea trichocarpa and Zanthoxylum usambarense using sheep nematodes." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(1):38-42.
Thuo DN, Junga JO, Kamau JK, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githui KE. "Population Viability Analysis of Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya." Journal of Biodiversity and Endanger Species. 2015;3:150.
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Karugia, J. T., Stephen K. Wambugu and Willis Oluoch-Kosura (2002) .". In: In Proceedings of a workshop on ``Food Distribution Networks in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA)" held at the Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, August 20th 2002. African Meteorological Society; 2002. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Willis Oluoch-Kosura and Joseph T. Karugia (2005). .". In: Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. African Meteorological Society; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Thuo JW. Media Framing of Women Politicians in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2012.
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Maina, Paul Guthiga, Joseph T. Karugia and Rose Nyikal (submitted). "The Effect of Using Animal Traction on Maize Production Efficiency on Smallholder Farms in Central Kenya: A Case of Kirinyaga District" submitted to Agricultural Economics.". In: Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. African Meteorological Society; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Joseph Karugia, Willis Oluoch-Kosura, Rose Nyikal, Michael Odumbe and Paswell P. Marenya (2006) .". In: Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. African Meteorological Society; 2006. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Mbogoh, S., M. O. Odhiambo, and J. Karugia (1993). .". In: Proceedings of 23rd International Conference of Agricultural Economics, Sacramento, California in August 10-16, 1997. African Meteorological Society; 1993. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Thuo AK, Kimenju JW, Kariuki GM, Karuku GN, Wendot PK, Melakeberhan H. Analysis of nematode assemblage in Kenyan Vertisol, Cambisol and Arenosol soil groups: II- Edaphic factors influencing nematode communities-b. CAPE TOWN ON MAY 2014 ; 2014.
Thuo DN, Kamau JM, Kariuki MW, Kibegwa FM, Kimiti KS, Amimo JO, Githui EK. "Genetic assessment of a breeding population of black rhinoceros in Kenya using mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequencing." Genetics and Molecular Research. 2019;18(2):1-11.
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Karugia, J. T., Okeyo A. M., Kaitho, R., Wollny, C. , Drucker, A. and Rege, J.E.O. (2001). Economic Analysis of Crossbreeding Programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Conceptual Framework and Kenyan Case Study. Animal Genetic Resources Research Report No. 2.". In: In Proceedings of a workshop on ``Food Distribution Networks in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA)" held at the Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, August 20th 2002. African Meteorological Society; 2001. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Nyangito, Hezron, and Joseph Karugia. (2002) .". In: In Proceedings of a workshop on ``Food Distribution Networks in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA)" held at the Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, August 20th 2002. African Meteorological Society; 2002. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Thuo DN, Junga JO, Kamau JM, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githui KE. "Biodiversity & Endangered Species Population Viability Analysis of Black Rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis michaeli ) in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya." J Biodivers Endanger Species. 2015;3:1-5. Abstract

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THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Karugia, J. T., Stephen K. Wambugu and Willis Oluoch-Kosura (2005). .". In: Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. African Meteorological Society; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Wanyoike, F.N., J.T. Karugia and L.N. Kimenye (submitted). .". In: Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. African Meteorological Society; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Stella Nabwile Makokha, Joseph Karugia, Steve Staal, and Oluoch-Kosura (2006) .". In: Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. African Meteorological Society; 2006. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Karugia, Joseph T. (1992). .". In: Proceedings of 23rd International Conference of Agricultural Economics, Sacramento, California in August 10-16, 1997. African Meteorological Society; 1992. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Karugia, Joseph T. and Michele Veeman (1998). .". In: Proceedings of 23rd International Conference of Agricultural Economics, Sacramento, California in August 10-16, 1997. African Meteorological Society; 1997. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Karugia, Joseph T. (2002). .". In: In Proceedings of a workshop on ``Food Distribution Networks in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA)" held at the Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, August 20th 2002. African Meteorological Society; 2002. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Thuo J K, N KF, et al. "“Customer Relationship Management Practices and the Marketing Productivity of Commercial Banks in Kenya”,.". In: : 3rd African International Business and Management Conference (AIBUMA). Nairobi; 2012.
THURMAN TR, RICE J, IKAMARI L, B.JARAB, MUTUKU AK, NYANGARA F. The difference interventions for guardians can make: Evaluation of the Kilifi Orphans and Vulnerable Children Project in Kenya. Washington, DC.: United States Agency for International Development (USAID); 2009.ovc_kilifi.doc
THUU MRKIMANISAMUEL. "Effects of single daily khat (Catha edulis) extract on spatial learning and memory in CBA mice.Kimani ST, Nyongesa AW. Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: PMID: 18588917 [PubMed - in process]. Kiama SG, Bhattacharjee J, Kiama TN and Mwangi DK.; 2008. Abstract
This study investigated the effects of fresh khat extract on learning and memory in CBA mice. A total of 20 male CBA mice, weighing 20-30 g, 5-6 weeks old were administered intraperitoneally with a single daily dose of khat extract for 5 days. The animals were divided into four groups, each comprising five animals. The first three groups were administered three doses (40, 120 and 360 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract, respectively. The last group served as controls and was administered with 0.5 ml normal saline intraperitoneally. The animals were then subjected to Morris water maze (MWM) task performance. Moderate and high doses (120 and 360 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract significantly impaired (P<0.05) while low dose (40 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract did not have a significant effect on CBA mice acquisition learning. The high dose of khat extract significantly (P<0.05) improved while moderate and low doses impaired accuracy for spatial memory of the platform location. This study has shown that khat extract has selective effect on spatial learning and memory, with low dose having no effect on learning but impairing memory, whereas high dose impairs learning but improves memory.
TI K, F K, KIPKEMOI TOWETPHILEMON. "The formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber): Analgesic effects of morphine, nefopam and paracetamol." Brain Research. 1993;600(1):123-126. AbstractScience Direct

The present experiments were initiated to study the effects of morphine, nefopam and paracetamol in the naked mole-rat, a hairless rodent that lives in subterranean colonies of up to 300, following the inability to demonstrate morphine analgesia in the hot-plate test in the rodent. The formalin test was used. Injection of 20 microliters 10% formalin produced two periods of high licking and pain behaviour, the early (0-5 min) and the late phase (15-60 min). Morphine (10 or 20 mg/kg), nefopam (10 or 20 mg/kg) and paracetamol (200 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the two phases. Paracetamol (400 mg/kg) produced significant analgesia only during the late phase. It is concluded that, unlike in the hot-plate test, it is possible to demonstrate the analgesic effects of morphine in the naked mole-rat, in the formalin test.

Tian N, Copenhagen DR. "Visual {Stimulation} {Is} {Required} for {Refinement} of {ON} and {OFF} {Pathways} in {Postnatal} {Retina}." Neuron. 2003;39:85-96. AbstractWebsite

ON and OFF pathways separately relay increment and decrement luminance signals from retinal bipolar cells to cortex. ON-OFF retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are activated via synaptic inputs onto bistratified dendrites localized in the ON and OFF regions of the inner plexiform layer. Postnatal maturational processes convert bistratifying ON-OFF RGCs to monostratifying ON and OFF RGCs. Although visual deprivation influences refinement of higher visual centers, no previous studies suggest that light regulates either the development of the visual-evoked signaling in retinal ON and OFF pathways, nor pruning of bistratified RGC dendrites. We find that dark rearing blocks both the maturational loss of ON-OFF responsive RGCs and the pruning of dendrites. Thus, in retina, there is a previously unrecognized, pathway-specific maturation that is profoundly affected by visual deprivation.

Tian J, Hu S, Sun Y, Yu H, Han X, Cheng W, Ban X, Zhang S, Yu B, Jang I-K. "Vasa vasorum and plaque progression, and responses to atorvastatin in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis: contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and intravascular ultrasound study." Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2013;99:48-54. Abstract

{OBJECTIVES: To serially investigate the relationship between vasa vasorum (VV) proliferation and plaque progression in vivo, and the effects of atorvastatin on VV and atherosclerosis as assessed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. METHODS: Carotid atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits with a high-cholesterol diet for 20 weeks and balloon injury. At week 16, following the imaging of the right common carotid arteries by CEUS and IVUS, 20 rabbits were randomised into a control or atorvastatin group (2 mg/kg/day). At week 20, CEUS and IVUS were repeated. Normalised maximal video-intensity enhancement (MVE) was calculated to quantify the density of VV. Plaque volume was determined by IVUS. RESULTS: When compared with the control group, lipid levels were not significantly lower following 4 weeks of atorvastatin administration. The increases in the normalised MVE over time were greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). The increase in plaque volume from 16 to 20 weeks was significantly greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). There was a positive relationship between changes in normalised MVE and plaque volume (r=0.72

Tian N, Copenhagen DR. "Visual {Deprivation} {Alters} {Development} of {Synaptic} {Function} in {Inner} {Retina} after {Eye} {Opening}." Neuron. 2001;32:439-449. AbstractWebsite

Visual deprivation impedes refinement of neuronal function in higher visual centers of mammals. It is often assumed that visual deprivation has minimal effect, if any, on neuronal function in retina. Here we report that dark rearing reduces the light-evoked responsiveness of inner retinal neurons in young mice. We also find that 1 to 2 weeks after eye opening, there is a surge ({\textgreater}4-fold) in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic events in ganglion cells. Dark rearing reversibly suppresses this surge, but recovery takes {\textgreater}6 days. Frequency changes are not accompanied by amplitude changes, indicating that synaptic reorganization is likely to be presynaptic. These findings indicate there is a degree of activity-dependent plasticity in the mammalian retina that has not been previously described.

Tian N. "Visual experience and maturation of retinal synaptic pathways." Vision Research. 2004;44:3307-3316. AbstractWebsite

The retinal synaptic network continues its maturational refinement after eye opening in mammals. This synaptic refinement is reflected in changes of retinal neuron synaptic activity and connectivity. In mature retina, the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of retina are separated into ON or OFF sublamina. At early developmental stage, however, the dendrites of most RGCs are ramified throughout the IPL. Recently we found that the postnatal maturational processes converting bistratified ON–OFF responsive RGCs to monostratified ON and OFF responsive RGCs depend upon visual stimulation after eye opening.

Tian J, Hu S, Sun Y, Yu H, Han X, Cheng W, Ban X, Zhang S, Yu B, Jang I-K. "Vasa vasorum and plaque progression, and responses to atorvastatin in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis: contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and intravascular ultrasound study." Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2013;99:48-54. Abstract

{OBJECTIVES: To serially investigate the relationship between vasa vasorum (VV) proliferation and plaque progression in vivo, and the effects of atorvastatin on VV and atherosclerosis as assessed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. METHODS: Carotid atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits with a high-cholesterol diet for 20 weeks and balloon injury. At week 16, following the imaging of the right common carotid arteries by CEUS and IVUS, 20 rabbits were randomised into a control or atorvastatin group (2 mg/kg/day). At week 20, CEUS and IVUS were repeated. Normalised maximal video-intensity enhancement (MVE) was calculated to quantify the density of VV. Plaque volume was determined by IVUS. RESULTS: When compared with the control group, lipid levels were not significantly lower following 4 weeks of atorvastatin administration. The increases in the normalised MVE over time were greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). The increase in plaque volume from 16 to 20 weeks was significantly greater in the control group than in the atorvastatin group (p=0.001). There was a positive relationship between changes in normalised MVE and plaque volume (r=0.72

Tian N. "Visual experience and maturation of retinal synaptic pathways." Vision research. 2004;44:3307-3316. Abstract

The retinal synaptic network continues its maturational refinement after eye opening in mammals. This synaptic refinement is reflected in changes of retinal neuron synaptic activity and connectivity. In mature retina, the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of retina are separated into ON or OFF sublamina. At early developmental stage, however, the dendrites of most RGCs are ramified throughout the IPL. Recently we found that the postnatal maturational processes converting bistratified ON-OFF responsive RGCs to monostratified ON and OFF responsive RGCs depend upon visual stimulation after eye opening.

Tian J, Hou J, Xing L, Jia H, Zhang S, Yu B, Jang I-K. "{SIGNIFICANCE} {OF} {INTRAPLAQUE} {NEOVASCULARIZATION} {FOR} {VULNERABILITY}: {OPTICAL} {COHERENCE} {TOMOGRAPHY} {STUDY}." Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012;59:E1439. AbstractWebsite
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Tibuhwa DD, Muchane MN, Masiga CW, Mugoya C, Muchai M, Amarathus MP, Allen EB, Allen MF, Helm DJ, Trappe JM, others. "Macrofungal diversity of Ardahan and Igdir province (Turkey)." Journal of Biological Sciences. 1998;11:47-62. Abstract
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Tibuhwa DD, Nyawira M, Masiga CW, Mugoya C, Muchai M. "An inventory of macro-fungi and their diversity in the serengeti-masai mara ecosystem, Tanzania and Kenya." J Biol Sci. 2011;11:399-410. Abstract
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Tieman SB. "Effects of monocular deprivation on geniculocortical synapses in the cat." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1984;222:166-176. Abstract

In monocularly deprived (MD) cats, many cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) but few cells in the visual cortex respond to input from the deprived eye, suggesting that the connections to visual cortex from the deprived geniculate laminae may have been disrupted. I have examined these connections in MD cats by using electron microscopic autoradiography of visual cortex after injections of tritiated lysine into single laminae of LGN. After injections into either deprived or experienced laminae, there was label over terminals that contained mitochondria and round synaptic vesicles and that made asymmetric contacts with dendritic profiles. However, the terminals of deprived afferents differed from those of experienced afferents. They were 25% smaller, contained 33% fewer mitochondria, were more likely to make synapses that were presynaptically convex (and thus, perhaps, immature), and synapsed onto smaller spines. These morphological changes were greater for afferents to upper layer IV than for afferents to lower layer IV. The geniculocortical synapses from deprived laminae were also reduced in number. To correct for variations in injection size and for a probable reduction in protein synthesis by cells in the deprived laminae, I computed the ratio of labeled synaptic terminals to labeled myelinated axons. Injections into the deprived laminae labeled 43% fewer synaptic terminals per labeled myelinated axon than did injections into the experienced lamina. The finding that the synaptic terminals of deprived afferents are both abnormal morphologically and fewer in number can help to explain the reduced effectiveness of the deprived eye in driving cortical cells.

Tilahun Y, Soliman K, Lawrence KS, Cseke LJ, Ochieng JW. "Nuclear ribosomal DNA diversity of a cotton pest (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in the United States." Afr. Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(18):3217-3224.2008_tilahun_et_al_ajb.pdf
Timammy GBJR&. "Uchanganuzi linganishi wa Suala la Maadili kwa Vijana wa Kiume katika Tenzi mbili: Siraji na Adili in Mwanga wa Lugha ." Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha nyingine za Kiafrika Chuo Kikuu cha Moi Juzuu. 2017;1(2):133-147 .
and Timammy JHR. "Politeness among the Swahili of Mombasa: A family perspective." Mwanga wa Lugha - Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha nyingine za Kiafrika Chuo Kikuu cha Moi . 2018;2(2412-6993):35-53 .
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Mshairi Mcheza kwao Lakini asiyetuzwa.". In: Swahili International Conference. Mombasa Kenya; 2013.
TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. Riwaya ya Kiswahili (BSW 308) . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
and Timammy JHR. "The State of Kiswahili in Kenya and Challenges of Its Implementation as an Official Language." Asian Journal of African Studies, Institute of African Studies, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies . 2018;44(2466-1821):47-65 .
Timammy R, Oduor J. "The Treatment of Kiswahili in Kenya’s Education System." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2016;5(2224-1655):174-194.
Timammy R, Nyamasyo E, Wasamba P. "Historia za maisha binafsi kutoka kwale.". 1999.Website
TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. "4. Characterization and the Construction of Gender Identity in John Habwe’s Maumbile si Huja." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;vol. 1(No. 9):1-18 .
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Rununu kama Chombo cha Uendelezaji wa Ushairi na Kiswahili kwa Ujumla.". In: Ukuzaji na Maendeleo ya Kiswahili: Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbalimbali. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ; 2014.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Athari za Ndani na za Kilimwengu: Ujenzi wa Jadi ya Ushairi wa Kiswahili." . https:// creative commons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ . 2017:116-132.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "6. Gender Perspective in Selected English and Kiswahili Stories." The Nairobi Journal of Literature, UoN. 2013;7(1):pgs107-117.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Thematic Analysis of Utendi wa Mwanakupona: A Swahili/Islamic Perspective.". In: Institut National des Langues et civilization (INALCO). Paris; 2013.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Ushairi katika Siasa Lamu.". In: Kiswahili, Utangamano na Maendeleo Endelevu Afrika Mashariki. Zanzibar: Kamisheni ya Kiswahili ya Afrika Mashariki; 2019.
TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. "5. A Thematic Analysis of Utendi wa Mwana Kupona: A Swahili/Islamic Perspective." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;vol. 4(No. 28):Journal of Education and Practice.
Timmermans AJM, Ambuko J, Belik W, Huang J. Food losses and waste in the context of sustainable food systems. CFS Committee on World Food Security HLPE; 2014. Abstract
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Timu, A. G., Mulwa, J.K, Okello, J.J., Kamau M. "The role of varietal attributes on adoption of improved seed varieties: the case of Sorghum in Kenya." Agriculture & Food Security. 2014;3(9):1-7.
Tina LD, Omoni G, Lee K, WAKASIAKA S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M. "A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi.". 2013. Abstract

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills. an uncontrolled before-and-after study was conducted, informed by Kirkpatrick's four-stage model of evaluation; we report on the first two stages. We included a cohort of third and fourth year midwifery students who were studying at one university in Nairobi. The same hypothetical case scenario was used, pre- and post-implementation of the World Health Organization partograph e-learning tool, to assess students' partograph completion ability. Views on the tool were also sought, using semi-structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using standard statistical techniques and framework analysis. 92 (88%) students participated. Students expressed positive views about the e-learning tool. However, the mean post-intervention score (27.21) was less than half of the maximum obtainable score. There was some improvement in test scores; year three mean score pre-intervention was 21.39 (SD 5.72), which increased to 25.10 (5.41) post-intervention (paired-t=3.47, p=0.001); year four mean score pre-intervention was 24.39 (5.98) which increased to 29.30 (6.77) post-intervention (paired t=3.85, df=91, p<0.001). In the post-test, year four students scored higher than year three students (unpaired t=3.28, df=90, p=0.001). Students were unable to plot cervical dilatation correctly, once established labour had been confirmed. e-Learning training is acceptable to student midwives and has the potential to be an effective means of teaching the practical application of the partograph. However, in this study, their inability to correctly plot transference from the latent to active phase of labour suggests that the partograph itself may be too complicated. Modifications and further evaluation of the e-learning tool would be required before any widespread implementation. Furthermore, students need the clinical support to operationalise their learning; educating qualified midwives and obstetricians to be positive role models when completing the partograph would be one potential solution. Further research is required, taking on board the recommendations from our pilot study, to investigate the impact of partograph e-learning on practice and clinical outcomes.

Tina L, Grace O, Karen L, Sabina W, James W, Matthews M. "Students' experiences of using the partograph in Kenyan labour wards.". 2011. Abstract

Previous research has demonstrated the likely benefits of partograph use in low-resourced settings. However, the challenges of completing a partograph are also reported. The objective of this study was to examine students' views and experiences of partograph use to gain understanding of the realities of using this tool in the labour ward. Methods: In a qualitative study, 51 student nurses, undertaking their maternity placement at a university in Nairobi, Kenya, participated in five focus group discussions. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results: Four main themes emerged from the analyses: challenges to 'doing the right thing'; theory-practice disconnectedness; negative role models; and retrospective recording. Conclusions: The results provide insight into the challenges faced by students when practising in the labour ward environment. A more effective approach to partograph training and implementation should be adopted to support students. However, student midwife training is unlikely to be implemented into practice unless the qualified team supports their learning. Given that the partograph had little status in the labour ward, change may only happen when senior health professionals (midwives and obstetricians) lead by example. Further research is required to explore the views of obstetricians and qualified midwives on partograph use. Appropriate implementation strategies also warrant further investigation

Tindyebwa, D. KMENC &BJPB. "Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers (revised 1st ed.) .". In: Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers (revised 1st ed.) . ANECCA.; 2006.
Tindyebwa, D. KMENC &BJPB. "Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers .". In: Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers . ANECCA; 2011.
Ting JYS, Farley R. "Subhepatically located appendicitis due to adhesions: a case report." Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2008;2:339. AbstractWebsite

Acute appendicitis occurs frequently and is a major indication for acute abdominal surgery. Subhepatic appendicitis has rarely been reported and is more difficult to diagnose. PMID: 18973703

Tipton SG, Smyrk TC, Sarr MG, Thompson GB. "Malignant potential of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas." British Journal of Surgery. 2006;93:733-737. AbstractWebsite
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Tiri G, Ogollah K, Mburu DK. "INFLUENCE OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP ROLE ON PERFORMANCE OF VIRTUAL PROJECT TEAMS IN SAFARICOM LIMITED." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management . 2015;3(2):26-32.ogollah_and_tiri_2015.pdf
Tirop LJ. "Type 1 Diabetes in Kenya: Treatment Options and Emerging Trends." African Journal of Diabetes Medicine. 2013;21:32-36.ajdm_nov_pp_32-36.pdf
Tirop LJ. Polymer-surfactant stabilised drug nanoparticles. London: King's College London; 2012.
Titus A, Nicholas G, Penn L, Callistus O. "Towards sustainable gamebird management by rural communities in Laikipia, Kenya: a guineafowl case study." Discovery and Innovation. 2008;20:155-161. Abstract
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Titus O. Magomere1 4*,, J.N Kiiru, Silas D. Obukosia2, and EM1, Shibairo SI. "The population structure of wild sorghum species in agroecological zones of." African Journal of Biotechnology . 2015.The population structure of wild sorghum species in agroecological zones of. .pdf
TM N, Gathumbi P K, C BL, M MG, EW M, FM G, EK K, TA N. "Hematologic Values of Healthy and Sick Free-ranging Lesser Flamingos ( Phoeniconaias minor) in Kenya." Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2019;55(1):123-128 .
TN Niyireba, C Ebong, S Agili, J Low, Lukuyu B, J Kirui, J Ndirigwe, G Uwimana, L Kakundiye, M Mutimura, Gahakwa D, Gachuiri CK. "Evaluation of dual purpose sweet potato [Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam] cultivars for root and fodder production in Eastern Province, Rwanda." Medwell Publishing. 2013;8(5):242-247.
TO A, O G, TOM A. "Uptake and outcomes of early infant male circumcision services in four counties in Western Kenya." African Health Sciences. 2021;21(1). AbstractWebsite

Background: Early Infant Male Circumcision (EIMC) is part of sustainable HIV prevention strategies in Kenya. The goals of the national EIMC program are to circumcise at least 40% of all newborn male infants delivered at hospitals offering the service and keep the rate of moderate and adverse events below 2%.

Objectives: To determine the proportion of early male infants (age less than 60 days) born at hospitals in four counties of western Kenya who got circumcised and document the prevalence of adverse events (AEs) among those circumcised.

Methods: A retrospective descriptive study involving all records for EIMC from 1st March 2014 through 31st March 2018 in four counties of western Kenya. Data analysis was done using EXEL to document proportion of facilities offering EIMC and compare EIMC uptake and outcomes in the four counties against the national goals for the program.

Results: A mean of 4.3% of total health facilities offer EIMC in the region. Siaya had the highest proportion of facilities offering EIMC while Migori had the lowest proportion. Uptake of EIMC was low at 17.4% for all male infants born, far less than the anticipated target of 40%. Average adverse event rates were 0.3%.

Conclusion: EIMC uptake remains low in this region of Kenya due to small number of health facilities offering the service. The proportion of circumcised early male infants born at the target health facilities is below the national target of 40% even though the rate of adverse events among those circumcised is acceptable.

Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Pasquale AD, Ibrahim Kiche, Collins Mweresa, Wolfgang Mukabana, Thomas Smith, Takken W, Nicolas Maire. "Measuring outcomes of the first trial of odour-baited mosquito traps for malaria control using a state of the art health and demographic surveillance system." Malaria journa. 2014;13(1):P97.
Tobias Homan, Pasquale AD, Onoka K, Ibrahim Kiche, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins Mweresa, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Masiga D, Takken W, Nicolas Maire. "Profile: the Rusinga health and demographic surveillance system, western Kenya." International journal of epidemiology. 2016;43(5):718-727.
Tobias Homan, Nicolas Maire, Alexandra Hiscox, Pasquale A, Ibrahim Kiche, Onoka K, Collins Mweresa, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Ross A, Smith TA, Takken W. "Spatially variable risk factors for malaria in a geographically heterogeneous landscape, western Kenya: an explorative study." Malaria journal. 2016;15(1):1.
Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins K Mweresa, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Prisca Oria, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Jane Alaii, Cees Leeuwis, Smith TA, Takken W. "Stepped wedge cluster-randomised trial of the impact of mass mosquito trapping on malaria (SolarMal)." Impact of odour-baited mosquito traps for malaria control. 2016:125.
Tobias Homan, Pasquale A, Ibrahim Kiche, Onoka K, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins Mweresa, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Takken W, Nicolas Maire. "Innovative tools and OpenHDS for health and demographic surveillance on Rusinga Island, Kenya." BMC research notes. 2015;8(1):397.
Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins K Mweresa, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Prisca Oria, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Mariabeth Silkey, Jane Alaii, Teun Bousema, Cees Leeuwis, Smith TA, Takken W. "The effect of mass mosquito trapping on malaria transmission and disease burden (SolarMal): a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial." The Lancet. 2016;388(10050):1193-1201.
Tocho JA, Waema TM. "Towards an e-waste management framework in Kenya." info. 2013;15(5):99-113.Website
Todd, Judith; Friedman A; KPW, Friedman A;, Kariuki PW. "Women growing stronger with age: The effect of status in the United States and Kenya .". 1989. AbstractWebsite

Previous research suggests that there is a shift in the perceived balance of interpersonal power in the second half of life in favor of older women, towards equality between men and women. To see if this age shift in power is universal, a study of women in two cultures, the United States and Kenya, examined the effect of status on the shift. As an indirect measure of interpersonal power, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) stories were collected from 60 U.S. and 60 Kenyan women and rated by trained judges for aspects of the interpersonal power of the characters in the stories. In each country there were two groups of 15 women under age 36 and 15 women over age 44, one of higher and one of lower status. In both countries, only the higher status women showed the shift in power with age. That status modulated the shift in power with age in two different cultures is discussed in terms of the necessity for a resource base for power.

Tofighi H, Taghadosi-nejad F, Abbaspour A, Behnoush B, Salimi A, Dabiran S, Ghorbani A, Okazi A. "The {Anatomical} {Position} of {Appendix} in {Iranian} {Cadavers}." International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine. 2013;3:126-130. AbstractWebsite

Background : Vermiform appendix is different in terms of anatomical position, length and mesoappendix.  Knowing the anatomical position of vermiform appendix is important for the surgeons in terms of diagnosis and management. The aim of this study is analysis of length, anatomical position and mesoappendix of vermiform appendix. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on the 400 randomly selected cadavers (306 male and 94 female) who have been referred to the autopsy hall of legal medicine organization of Tehran province to be autopsied between March 21, 2010 and March, 2011. The cause of death was very heterogeneous among autopsied cadavers. Results: According to our results the anatomical positions were pelvic, subcecal, retroileal, retrocaecal, ectopic and preileal in 55.8%, 19%, 12.5%, 7%, 4.2% and 1.5% respectively. The mean length of vermiform appendix was 91.2 mm and 80.3 mm in men and women, respectively. Mesoappendix was complete in 79.5% and incomplete in 20.5%. No association was seen between sex and anatomical position of vermiform appendix. Conclusion: Anterior anatomical position was the most frequent vermiform appendix position in our population which is in discrepancy with most of the reports from western countries. It might be possible that factors such as race, geographical regions and nutritional regiment play roles in determining the position of vermiform appendix.

Togoch H. Kemboi, Irandu M. Evaristus TT. "Human Wildlife Conflicts and Livelihood Diversification among Kamnnarok National Reserve Adjacent Communities in Baringo County, Kenya." Journal of the School of Environmental Studies. 2018;3(1).
Togoch H. Kemboi1, Irandu M. Evaristus TT. "Conflicts over Resource use in Kamnarok National Reserve and the adjacent community." Journal of Advanced Research in Environmental Studies. . 2018;1(1):1-14.
Tohamy SA, Abdel Malek AK, Hassan FZ, Abdel Baky A. "Anthropometric characteristics of the mentally retarded children.". 1990.Website
Tole NM. "Anomalies in the radiation output of a new x-ray tube.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

Cavity ionization methods have been employed to show that the amOUI1l of X-radiation produced by a newly installed x-ray tube was grossly reduced. Qualitative information based on the techniques of radiological photography suggests that there was no fault with the kilovoltage generator and that the tube was therefore the source of the anomaly. Observations of tube current avalanche and sparking at high potentials provide further clue as to the nature of the fault. A discussion of the possible causes of the anomaly is presented. This study demonstrates that, when specialised equipment for detecting the origin of some faults in x-ray machines is not available, radiation dosimetry and sensitometry can provide a most useful alternative.

Tole NM, W GS, Imalingat B. "Radiation dose as a factor in the choice of routine pre-operative dental radiographs.". 1993. Abstract

Radiation doses received by patients during dental x-ray examinations were measured in 95 patients referred to the X-ray Department of the Teaching Dental Hospital, University of Nairobi. The mean skin dose for single periapical films was 5.96 milligray (596 millirads) with the bitewing view recording a mean dose of 5.57 milligray (mGy). During a 14-film full-mouth periapical survey, mean doses ranged from 10.3-16.2 mGy for the upper jaw and 10.1-13.5 mGy for the lower jaw, respectively, depending on the region of dentition. In these full-mouth examinations, the distribution of skin dose over different parts of the dentition showed a characteristic pattern which may be explained by the overlap of radiation fields in the aggregated series of exposure. Orthopantomography recorded lower mean skin doses of 3.26 mGy in the molar region and 2.67 mGy at the posterior midline at the level of the 2nd cervical vertebra. The relative merits of intra-oral radiography versus orthopantomography are discussed, with radiation dosage as one of the factors to be considered. Some observations are made on measures to reduce patient dose

Tole NM. "Radiation exposure to patients during radiological examinations of the gastro-intestinal tract: intrahospital dose variations.". 1984. Abstract

Skin and gonad doses have been measured in 144 adult patients undergoing barium meal and barium enema examina-tions at a University Teaching Hospital. Intrahospital variations are discussed and their implications for national dose surveys considered, It is suggested that, due to differences in leakage and scattered radiation levels, overcouch tube machines may deliver higher doses to organs outside the useful beam than undercouch units, The study also points towards increased film consumption in GIT studies, National surveys of radiation doses to patients in diagnostic radiology are restricted to selected institutions over short periods of time. Consequently, although the dose data from such exercises may provide a broad picture of a national situation, detailed studies of intrahospital and interhospital variations for anyone type of examination are made difficult by the small numbers of examinations carried out at anyone institution during national surveys. Detailed surveys of doses received in selected examinations at single institutions, or within limited regions, enable better analysis of such variations to be made. Matthews and Miller (1969) have reported the results of a regional survey in Great Britain. A large hospital with staff of varying levels of skill provides a suitable environment for studying within-hospital dose variations. When a particular type of examination is performed by several radiologists in rotation, the "personal factor" in dose variation tends to be evened out in the mean values obtained. Furthermore, the use of uniform film¬processing conditions removes another of the , traditional causes of variations. The present survey was undertaken at the University Hospital of South Manchester in Great Britain. Studies of the radiation exposure to patients in diagnostic examinations of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) are important because this group of investigations gives large doses to the active bone marrow as well as the gonads of the irradiated individuals. Following a sharp decline in the frequency of mass miniature chest radiography, GIT studies now probably make the largest contribution to the annual ner canut mean bone marrow dose in Great Britain. despit~ their low frequency compared to othe; diagnostic examinations. The relatively low con¬tribution of GIT studies to the genetically-significant dose (Wall et ai, 1980) is due to a combination of their low frequency and the age distribution of the patients examined (Kendall et ai, 1980). It may be possible that the somatic stochastic risks associated with this group of examinations are more important than the genetic risks. However, the computation of mean bone marrow doses, which requires a model combining data on the distribution of active bone marrow in different segments of the body with estimated radiation doses to the bone marrow in those segments, is beyond the objectives of this paper. In the present work, gonad doses in male patients, and abdominal skin doses in female patients, have been measured for larger numbers of patients than are normally achieved at individual institutions during national surveys. In female patients, ovary doses have been calculated from the skin doses. In the case of barium enema examinations the skin doses may be found useful in estimating mean bone marrow doses.

Tole NM. "Radiation exposure to patients during chest X-ray examinations - a survey in Kenya.". 1987. Abstract

Radiation doses received by patients during chest X-ray examinations have been measured at six X-ray centres in Kenya. Absorbed doses from full-size radiography were found to be within acceptable limits at mean values of 29 millirad (0.29 milligray) per exposure for the postero-anterior view in adults and 20 millirad (0.20 milligray) for the antero-posterior view in children. The lateral view in full- ize examinations in children delivered a mean dose of 36 millirad (0.36 mGy). Photofluorography without image intensification delivered much higher doses, amounting to skin-entry doses of several hundred mrad per exposure, and showing large inter-hospital dose variations. Some observations are made on dose reduction measures.

TOM DONDICHO. "Land alienation, land tenure and tourism in Kajiado district of Kenya.". In: African Studies monograph to be considered for publication. East African Social Science Research Review 16 (2): 49-70; 2000. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

Tom FK, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM, Chemining'wa GN. "Susceptibility of locally grown maize varieties to infestation by maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.).". In: 13th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters; 2012.
TOM DONDICHO. "Where are the women in African governance?". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Just Change 17:21; 2010.
TOM DONDICHO. "Battered women: A social-legal perspective of their experiences in Nairobi.". In: In reflections on international tourism: Motivations, behaviour and tourist types, Robinson, M.J. Swarbrooke, N. Evans, P. Long and R. Sharpley eds. Newcaste and Sheffield: Athenaeum Press. African Study Monographs, 21(1): 35-44; 2000. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

TOM DONDICHO. "Land alienation, land tenure and tourism in Maasailand, Kenya.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Mila, 6: 64-72.; 2005.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism development in Kenya: Constraints and opportunities.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. The African Anthropologist, 10(1): 4-22.; 2003. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "The effects of the global economic crisis on Kenyan migration.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Just Change 16:8-9; 2009. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM, MUTHOMI OLUBAYOANDCHEMINING’WA, TOM, MUTHOMI OLUBAYOANDCHEMINING’WA, TOM, MUTHOMI OLUBAYOANDCHEMINING’WA. "RESISTANCE OF LOCALLY GROWN MAIZE GENOTYPES TO INFESTATION BY MAIZE WEEVIL (SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS ." E.A Agric j. 2013;1(5):84-90.
TOM DONDICHO. "Domestic violence as an obstacle to develoment in Kenya.". In: Mila 2: 19-28. Mila 2: 19-28; 1998. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism, power and politics: The challenges of Maasai involvement in tourism development.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. PhD Dissertation, Massey University; 2010. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "International tourism in Kenya: Development, problems & challenges.". In: In East African Social Science Research Review XVI, No. East African Social Science Research Review 16 (2): 49-70; 2000. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

TOM DONDICHO. "Attitudes of Maasai pastoralists towards Amboseli National Park.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Mila,7: 49-56.; 2006.
TOM DONDICHO. "Environment impacts of tourism in Kenya.". In: In reflections on international tourism: Environmental management and pathways to sustainable tourism, Robinson, M.j. Swarbrooke, N. Evans, P.Long & R. Sharpley eds. New Castle: Athenaeum Press,; 2000. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Attitudes of Maasai pastoralists towards Amboseli National Park.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Mila,7: 49-56.; 2006. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Where are the women in African governance?". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Just Change 17:21; 2010. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
TOM DONDICHO. "Battered Women: A Socio-legal perspective of their experiences in Nairobi.". In: Mila 2: 19-28. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

TOM DONDICHO. "Battered Women: A Socio-legal perspective of their experiences in Nairobi.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism development in Kenya: Conditions and problems.". In: Publications in Annuals of Tourism Research. East African Social Science Research Review 16 (2): 49-70; 2000. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

TOM DONDICHO. "The effects of the global economic crisis on Kenyan migration.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Just Change 16:8-9; 2009.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism in Kenya: Past, present and future challenges.". In: In reflections on international tourism: Motivations, behaviour and tourist types, Robinson, M.J. Swarbrooke, N. Evans, P. Long and R. Sharpley eds. Newcaste and Sheffield: Athenaeum Press. New Castle: Athenaeum Press; 2000. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism development in Kenya: Constraints and opportunities.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. The African Anthropologist, 10(1): 4-22.; 2003.
TOM DONDICHO. "Land alienation, land tenure and tourism in Maasailand, Kenya.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Mila, 6: 64-72.; 2005. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism, power and politics: The challenges of Maasai involvement in tourism development.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. PhD Dissertation, Massey University; 2010. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
Tom Osewe, James Mbaria DYDOJNHO(2017). "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia mirantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic clinical Pharmacology,. 2017;( DOI:http//dx.doi.org/10.18203/23192003.ibjbcp2020164753).
Tomedi A, Mwanthi MA, Tucker K. "A strategy to increase the number of deliveries with skilled birth attendants in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

To increase the number of deliveries with skilled birth attendants (SEAs) in Kenyan health facili¬ties, with assistance from traditional birth attendants (TBAs). MetllOds: In the Yatta district of Kenya, TEAs were recruited to attend meetings in which they were encouraged to educate pregnant women about the importance of delivering in health facilities; they were offered a small stipend for each pregnant woman they brought to a facility for SBA delivery. The primary outcome was the percentage of prenatal care patients who delivered at intervention health facilities compared with control facilities. Results: During the year preceding the intervention, 102/524 (19.5%) and 413/2068 (20.0%) prenatal care patients had SBA deliveries at intervention and control facilities, respectively, During the t-year study period, 217/440 (49.3%) prenatal care patients delivered at intervention health facilities and 415/1995 (20.8%) delivered at control facilities (P

Tomedi A, Rohan-Minjares F, McCalmont K, Ashton R, Opiyo R, Mwanthi M. "Feasibility and effectiveness of supplementation with locally available foods in prevention of child malnutrition in Kenya." Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(4):749-56.
Tominaga Y, Tsujisaka Y. "Purification and some enzymatic properties of the chitosanase from Bacillus R-4 which lyses Rhizopus cell walls." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):145-55. Abstract

A strain of Bacillus sp (Bacillus R-4) produces a protease and a carbohydrolase both of which have the ability to lyse Rhizopus cell walls. Of the enzymes, the carbohydrolase has been purified to an ultracentrifugally and electrophoretically homogeneous state, and identified as a chitosanase. The enzyme was active on glycol chitosan as well as chitosan. Molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated as 31 000 and isoelectric point as pH 8.30. The enzyme was most active at pH 5.6 and at 40 degrees C with either Rhizopus cell wall or glycol chitosan as substrate, and was stable over a range of pH 4.5 to 7.5 at 40 degrees C for 3 h. The activity was lost by sulfhydryl reagents and restored by either reduced glutathione of L-cysteine. An abrupt decrease in viscosity of the reaction mixture suggested an endowise cleavage of chitosan by this enzyme.

Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka-Volterra model." Ecological Modelling . 2008;220:60-70.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka–Volterra model." Ecological Modelling. 2009;220(1):60-70. Abstract

The Lotka–Volterra model was applied to the population densities of diamondback moth
(DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) and its exotic larval parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum
(Hellen) data that was collected earlier by icipe's DBM biological control team. The
collections were done for 15 months before the release and 36 months after release of the
parasitoid in two areas; in Werugha, Coast Province of Kenya and Tharuni, Central Province
of Kenya, respectively. For each area in pre-and post-release periods, we estimated Lotka ...

Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Owino JO, Ochanda H, Löhr B. "Host–parasitoid population density prediction using artificial neural networks: diamondback moth and its natural enemies." Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 2010;12:233-242.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Application of differential equation modelsto the population dynamics of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid - Diadegma semiclausum (Helllen).". In: The 5th International Workshop on “Management of Diamondback Moth and other Crucifer Insect Pests”. Beijing, China; 2007.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Owino, J., Ochanda H, Löhr B. "Evaluation of discrete host–parasitoid models for diamondback moth and Diadegma semiclausum field time population density series. ." Ecological Modelling. 2009;220:1735-1744.
Tonny O, Nicholas S. Money, Real Quick: Kenya's Disruptive Mobile Money Innovation. London: Guardian; 2012.
Tonui T, Corredor-Moreno P, Kanduma E, Joyce Njuguna, Njahira MN, Nyanjom SG, Silva JC, Djikeng A, Pelle R. "Transcriptomics reveal potential vaccine antigens and a drastic increase of upregulated genes during Theileria parva development from arthropod to bovine infective stages." PLoS One. 2018;13:e0204047. Abstract
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Tonya R. Thurman, Kidman R, Nice J, Ikamari L. "Family Functioning and child behavioural problems in HIV/AIDs affected households in Kenya." AIDS and Behaviour . 2014;D01 10.1007/S10461-014-0897-9.
Tonya Renee Thurman, Jarabi B, Rice J. "Caring for the caregiver: evaluation of support groups for guardians of orphans and vulnerable children in Kenya, AIDS Care." Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, DOI:10.1080/09540121.2011.644229. 2012.
Too VK, Omuto CT, Biamah EK, Obiero JPO. "Performance Evaluation of the Popular SWRC Models at Different Soil Bulk Density Ranges." Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. 2021;published online (August 2021 ).
Too, R., Kidombo, H., Gakuu C. "Relationship between Participatory Decision-Making and Environmental Sustainability in Oil and Gas Projects." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management, . 2021;5(3):181-196.
Too, K V; Mutai MMMEBK; J. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts.". 2012. Abstract

The groundnut, Arachis hypogaea Linn, samples were collected from the majorly grown areas of western Kenya to investigate the viscoelastic properties pertinent to grain handling, storage and processing. In particular, the study conducted at the University of Nairobi, Department of Environmental and Biosystems laboratories in July 2010, aimed at investigating the stress-strain properties of bulk groundnuts in relation to Maxwell polymer viscoelastic model. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was also applied to bulk groundnuts. Three samples were prepared for triaxial tests; each weighing 1062.4 g. The moisture content of the samples was 7.6%. The sample size for triaxial testing was 100 mm diameter and 199 mm height. Density of the samples during the tests was 678.6 kg/m3. Confining stresses of 200, 400 and 600 kPa were used and Axial Strain Rate (ASR) of 0.5 mm/min was used for the triaxial compression tests. For the senstar universal testing machine relaxation time was about 30 min for each of the samples. Relaxation data was recorded after every 30 sec for the duration of the test (30 min). These results showed that the Maxwell model for viscoelastic polymers can be applied to accurately describe the behaviour of bulk groundnuts.

Too V, Omuto CT, Biamah EK, Obiero JP. "PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE POPULAR SWRC MODELS AT DIFFERENT SOIL BULK DENSITY RANGES." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and Environment (JEAE) . 2021;Vol 7(No. 2):40-48.
Too KV, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology. 2012;4(10):1260-1267.
Too KV, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. " Vicoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering & Technology. 2012;Vol. 4 (No. 10 ISSN 2041-3238). Abstract

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Topps JH;, Goodall ED;, Kay RNB;, Maloiy GMO. "Urinary Excretion Of Nitrogenous Compounds By Sheep And Red Deer."; 1968.
Toroitch W, Migosi J, Sakaja Y. "Influence of Resource Controls on the Performance of Infrastructural Projects in ECDE County Projects in Soy Sub-County." International Journals of Academics & Research. 2020;7(8):38-44.
Torsney E, Hu Y, Xu Q. "Adventitial progenitor cells contribute to arteriosclerosis." Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2005;15:64-68. Abstract

Accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of vascular progenitor cells in the development of arteriosclerosis, including transplant arteriosclerosis, angioplasty-induced restenosis, vein graft atherosclerosis, and spontaneous atherosclerosis. Recently, it was found that the adventitia of the arterial wall contains a large number of progenitor cells, which can differentiate into smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo. These progenitor cells were able to migrate from the adventitia into the intima, where they accumulate to contribute to atherosclerotic lesions of vein grafts in apoE-deficient mice. Thus, these cells may be a source of smooth muscle cells and might have implications for cellular, genetic, and tissue engineering approaches to vascular disease.

Tovide O, Jaheed N, Mohamed N, Nxusani E, Sunday CE, Tsegaye A, Ajayi RF, Njomo N, Makelane H, Bilibana M, Baker PG, Williams A, Vilakazi S, Tshikhudo R, Iwuoha EI. "Graphenated polyaniline-doped tungsten oxide nanocomposite sensor for real time determination of phenanthrene." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:138-148. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
A graphenated polyaniline/tungsten oxide (PANI/WO3/GR) nanocomposite sensor was prepared by electropolymerisation of a mixture of aniline monomer and tungsten oxide on a graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The PANI/WO3/GR/GCE nanocomposite electrode was tested as a sensor for the determination of phenanthrene. The direct electro-oxidation behaviour of phenanthrene on the PANI/WO3/GR modified GCE was carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that the PANI/WO3/GR/GCE sensor was more sensitive to phenanthrene (with a dynamic linear range of 1.0 - 6.0 pM and a detection limit of 0.123 pM.) than GCE, PANI/GCE or PANI/WO3/GCE. The sensor exhibited excellent reproducibility and long-term stability. The sensor exhibits lower detection sensitivity than the WHO permissible level of 1.12 nM phenanthrene in wastewater.

Towett PK, Kanui TI, Ole Maloiy GM, Juma F, Ole Miaron JO. "Activation of mu, delta or kappa opioid receptors by DAMGO, DPDPE, U-50488 or U-69593 respectively causes antinociception in the formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber." Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2008;91(4):566-572. Abstract

Data available on the role of the opioid systems of the naked mole-rat in nociception is scanty and unique compared to that of other rodents. In the current study, the effect of DAMGO, DPDPE and U-50488 and U-69593 on formalin-induced (20 μl,10%) nociception were investigated. Nociceptive-like behaviors were quantified by scoring in blocks of 5 min the total amount of time (s) the animal spent scratching/biting the injected pawin the early (0–5 min) and in the late (25–60 min) phase of the test. In both the early and late phases, administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg of DAMGO or DPDPE caused a naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. U-50488 and U-69593 at all the doses tested did not significantly change the mean scratching/biting time in the early phase. However, in the late phase U-50488 or U-69593 at the highest doses tested (1 or 5 mg/kg or 0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg, respectively) caused a statistically significant and naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. The data showed that mu, delta or kappa-selective opioids causes antinociception in the formalin test in this rodent, adding novel information on the role of opioid systems of the animal on pain regulation.

Towett PK, Kanui TI, Juma F, Ole Miaron JO. "Activation of mu, delta or kappa opioid receptors by DAMGO, DPDPE, U-50488 or U-69593 respectively causes antinociception in the formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Data available on the role of the opioid systems of the naked mole-rat in nociception is scanty and unique compared to that of other rodents. In the current study, the effect of DAMGO, DPDPE and U-50488 and U-69593 on formalin-induced (20 μl,10%) nociception were investigated. Nociceptive-like behaviors were quantified by scoring in blocks of 5 min the total amount of time (s) the animal spent scratching/biting the injected pawin the early (0–5 min) and in the late (25–60 min) phase of the test. In both the early and late phases, administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg of DAMGO or DPDPE caused a naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. U-50488 and U-69593 at all the doses tested did not significantly change the mean scratching/biting time in the early phase. However, in the late phase U-50488 or U-69593 at the highest doses tested (1 or 5 mg/kg or 0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg, respectively) caused a statistically significant and naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. The data showed that mu, delta or kappa-selective opioids causes antinociception in the formalin test in this rodent, adding novel information on the role of opioid systems of the animal on pain regulation.

Towett PK, Kanui TI, Juma FD. "Stimulation of mu and delta opioid receptors induces hyperalgesia while stimulation of kappa receptors induces antinociception in the hot plate test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).". 2006. Abstract

The antinociceptive effects of highly selective mu (DAMGO), delta (DPDPE) and kappa (U-50488 and U-69593) opioid agonists were evaluated following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in the naked mole-rat. A hot plate test set at 60 degrees C was used as a nociceptive test and the latency to the stamping of the right hind paw (response latency) was used as the end-point. DAMGO (5-10 mg/kg) and DPDPE (2.5-5 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant decrease in the mean response latency. Subcutaneous injection of naloxonazine (20 mg/kg) 24h prior to the administration of DAMGO (5 mg/kg) also blocked the reduction in the response latency observed when DAMGO was injected alone. On the contrary, U-50488 (2.5-5 mg/kg) or U-69593 (0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant increase in the mean response latency. These results showed that activation of mu or delta receptors caused hyperalgesia, whereas activation of kappa receptors caused antinociception in the hot plate test in naked mole-rat. This suggests that mu and delta receptors modulate thermal pain in a different way than kappa receptors in the naked mole-rat. It is not possible at the moment to point out how they modulate thermal pain as little is known about the neuropharmacology of the naked mole-rat

Towett PK, Kanui TI, Ole Maloiy GM, Juma F. "Activation of mu, delta or kappa opioid receptors by DAMGO, DPDPE, U-50488 or U-69593 respectively causes antinociception in the formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Data available on the role of the opioid systems of the naked mole-rat in nociception is scanty and unique compared to that of other rodents. In the current study, the effect of DAMGO, DPDPE and U-50488 and U-69593 on formalin-induced (20 μl,10%) nociception were investigated. Nociceptive-like behaviors were quantified by scoring in blocks of 5 min the total amount of time (s) the animal spent scratching/biting the injected pawin the early (0–5 min) and in the late (25–60 min) phase of the test. In both the early and late phases, administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg of DAMGO or DPDPE caused a naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. U-50488 and U-69593 at all the doses tested did not significantly change the mean scratching/biting time in the early phase. However, in the late phase U-50488 or U-69593 at the highest doses tested (1 or 5 mg/kg or 0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg, respectively) caused a statistically significant and naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. The data showed that mu, delta or kappa-selective opioids causes antinociception in the formalin test in this rodent, adding novel information on the role of opioid systems of the animal on pain regulation.

Trachtenberg JT, Stryker MP. "Rapid {Anatomical} {Plasticity} of {Horizontal} {Connections} in the {Developing} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2001;21:3476. AbstractWebsite
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Trachtenberg JT, Stryker MP. "Rapid {Anatomical} {Plasticity} of {Horizontal} {Connections} in the {Developing} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2001;21:3476-3482. AbstractWebsite

Experience can dramatically alter the responses of cortical neurons. During a critical period in the development of visual cortex, these changes are extremely rapid, taking place in 2 d or less. Anatomical substrates of these changes have long been sought, primarily in alterations in the principal visual input from the thalamus, but the significant changes that have been found take 1 week. Recent results indicate that the initial physiological changes in the cortical circuit take place outside of the primary input layer. We now find that rapid plasticity of binocular responses in the upper layers of cortex is mirrored by similarly rapid anatomical changes in the horizontal connections between ocular dominance columns in the upper layers, which reorganize within 2 d.

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