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Tanui F, Olago D, Dulo SI, Ouma G, Kuria Z. "Hydrogeochemistry of a strategic alluvial aquifer system in a semi-arid setting and its implications for potable urban water supply: The Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System (LAAS)." Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2020;11:100451. Abstractdio.org

Lodwar Municipality is one of the fastest-growing urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa that depends mainly on groundwater for its municipal water supply. Most of the groundwater sources are located within the riparian zones of the Turkwel River. With limited understanding of its aquifers, the groundwater of Lodwar may be at risk of natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Statistical techniques and geochemical methods were applied to determine the aquifer hydrogeochemistry. Three distinct aquifers, which we collectively refer to as the Lodwar Alluvial Aquifer System, underlie Lodwar and its environs, the shallow alluvial, intermediate, and deep aquifers which are the main source of fresh water. A fourth, the shallow aquifer of the Turkana grit, is highly saline and with fluoride contamination. Just as the Turkwel River, the shallow alluvial aquifer (SAA) was dominated by Ca–HCO3 water type, while the TGSA was Na–Cl water type and became Na–HCO3 near the Holocene sediments. The intermediate aquifer (IA) was Na–HCO3water type. Pockets of Mg–HCO3 water occurred in the shallow alluvial and intermediate aquifers. The natural processes in the SAA include rock-water interaction, recharge by surface water, and oxidation reactions, while evaporation and dissolution are the major factors controlling the chemistry of the TGSA. Ion exchange, dilution, and dissolution are the major processes in the IA. Elevated levels of NO3− and SO42− during the wet season within the SAA and the IA reflects their vulnerability to pollution. Saline intrusion into the shallow and intermediate aquifers from the Turkana grit aquifers is likely to occur.

Tanyi WN, Gachuno O, Odero T, Farquhar C, Kimosop D, Mayi A. "Factors affecting adherence to antiretroviral therapy among children and adolescents living with HIV in the Mbita Sub-County Hospital, Homa Bay- Kenya." Afr Health Sci. 2021;21(Suppl):18-24. AbstractWebsite

Adequate adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to the successful treatment of children and adolescents living with HIV. Continuous ART Adherence is the key factor for virologic suppression and stability of the immune system and prevents the occurrence of opportunistic infections. Children and adolescents struggle with adherence to ART for various reasons, including a poor psychosocial support system and clinic attendance.

Tara, Bartlett Leslie, W. A, Okoth U. , ICT in Education Impact Study 2012-2013 Report. The Earth Institute, Columbia University; 2015.
Tarkang PA, Okalebo FA, Siminyu JD, Ngugi WN, Mwaura AM, Mugweru J, Agbor GA, Guantai AN. "Pharmacological evidence for the folk use of Nefang: antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of its constituent plants." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015;15:174. Abstract2015_-_pharmacological_evidence_for_the_folk_use_of_nefang.pdf

Background: Nefang is a polyherbal anti-malarial composed of Mangifera indica (MiB and MiL; bark and leaf),
Psidium guajava (Pg), Carica papaya (Cp), Cymbopogon citratus (Cc), Citrus sinensis (Cs) and Ocimum gratissimum (Og) (leaves). Previous studies have demonstrated its in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities, antioxidant properties and safety profile. This study aimed at evaluating the antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the constituent plants of Nefang which are relevant to the symptomatic treatment of malaria fever.
Methods: Antipyretic activities were determined by the D-Amphetamine induced pyrexia and Brewer’s Yeast induced hyperpyrexia methods. Anti-inflammatory activities were investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. Antinociceptive activities were determined by mechanical nociception in the tail pressure and thermal nociception in the radiant heat tail flick and hot plate methods. Data was analysed using the one way ANOVA followed by Neuman-Keuls multiple comparison test.
Results: Best percentage inhibition of induced pyrexia (amphetamine/brewer’s yeast; p < 0.05) was exhibited by Cc (95/97) followed by Og (85/94), MiL (90/89), MiB (88/84) and Cs (82/89). Cc and Og exhibited comparable activities to paracetamol (100/95). Anti-inflammatory studies revealed paw edema inhibition (%) as follows (p < 0.05): Indomethacin (47), MiL (40), Cp (30), MiB (28) and Og (22), suggesting best activity by MiL. Antinociceptive studies revealed significant (p < 0.01) pain inhibition (%) as follows: Paracetamol (97), Og (113), MiL (108), Pg (84) and MiB (88). Og and MiL exhibited the best activities.
Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that the constituent plants possess biologically active compounds with antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. These activities are essential in the symptomatic treatment of malaria fever, thereby justifying the folk use of Nefang. This would be useful in its subsequent development for clinical application.
Keywords: Medicinal plants, Nefang, Pharmacological effects, Antipyretic, Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive
activities

Tarkang PA, Atchan APN, Kuiate J-R, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Agbor G. "Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value." Adv. Pharmacol. Sci.. 2013;Article ID 678458.
Tarkang PA, Okalebo FA, Ayong LS, Agbor GA, Guantai AN. "Anti-malarial activity of a polyherbal product (Nefang) during early and established Plasmodium infection in rodent models." Malaria Journal. 2014;13:DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-456. Abstract2014_-_antimalarial_activity_of_polyherbal_nefang.pdf

Background: The emerging resistance of Plasmodium species to currently available anti-malarials remains a public health concern, hence the need for new effective, safe and affordable drugs. Natural products remain a reliable source of drugs. Nefang is a polyherbal anti-malarial of the Cameroonian folklore medicine with demonstrated in vitro antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities. It is composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, Ocimum gratissimum (leaves). This study aimed at investigating the suppressive, prophylactic and curative activities of Nefang in Plasmodium infected rodent models.

Methods: Systemic acute oral toxicity of Nefang aqueous and ethanol extracts was assessed in mice up to a
dose of 5,000 mgkg−1 body weight. BALB/c mice and Wistar rats were inoculated with Plasmodium chabaudi
chabaudi and Plasmodium berghei, respectively, and treated with Nefang, the Mangifera indica bark/Psidium
guajava combination and a Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extracts (75, 150, 300 and 600 mgkg−1 bwt). Their
schizonticidal activity was then evaluated using the Peter’s 4-day suppressive test). The prophylactic and curative (Rane’s Test) activity of Nefang was also evaluated by determining the parasitaemia, survival time, body weight and temperature in pre-treated rodents.

Results: Acute oral toxicity of the extract did not cause any observed adverse effects. Percent suppressions of
parasitaemia at 600 mgkg−1 bwt were as follows (P. berghei/P. chabaudi): Nefang – 82.9/86.3, Mangifera indica bark/Psidium guajava leaf combination extract – 79.5/81.2 and Psidium guajava leaf – 58.9/67.4. Nefang exhibited a prophylactic activity of 79.5% and its chemotherapeutic effects ranged from 61.2 – 86.1% with maximum effect observed at the highest experimental dose.

Conclusion: These results indicate that Nefang has excellent in vivo anti-malarial activities against P. berghei
and P. chabaudi, upholding earlier in vitro antiplasmodial activities against multi-drug resistant P. falciparum
parasites as well as its traditional use. Hence, Nefang represents a promising source of new anti-malarial
agents.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Nefang, Acute toxicity, Malaria, In vivo antiplasmodial activity, Suppressive
activity, Prophylactic activity, Curative activity, Combination phytotherapy

Tarkang PA, Franzoi KD, Lee S, Lee E, Vivarelli D, Freitas-Junior L, Luizzi M, Tsabang N, Ayong LS, Agbor G, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN. "In vitro Antiplasmodial Activities and Synergistic combinations of differential solvent extracts of the Polyherbal Product, Nefang." Biomed. Res. Int.. 2014;Article ID 835013.
Tarkang PA, Franzoi KD, Lee S, Lee E, Vivarelli D, Freitas-Junior L, Liuzzi M, Nolé T, Ayong LS, Agbor GA, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN. "In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activities and Synergistic Combinations of Differential Solvent Extracts of the Polyherbal Product, Nefang." BioMed Research International. 2014;Article ID 835013:DOI: /10.1155/2014/835013. Abstract2014_-_in_vitro_antiplasmodial_activities.pdf

Nefang, a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), is a potential therapy against P. falciparum malaria. In vitro antiplasmodial activities of its constituent solvent extractswere analyzed onCQ-sensitive (3D7) andmultidrug resistant (Dd2) P. falciparum strains. The interactions involving the differential solvent extracts were further analyzed using a variable potency ratio drug combination approach. Effective concentration 50 (EC50) values were determined by nonlinear regression curve-fitting of the dose-response data and used in calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration 50 (FIC50) and combination indices (CI) for each pair. The derived EC50 values (3D7/Dd2,

Tarkang PA, Okalebo FA, Agbor GA, Tsabang N, Guantai AN, Rukunga GM. "Indigenous Knowledge and folk use of a polyherbal antimalarial by the Bayang Community, South West Region of Cameroon." J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour.. 2012;2(3):372-380.
Tarkang PA, Guantai AN;, Tsabang N;, Agbor GA;, Okalebo FA;, Rukunga GM;. "Indigenous Knowledge and folk use of a polyherbal antimalarial by the Bayang Community, South West Region of Cameroon.". 2012. Abstract

Nefang is a polyherbal preparation constituted of the leavesof six plants and the bark of one of these,used traditionally for the treatment of malaria by the Bayang community, South West Region of Cameroon. Since no ethnopharmacological survey has been carried out on this preparation, this study aims at obtaining indigenous and folkloric information on the optimal methods for harvesting of constituent plants, preparation and administration of Nefang in the treatment of malaria. The study design was an exploratory survey.Semi-structured questionnaires were administered randomly to 20 respondents after obtaining their informed consent with the assistance of a medical practitioner. Review of literature of constituent plants was also undertaken. This study revealed that the respondents had a good knowledge of malaria and its causes. Various compositions for the preparation by decoction was obtained and administration was ascertained to be by oral route or by enema. The brief scientific review also validated the pharmacological actions of the constituent plants. The diverse indigenous knowledge and folk use of this preparation in the treatment of malaria are a pre-requisite for theoptimization of its compositionfor efficacy and pharmacological screening

Tasokwa K;, Nyariki D;, Mkwambisi D;, Kogi-Makau W. "Gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity."; 2011. Abstract

Climate variability presents different challenges for men and for women in their efforts to ensure household food security. However, despite their central role, gender issues have received only cursory attention in adaptation studies. This article looks at causes of gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity in one sub-Saharan African country: Malawi. Data were collected through a household questionnaire survey, focus group discussions and key informants' interviews in Chikhwawa and Ntcheu districts, located in the southern and central areas of Malawi. Results revealed that exposure and sensitivity to climate risks vary between men and women; therefore, each gender responds differently to climate risks, with men having more opportunities than women. The results highlight the need for policies and interventions to empower women in the access to resources that can strengthen households' resilience to climate variability.

Tasokwa K;, Nyariki D;, Mkwambisi D;, Kogi-Makau W. "Gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity."; 2011. Abstract

Climate variability presents different challenges for men and for women in their efforts to ensure household food security. However, despite their central role, gender issues have received only cursory attention in adaptation studies. This article looks at causes of gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity in one sub-Saharan African country: Malawi. Data were collected through a household questionnaire survey, focus group discussions and key informants' interviews in Chikhwawa and Ntcheu districts, located in the southern and central areas of Malawi. Results revealed that exposure and sensitivity to climate risks vary between men and women; therefore, each gender responds differently to climate risks, with men having more opportunities than women. The results highlight the need for policies and interventions to empower women in the access to resources that can strengthen households' resilience to climate variability.

Taussky P, Widmer HR, Takala J, Fandino J. "Outcome after acute traumatic subdural and epidural haematoma in {Switzerland}: a single-centre experience." Swiss medical weekly. 2008;138:281-285. AbstractWebsite
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Thomas TK, Masaba R, Borkowf CB, Ndivo R, Zeh C, Misore A, Otieno J, Jamieson D, Thigpen MC, Bulterys M, Slutsker L, De Cock KM, Amornkul PN, Greenberg AE, Fowler MG. "Triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission through breastfeeding--the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, Kenya: a clinical trial." PLoS Med.. 2011;8(3):e1001015. Abstract

Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to maximally suppress viral load in late pregnancy and the first 6 mo of lactation was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective PMTCT intervention.

Tembe KO, Chemining'wa G, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Evaluation of African tomato landraces (Solanum lycopersicum) based on morphological and horticultural traits." Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2018;52:536-542. Abstract
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Tembe K, Lagat S, Ambuko J, Chemining'wa G, Owino W. "Variation in Morphological and Agronomic Traits of Selected African Eggplant Accessions." Journal of Medicinally Active Plants . 2020;9(2):34-46.abstract
Tembe K, Lagat S, Ambuko J, Chemining'wa G, Owino W. "Variation in Morphological and Agronomic Traits of Selected African Eggplant Accessions.". 2020. Abstract
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Tembe KO, Chemining'wa G, Ambuko J, WillisOwinob. "Evaluation of African tomato landraces (Solanum lycopersicum) basedon morphological and horticultural traits." Agriculture and Natural Resources . 2018;52(6):536-542.abstract.pdf
Temkin B, Acosta E, Malvankar A, Vaidyanath S. "An interactive three-dimensional virtual body structures system for anatomical training over the internet." Clinical Anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2006;19:267-274. Abstract

The Visible Human digital datasets make it possible to develop computer-based anatomical training systems that use virtual anatomical models (virtual body structures-VBS). Medical schools are combining these virtual training systems and classical anatomy teaching methods that use labeled images and cadaver dissection. In this paper we present a customizable web-based three-dimensional anatomy training system, W3D-VBS. W3D-VBS uses National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Visible Human Male datasets to interactively locate, explore, select, extract, highlight, label, and visualize, realistic 2D (using axial, coronal, and sagittal views) and 3D virtual structures. A real-time self-guided virtual tour of the entire body is designed to provide detailed anatomical information about structures, substructures, and proximal structures. The system thus facilitates learning of visuospatial relationships at a level of detail that may not be possible by any other means. The use of volumetric structures allows for repeated real-time virtual dissections, from any angle, at the convenience of the user. Volumetric (3D) virtual dissections are performed by adding, removing, highlighting, and labeling individual structures (and/or entire anatomical systems). The resultant virtual explorations (consisting of anatomical 2D/3D illustrations and animations), with user selected highlighting colors and label positions, can be saved and used for generating lesson plans and evaluation systems. Tracking users' progress using the evaluation system helps customize the curriculum, making W3D-VBS a powerful learning tool. Our plan is to incorporate other Visible Human segmented datasets, especially datasets with higher resolutions, that make it possible to include finer anatomical structures such as nerves and small vessels.

Temmerman M. "[HIV in pregnancy].". 2001. Abstract

Since the start of the HIV epidemic, over 36 million people have been infected with the virus worldwide. As the virus is predominantly transmitted through sexual contact, equal numbers of males and females are infected, mainly young people of reproductive age. Hence, there is a growing number of HIV positive children infected during pregnancy, delivery or through breastmilk. Untreated 20-40% of infants born to HIV infected mothers will be infected as well, whereas a combination of antiretroviral medication during pregnancy, elective Caesarean section and bottle feeding can reduce the risk of vertical transmission to below 2%. Although the above mentioned intervention are widely used in the industrialised world, implementation seems difficult in developing countries because of political, financial, logical and societal factors. Screening of pregnant women and identification of HIV positive mothers can result in violence, rejection and stigmatization, and has to be put in the balance of programmes aiming at reducing the number of infected children. Hence, further research in to affordable, feasible and locally acceptable interventions for the reduction of mother-child HIV transmission is a priority. In addition, primary prevention, mainly aiming at behavioural changes of youngsters, remains crucial

Temmerman M, Moses S, Kiragu D, Fusallah S, Wamola I, Piot P. "Postpartum counselling of HIV infected women and their subsequent reproductive behaviour.". 1993.
Temmerman M, Gichangi P, Fonck K, Apers L, Claeys P, Van Renterghem L, Kiragu D, Karanja G, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J. "Effect of a syphilis control programme on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya." Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76(2):117-21. Abstract

To assess the impact of a syphilis control programme of pregnant women on pregnancy outcome in Kenya.

Temmerman M, Tyndall MW KCMQNPLW. "Risk factors for human papillomavirus and cervical precancerous lesions, and the role of concurrent HIV-1 infection." Int J Gynaecol Obstet.. 1999;65(2):171-81.
Templer N, Probst L, Onwonga R, Kamusingize D, Ogwali H, Hauser M, Owamani A, Mulumba LN. "Does certified organic agriculture increase agroecosystem health? Evidence from four farming systems in Uganda." 2018 Impact Factor 2.243 International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 2018;16(2):150-166 .
Temu CK, F.J.Gichaga. "Axle Load Study along the Nairobi-Thika Road (A2) ." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(2).
Tende RM;, Nderitu JH;, Mugo S;, Songa JM;, Olubayo F;, Bergvinson D. "Screening for development of resistance by the spotted stem borer, Chilo Partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Bt-maize delta-endotoxins."; 2005. Abstract

Stem borers are one of the major limiting factors to maize (Zea mays L.) production in the world. In Kenya the damage caused by stem borers leads to 13.5% yield loss estimated to be 400,000 MT of maize annually. The spotted stem borer Chilo partellus, Swinhoe is one of the major species of stem borers in Kenya. Bt-maize has been proved to reduce losses due to stem borer damage. Development of insect resistance among stem borers is one of the concerns of using Bt-maize. A study was conducted at the KARI Biosafety Greenhouse level 11, to determine the development of stemborer resistance to two Bt cry proteins for over four generation cycles of selection. The cry proteins were cry1Ab and cry1Ba expressed from Bt-maize event 223 carrying Bt cry1Ab gene and event 10 carrying Bt cry1Ba gene. Three hundred neonates of C. partellus were infested into maize leaves and allowed to feed for 24 hours. The surviving larvae were reared in artificial diet up to adult stage. The performance of each protein was assessed over time by estimation of the number of surviving larvae over each generation. The results showed significantly fewer surviving larvae from the Bt-maize events compared to the non-transgenic CML 216 control. The means were70.4 for CML216, 13.3 and 7.4 for Event 10 and 223 respectively. There were highly significant differences between the control and the two Bt-maize events. The two Bt-maize events were statistically not different in controlling the pest over the studied generations, indicating that there was no development of resistance to cry proteins in the tested C.partellus colony.

Tende RM,; Mugo, S. N.;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo, F., M.Bergvinsone J. "Evaluation of Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca susceptibility to Endotoxin in Bt maize." . Crop Protection . 2010;2(29):115-120.
Teng W, Shan Z, Teng X, Guan H, Li Y, Teng D, Jin Y, Yu X, Fan C, Chong W, others. "Effect of iodine intake on thyroid diseases in {China}." New England Journal of Medicine. 2006;354:2783-2793. AbstractWebsite
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Terayama Y, Kaneko Y, Kawamoto K, Sakai N. "Ultrastructural changes of the nerve elements following disruption of the organ of {Corti}. {I}. {Nerve} elements in the organ of {Corti}." Acta oto-laryngologica. 1977;83:291-302. Abstract

3-137 days after disruption of the guinea pig organ of Corti by perilymphatic perfusion with 20% streptomycin (SM), ultrastructural changes of the nerve fibers in the organ were observed. Most of nerve fibers began to degenerate after a latent period of 4 days. On the other hand, a number of fibers survived reactively enlarged and later developed into myelinated and unmyelinated fibers by becoming enclosed in Schwann cells which entered the organ of Corti through the habenula perforata. Regeneration and sprouting of the surviving nerve fibers also occurred. The fibers became mature, but atrophied after 60 days and then gradually disappeared. The regenerating fibers were mainly of the myelinated and unmyelinated efferent type. Retrograde degeneration occurred in both afferent and efferent fibers. In the less damaged organ of Corti perfused with 2% SM or Ringer's solution, Schwann cell invasion was not found.

Terer T, Nderitu GG, Gichuki NN. "Socio-economic values and traditional strategies of managing wetland resources in lower tana River, Kenya." Hydrobiologica. 2004;(527):3-14.
Terer T, Gichuki NN. "Community drought coping mechanisms, tactics and challenges to sustainable biodiversity management in dry lands with special reference to the Maasai and Turkana peoples of Kenya.". In: Sustainable management of biodiversity in the third millennium and beyond. Dar es Salaam,: University of Dar es Salaam; 2004.
Teresa N. Kiama, Rita Verhelst, Mbugua PM, Mario Vaneechoutte, Hans Verstraelen, Estambale B, Temmerman M. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora during the menstrual cycle of HIV positive and negative women in a sub-urban population of Kenya.; 2009.
Teresa N. Kiama, Rita Verhelst, Paul M. Mbugua, Mario Vaneechoutte, Hans Verstraelen, Estambale B, and Temmerman M. "Characterisation of the vaginal microflora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and negative women in a sub-urban population of Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2014;13(9):1075-1085.
Terkawi AM, Aboge G, Jia H, Goo Y-K, Ooka H, Yamagishi J, Nishikawa Y, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I, Kawazu S-I, Fujisaki K, Xuan X. "Molecular and immunological characterization of Babesia gibsoni.". 2009. Abstract

Serological immune screening was used to identify a gene encoding heat shock protein-70 from Babesia gibsoni (BgHSP-70) that showed high homology with HSP-70s from other apicomplexan parasites. This gene corresponded to a full-length cDNA containing an open reading frame of 1968 bp predicted to result in a 70-kDa mature protein consisting of 656 amino acids. Analysis of the expression levels of BgHSP-70 indicated elevated transcription from cultured parasites incubated at 40C for 1 h, but not at 30C. Interestingly, antiserum raised against recombinant BgHSP-70 protein reacted specifically not only with a 70-kDa protein of B. gibsoni but also with a corresponding native protein of B. microti (BmHSP-70), indicating the high degree of conservation of this protein. The BmHSP-70 gene was then isolated and characterized and the immunoprotective properties of recombinant BgHSP-70 (rBgHSP-70) and rBmHSP-70 were compared in vitro and in vivo. Both proteins had potent mitogenic effects on murine and canine mononuclear cells as evidenced by high proliferative responses and IFN-c production after stimulation. Immunization regimes in BALB⁄c and C57BL⁄6 mice using rBgHSP-70 and rBmHSP-70 elicited high antibody levels, with concurrent significant reductions in peripheral parasitaemias. Taken together, these results emphasize the potential of HSP-70s as a molecular adjuvant vaccine

Tesesia MI, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "Determinants of smallholder farmers’ awareness of agricultural extension devolution in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR) . 2017;12(51):3549-3555.
Teshome 3. A, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina, J.M. Kabaru, Onyari J. "Study on the microstructure of African wild silk cocoon shells and fibers." Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2012;50 :63-68.
Teshome A, Raina SK, Vollrath F, Kabaru JM, Onyari J, Nguku EK. "Study on weight loss and moisture regain of silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers from African wild silks." Journal of Entomology. 2011;8(5):450-458.
Teshome A, Raina SK, Vollrath F, Kabaru JM, Onyari J, EK N, Nguku. "Study on weight loss and moisture regain of Silk Cocoon shells and Degummed Fibers from African Wild Silkmoths." Journal of Entomology . 2011;8(5):450-458.
Teyie BG, Nelson ME. "The Impact of International Education on Private Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research . 2016;4(1). Abstract

International education is most probably the means by which we will be able to bridge the cultural and linguistic divides that exist not only within our country, but also globally. In the last decade Kenya has had an increase in the number of schools that are offering one form or another of an international education curriculum such as the British National Curriculum (BNC), the International Baccalaureate (IB), the Business Technology Examination Council (BTEC) and the American system of education. This paper explored the impact of international education in high schools in Nairobi County. This study was prompted by the need to find out whether there has been a paradigm shift. It attempted to answer the following questions: Is global citizenship still a foreign concept to Kenya? Does international education contribute/establish a greater formal equality of opportunity for all? Does international education cater for individual differences? Do students at post primary level appreciate the multicultural environment? How does it impact on the cost of education in Kenya? How do stereotypes about international education affect the implementation of these curricula? The study adopted a survey design where stratified random sampling was used to select schools from the private international secondary schools in Nairobi. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect primary data from the respondents. A combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques was used in the analysis. The outcome of this study was expected to make recommendations that would enhance appreciation of diversity in education and encourage adoption of various positive attributes that would continue to add value to Kenyan education. It also proposed ways of minimizing the negative influences that international education may have on the Kenyan educational structures.

TF A, F. H, PN N, LW I. "Life history of Oplostomus haroldi (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) unde laboratory conditions and a description of its third instar larva." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2012. AbstractInternational Journal of Tropical Insect Science

The life history of Oplostomus haroldi (Witte), a recently reported pest of honeybee colonies in East Africa, was studied for the first time under laboratory conditions. Adult O. haroldi collected from beehives in the coastal part of Kenya were reared on a mixture of moist sterilized soil and cow dung. At 25 ± 2 °C, 50 ± 5% relative humidity and a 10 h light-14 h dark photoperiod, the laid eggs took 11.9 ± 1.3 days to hatch into a curved pear-shaped scarabaeiform larva with a well-developed head and thoracic legs. The first, second and third larval instars lasted 14.6 ± 2.6, 17.5 ± 2.4 and 34.6 ± 2.4 days, respectively. The pupal stage, which was marked by formation of a mud cocoon, lasted 31.1 ± 6.7 days with the adults surviving for 2–6 months under laboratory conditions, suggesting that the beetle is multivoltine. A detailed taxonomic description of the external morphology of the third instar larva is provided

Th. Dittrich, H.-J. Muffler, M. Vogel, T. Guminskaya, A. Ogacho, A. Belaidi, E. Strub, W. Bohne, J. Röhrich, and O. Hilt, Lux-Steiner MC. "Passivation of TiO2 by Ultra-thin alumina." Applied Surface Science . 2005;240 :236-243.
Thabano JRE, D.Abongo, Sawula GM. "determination of nitrates using suppressed ion chromatography after copperised cadmium column reduction ." Journal of chromatography A. 2004;1045:153-159.thabano_publication.pdf
Thabano JRE, bong’o DA, Sawula GM. "Determination of nitrate by suppressed ion chromatography after copperised-cadmium column reduction." Journal of Chromatography A. 2004;1045(1):153-159. AbstractFull text link

The nitrate-selective copperised-cadmium (Cu-Cd) reduction reaction coupled directly to the highly sensitive nitrite ion chromatographic detection, produced a more precise method for determination of nitrate than any one of the two conventional methods. A borate buffer solution used in the reduction reaction, in place of the conventional ammonium–EDTA buffer solution, eliminated interferences from co-eluting ions in the subsequent ion chromatographic detection of nitrite. Optimised experimental conditions included using a packed-bed Cu-Cd reductor column length of 12.5 cm, a solution flow rate of 3.0 ml/min, and using 10.0 ml of borate buffer solution for each 20.0 ml of nitrate-containing solution. Precision was high for results obtained within a greatly extended linear dynamic range of 0.006–1.20 mg/l NO3−, with a much lower limit of detection of 0.40 μg/l NO3−. Cu-Cd reductor column efficiency was 98.20 ± 6.03%. Validation of the method was undertaken using certified reference materials. The method was successfully applied to analysis of dam water, river water and storm water samples, producing more precise results than either the conventional colorimetric method or the conventional ion chromatographic method.

Thaimuta ZL, Kigondu C, Makawiti DW. "Prevalence of nonthyroidal illness among HIV patients on HAART.". 2010.
Thaimuta, Z.L.; Kigondu MC; DW. "Prevalence of nonthyroidal illness among HIV patients on HAART." East African Medical Journal. 2010;87.
Thaimuta ZL, Kigondu C, Makawiti DW. "Prevalence of nonthyroidal illness among HIV patients on HAART.". 2010.
Thaimuta Z, Kigondu C, Makawiti D. "Increased incidence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism among HIV/AIDS patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy." Kenya Journal of Science, Technology and Innovations. 2015;5(1):85-93.
Thairu K, Mugambi M. Human Biology Volume 1 . Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau ; 1976.
and Thairu FAON. "Varsity develops jigger repellent." The Star Newspaper, Kenya, May 31, 2012:17.
Thairu K, Mugambi M, Muriuki PB, Mati JKG. "An Inhibitory Effect of Prolactin in Isolated Rabbit Myometrium. ." J. Endocr.. 1973.
Thairu K. "Environmental Exposure of the Sensorimotor Cortex of the Neonatal Rat." In Vivo. Environ. Physiol. Biochem. 1972;7:133-136.
Thairu K. The African Civilization (Utamaduni wa Kiafrika). Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau ; 1978.
Thairu PK. The African and The AIDS Holocaust. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers ; 2007.
Thaiya AG, Nyaga PN, Maribei JM, Ngatia TA, Kamau JPM, Kinyuru JM. "Acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity of Solanum incanum L in sheep in Kenya.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

A study was carried out to determine the toxicity of unripe fruits of Solanum incanum L in sheep. The sheep were orally drenched with dried unripe fruits powder of S. incanum L at dose rates varying from 1,200mg to 3,600 mg/Kg /day for 9 weeks. Clinical signs were observed daily while blood with and without anticoagulant was taken weekly for haematological and biochemical analysis. Clinical signs started on day two with bloat. All sheep groups showed bloat and coughing. Signs of cerebellar hyperplasia were manifested in 25%, 75% and 25% of sheep in groups 2, 3, and 4 respectively, manifested by staggering gait, lateral recumbency, leg paddling movements, coma and death. The mortality rate was 25% for group 2 and 100% for groups 3 and 4. All sheep groups had pneumonia, froth in the bronchi, lung emphysema and congestion in the brain, liver and kidneys while groups 3 and 5 had hemorrhagic ulcers on distal abomasum to proximal duodenum and hemorrhagic enteritis from duodenum to colon. On histology, all sheep showed necrosis of the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and Wallerian degeneration of neurons; lung emphysema and interstitial pneumonia, hemorrhagic enteritis, tubular necrosis in the kidneys and hepatocyte necrosis. The results indicate that S. incanum L is highly toxic to sheep and allowing sheep to graze on the plant is dangerous to their health.

Thaiya AG, Gitau P, Gitau GK, Nyaga PN. "Research Article: Food Animal Practice Bovine Papillomatosis and its Management with an Autogenous Virus Vaccine in Kiambu District, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Six cases of bovine papillomatosis were reported to the University of Nairobi veterinary clinic. Diagnosis was based on presented clinical signs and histopathology of affected skin lesions. The histological samples of the warts confirmed the diagnosis of papillomatosis. An autogenous formalin killed bovine specific wart vaccine was prepared from the wart samples and injected into four calves on day 0, 10 and 30, while two calves were left as undosed controls. The warts started regressing three weeks post vaccination and completely disappeared by the seventh week. This case represents a successfully management of a case of papillomatosis with a bovine specific autogenous vaccine

Thaiya A.G., P. Gitau, Gitau G.K., Nyaga, P. N. "Bovine papillomatosis and its management with an autogenous virus vaccine in Kiambu district, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian." kenya veterinarian. 2010;58(33):6-19.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG, Nyaga PN, Maribei JM, Ngatia TA, Kamau JPM, Kinyuru JM. "Acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity of Solanum incanum L in sheep in Kenya." Kenya Veterinarian. 2011;35:1-8. Abstract
n/a
Thaiyah AG, Kirui G, Mwanthi M, Koskei P, Mulei CM. "One Health key knowledge and training needs among service providers in Kenya.". In: 3rd International One Health congress. Amsterdam, Netherlands; 2015.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia, T.A; Kimeto BA, Ngatia, T.A; Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thamuita ZL, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Makawiti DW. "Thyroid function among HIV/AIDS patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy.". 2010. Abstract

To assess the thyroid function among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients on anti-retroviral drugs: stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine and to establish the prevalence of non-thyroid illness. Design: Laboratory based comparative cross-sectional study. Setting: Comprehensive care clinics at KNH and Mbagathi District Hospital. Subjects: Eighty four HIV-infected patients on treatment with ARVs (ARV +ve) and an ARV naive (ARV naive) group of 26 HIV-infected patients. Results: Thyroid stimulating hormone levels were not altered following treatment whereas the levels of FT4 decreased. The frequency of those with low FT4 were increasing with continued ARV use. The prevalence of non-thyroidal illness state defined by TSH within reference ranges and low FT4 was comparable among the ARV +ve and ARV naive groups (44 and 46% respectively). Conclusion: Progressive use of HAART causes decline in FT4 hormone levels. It is debatable whether interventions for low FT4 is necessary in ARV treatment but a longitudinal study would explain the progressive trend of thyroid hormones and implications with HAART treatment. The prevalence of NTI is comparable to both HAART users and non-users. Low levels of thyroid hormone (FT 4) may be an adaptive response by thyroid gland to minimize calorie utilisation as in chronic diseases

Thamuita ZL, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Makawiti DW. "Thyroid function among HIV/AIDS patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy.". 2010. Abstract

To assess the thyroid function among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients on anti-retroviral drugs: stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine and to establish the prevalence of non-thyroid illness. Design: Laboratory based comparative cross-sectional study. Setting: Comprehensive care clinics at KNH and Mbagathi District Hospital. Subjects: Eighty four HIV-infected patients on treatment with ARVs (ARV +ve) and an ARV naive (ARV naive) group of 26 HIV-infected patients. Results: Thyroid stimulating hormone levels were not altered following treatment whereas the levels of FT4 decreased. The frequency of those with low FT4 were increasing with continued ARV use. The prevalence of non-thyroidal illness state defined by TSH within reference ranges and low FT4 was comparable among the ARV +ve and ARV naive groups (44 and 46% respectively). Conclusion: Progressive use of HAART causes decline in FT4 hormone levels. It is debatable whether interventions for low FT4 is necessary in ARV treatment but a longitudinal study would explain the progressive trend of thyroid hormones and implications with HAART treatment. The prevalence of NTI is comparable to both HAART users and non-users. Low levels of thyroid hormone (FT 4) may be an adaptive response by thyroid gland to minimize calorie utilisation as in chronic diseases

Thanh BY, P L, Pattanittum P, Laopaiboon M, JP V, Oladapo OT, Pileggi-Castro C, Mori R, Jayaratne K, Z Q, J S. "Mode of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in preterm birth: a secondary analysis of the WHO Global and Multi-country Surveys." Scientific reports. 2019;9(15556):1-8. AbstractWebsite

Many studies have been conducted to examine whether Caesarean Section (CS) or vaginal birth (VB) was optimal for better maternal and neonatal outcomes in preterm births. However, findings remain unclear. Therefore, this secondary analysis of World Health Organization Global Survey (GS) and Multi-country Survey (MCS) databases was conducted to investigate outcomes of preterm birth by mode of delivery. Our sample were women with singleton neonates (15,471 of 237 facilities from 21 countries in GS; and 15,053 of 239 facilities from 21 countries in MCS) delivered between 22 and <37 weeks of gestation. We assessed association between mode of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in singleton preterm births by multilevel logistic regression adjusted for hierarchical data. The prevalences of women with preterm birth delivered by CS were 31.0% and 36.7% in GS and MCS, respectively. Compared with VB, CS was associated with significantly increased odds of maternal intensive care unit admission, maternal near miss, and neonatal intensive care unit admission but significantly decreased odds of fresh stillbirth, and perinatal death. However, since the information on justification for mode of delivery (MOD) were not available, our results of the potential benefits and harms of CS should be carefully considered when deciding MOD in preterm births.

Subject terms: Epidemiology, Outcomes research

Tharao MK, Oroko P, Abdulkarim A, Saidi H. "Validation of the Ottawa ankle rules at a tertiary teaching hospital." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2015;12(2):77-80.
Thavarajah R, Joshua E, Balasundaram S, Dimba E, Yengopal V. "Access and management of HIV-related diseases in resource-constrained settings: a workshop report.". 2016. Abstract
n/a
Thecla A, O KG, Alice O-O. "10. Principal component analysis of the effects of flooding on food security in agrarian communities of south eastern Nigeria." International Journal of Hydrology. 2018;2(2):205-212.
Thenya, Wassmann T, R., Braun M. "Land cover change analysis in a tropical wetland." Journal of Land Use Science.. 2006.
Thenya T, Rego AB. "SGP 403. Biogeography II." Department of Geography & Environmental Studies; 2006. Abstract
n/a
Thenya T, Verburg P, Wassmann R, Verchot ML. "Dynamics of Resource Utilization in a Tropical Wetland." Spatial Statistical Analysis of Land use Change. 2006.
Thenya T, Rego AB. "SGP 303. Biogeography I." Department of Geography & Environmental Studies; 2006. Abstract
n/a
Thenya T, Verburg P, Wassmann R, Verchot L, Mungai D. "Journal of Environmental Management." Dynamics of Resource Utilization in a Tropical Wetlan. 2006.
Thenya S, Gichangi P, Kiama L. "Gender based violence and sexual violence: three years experience of Nairobi Womens Hospital." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2006.
Thenya T, Rego AB. "Biogeography II. Department of Geography & Environmental Studies." Biogeography II. Department of Geography & Environmental Studies. 2006.
Theodor JL, Senelar R. "Cytotoxic interaction between gorgonian explants: mode of action." Cell. Immunol.. 1975;19(2):194-200.
Theresa O. "THE INCIDENCE OF NOSOCOMIAL URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS: KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL - INTENSIVE. CARE UNIT." Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal. 2011;1(2):12-21. Abstractodero-the_incidence_of_nosocomial_urinary_tract_infections_kenyatta_national_hospital-_intensive_care_unit.pdf

Banton InterdiscipUnary Research Journal (lOll) J (1), 11 - 21
THE INCIDENCE OF NOSOCOMIAL URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS: KENYATTA
NATIONAL HOSPITAL - INTENSIVE. CARE UNIT
'*HannahK. Inyama, 2Gunturu Revathi, lJoyce Musandu and "Theresa Odero
'*Department of Nursing Sciences, Kenyatta University
P.O BOX 356, Tiriki-50309, Kenya. hannahinyamaI23@yahoo.com
2Department of Pathology.
The Aga Khan University Hospital,
3rd Parklands Avenue,
P.O Box 30270-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
lSchool of Nursing Sciences, University of Nairobi
P.O. BOX 19676 Nairobi-00202, Kenya
*Corresponding author
BIRJ-MS-11-2-10A
Abstract
Urinary tract infectionsfl.II'Is) are the most common nosocomial infections in both. acute care
settings and long-term care facilities. Each year millions of urethral catheters are put in place in these
facilities across the United States. In the acute care settings a vast majority of UTIs occur in patients
with temporary urinary catheters. Nosocomial catheter-associated urinary tract infections (NCAUTls). .i
. .' . .
have been one of the major problems in the Intensive care uniC(ICU} and hav~ contributed to the
mortality and morbidity of the patients. Efforts to contain theproblem have resulted in the introduction
of guidelines to reduce the incidence and prevalence of the nosocomial UTI. Such measures have been.
implemented in the developed world; unfortunately the developing countries have not.duplicated the same.
This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Urine samples were collected and analyzed
in the laboratory for growth of microorganisms to determine the incidence of NCAUTls.
The findings of the study indicate that the Incidence of NCAUTI was determined
to be' 18% with the common isolated microorganism being Escherichia coli.
It recommended that there was need for judicious use. 'of antibiotics to . prevent
.~
drug resistance and that a procedure and policy on the management of a, patient. '.~
with a urinary catheter should be developed and made available for' use 10 the ICU. .~
".
Key Words: incidence, nosocomial infections, catheter associated UTI, ICU

thesis PD. In spite of difference. Making sense of the Coexistence between the Kamba and the Maasai Peoples of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

n/a

Theunissen F, Cleps I, Goudar S, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Owa OO, Mugerwa K, Piaggio G, Gülmezoglu MA, Nakalembe M, Byamugisha J, Osoti A, Mandeep S, Poriot T, Gwako G, Vernekar S, Widmer M. "Correction to: Cost of hospital care of women with postpartum haemorrhage in India, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda: a financial case for improved prevention." Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):57.
Theunissen F, Cleps I, Goudar S, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Owa OO, Mugerwa K, Piaggio G, Gülmezoglu MA, Nakalembe M, Byamugisha J, Osoti A, Mandeep S, Poriot T, Gwako G, Vernekar S, Widmer M. "Cost of hospital care of women with postpartum haemorrhage in India, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda: a financial case for improved prevention." Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):18. Abstract

Access to quality, effective lifesaving uterotonics in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains a major barrier to reducing maternal deaths from postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Our objective was to assess the costs of care for women who receive different preventative uterotonics, and with PPH and no-PPH so that the differences, if significant, can inform better resource allocation for maternal health care.

THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "T.J. Njoka, G.W. Muriuki, R.S. Reid and D.M. Nyariki: 2003: The Use of Sociological Methods to Assess Land-use Change: A Case Study of Lambwe Valley, Kenya. J. Soc. Sc., 7(3): 181-185 (2003). Kemla-Raj , India.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2003. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
Theuri A, Kaindi DWM, Mbugua SK, Karuri EG. "Under-fives rickets in a tropical dairy farming region Kiambu County, Kenya." JIARM. 2017;5(5):10-21.theuri_et_al._2017_abstract.pdf
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE, D. DRKINYUAPATRICKI. "J. T. Njoka and P.I.D. Kinyua, 2006: The Logistic Model-generated carrying capacities, maximum sustained off-take rates and optimal stocking rates for Kenya.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2006. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE, D. DRKINYUAPATRICKI. "J. T. Njoka and P.I.D. Kinyua, 2006: The Logistic Model-generated carrying capacities, maximum sustained off-take rates and optimal stocking rates for Kenya.". In: Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "Njoka T. 1990: Range management in Kenya. Page 60-63: In Wildlife Research for sustainable Development.-Edited by G.T. Grootenhuis, S.G. Njuguna and P.W. Kat. Published by KARI, KWS, NMK.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1990.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE, D. DRKINYUAPATRICKI. "Kinyua P.I.D and Njoka J. T. 2001: Animal Exchange Ratios: an alternative point of view. African Journal of Ecology Vol.: 39, 59-64. Blackwell.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2001.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "Muriuki G.W., and Njoka J.T., Reid, R. S.:2002: Tsetse, wildlife and land-cover change in Ruma National Park, South Western Kenya. J. Hum. Ecol., 14(4): 229-235 (2003) Kamla-Raj India.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2003. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "G. W. Muriuki, T.J. Njoka, R.S. Reid, D.M. Nyariki 2005: Tsetse control and land-use change in Lambwe valley, south-western Kenya. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 106 (2005) 99-107. Elsevier.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2005. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE, D. DRKINYUAPATRICKI. "Kinyua P.I.D and Njoka J. T. 2001: Animal Exchange Ratios: an alternative point of view. African Journal of Ecology Vol.: 39, 59-64. Blackwell.". In: Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001. Abstract

An alternative interpretation is provided of the con- cepts of carrying capacity and exchange ratios, particu- larly suitable for game animal species, based on management models for a given area of rangeland or pasture. It involves modelling animal population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations. Carrying capacity is then generated endogenously using rainfall as a proxy. The model interaction parameters, also gen- erated endogenously, represent the animal exchange ratios. Because these two parameters are generated endogenously, this approach takes into account all the animals' habitat requirements (food, cover, water and space) simultaneously, unlike other approaches that tend to consider food requirements only.Thismakes the approach amenable to multi-species situations. It also captures the ecological de¢nition of population growth models where the realized rather than the theoretical carrying capacity is determined endogenously.

THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "Njoka J. T. 2003: The Worship of God through Agriculture .Chapter 2 pages 19-40. In the Book .". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2003. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "V.O. Wesonga, R.K. Ngugi, D.M. Nyariki, G. Kironchi and T. J. Njoka: 2003: Effects of Balanites glabra canopy cover on grass production, organic matter and soil moisture in Southern Kenya rangeland. African Journal of Range & Forage Science, 2003, 20(3): .". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2003. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
Theuri DW, Wairire, G.G., Mwangi SW. "Socio- economic hazards of plastic paper bags litter in peri- urban centers of Kenya: A case study of Ongata Rongai Township - Kajiado County." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;1(5).
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "R.W. Benjamin, N.G. Seligman, T. Kipnis, M. Forti, K. Becker, J. T. Njoka and NKR. Musimba, J.C. Ng.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1992.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "RELMA Technical Report No. 22 (ISBN 9966-896-42-2): 1999: .". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1999.
THEURI DRNJOKAJESSE. "Atieno F.O. , Robin Reid and Njoka J.T. And E. Harris 2002: Land use trends and their effects on range vegetation; the case of Greater Amboseli Ecosystem: Paper presented at the Annual GL-CRSP Conference in Guadalajara, Mexico, 16th - 18th March 2002.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2002. Abstract
This paper deals with the derivation of logistic model for cattle, sheep and goats in a commercial ranching system in Machakos District, Kenya, a savannah ecosystem with average annual rainfall of 589.3  159.3mm and an area of 10,117ha. It involves modeling livestock population dynamics as discrete-time logistic equations wiyh fixed carrying capacities. The fixed carrying capacities are generated endogenously using time-series ranch data, covering a period of 15 years, from 1987 to 2001, in a commercial ranching enterprise. The model incorporates interaction parameters, generated endogenously. The estimation of the logistic models involves estimation of econometric models for each livestock species, followed by the recovery of the logistic model mathematically. Optimisation procedures are employed to determine the optimal stocking levels and the optimal off-take levels. The model-generated carrying capacities are 2,985, 791 and 201 animal units (AU) for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. Optimal stocking levels are 1,369, 154 and 69 Aus for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively, while the optimal off-take levels are 857, 88 and 63 for cattle, sheep and goats, respectively. This shows that the logistic model-based system analysis is applicable to the management of mixed-species commercial ranching enterprises.
Thiankolu M, Mavisi VK. Judiciary Bench Book on Electoral Disputes Resolution. Nairobi: The Judiciary (Kenya); 2017.
Thiankolu M. "‘Standards of Review and Resolution of Electoral Disputes in Kenya: A Review of the Jurisdiction of the High Court; The Court of Appeal; and the Supreme Court.". In: Balancing the Scales of Electoral Justice: Resolving Disputes from the 2013 Elections in Kenya and the Emerging Jurisprudence. Nairobi: The Judiciary (Kenya) and IDLO; 2016.
Thiankolu M. "The Constitutional Review Cases; Emerging Issues in Kenyan Jurisprudence." East Africa Law Journal. 2005;2:122.
Thiankolu M. "‘Resolution of Electoral Disputes in Kenya: An Audit of Past Court Decisions.". In: Handbook on Election Disputes in Kenya: Context, Legal Framework, Institutions and Jurisprudence . Nairobi: The Law Society of Kenya; 2013.
Thierno Souleymane Barry, Oscar Ngesa, Onyango NO, Mwambi H. "Bayesian Spatial Modeling of Anemia among children under 5 years in Guinea.". 2021. AbstractWebsite

Bacground: Anemia is a major public health problem in Africa with an increasing number of children under 5
years getting infected. Guinea is one of the most affected countries. In 2018, the prevalence rate was 75% in
children under 5 years. This study sought to identify the factors associated with anemia and to map spatial
variation of anemia across the eight (8) regions in Guinea for children under 5 years, which can provide
guidance for control programs for the reduction of the disease.
Methods: Data from the Guinea Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS5) 2016 was used for this study. A
total of 2609 children under 5 years who had full covariate information were used in the analysis. Spatial
binomial logistic regression methodology was undertaken via Bayesian estimation based on Markov chain
Monte Carlo (McMC) using WinBUGS software version 1.4.
Results: Our findings revealed that 77% of children under 5 years in Guinea had anemia and the prevalence in
the regions ranged from 70.32% (Conakry) to 83.60% (N’Zerekore) across the country. After adjusting for non
spatial and spatial random effects in the model, older children (48–59 months) (OR: 0.47, CI [0.29 0.70]) were
less likely to be anemic compared to those who are younger (0-11 months). Children whose mothers have
completed secondary education or more had a reduced chance of anemia infection by 33% (OR: 0.67, CI [0.49
0.90]) and Children from household heads from Kissi ethnic group are less likely to have anemia than their
counterparts whose leader is from Soussou (OR: 0.48, CI [0.22 0.91]).
Conclusion: The spatial analysis allowed the identification of high-risk areas as well as the identification of
socio-economic and demographic factors associated with anemia among children under 5 years. Such an
analysis is important in helping policy makers and health practitioners in developing programs geared towards
control and management of anemia among children under 5 years in the country.

Thim T, Hagensen MK, Bentzon JF, Falk E. "From vulnerable plaque to atherothrombosis." Journal of internal medicine. 2008;263:506-516. Abstract

Plaque rupture precipitates approximately 75% of all fatal coronary thrombi. Therefore, the plaque prone to rupture is the primary focus of this review. The lipid-rich core and fibrous cap are pivotal in the understanding of plaque rupture. Plaque rupture is a localized process within the plaque caused by degradation of a tiny fibrous cap rather than by diffuse inflammation of the plaque. Atherosclerosis is a multifocal disease, but plaques prone to rupture seem to be oligofocal at most.

THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, CT, Vargas, RR, Alim,SM, Paron P. 2010. Mixed-effects modelling of time series NDVI-rainfall relationship for detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in drylands. Journal of Arid Environments, 74:1552-1563.". In: Journal of Arid Environments. Journal of Arid Environments; 2010. Abstract
Many researchers have used time-series analysis of remotely sensed images to gain understanding of the dynamics of loss of vegetation cover in drylands. However, complex interactions between vegetation and climate still mask the potential of remote sensing signals to detect human-induced loss of vegetation cover. This paper presents mixed-effect modelling method for time-series NDVI-rainfall relationship to account for the complex interaction between vegetation and climate. Mixed-effects method is a form of statistical modelling that can simultaneously model environmental relationships for a population and for different groups within the population. In this study, it was used to model the NDVI-rainfall relationship in Somalia and for different vegetation types in the country. Its time-series application removed the interaction between vegetation and rainfall and identified areas experiencing human-induced loss of vegetation cover in the country. On average, it gave an accurate relationship between rainfall and NDVI (r2 > 60%) and detected areas with human-induced loss of vegetation cover (kappa = 75%). Although the potential of mixed-effects was shown using vegetation types, other factors such as soil types and land use can also be included in the method to improve accuracy of time-series NDVI images in detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in the drylands.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Shepherd KD, Coe R, Walsh MG, Gumbe LO. 2006. Rapid protocol for assessing soil physical degradation in arid and semi-arid areas. Highland2006 conference on environmental change, geomorphic processes, land degradation and rehabilitation in tropi.". In: Highland2006 conference. Mekelle University; 2006. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Paron P., Vargas Rojas R. and Omuto C.T. 2011. Integrated landform mapping: methodology and application for digital soil mapping in Somalia. IAG/AIG REGIONAL CONFERENCE 2011, .". In: IAG/AIG REGIONAL CONFERENCE. International Association of Geomorphologists; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Soil occurs in nature in groups with unique response characteristics to its forming factors. These characteristics should ideally be represented as a family of curves in the models for producing soil maps. However, the current approaches for producing soil maps use a single model which either blocks/controls the grouping effects or do not statistically recognize the natural landscape groupings. This study tested mixed-effects modelling technique for ingenious recognition of soil groupings and consequent improvement of the accuracy of the resultant soil maps. Mixed-effects modelling is a form of regression analysis for simultaneous modelling of the average landscape characteristics and individual groups within the landscape. It can model a family of curves and potentially remove inadequacies inherent in the current models for soil mapping. Its potential in regression kriging of continuous and categorical soil attributes has been shown in this paper, where it produced about 60% accuracy with holdout validation. Compared to the current application of a single model in regression kriging, mixed-effects modelling produced about five times improvement of the mapping accuracy. It is anticipated that its adoption will contribute to improved soil mapping
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and P.D. Shrestha. 2007. Remote sensing techniques for rapid detection of soil physical degradation. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28, 4785.". In: International Journal of Remote Sensing. International Journal of Remote Sensing; 2007. Abstract

Physical degradation undermines soils' ability to perform their many biophysical functions. Currently, there is lack of rapid methods to facilitate timely large-area assessment for effective control of the degradation. This study tested the combined applications of point-measurements of physical properties, soil spectral reflectance, and remote sensing for prediction of the degradation in a large watershed. Infiltration and water retention measurements at selected sites were used to aid definition of the degradation classes. A tree classification was then developed with diffuse spectral reflectance to predict the degradation classes. 93% accuracy with holdout cross-validation was achieved and the tree used to predict the degradation at multiple points in the study area. In addition, standardized deviations of land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from long-term Landsat scenes were used to study the thermal and vegetation conditions at the sampled points. The deviations of LST and NDVI were effectively incorporated in the prediction of the degradation at other places with 80% accuracy of ground reference data. This approach has the potential as a useful tool for guiding policy decision on sustainable land management.

THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Vargas RR and Omuto CT. 2008. National land degradation assessment in Somalia. Consultative Workshop on Land Degradation Assessment, Holiday-Inn, 8-12th September 2008, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Consultative Workshop on Land Degradation Assessment. FAO; 2008. Abstract
Soil physical degradation is a gradual process of many steps beginning from structural deterioration and ending in differential loss of finer particles through erosion. Control of the degradation remains a challenge to many scientists due to lack of proper assessment protocols. This study developed a sequential protocol with emphasis on definition of physical degradation and successive soil testing to determine the stages of degradation development. The protocol was tested in Cambisols, Arenosols, and Ferralsols in Eastern Kenya. Soil physical degradation due to 10 years land use change was defined as more than 25% drop in infiltration and water retention characteristics and aggregate stability and more than 30% increase in bulk density and silt content. Then a soil testing model was sequentially applied to identify physical degradation phases. Visual assessment of degradation symptoms, RUSLE model, and diffuse infrared spectral reflectance were used in the soil testing model as predictors of physical degradation. Visual assessment was found to be cheap and fast method for identifying final stages of physical degradation with 60% accuracy. Visual assessment combined with RUSLE model improved the assessment accuracy to 80%. Infrared spectral reflectance, which is sensitive to subtle changes in soil physical conditions, was also found as a potential surrogate predictor of early-warning signs of soil physical degradation. Inclusion of spectra into the assessment model improved the accuracy to 95%. This protocol is effective in identifying phases of soil physical degradation, which are useful for planning degradation control and monitoring schemes. Its further testing and worldwide application is recommended.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T., Vargas, R. R., Alim, M.S., Ismail, A., Osman, A., Iman. H.M. 2009. Land degradation assessment and a monitoring framework in Somalia. FA0-SWALIM Technical Report L-14, FAO-SWALIM, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Land Degradation and Development. FAO-SWALIM; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Walsh MG, Shepherd KD, Coe R 2003. Prediction of field-measured infiltration rates using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Poster presented at ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings, 2-6 November 2003, Denver, Colorado, USA. Annual Meeting Abstracts [CD-.". In: ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings, 2-6 November 2003, Denver, Colorado, USA. ASA-CSSA-SSSA; 2003. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Minasny B, McBratney AB, Biamah, EK. 2006. Nonlinear mixed effect modelling for improved estimation of water retention and infiltration parameters. Journal of Hydrology, 330:748-758.". In: Journal of Hydrology. Journal of Hydrology; 2006. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Vargas, RR, Omuto, CT, and Lewis, N. 2008. Land degradation assessment of a selected study area in Somaliland: application of the LADA/WOCAT approach at local level. National Land Degradation Workshop, 16-18 September, Pretoria, South Africa.". In: National Land Degradation workshop. FAO; 2008. Abstract
Soil physical degradation is a gradual process of many steps beginning from structural deterioration and ending in differential loss of finer particles through erosion. Control of the degradation remains a challenge to many scientists due to lack of proper assessment protocols. This study developed a sequential protocol with emphasis on definition of physical degradation and successive soil testing to determine the stages of degradation development. The protocol was tested in Cambisols, Arenosols, and Ferralsols in Eastern Kenya. Soil physical degradation due to 10 years land use change was defined as more than 25% drop in infiltration and water retention characteristics and aggregate stability and more than 30% increase in bulk density and silt content. Then a soil testing model was sequentially applied to identify physical degradation phases. Visual assessment of degradation symptoms, RUSLE model, and diffuse infrared spectral reflectance were used in the soil testing model as predictors of physical degradation. Visual assessment was found to be cheap and fast method for identifying final stages of physical degradation with 60% accuracy. Visual assessment combined with RUSLE model improved the assessment accuracy to 80%. Infrared spectral reflectance, which is sensitive to subtle changes in soil physical conditions, was also found as a potential surrogate predictor of early-warning signs of soil physical degradation. Inclusion of spectra into the assessment model improved the accuracy to 95%. This protocol is effective in identifying phases of soil physical degradation, which are useful for planning degradation control and monitoring schemes. Its further testing and worldwide application is recommended.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Vargas RR, Paron P. 2009. Soil erosion and sedimentation modelling of the areas between river Juba and Shabelle in South Somalia. Technical Report No. 16. FAO-SWALIM. Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Land Degradation and Development. FAO-SWALIM; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and L.O. Gumbe. 2009. Estimating water infiltration and retention characteristics using a computer program in R. Computers & Geosciences 35: 579-585.". In: Computers and Geosciences. Computers and Geosciences; 2009. Abstract
Infiltration and water retention functions are widely used soil hydraulic properties in the geosciences. They contain coefficients known as hydraulic parameters that are traditionally obtained through curve-fitting. Computer programs for the curve-fitting process are available for certain infiltration or water retention models. However, these programs are either not freely accessible or do not estimate certain hydraulic parameters. They are also inefficient and prone to errors for applications involving large datasets. This paper discusses the use of a freely accessible HydroMe package for fast, efficient, and accurate estimation of soil hydraulic parameters in some commonly used infiltration and water retention models. The package is executable in the freely downloadable R programming software. It contains a program for estimating the parameters in infiltration models previously proposed. The program is capable of estimating parameters from arrays of grouped data in one single pass without having to enter the data each time for the parameter estimation. It incorporates mixed-effects and covariate modelling techniques for improved estimation accuracy. These techniques are not common in any other computer programs in the geosciences. Through covariate modelling, the package provides opportunity to include environmental correlates in the estimation of soil hydraulic parameters. Therefore, HydroMe not only improves the estimation accuracy and efficiency, but also provides insight into environmental risk factors that influence the management of soil and water resources.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C. T., J .P .O. Obiero and S. C. Ondieki. 2001. Modelling Hydraulic Conductivity. Paper presented at the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers International Conference , Grand Regency Hotel, Nairobi, 2001.". In: Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers International Conference. KSAE; 2001. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, CT and Shepherd KD. 2006. New methods for large-area assessment of soil degradation. 18th World Congress of Soil Science July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.". In: 18th World Congress of Soil Science July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. WCSS; 2006. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT. 2012. DSM for mapping soil classes in Somalia. In Vargas et al. Workshop Proceedings for "GSP / e-SOTER Workshop: Towards Global Soil Information: Activities within the GEO Task Global Soil Data". 20-23 March 2012. FAO. Rome.". In: SR-CRSP Technical Report Series No. 43 pp. 64. (Co-authored with Rex Campbell and Herbert Lionberger). FAO; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Soil occurs in nature in groups with unique response characteristics to its forming factors. These characteristics should ideally be represented as a family of curves in the models for producing soil maps. However, the current approaches for producing soil maps use a single model which either blocks/controls the grouping effects or do not statistically recognize the natural landscape groupings. This study tested mixed-effects modelling technique for ingenious recognition of soil groupings and consequent improvement of the accuracy of the resultant soil maps. Mixed-effects modelling is a form of regression analysis for simultaneous modelling of the average landscape characteristics and individual groups within the landscape. It can model a family of curves and potentially remove inadequacies inherent in the current models for soil mapping. Its potential in regression kriging of continuous and categorical soil attributes has been shown in this paper, where it produced about 60% accuracy with holdout validation. Compared to the current application of a single model in regression kriging, mixed-effects modelling produced about five times improvement of the mapping accuracy. It is anticipated that its adoption will contribute to improved soil mapping
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. 2007. HydroMe: Estimation of soil hydraulic parameters from experimental data.". In: Software. R Development Core Team; 2007. Abstract
HydroMe is a R Package that estimates the parameters in infiltration and water retention models by curve-fitting method. The models considered in this package those that are commonly used in soil science.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. 2008. Assessment of soil physical degradation in Eastern Kenya by use of a sequential soil testing protocol. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 128:199-211.". In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment; 2008. Abstract
Soil physical degradation is a gradual process of many steps beginning from structural deterioration and ending in differential loss of finer particles through erosion. Control of the degradation remains a challenge to many scientists due to lack of proper assessment protocols. This study developed a sequential protocol with emphasis on definition of physical degradation and successive soil testing to determine the stages of degradation development. The protocol was tested in Cambisols, Arenosols, and Ferralsols in Eastern Kenya. Soil physical degradation due to 10 years land use change was defined as more than 25% drop in infiltration and water retention characteristics and aggregate stability and more than 30% increase in bulk density and silt content. Then a soil testing model was sequentially applied to identify physical degradation phases. Visual assessment of degradation symptoms, RUSLE model, and diffuse infrared spectral reflectance were used in the soil testing model as predictors of physical degradation. Visual assessment was found to be cheap and fast method for identifying final stages of physical degradation with 60% accuracy. Visual assessment combined with RUSLE model improved the assessment accuracy to 80%. Infrared spectral reflectance, which is sensitive to subtle changes in soil physical conditions, was also found as a potential surrogate predictor of early-warning signs of soil physical degradation. Inclusion of spectra into the assessment model improved the accuracy to 95%. This protocol is effective in identifying phases of soil physical degradation, which are useful for planning degradation control and monitoring schemes. Its further testing and worldwide application is recommended.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and Vargas, R.R. 2009. Combining pedometrics, remote sensing and field observations for assessing soil loss in challenging drylands: a case study of northwestern Somalia. Land Degradation and Development 20: 101-115.". In: Land Degradation and Development. Land Degradation and Development; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
Thiong’o SM, Kinoti M, Kibera F. "Market Entry Strategies And Performance Of Multinational Corporations In Kenya." African Journal Of Business And Management. 2020;6(1):52-66. Abstractmarket_entry_strategies_and_performance_of_multinational_corporations_in_kenya.pdf

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between market entry strategies and organisational performance of multinational corporations in Kenya. The specific objective is to establish the relationship between market entry strategies and organisational performance of multinational companies in Kenya. The study employed descriptive cross-sectional research design. The study established that market entry strategies explained 43.1% of the variance in organizational performance of multinational companies measured using financial performance parameters and 52.5% of the variance in organizational performance measured using nonfinancial parameters. The hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between market entry strategies and organisational performance was therefore supported. The study recommends that multinational corporations should carry out research on the market entry strategies before venturing into international market. This will ensure that they use the appropriate market entry strategy to enhance their performance. The study also recommended that the management evaluate the factors influencing the choice of market entry modes in order to choose the best alternative. The results makes a contribution to theory development, policy and marketing practice in relation to the effect of market entry strategy and organisation performance The limitation of the study is that it used top management as the respondents, may be if other cadre of employees were studied they could have contributed to more exhaustive results for generalization, this however did not compromise on study results. Therefore, the study suggests that there is room for further research incorporating a large population approach, using longitudinal designs and using group discussion to get more information from the respondents.

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Thoithi G, Schepdael VA, Herdewijn P, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of diamino analogues of 2'- or 3'-deoxyadenosine from adenine on a poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) polymer column." J. Chromatogr. A. 1995;689:247-254.
Thoithi GN, Amugune BK. "Screening of some plants used traditionally for antifungal activity in Vihiga district, Western Kenya." AICAD Research Mini-reviews. 2005;(4):72-75.
Thoithi GN, Amugune BK. Some plants used traditionally for antifungal activity in Vihiga district, Western Kenya: Herbal Wash Preparation. Juja: 4th Call 2nd Phase presentation workshop final reports; 2009.
Thoithi G, Kibwage IO, Kingondu O, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of isoniazid, pyrazinamide and rifampicin on a reversed-phase silica column." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2002;5:8-14.
Thoithi G, Schepdael VA, Herdewijn P, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of hexopyranosylated cytosine nucleosides from their degradation products." J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.. 1997;16:533-540.
Thomas, TK; Masaba BCB; NZMOJTMC; BSR; R; C. "Triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission through breastfeeding--the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, Kenya: a clinical trial.". 2011. Abstract

Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to maximally suppress viral load in late pregnancy and the first 6 mo of lactation was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective PMTCT intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV-infected pregnant women took zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine or nelfinavir from 34-36 weeks' gestation to 6 mo post partum. Infants received single-dose nevirapine at birth. Women were advised to breastfeed exclusively and wean rapidly just before 6 mo. Using Kaplan-Meier methods we estimated HIV-transmission and death rates from delivery to 24 mo. We compared HIV-transmission rates among subgroups defined by maternal risk factors, including baseline CD4 cell count and viral load. Among 487 live-born, singleton, or first-born infants, cumulative HIV-transmission rates at birth, 6 weeks, and 6, 12, and 24 mo were 2.5%, 4.2%, 5.0%, 5.7%, and 7.0%, respectively. The 24-mo HIV-transmission rates stratified by baseline maternal CD4 cell count <500 and ≥500 cells/mm(3) were 8.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.8%-12.0%) and 4.1% (1.8%-8.8%), respectively (p = 0.06); the corresponding rates stratified by baseline maternal viral load <10,000 and ≥10,000 copies/ml were 3.0% (1.1%-7.8%) and 8.7% (6.1%-12.3%), respectively (p = 0.01). None of the 12 maternal and 51 infant deaths (including two second-born infants) were attributed to antiretrovirals. The cumulative HIV-transmission or death rate at 24 mo was 15.7% (95% CI 12.7%-19.4%). CONCLUSIONS: This trial shows that a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen from late pregnancy through 6 months of breastfeeding for PMTCT is safe and feasible in a resource-limited setting. These findings are consistent with those from other trials using maternal triple-antiretroviral regimens during breastfeeding in comparable settings.

Thomas TK, Masaba R, Borkowf CB, Ndivo R, Zeh C, Misore A, Otieno J, Jamieson D, Thigpen MC, Bulterys M, Slutsker L, De Cock KM, Amornkul PN, Greenberg AE, Fowler MG, Team KBSS, Mbori-Ngacha DA, et al. "http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/handle/123456789/30836.". 2011. Abstract

Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to maximally suppress viral load in late pregnancy and the first 6 mo of lactation was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective PMTCT intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV-infected pregnant women took zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine or nelfinavir from 34-36 weeks' gestation to 6 mo post partum. Infants received single-dose nevirapine at birth. Women were advised to breastfeed exclusively and wean rapidly just before 6 mo. Using Kaplan-Meier methods we estimated HIV-transmission and death rates from delivery to 24 mo. We compared HIV-transmission rates among subgroups defined by maternal risk factors, including baseline CD4 cell count and viral load. Among 487 live-born, singleton, or first-born infants, cumulative HIV-transmission rates at birth, 6 weeks, and 6, 12, and 24 mo were 2.5%, 4.2%, 5.0%, 5.7%, and 7.0%, respectively. The 24-mo HIV-transmission rates stratified by baseline maternal CD4 cell count <500 and ≥500 cells/mm(3) were 8.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.8%-12.0%) and 4.1% (1.8%-8.8%), respectively (p = 0.06); the corresponding rates stratified by baseline maternal viral load <10,000 and ≥10,000 copies/ml were 3.0% (1.1%-7.8%) and 8.7% (6.1%-12.3%), respectively (p = 0.01). None of the 12 maternal and 51 infant deaths (including two second-born infants) were attributed to antiretrovirals. The cumulative HIV-transmission or death rate at 24 mo was 15.7% (95% CI 12.7%-19.4%). CONCLUSIONS: This trial shows that a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen from late pregnancy through 6 months of breastfeeding for PMTCT is safe and feasible in a resource-limited setting. These findings are consistent with those from other trials using maternal triple-antiretroviral regimens during breastfeeding in comparable settings.

Thomas DB, Gichuki FN, Mungai DN. "Terrace riser stabilization and fodder production.". 1993. Abstractabstract1.pdfWebsite

This paper describes a completely randomized block experiment that was laid out on four terraces at the Kabete campus, Kenya, to test the suitability of seven plant spp. (Tripsacum laxum, Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum trichocladum, Pennisetum purpureum, Setaria anceps, Brachiaria humidicola and Panicum coloratum var. Makarikariense) for riser stabilization and fodder production. A further treatment, stone pitching, was used as a control. The trial was started in the short rains of 1982 and the land between the risers was cropped, with maize, beans or sunflowers, for the next 12 seasons. In three seasons the rains failed and in four seasons the rains were poor. Observations were made of plant cover and persistence and fodder yields were measured. The impact of the fodder on the adjacent crops was assessed by measuring crop yields in the adjacent rows. The results show that of the fodder grasses that were most vigorous and productive, (P. purpureum and T. laxum) caused greatest depression in crop yield. In seasons of low rainfall, the control showed significantly better crop yield mainly due to lack of competition for water. Of the grasses tested, B. decumbens exhibited best cover and persistence. The costs and benefits of bench-type terracing in terms of loss of cropping area and gain in fodder area are briefly discussed.

Thomasson B, Sutinen S. "Chronic primary intussusception in an infant." Journal of pediatric surgery. 1972;7:299-301. AbstractWebsite
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Thompson JF, Reid MS, Felix L, Donis-Gonzalez I, Mjawa B, Ambuko J. "DryCardTM-A Low-Cost Dryness Indicator for Dried Products." AIMS Agriculture and Food. 2017;2:339-344. Abstract
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Thompson RJ. "The formation of CDP-diglyceride by isolated neuronal nuclei." J. Neurochem.. 1975;25(6):811-23.
Thomson AH, Kokwaro GO, Muchohi SN, English M, Mohammed S, Edwards G. "Population pharmacokinetics of intramuscular gentamicin administered to young infants with suspected severe sepsis in Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

To determine the population pharmacokinetics of intramuscular (i.m.) gentamicin in African infants with suspected severe sepsis. METHODS: Samples were withdrawn 1 h after a single i.m. injection of 8 mg x kg(-1) gentamicin and the next morning prior to any further dosing. Concentration-time data were analysed with the population pharmacokinetic package NONMEM. Data were fitted using a one-compartment model with a log-normal model for interindividual variability and an additive residual error model. The influence of a range of clinical characteristics was tested on the pharmacokinetics of intramuscular gentamicin and the effect of incorporating interindividual variability on bioavailability was examined. RESULTS: The data set comprised 107 patients and 203 concentrations. Peak concentrations ranged from 3.0 mg x L(-1) to 19.8 mg x L(-1) (median 10.6 mg x L(-1)) and 'next day' samples from 0#3 mg x L#-1# to 6#2 mg x L#-1## The best models were clearance/bioavailability #CL# #L x h#-1## = 0#0913 x weight #kg# x #age #days# + 1#/11)0#130 and volume of distribution/bioavailability #V# = 2.02 x #1 + 0.277 x #weight -3##. Therefore, an infant with the median weight of 3 kg and age 10 days would have a predicted CL of 0.274 L x h#-1# and V of 2.02 L. Interindividual variability in CL was 40% and in V was 42%. This model required a term for covariance between CL and V. When variability in bioavailability was introduced as an alternative model, interindividual variability in CL was 22%, in V 18% and in relative bioavailability 36%. CONCLUSIONS: Intramuscular administration of 8 mg x kg#-1# gentamicin daily to infants gives mean 1 h peak concentration of 10.6 mg x L#-1# and a trough concentration of less than 2 mg x L#-1#. Wide variability in the peak concentration may reflect variable absorption rate or bioavailability.

Thomson AH, Maitland K, Kokwaro G, Muchohi S, Ignas J, Seaton C. "Population pharmacokinetics of a single daily intramuscular dose of gentamicin in children with severe malnutrition.". 2007. Abstract

The World Health Organization recommends that all children admitted with severe malnutrition should routinely receive parenteral ampicillin and gentamicin; despite this, mortality remains high. Since this population group is at risk of altered volume of distribution, we aimed to study the population pharmacokinetics of once daily gentamicin (7.5 mg/kg) in children with severe malnutrition and to evaluate clinical factors affecting pharmacokinetic parameters. Thirty-four children aged 0.5–10 years were studied. One hundred and thirty-two gentamicin concentrations (median of four per patient), drawn 0.4–24.6 h after administration of the intramuscular dose, were analysed. The data were fitted by a two-compartment model using the population package NONMEM®. Gentamicin was rapidly absorbed and all concentrations measured within the first 2 h after administration were > 8 mg/L (indicating that satisfactory peak concentrations were achieved). Ninety-eight percent of samples measured more than 20 h after the dose were < 1 mg/L. The best model included weight, and it was found that high base deficit, high creatinine concentration and low temperature (all markers of hypovolaemic shock) reduced clearance (CL/F). Weight influenced volume of the central (V1/F) and peripheral (V2/F) compartments, and high base deficit reduced V2/F and intercompartmental CL (Q/F). Interindividual variability in CL was 26%, in V1/F 33% and in V2/F and Q/F was 52%. Individual estimates of CL/F ranged from 0.02 to 0.16 (median 0.10) L/h/kg and those of Vss/F from 0.26 to 1.31 (median 0.67) L/kg. Initial half-lives had a median of 1.4 h and elimination half-lives and a median of 14.9 h. Excessive concentrations were observed in one patient who had signs of renal impairment and shock. Although a daily dose of 7.5 mg/kg achieves satisfactory gentamicin concentrations in the majority of patients, patients with renal impairment and shock may be at risk of accumulation with 24 hourly dosing. Further studies of gentamicin pharmacokinetics in this group are now needed to inform future international guideline recommendations.

Thongoh MW, Mutembei HM, Mburu J, Kathambi BE. "Evaluating Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Livestock Value Chain Actors on Climate Smart Agriculture/Livestock (CSA/L) in Kajiado County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. Submitted;39(4):134-148.
Thornton PK, Herrero M, Freeman HA, Mwai AO, Rege E, Jones PG, McDermott J. "Vulnerability, climate change and livestock–opportunities and challenges for the poor.". 2007.
Thornton JA, Harrison MJ. "Letter: Duration of action of AH8165." Br J Anaesth. 1975;47(9):1033.

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