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Robertson TW, Hickey TL, Guillery RW. "Development of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in normal and visually deprived {Siamese} cats." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1980;191:573-579. Abstract

Neuronal cell bodies in the lateral geniculate nucleus of normal and of monocularly-deprived Siamese cats have been measured. Seventeen normally reared Siamese cats, ranging in age between 20 and 120 days, were used to determine rates of normal geniculate cell growth. A second group of five adult Siamese cats reared from bith with the lids of one eye closed were used to study the effects of monocular visual deprivation upon geniculate cell size. For each of the normal and visually deprived Siamese cats, the cross-sectional areas of 600 lateral geniculate cells were measured from camera lucida drawings of Nissl preparations. During normal development the geniculate cells rapidly increase in size during the first postnatal month of life and reach their adult size sometime between days 28 and 56. While this course of geniculate cell growth is similar to that seen in normally pigmented cats, the pattern of change seen after monocular deprivation is quite different in Siamese cats from that found in normally pigmented cats. In Siamese cats the regions of the nucleus receiving a contralateral projection from the deprived eye appear to be shielded from the effects of binocular competition. Cells throughout lamina A and in the abnormal, contralaterally innervated segment of lamina A1 show only about a 10% reduction in cell size. There are no noticeable differences between the parts of lamina A in the binocular and monocular segments of the nucleus. Cells in the ipsilaterally innervated segment of lamina A1, in contrast, show deprivation-induced changes that average 27.1%. Two mechanisms are proposed to explain why some geniculate cells in Siamese cats appear to be shielded from binocular competition: one depends on possible interactions between geniculo-cortical cells lying in adjacent parts of the same geniculate lamina, and the other depends on an anatomical segregation of the cell type ("Y-cells") most heavily affected by the binocular competition. Each proposed mechanism is related to earlier observations on monocularly deprived, normally pigmented cats.

Robertson MC, Murila F, Tong S, Baker LS, Yu VY WEM. "Predicting perinatal outcome through changes in umbilical artery Doppler studies after antenatal corticosteroids in the growth-restricted fetus." Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Mar;113(3):636-40. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318197bf4d.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To investigate whether persistently absent umbilical artery end-diastolic flow in the intrauterine growth-restricted fetus after betamethasone administration is associated with altered perinatal outcomes.
METHODS:
This is a retrospective cohort study of 92 pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and absent end-diastolic flow in which antenatal betamethasone was given. Predefined maternal outcomes (maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis of absent end-diastolic flow, gestational age at delivery, preexisting medical conditions) and neonatal outcomes (including birth weight; perinatal mortality; duration of neonatal intensive care unit admission; requirement for intubation, assisted ventilation, inotropic support; duration of supplemental oxygen, assisted ventilation; respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage) were analyzed.
RESULTS:
Betamethasone administration was associated with a transient return of end-diastolic umbilical artery flow in 58 pregnancies (63%) and persistent absent end-diastolic flow in 34 (37%). Persistent absent end-diastolic flow was seen more frequently in women with prepregnancy medical disorders (59% compared with 24%, P<.001). Neonates from the persistent absent end-diastolic flow subgroup were more likely to require assisted ventilation (93.1% compared with 73.5%, P=.03) and to have longer durations of assisted ventilation (median time 30 days compared with 4 days, P=.03) and supplemental oxygen (median time 45 days compared with 4 days, P=.04).
CONCLUSION:
Betamethasone administration is associated with a transient return of end-diastolic flow in two thirds of pregnancies complicated by IUGR and umbilical artery absent end-diastolic flow. Persistent absent end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery after betamethasone administration may identify a subgroup of fetuses with IUGR at further heightened perinatal risk that, as neonates, are more likely to require assisted ventilation and a longer duration of ventilation and supplemental oxygen.

Robinson A, Busula AO, Voets MA, Beshir KB, Caulfield JC, Powers SJ, Niels O Verhulst, Winskill P, Muwanguzi J, Birkett MA, Renate C Smallegange, Masiga DK, Mukabana RW, Sauerwe RW. "Plasmodium-associated changes in human odor attract mosquitoes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(18):E4209-E4218.
Robinson M, Bernard A, Julius M, Marin R, Kostantinos F, Martha L-S. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Robinson JV, James AL. "Some observations on the effects produced in white mice following the injection of certain suspensions of corroding bacilli." Br J Exp Pathol. 1975;56(1):14-6. Abstract

Strictly anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic strains of "corroding bacilli" failed to produce any pathological symptoms when injected into white mice and no viable organisms could be recovered after 7 days. However, when these same strains were coupled with certain other living bacteria or certain sterile bacterial extracts, lesions developed from which corroding bacilli could be isolated even after 21 days.

and Robinson J. Musembi, Bernard O. Aduda JMMRKF-ropoulos MCM. Transport Mechanism Analysis of TiO2/ Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer. Jakukur, Bangalore-560 64, India, February 11 – 13, 2010; 2010.
Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer." International Journal of Energy Engineering. 2013;3(3):183-189. AbstractWebsite

Transport mechanism studies in TiO2/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K – 320 K. Calculations from ideality factor have shown that the recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The temperature has been found to influence series resistance of the solar cell. Series resistance has been found to be high at low temperature and low at higher temperature, thus we can conclude that the recombination is thermally activated.

Keywords: Eta Solar Cell, Recombination, Series Resistance, Buffer Layer

Cite this paper: Robinson Musembi, Bernard Aduda, Julius Mwabora, Marin Rusu, Konstantinos Fostiropoulos, Martha Lux-Steiner, Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer, International Journal of Energy Engineering, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 183-189. doi: 10.5923/j.ijee.20130303.09.

Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Materials Sciences and Applications. 2013;4,2013:718-722. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Addition- ally, studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Keywords: Eta Solar Cell; Light Soaking; Conversion Efficiency; TiO2; In(OH)xSy; Pb(OH)xSy

Robinson Musembi, Mwabora J. "Electronic Properties of Catechol Adsorbed on Rutile TiO2 and SnO2 (110) Surfaces." The African Review of Physics. 2016;(11:0021). Abstract

The incorporation of organic molecules such as catechol onto TiO2 substrate to enhance TiO2 photocatalytic activity has led to improved Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) efficiency. Nonetheless, it still remains low for most practical applications hence more detailed description of the electronic structure of catechol-TiO2 rutile surface, could provide insight for further improvement. In this work, adsorption of catechol on rutile TiO2 and SnO2 (110) surfaces has been studied using first principle methods. The study investigated the role played by catechol in varying the electronic structure of TiO2 and SnO2 (110) surfaces. Results obtained showed that both the clean and catechol-terminated stoichiometric (110) TiO2 four layer surface had a band gap of 2.1 eV. The energy gap increased by 0.32 eV which represents an 18 % increment from 1.7 eV for clean stoichiometric TiO2 to 2.02 eV following adsorption of catechol molecule on the TiO2 (110) rutile 5-layer surface. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) in the four and five layered catechol terminated TiO2 (110) surfaces was found to be about 1 eV, above the valence band maximum edge but in SnO2 it nearly overlapped with bottom of conduction band. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) in both TiO2 and SnO2 surfaces was located about 3 eV above the conduction band minimum, while the band gap of the molecule was in the range of 4.0 eV. The presence of catechol related C-2p orbitals within the energy gap and conduction band suggests that the energy level alignment of catechol adsorbed onto TiO2 suits the electron transfer processes that occur in DSSCs. The overlap of fermi level and closeness of catechol's HOMO to conduction band minimum in catechol bound (110) rutile SnO2 surface shows that the surface may become conductive and hence, inappropriate for photocatalytic applications.

Rodenburg, J; Diagne OFKPM; SKSOA; S; K;. Achievements and impact of NERICA on sustainable rice production in sub - Saharan Africa..; 2006. Abstract

In terms of production, rice is the fourth most important cereal (after sorghum, maize and millet) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It occupies 10 percent of the total land under cereal production and accounts for 15 percent of total cereal production (FAOSTAT, 2006). Approximately 20 million farmers in SSA grow rice and about 100 million people depend on it for their livelihoods (Nwanze et al., 2006). Rice is the staple food of a growing number of people in SSA: from 1961 to 2003 consumption increased at a rate of 4.4 percent per year (Kormawa, Keya and Touré, 2004). Among the major cereals cultivated, rice is the most rapidly growing food source in Africa: between 1985 and 2003, the annual increase in rice production was 4 percent, while production growth for maize and sorghum was only about 2.4 and 2.5 percent, respectively (Kormawa, Keya and Touré, 2004). The most widely grown rice species, Oryza sativa, is originally from Asia and was introduced into Africa only about 450 years ago. Another less well-known rice species, O. glaberrima (Steud), is originally from Africa and was domesticated in the Niger River Delta over 3 500 years ago (Viguier, 1939; Carpenter, 1978). As a result of their evolution, domestication and breeding history, both species have distinct and complementary advantages and disadvantages for use in African farming systems. The Asian rice (O. sativa) is characterized by good yields, absence of lodging and grain shattering, and high fertilizer returns – unlike its African counterpart (O. glaberrima). However, in contrast to Asian rice types, landraces of O. glaberrima often have good weed competitiveness and resilience against major African biotic and abiotic stresses (Koffi, 1980; Jones et al., 1997a). Dalton and Guei (2003) concluded that research into genetic enhancement of rice generated approximately US$360 million in 1998, compared with a total investment of just US$5.6 million. This is evidence that rice variety improvement has a potentially enormous impact on the economic development of SSA. Numerous conventional breeding efforts have been made to improve the performance of upland rice (O. sativa) for use in African farming systems. These efforts have had only limited success, partly because the Asian rice, O. sativa, lacks resistance or tolerance to many of the typical African stresses (Jones et al., 1997a).

Rodineau P. "[Elementary respiratory care in the postoperative period]." Anesth Analg (Paris). 1978;35(4):677-84.
Rodirigues JC, G.N Mwango, Onyambu CK. "The prevalence of chest radiograph findings among HIV infected children ." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(6):1680-1686.
Rodrigues JC, Mwango GN, Onyambu CK. "The prevalence of abnormal chest radiograph findings in HIV infected children." East Africa Medical Journal. 2018;95(6):1680-1686.
Rodrigues AJ, Pokhariyal GP, Moturi CA, Okello OW. Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology.; 1994.
Rodrigues AJ, Moturi CA, Scott RJP, Okelo-Odongo W. "Informatics in Higher Education - Kenya Case Study." Higher Education Policy Journal of the International Association of Universities. 1993;6(3):41-49. AbstractWebsite

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Rodrigues AJ, Pokhariyal GP, Moturi CA, Okello OW. Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology.; 1994.
Rodrigues AJ, Oyoo WS, Odundo FO, Wambu EW. "Socio-economic factors influencing the spread of drinking water diseases in rural Africa: case study of Bondo sub-county, Kenya." Journal of Water and Health. 2015;13(2):500-509. Abstract

Socio-economic and medical information on Bondo sub-county community was studied to help establish the relationship between the water quality challenges, community health and water rights conditions. Health challenges have been linked to water quality and household income. A total of 1,510 households/respondents were studied by means of a questionnaire. About 69% of the households have no access to treated water. Although 92% of the respondents appear to be aware that treatment of water prevents waterborne diseases, the lowest income group and children share a high burden of waterborne diseases requiring hospitalization and causing mortality. Open defecation (12.3%) in these study areas contributes to a high incidence of waterborne diseases. The community’s constitutional rights to quality water in adequate quantities are greatly infringed. The source of low-quality water is not a significant determinant of waterborne disease. The differences in poverty level in the sub-county are statistically insignificant and contribute less than other factors. Increased investment in water provision across regions, improved sanitation and availability of affordable point-of-use water purification systems will have major positive impacts on the health and economic well-being of the community.

Rodrigues AJ, Pokhariyal GP, Moturi CA, Okello OW. Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology.; 1994.
Rodrigues AJ, Scott RPJ, Moturi CA, Okello OW. "Informatics in Higher Education Kenya Case Study."; 1990.
Rodrigues AJ, Moturi CA. Simulating Plant Pathogen Epidemics. Botswana: Printing and Publishing Company of Botswana; 1993. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Rodriguez JC, Onyambu CK, Aywak AA. "JC, R, CK O, AA A. 2014. A Rare Case of Crossed Renal Ectopia without Fusion. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 19(3):112-115.AJO." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2014;19(3):112-115.
Roecker SW, Ebinger C, Tiberi C, Mulibo GD, Wambura RF, Muzuka A, Khalfan M, Kianji G, Gaulier S, Albraic J, Peyrat S. "Images of the East Africa Rift System from the Joint Inversion of Body Waves, Surface Waves, and Gravity: Investigating the Role of Magma in Early-Stage Continental Rifting.". In: American Geophysical Union. San Francisco; 2015.
Roeder LW. "Gender and climate change outlining policy recommendations to mainstream gender and climate change.". In: Climate Change Threats: An NGO Framework for Action Report. NewYork: United Nations; 2008.
Rogena EA, Simbiri KO, Simbiri KO, Leoncini L. "Emily Rogena Emily Rogena [HTML] from springer.com Full View A review of the pattern of AIDS defining, HIV associated neoplasms and premalignant lesions diagnosed from 2000–2011 at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Infectious Agents & Cancer. 2015;10(1):1-7. Abstract

Background: Sub-Sahara Africa hosts up to 71 % of all HIV infected people in the world. With this high incidence of Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) comes the burden of co-morbidities such as malignant and premalignant lesions. Aids defining malignancies have been listed as Kaposi's sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. People with HIV/AIDS(PLWAS) have a higher risk of developing these neoplasms than the rest of the population. The pathogenesis of these neoplasms in people with HIV has been linked to immune suppression, persistent antigenic stimulation and cytokine dysregulation. Current study analyzes and presents the patterns and trends in the presentation of HIV related malignancies in patients diagnosed through histopathology at Kenyatta National Hospital. Aim: To describe the patterns of AIDS- defining and non-AIDS- defining malignancies and premalignant lesions 10 years pre- and post HAART period at Kenyatta National hospital, Kenya. Methods and techniques: This was a hospital based descriptive cross sectional study. The Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) blocks and histological reports of patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2011 were traced from archives. The patients' demographic data and clinical presentation was entered in an excel spreadsheet and the diagnosis and coding confirmed by a histopathologist. The data was then cleaned and analyzed using SSPS version 17.0 Ink. Results: A total of 173 lesions were reviewed and analyzed. Of these 118 (68 %) were from females and 55 from males (32 %). The male to female ratio was 1:2. The age range was from two to 56 years with a median of 36 years. Kaposi sarcoma is the leading AIDS defining malignancy in Kenya while invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is the leading non-AIDS defining malignancy. This is closely followed by invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and NHL. Conclusion: Kaposi sarcoma is the leading AIDS associated neoplasm in Kenya. Physicians and caretakers managing and following up on HIV/AIDS patients should look out for Kaposi sarcoma as a form of IRIS following the institution of HAART in all HIV/AIDS patients. The incidence of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is increasing in PLWAS in Kenya. There is therefore a need to introduce early screening programs for squamous intraepithelial neoplasm of the conjunctiva in HIV/AIDS patients

Roger B. Austin, Peter Q. Craufurd, Michael A. Hall, Edmundo Acevedo, da & BSP, Ngugi ECK. "Carbon isotope discrimination as a means of evaluating drought resistance in barley, rice and cowpeas." Bull. Soc. bot. Fr.l37, Actual. bot. 1990;1:21-30.carbon_isotope_discrimination_as_a_means_of_evalua.pdf
Rogers JH, Odoyo-June E, Jaoko W, Bailey RC. "Time to Complete Wound Healing in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Men following Medical Male Circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: A Prospective Cohort Study.". 2013. Abstract

While voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been shown to be protective against HIV-acquisition, the procedure may place men and their partners at risk of HIV infection in the period following circumcision if sex is resumed before the wound is healed. This prospective cohort study evaluates post-circumcision wound healing to determine whether the 42-day post-circumcision abstinence period, recommended by the World Health Organization and adopted by VMMC programs, is optimal. Methods and Findings Men were circumcised by forceps-guided method and their post-circumcision wounds examined weekly for seven weeks and at 12 weeks. Time to complete healing was recorded in completed weeks since circumcision, and its associations with baseline covariates were assessed by Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox Proportional Hazard Models. A total of 215 HIV-negative and 108 HIV-positive men aged 18–35 years (median 26, IQR 23–30) were enrolled. 97.1% of scheduled follow-up visits were completed. At week 4, 59.3% of HIV-positive men and 70.4% of age-matched HIV-negative men were healed. At week 6, these percentages rose to 93.4% in HIV-positive men and 92.6% in age-matched HIV-negative men. There was no difference in the hazard of healing between 108 HIV-positive and 108 age-matched HIV-negative men (HR 0.91 95% CI 0.70–1.20). Early post-operative infection was associated with delayed healing in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men (HR 0.48 95% CI 0.23–1.00). Conclusions Our results indicate that the WHO recommendation for 42-days post-circumcision sexual abstinence should be maintained for both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men. It is important to stress condom use upon resumption of sex in all men undergoing circumcision.

Rogito DO, Maitho T, Nderitu A. "Capacity Building in Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation on Sustainability of Food Security Irrigation Projects. Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management 2020, 10(2), 94-102.". 2020. Abstract

Project, and Production Management 2020, 10(2), 94-102
Abstract: health-related problems and even death among animals and human beings. Agriculture is the main food source; thus, many interventions are made such as that of irrigation by the local county and national government initiated through the National Irrigation Board (NIB). Despite the irrigation projects food insufficiency still persists, therefore their sustainability is questionable. One such approach to improving the sustainability of irrigation projects is participatory monitoring and evaluation which leads to ownership and then higher sustainability. In the study, the objective was to asses if taking corrective action after participatory monitoring and evaluation (PME) influence project sustainability. The study used a descriptive survey and correlation designs to collect data from 316 respondents selected using stratification sand purposeful with strict randomization. Questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted on selected sample respondents on appointed dates. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0 to get descriptive statistics, correlations coefficients were obtained to test association and degree of strength. Testing of the hypothesis was done using linear regression. The study findings were that a large number of respondents were between ages 31 to 40 years and most were female with their highest level of education being primary school. The influence of PME capacity building on the dependent variable and irrigation projects sustainability found that the farmers were not taken for exposure visits and project officers were not accountable for money use. Age, gender, and education level have very minimal influence on PME capacity building. PME capacity building had a weak positive influence of r = 0.290 and it explained only 8.4% of irrigation projects sustainability in Kitui County. The study recommends that to improve project capacity building: project revenue must be controlled on use, farmers must be taken for exposure visits to learn from successors, project officers should be accountable for funds use, and project guidelines should be improved to increase sustainability. Implementation of these recommendations will reduce the loss of Arid and Semi-Srid Lands (ASALs) and attain higher and longer sustainability in food projects, thus, reducing the recurrence rate of food shortage, improve and hasten the implementation of irrigation projects, show the need to involve primary stakeholders in project monitoring and appraisal for sustainability, better and efficient decisions by policymakers to increase chances of project's success. Keywords: Food security, Participatory monitoring and evaluation, irrigation, taking corrective action, capacity building, sustainability, funds management, projects

Rogito DO, Maitho T, Nderitu A. "Sustainability of Food Security Irrigation Projects by Taking Corrective Action after Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation in Kitui County, Kenya. International journal of Innovative Research and Development. ISSN 2278-0211 (Online).". 2021. Abstract

Abstract:
Food supply is less than food demand in Kitui County as population keeps increasing. This lack of food leads to
malnutrition, poor health and even death to human beings and animals both domestic and wild. Agriculture is the key
food source in Kitui County in the republic of Kenya. Occasionally residents buy food quantities from neighboring Arid
and semi-arid areas counties which is not a reliable source because they face similar challenge. Many interventions to
improve food security has been put in place and one such is irrigation by the local county and National government
initiated through National irrigation Board but sustainability of these projects is a great concern in Kitui County.
Despite the irrigation projects setup still biting is food insufficiency which persists. One approach to improve
sustainability of irrigation projects is carrying out participatory monitoring and evaluation and then taking
corrective action which could also lead to ownership and then improved sustainability. This was the objective of the
study which was to assess if taking corrective action after Participatory Monitoring and evaluation (PME)influence
project sustainability. The study used descriptive survey and correlation designs in order to collect data from 316
respondents who were selected using stratification, judgmental and purposeful with strict randomization methods.
Questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted on selected respondents on appointed dates. Data
was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social scientist (SPSS) version 25.0in order to get descriptive statistics also
correlation coefficients were got in order to get association and degree of strength. Testing of hypothesis was done
using linear regression. The study findings show thata big percentage (56.3%) of the respondents were aged between
31 to 40years.Majority of the respondents were females and their highest-level of education was up to primary school.
The respondents agreed that PME data collection and taking corrective action were not done. Taking corrective
action had a weak influence on sustainability with a correlation coefficient (r)of 0.33 which only explains 10.9% of
project sustainability. It’s recommended that farmers should be trained more through seminars and vocational
institutions in order to empower them with skills. Also, farmers should be encouraged to participate in irrigation
projects as they can have a sense of ownership. Infrastructure should be improved in order to access markets and a PM
& Eunit should be set up in irrigation projects in order to spear data collection and analysis and guide projects
towards sustainability. This is significant because it will improve sustainability and thus more food supply reducing
malnutrition rates and death among people and animals.
Keywords: Participatory monitoring and evaluation, Food security, taking corrective action, irrigation,
Sustainability, Projects, management

Rogo MO. Modeling and synthesis of antiplasmodial benzoxazines from natural products of Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2016. Abstract

Natural products research has taken place in Kenya for decades. This has led to the explosion of data about natural products which largely remains scattered in theses, published articles and books of abstracts and proceedings. As a result, natural products of Kenya are not accessible for drug design studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to create a webbased database of natural products of Kenya and use it in molecular modeling studies for the design of antiplasmodial compounds. Currently the database contains 1112 compounds. It has been named Mitishamba, a Kiswahili word referring to herbal medicine and is hosted online at (http://mitishamba.uonbi.ac.ke). The compounds in the database were utilized in the generation of suitable fragments for molecular modeling studies using the OpenyEye scientific software suite. Benzoxazine scaffold was identified as a suitable molecular framework, due to its similarity to Primaquine (an existing antimalarial drug). Analogs of the scaffold were generated and subjected to docking against the target, 3D shape comparison and electrostatics studies with promising molecules synthesized and assayed. A validated Plasmodium falciparum enzyme target, Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH), was used in the docking studies. Three benzoxazines, 7- Methoxy-4H-1, 4-benzoxazin-3-one (25), (7-methoxy-3-oxo-1,4-benzoxazine-4- carbaldehyde (54) and 4-acetyl-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (56) were synthesized and then subjected to in vitro antiplasmodial assay against chloroquine resistant K1 and chloroquine sensitive 3D7 strains of P. falciparum. The results showed 7-methoxy-3-oxo- 1,4-benzoxazine-4-carbaldehyde had an activity of 11.05 μg/mL against chloroquine resistant K1 isolate while 4-acetyl-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one had an activity of 8.32ug/mL. The latter has activity classified by the WHO as active and should be pursued further through optimization to investigate its antimalarial potency. The results above demonstrate the potential use of the database in the identification of lead antiplasmodial compounds. Therefore more benzoxazine derivatives should be identified through virtual screening and synthesized to optimize their antiplasmodial activity.

and Rogo, K.O. OMJOP. "Maternal Mortality.". In: Disease and Mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Washington: The World Bank; 2006.
Rogo L, Oguge N. "The Taita Hills forest remnants: a disappearing world heritage." AMBIO: 8, 522-523; 2000. Abstract
n/a
Rogstad, KE; Ahmed-Jushuf IH; AMS; TG. "HIV disease in Africans of high social class.". 1993.
Rohrer GA;, Taylor TF;, Davis SK;, Waruiru RM;, Ravuna F;, Mwanndotto BAJ;, Rurangirwa F. "The use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers in analysis of susceptibility to Haemonchus contortus and Coccidia."; 1991.
Rohwerder B. "Intellectual disabilities, violent conflict and humanitarian assistance: Advocacy of the forgotten." Disability & Society. 2013;28(6):770-783. Abstractmburugu.pdf

This article examines the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities in violent conflict who have been neglected in practice and academia. Such invisibility, combined with the disabling impact of society, their low priority, and the nature of their impairments, results in a disproportionately negative impact of conflict on people with intellectual disabilities. Drawing on a wide range of sources, including humanitarian workers, this article examines their experiences and analyses how much consideration has been given to people with intellectual disabilities in humanitarian assistance policy and practice in light of their increased need and vulnerability. Lack of awareness and recognition of their diverse experiences can result in their needs failing to be adequately met, which compounds their disproportionately negative experience of conflict. It is important to finally start paying attention in order to ensure their inclusion in humanitarian responses.

Roman F, Hensel O, Mbuge D. "Development of Grain Drying Facilities That Use Superabsorbent Polymers (SAP) to Optimise Drying and Control Aflatoxin Contamination in Kenya.". In: “Solidarity in a competing world — fair use of resources”. Vienna, Austria; 2016.
Romanovsky AA. "Skin temperature: its role in thermoregulation." Acta Physiologica (Oxford, England). 2014;210:498-507. AbstractWebsite

This review analyses whether skin temperature represents ambient temperature and serves as a feedforward signal for the thermoregulation system, or whether it is one of the body's temperatures and provides feedback. The body is covered mostly by hairy (non‐glabrous) skin, which is typically insulated from the environment (with clothes in humans and with fur in non‐human mammals). Thermal signals from hairy skin represent a temperature of the insulated superficial layer of the body and provide feedback to the thermoregulation system. It is explained that this feedback is auxiliary, both negative and positive, and that it reduces the system's response time and load error. Non‐hairy (glabrous) skin covers specialized heat‐exchange organs (e.g. the hand), which are also used to explore the environment. In thermoregulation, these organs are primarily effectors. Their main thermosensory‐related role is to assess local temperatures of objects explored; these local temperatures are feedforward signals for various behaviours. Non‐hairy skin also contributes to the feedback for thermoregulation, but this contribution is limited. Autonomic (physiological) thermoregulation does not use feedforward signals. Thermoregulatory behaviours use both feedback and feedforward signals. Implications of these principles to thermopharmacology, a new approach to achieving biological effects by blocking temperature signals with drugs, are discussed.

Ronald AR, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, Ngugi EN, Pamba H, Cameron DW. "A review of HIV-1 in Africa.". 1988. Abstracta_review_of_hiv-1_in_africa.pdf

As the AIDS epidemic reaches a dramatic stage of development, the time for African countries to establish effective control programs has come. The history of AIDS in Africa is different from that other regions of the world. The disease developed among heterosexual communities. By 1987, over 8,000 cases of AIDS had been reported from 37 of the 47 nations of Africa. Over 2,000 of these cases were found in Uganda. However, under-reporting and under-representation of the number of actual cases is still a problem. In many cases, there has been a failure to recognize the disease. The demographic and geographic distribution of seroprevalence is discussed. Because of the inaccuracies in AIDS reporting in Africa, epidemic forecasting is difficult. If 5 million are currently infected, a potential 50 million Africans may be infected by 1993. A further discussion of the risk factors for HIV-1 holds that promiscuity is the major problem. Cures and inexpensive treatments for the infection are years away. Energy, resources, and national committees in Africa and the world must be coordinated to combat the ultimate crisis of this century.

Ronald A, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ngugi EN, Moses S, Brunham R, Plummer FA. "Social epidemiology in Africa: slowing the heterosexual transmission of AIDS.". 1991. Abstract

Analyzing why the rate of transmission of AIDS varies widely in Africa is the basis for designing strategies for intervention. Promiscuity, i.e. high rates of sex partner change, is not the only reason for rapid transmission, but it is a prerequisite for the explosive spread seen in certain groups. High frequency groups include mobile single men and prostitutes. Research and strategies must focus on sex practices, concepts of personal vulnerability, and possibility of behavioral change. The sexually transmitted diseases that are thought to increase susceptibility to HIV, i.e., genital ulcer diseases, can be controlled with appropriate strategies. Male circumcision is associated with lower HIV seroprevalence. Thus strategies must be concentrate on sustained prevention among high STD transmitters, providing early, effective care for STDs, increasing economic alternatives for women, and offering voluntary circumcision where culturally acceptable.

Ronen K, Dingens AS, Graham SM, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, McClelland SR, Overbaugh J. "Comprehensive Characterization of Humoral Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Superinfection Acquisition in High-risk Kenyan Women." EBioMedicine. 2017;18:216-224. Abstract

HIV-1 superinfection, in which an infected individual acquires a second HIV-1 infection from a different partner, is one of the only settings in which HIV acquisition occurs in the context of a pre-existing immune response to natural HIV infection. There is evidence that initial infection provides some protection from superinfection, particularly after 6months of initial infection, when development of broad immunity occurs. Comparison of the immune response of superinfected individuals at the time of superinfection acquisition to that of individuals who remain singly infected despite continued exposure can shed light on immune correlates of HIV acquisition to inform prophylactic vaccine design. We evaluated a panel of humoral immune responses in the largest published group of superinfected individuals (n=21), compared to a set of 3:1 matched singly infected controls from the same cohort. The immune functions studied included plasma neutralization, plasma and cervical antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and plasma IgG and IgA binding to a panel of 18 envelope antigens, including correlates of HIV acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial, IgG binding to V1V2 and IgA binding to gp140. Association between each immune function and HIV superinfection was evaluated using conditional logistic regression. No significant associations were detected between any of the immune functions and superinfection acquisition. This study constitutes the most comprehensive and detailed characterization of multiple immune correlates of superinfection to date. The results suggest that immune responses not commonly measured in current HIV studies may be important in protection from HIV infection, and these or a more robust humoral response than that seen in naturally infected women may be needed for a protective vaccine.

Ronen K, McCoy CO MFABDFEO-DJMMCRSRBAOSKWK, J. "HIV-1 Superinfection occurs less frequently than initial infection in a cohort of high-risk Kenyan women." PLoS Pathogen. 2013;9(8):e1003593.
Rong’uno SK, Okoth UA. "Supervision related factors influencing doctoral studies completion rates in education at public universities in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2016;5(10):462-477.
Rono K, Ilako D, Kollmann M, Karimurio J. "Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2008;14(1):13-23. Abstract

Objectives: To determine whether height can be used as an alternative to weight in mass treatment of children aged 1-15 years with active trachoma using azithromycin and propose a height-based dose stick for Kenyan children.
Design: community based operational research Subjects: A total of 2,020 children were included: 987(48.9%) male and 1033 (51.1%) female. 369 (18.3%) were from Kajiado, 772 (38.2%) from West Pokot and 879 (43.5%) from Baringo.
Settings: The study was carried out in three trachoma endemic districts: West Pokot, Baringo and Kajiado. A baseline trachoma survey had been conducted in the three districts in preparation for the implementation of SAFE.
Results: Children from West Pokot were heavier and taller than those from Kajiado and Baringo (P < 0.001). The body mass index (BMI) of the children in the three study areas was comparable. There was a close relationship between weight and height and the distribution was near linear. Height explained 92.8% of the variance of weight. A height based dose stick that recommends the use of 40mg/ml suspension and 125mg (half tablet) incremental dosage predicted doses within tolerance limits (15-30mg/kg) to 98.8% of children and 100%
with extended dose range (13 -35 mg/kg). If 40mg/ml suspension and 1 tablet (250mg) incremental dosage were to be used, the height stick would predict doses within tolerance limits to 97.5% of the children and 99.9% with extended dose range (13 -35 mg/kg).
Conclusions: The theoretical model based on the use of 40mg/ml suspension and
125mg (half tablet) incremental offers better dosing ranges to all the children of West Pokot, Baringo and Kajiado districts when the extended dosage range (13-35mgs/kg) is applied.
Recommendations: Similar studies should be conducted in other trachoma endemic communities in Kenya to determine whether a single height-based dose stick can be used in the entire country. The manufacturer should look into the possibility of producing 125mg tablet for mass treatment.

Rono H, Bastawrous A, Macleod D, Wanjala E, Gichuhi S, Burton M. "Peek Community Eye Health - mHealth system to increase access and efficiency of eye health services in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial." Trials. 2019;20(1):502. AbstractWebsite

Globally, eye care provision is currently insufficient to meet the requirement for eye care services. Lack of access and awareness are key barriers to specialist services; in addition, specialist services are over-utilised by people with conditions that could be managed in the community or primary care. In combination, these lead to a large unmet need for eye health provision. We have developed a validated smartphone-based screening algorithm (Peek Community Screening App). The application (App) is part of the Peek Community Eye Health system (Peek CEH) that enables Community Volunteers (CV) to make referral decisions about patients with eye problems. It generates referrals, automated short messages service (SMS) notifications to patients or guardians and has a program dashboard for visualising service delivery. We hypothesise that a greater proportion of people with eye problems will be identified using the Peek CEH system and that there will be increased uptake of referrals, compared to those identified and referred using the current community screening approaches.

Rono R, Onene T, Kilonzo G, editor Ndetei, D.M., Obondo A. "Psychotherapy."; 2006.
Rono H, Bastawrous A, Macleod D, Mamboleo R, Bunywera C, Wanjala E, Gichuhi S, Burton MJ. "Effectiveness of an mHealth system on access to eye health services in Kenya: a cluster-randomised controlled trial." Lancet Digit Health. 2021;3(7):e414-e424. AbstractWebsite

Background: There is limited access to eye health services in many low-income and middle-income populations. We aimed to assess the effectiveness in increasing service utilisation of the Peek Community Eye Health (Peek CEH) system, a smartphone-based referral system comprising decision support algorithms (Peek Community Screening app), SMS reminders, and real-time reporting.

Methods: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial of eye health in Kenya, community unit clusters were defined as one health centre and its catchment population. Clusters were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive Peek CEH and referral (intervention group) or standard care via periodic health centre-based outreach clinics and onward referral (control group). Individuals in the intervention group were assessed at home by screeners and those referred were asked to present for triage assessment in a central location. They received regular SMS reminders. In both groups, community sensitisation was done followed by a triage clinic at the cluster health centre 4 weeks after sensitisation. During triage, individuals in both groups were assessed and treated and, if necessary, referred to a specific hospital. Individuals in the intervention group received further SMS reminders. The primary outcome was the mean attendance rate (the number of people per 10 000 population) at triage of those with confirmed eye conditions, as assessed at 4 weeks after sensitisation in the intention-to-treat population. We estimated the intervention effect using a Student's t-test on cluster-level rates. This trial is registered with Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, number 201807329096632.

Findings: Between Nov 26, 2018, and June 7, 2019, of the 85 community units in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya, 49 were excluded. We randomly allocated 18 community units each to the intervention group (68 348 individuals) and the control group (60 243 individuals). 9387 individuals from the intervention group and 3070 from the control group attended triage assessment. The mean attendance rate at triage by individuals with eye problems was 1429 (92% CI 1228-1629) in the intervention group and 522 (418-625) in the control group (rate difference 906 per 10 000 [95% CI 689-1124; p<0·0001]).

Interpretation: The Peek CEH system increased primary care attendance by people with eye problems compared with standard approaches, indicating the potential of this mobile health package to increase service uptake and guide appropriate task sharing.

Rono S, Nzuve F, Muthomi J, Kimani J. "Combining Ability of Agronomic and Yield Traits in Rice Genotypes." Journal of Plant Physiology & Pathology. 2018;6:2.
RONO MREDWINCHERUIYOT. "Concentration - dependent parsimonious releaser roles of gregarious male pheromone of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.". In: Journal of insect physiology. Edwin Rono; 2008. Abstract
The responses of (i) groups of crowd-reared mature males of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria to a choice of two columns of air, one permeated with different concentrations of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), the major component of gregarious-phase male-produced pheromone, and the other untreated, and (ii) individual crowd-reared mature males of the insect to varying concentration gradients of PAN, were studied in two different types of arena. In the choice assay, locusts preferred to be within PAN-permeated air column at low relative doses of the pheromone, but away from PAN at high relative doses. In the second assay, individual locusts were arrested close to PAN source at low PAN concentration gradients, but away from the source at high concentration gradients. The results are consistent with two reported releaser functions of the adult male-released pheromone that are dependent on different sensory thresholds: arrestment and cohesion at lower relative concentrations and male-male homosexual avoidance at higher relative concentrations.
Rono R, Khasakhala L, editor Ndetei D.M. "Personality and Personality Traits."; 2006.
Ronoh M, Chirove F, Wairimu J, Ogana W. "MODELING DISPROPORTIONAL EFFECTS OF EDUCATING INFECTED KENYAN YOUTH ON HIV/AIDS." Journal of Biological Systems. 2020;28(2):311-349. AbstractWebsite

We formulate an age and sex-structured deterministic model to assess the effect of increasing comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS disease in the infected Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW) and, Adolescent Boys and Young Men (ABYM) populations in Kenya. Mathematical analysis of infection through sub-network analysis was carried out to trace various infection routes and the veracity of various transmission routes as well as the associated probabilities. Using HIV data in Kenya on our model, disproportional effects were observed when dispensation of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS was preferred in one population over the other. Effective dispensation of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS in both the infected AGYW and ABYM populations significantly slows down the infection spread but may not eradicate it.

Ronoh K, Kamucha G, Odongo W, Olwal T, Omwansa T. Firefly Algorithm based Power Control in Wireless TV White Space Network. Cape Town, South Africa; 2017.
Ronoh M, Rym Jaroudi, Patrick Fotso, Victor Kamdoum, Nancy Matendechere, Wairimu J, Rose Auma JL. "A Mathematical Model of Tuberculosis with Drug Resistance Effects." https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=68984. 2016;7(12):1303-1316. AbstractWebsite

Despite the enormous progress in prevention and treatment, tuberculosis disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide and one of the major sources of concern is the drug resistant strain, MDR-TB (multidrug resistant tuberculosis) and XDR-TB (extensively drug resistant tuberculosis). In this work, we extend the standard SEIRS epidemiology model of tuberculosis to include MDR-TB. For that, we considered compartments of susceptible, exposed, infected, resistant to a first line of treatment and recovered humans and we modeled the natural growth, the interactions between these populations and the effects of treatments. We calculate the basic reproduction number, , using the next generation method. The DFE and the EE are established and their stability analysis done to show that they are locally and globally asymptotically stable. Numerical analysis for the model with and without delay is done and demonstrated that in the case of patients with both active tuberculosis and MDR tuberculosis, both strains will still persist due to lack of permanent immunity to tuberculosis while the recovered can still lose their immunity to become susceptible again

Ronoh M, Chirove F, Wairimu J, Ogana W. "Evidence-based modeling of combination control on Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS dynamics." PloS one. 2020;15(11):0242491. AbstractWebsite

We formulate a sex-structured deterministic model to study the effects of varying HIV testing rates, condom use rates and ART adherence rates among Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW) and, Adolescent Boys and Young Men (ABYM) populations in Kenya. Attitudes influencing the Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS control measures both positively and negatively were considered. Using the 2012 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) microdata we constructed our model, which we fitted to the UNAIDS-Kenya youth prevalence estimates to understand factors influencing Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trends. While highly efficacious combination control approach significantly reduces HIV/AIDS prevalence rates among the youth, the disease remains endemic provided infected unaware sexual interactions persist. Disproportional gender-wise attitudes towards HIV/AIDS control measures play a key role in reducing the Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trends. The female youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trend seems to be directly linked to increased male infectivity with decreased female infectivity while the male youth prevalence trend seems to be directly associated with increased female infectivity and reduced male infectivity.

Ronoh JK, Chaudhry S. "‘Root causes of environmental conflicts that undermine socio-economic development in Kuresoi Sub County, Kenya." International Academic Journal of Law and Society,. 2019;1(2):242-261.
Ronoh K, Kamucha G, Oduol VK. "TV White Spaces in Africa: Trials and Role in Improving Broadband Access in Africa.". In: IEEE Africon. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; 2015.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Michira I, Njomo N. "Formulation of slow release NPK fertilizer (cellulose-graft-poly (acrylamide)/nano-hydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer) composite and evaluating its N mineralization potential." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;63(2):163-172. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Description
Polymer nano-composite fertilizer formulation has the potential to enhance nutrient use efficiency. Slow release fertilizer (SRF) composite was formulated by incorporating nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) and water soluble fertilizers (urea, (NH4)2HPO4 and K2SO4) into water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide) polymer hydrogel. Fourier Transform Infra-red spectra revealed existence of chemical interaction between the monomer, cellulose, urea and nano-HA. The release of nutrients was assessed using laboratory incubation experiment. Significantly higher content of mineral nitrogen (MN) was observed in the first 4 weeks in conventional fertilizer (CF) compared to SRF treatments and the control. MN content in SRF treatments increased considerably between the 8th and 12th week, and declined in the 16th week. The values of potentially mineralizable N estimated using first order kinetics model related well …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable Water Hyacinth Cellulose-Graft- Poly(Ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) Polymer hydrogel for potential Agricultura Application." Heliyon. 2019;(Article No. e01416).
Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D. "Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable cellulose-based polymer hydrogel.". In: Nanotechnology in Paper and Wood Engineering Fundamentals, Challenges and Applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom 50 Hampshire Street, 5th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights res; 2022.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Michira I, Njomo N. "Formulation of slow release NPK fertilizer (cellulose-graft-poly (acrylamide)/nano-hydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer) composite and evaluating its N mineralization potential." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;63(2):163-172. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Description
Polymer nano-composite fertilizer formulation has the potential to enhance nutrient use efficiency. Slow release fertilizer (SRF) composite was formulated by incorporating nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) and water soluble fertilizers (urea, (NH4)2HPO4 and K2SO4) into water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide) polymer hydrogel. Fourier Transform Infra-red spectra revealed existence of chemical interaction between the monomer, cellulose, urea and nano-HA. The release of nutrients was assessed using laboratory incubation experiment. Significantly higher content of mineral nitrogen (MN) was observed in the first 4 weeks in conventional fertilizer (CF) compared to SRF treatments and the control. MN content in SRF treatments increased considerably between the 8th and 12th week, and declined in the 16th week. The values of potentially mineralizable N estimated using first order kinetics model related well …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. Abstract

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of Formulated Nano-NPK Slow Release Fertilizer Composite on the Perfomance and Yeild of Maize, Kale and Capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;05:10.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):Pages 9-19. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Michira I, Njomo N. "Formulation of slow release NPK fertilizer (cellulose-graft-poly (acrylamide)/nano-hydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer) composite and evaluating its N mineralization potential." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;63(2):163-172. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Abstract

Polymer nano-composite fertilizer formulation has the potential to enhance nutrient use efficiency. Slow release fertilizer (SRF) composite was formulated by incorporating nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) and water soluble fertilizers (urea, (NH4)2HPO4 and K2SO4) into water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide) polymer hydrogel. Fourier Transform Infra-red spectra revealed existence of chemical interaction between the monomer, cellulose, urea and nano-HA. The release of nutrients was assessed using laboratory incubation experiment. Significantly higher content of mineral nitrogen (MN) was observed in the first 4 weeks in conventional fertilizer (CF) compared to SRF treatments and the control. MN content in SRF treatments increased considerably between the 8th and 12th week, and declined in the 16th week. The values of potentially mineralizable N estimated using first order kinetics model related well to the observed cumulative MN at 16th week. No significant difference was observed between CF and SRF treatments for available P content in the 2nd week. Significantly higher P content was observed in CF compared to SRF treatment in the 4th week, whereas in the 8th week, some SRFs released significantly higher content than CF. Available P peaked in the 8th week in all the treatments and remained constant at 12th and 16th week. Availability of P in SRFs increased with increased content of soluble P and decreased content of nano-HA. Exchangeable K showed less variation during the incubation period, suggesting short release time. The data revealed reduced chances of leaching losses and toxic effect to the plant roots, as well as synchronized nutrient release and requirement by crops.

Rop KV, KONDITI DBO, H.A. O, Musyoki S. "Parameter Optimization in Design of a Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Technique." International Journal of Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE). 2012;4(12):16-23. Abstract

Modern wireless systems are placing greater
emphasis on antenna designs for future development in
communication technology because the antenna is a key
element in the overall communication system. A
Microstrip Antenna is well suited for wireless
communication due to its light weight, low volume and
low profile planar configuration which can be easily
conformed to the host surface. In this paper, an
optimization method based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy
inference system (ANFIS) for determining the parameters
used in the design of a rectangular microstrip patch
antenna is presented. The ANFIS has the advantages of
expert knowledge of fuzzy inference system (FIS) and the
learning capability of artificial neural network (ANN). By
calculating and optimizing the patch dimensions and the
feed point of a rectangular microstrip antenna, this paper
shows that ANFIS produces good results that are in
agreement with Ansoft HFSS 13.0 simulation results.

Rop PBK, Nyamai PCM, Namwiba WH. Narrative Glossary of Fundamentals for Applied Geology. Scholars' Press; 2020.Website
Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):9-19. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Description
Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control …

Rop KV, Langat PK, Ouma HA. "Spectrum Sensing on High Density Cognitive Radio Vehicular Ad Hoc Network." ,” Journal of Communications (JCM). 2021;16(7):259-266.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-composite NPK fertilizer on growth and yield of maize, kale and capsicum29th Soil Science Society of Eastern Africa (SSSEA) held in Lake Naivasha Country Club in Naivasha town,Nakuru County from 18th-22nd Nov2019.". In: 29th Soil Science Society of Eastern Africa (SSSEA) . Lake Naivasha Country Club in Naivasha town, Nakuru County ; 2019.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):9-19. Abstract

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

Rose DC, Sutherland WJ, Amano T, González-Varo JP, Robertson RJ, Simmons BI, Wauchope HS, Kovacs E, Durán AP, Vadrot ABM, others. "The major barriers to evidence-informed conservation policy and possible solutions." Conservation letters. 2018;11:e12564. Abstract
n/a
Rose D. CHARACTERISTICS OF DROPOUTS AMONG UPPER PRIMARY PUPILS - TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller GmbH & Co. KG; 2004.
Rose DC, Sutherland WJ, Amano T, González-Varo JP, Robertson RJ, Nyumba TO. "The major barriers to evidence-informed conservation policy and possible solutions." Conservation letters. 2018;11(5):e12564. Abstractconl.12564.pdfconbio.onlinelibrary.wiley

Conservation policy decisions can suffer from a lack of evidence, hindering effective decision‐making. In nature conservation, studies investigating why policy is often not evidence‐informed have tended to focus on Western democracies, with relatively small samples. To understand global variation and challenges better, we established a global survey aimed at identifying top barriers and solutions to the use of conservation science in policy. This obtained the views of 758 people in policy, practice, and research positions from 68 countries across six languages. Here we show that, contrary to popular belief, there is agreement between groups about how to incorporate conservation science into policy, and there is thus room for optimism. Barriers related to the low priority of conservation were considered to be important, while mainstreaming conservation was proposed as a key solution. Therefore, priorities should focus on convincing the public of the importance of conservation as an issue, which will then influence policy‐makers to adopt pro‐environmental long‐term policies.

Rose LJ, Okoth S, Beukes I, Ouko A, Mouton M, Bradley CF, Makumbi D, Viljoen A. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica . 2017:213-93.
Rose N. Obae, Selpher K. Cheloti, Mwangi G. "Influence of Free Day Secondary Education Subsidy On Completion Rates; A Case of Public Day Secondary Schools in Kitui County, Kenya." International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences (IJRESS). 2017;7(2):2249-7382.
Rose N. Obae, Kanori EN, Cheloti SK. "PRINCIPALS' MANAGEMENT STYLES AND STUDENTS' UNREST IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NAIROBI COUNTY,KENYA." Education and Practice. 2014;5(2222-288x):29-37.
ROSEBELLA DRKOTONYA. "Kotonya, R. and Huddart, H. "Interaction of malathion with modulators of sarcoplasmic reticular function on tension generation in the rat uterus." Toxicological Letters Supplement. 2000.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2000. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ROSEBELLA DRKOTONYA. "Kotonya, R., Mutungi, G.M. and Kanja, L.W. "Organochloride pesticide residues in swine tissues from abattoir material collected in Nairobi. Kenya", Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1994, Vol.53, pp.39- 45.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ROSEBELLA DRKOTONYA. "Kotonya, R. and Jensen, N.E., "No effect of dieldrin on progesterone production in gilts", Toxicology, 1993, Vol. 81, pp.165-171.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Roseleur OJ, van Gent CM. "Alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated bile acids." Clin. Chim. Acta. 1976;66(2):269-72.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Achievements and Constraints of Structural Adjustments on the Micro-Economy in Africa: "Lending Policies and the Use of Credit Funds among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya". In: Savings and Development, Vol. 22, number 2, 1998.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Formal and Informal Institutions.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "R. Atieno and R. Hayanga (1992) Perspectives of Small Entrepreneurs and Farmers. Chapter in Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID). JICA.". In: Perspectives of Small Entrepreneurs and Farmers. Chapter in Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID). JICA. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Institutional Credit Lending Policies and the Efficiency of Resource Use among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya. Studien zur L.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "The Role of Rural Infrastructure in Attaining Household Food Security:Research Issues and Policy Options With Reference to Kenya In: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Sustainable Farming Systems, November 1996, Colombo, Sri Lanka.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Perspectives of Small Entrepreneurs and Farmers". With Patrick Alila. In:Micro-economies and structural adjustment in Africa-experiences and prospects of small businesses and farmers. Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA), and Foundation for Adva.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Financial Dualism and Financial Sector Development in Low Income Countries". With Alfred Ouma Shem. In Savings and Development, Vol. 25, number 4/ 2001.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Linkages between Small and Large Firms in the Kenyan Food Processing Sector" with Dorothy McCormick. In Van Dijk M.P. and H. Sandee (eds). Innovation and Small Enterprises in the Third World. Edward Elgar Publishing.". In: Innovation and Small Enterprises in the Third World. Edward Elgar Publishing. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Gender, Education and Occupational Outcomes: Kenya.". In: Perspectives of Small Entrepreneurs and Farmers. Chapter in Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID). JICA. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Institutional Credit Lending Policies and the Efficiency of Resource Use among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya. Studien zur L.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Institutional Credit and the Efficiency of Resource Use among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya. In: African Review of Money Finance and Banking number 1-2/1995.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Lending Policies and the Use of Credit Funds among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya". In: Savings and Development, Vol. 22, number 2, 1998.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Credit Rationing and Access to Credit:A Study of Formal and Informal Credit Institutions in Kenya". In African Journal of Economic Policy, Vol. 5, number 2, 1998.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". With Benjamin Okech and Winnie Mitullah. IDS Working Paper Number 534.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Female Participation in the labour Market:The Case of the Informal Sector in Kenya".". In: AERC Research Paper, number 157. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "R. Atieno and R. Hayanga (1992) The Role of Women in Agricultural Food Production in Kenya: A Case Study of Siaya District. In: Eastern African Social Sciences Research Review, Vol. VIII No. 2, 1992.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Institutional Credit and the Efficiency of Resource Use among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya. In: African Review of Money Finance and Banking number 1-2/1995.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "The Role of Rural Infrastructure in Attaining Household Food Security:Research Issues and Policy Options With Reference to Kenya In: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Sustainable Farming Systems, November 1996, Colombo, Sri Lanka.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996.
Rosenthal NR, Barrett EJ. "An assessment of insulin action in hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic diabetic patients." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1985;60:607-610. Abstract

The effect of insulin treatment on the rate of decline of plasma glucose concentration was determined in nine patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketosis [HHNK; mean plasma glucose, 999 +/- 59 (+/- SEM) mg/dl] and in six normal subjects rendered hyperglycemic by a combined infusion of somatostatin and glucose (mean plasma glucose, 653 +/- 28 mg/dl). Both the fractional glucose turnover and the half-time of the fall in plasma glucose during low dose (5-10 U/h) insulin treatment were reduced 10-fold (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic patients compared with the hyperglycemic normal subjects. In the hyperosmolar patients, the mean glucose clearance during insulin treatment was only 7% that in the normal subjects (P less than 0.001). The rate of plasma glucose decline in our hyperosmolar patients after hydration and insulin administration was 80 +/- 7 mg/dl X h. This decline is comparable to the results reported in other series, although in striking contrast to the 508 +/- 32 mg/dl X h decline in normal subjects (P less than 0.001). Our findings do not support the clinical impression that HHNK patients are insulin sensitive. We conclude that marked resistance to infused insulin delays the correction of hyperglycemia during treatment of HHNK and suggest that resistance to the normal basal insulin levels encountered in some HHNK patients may contribute in part to the development of the hyperosmolar state.

Rosenthal1, S. K., Lodge, D. M., Mavuti, Muohi, W., Ochieng, P., Stevens, S. S., Mungai BN, Mkoji GM. "Comparing macrophyte herbivory by introduced Louisiana crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) (Crustacea: Cambaridae) and native Dytiscid beetles (Cybister tripunctatus) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), in Kenya." African Journal of Aquatic Science. 2005;30(2):157-162.
Rositch AF, Gatuguta A, Choi RY, Guthrie BL, Mackelprang RD, Bosire R, Manyara L, Kiarie JN, Smith JS, Farquhar C. "Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e40766. Abstract

Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.

Rositch AF, Cherutich P, Brentlinger P, Kiarie JN, Nduati R, Farquhar C. "HIV infection and sexual partnerships and behaviour among adolescent girls in Nairobi, Kenya." Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23(7):468-74. Abstract

Early sexual partnerships place young women in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV. Few studies have examined both individual- and partnership-level characteristics of sexual relationships among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional survey of sexual history and partnerships was conducted among 761 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Nairobi, Kenya. Rapid HIV testing was conducted and correlates of HIV infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression. The HIV prevalence was 7% and seropositive adolescents had a younger age at sexual debut (P < 0.01), more sexual partners in 12 months (P = 0.03), and were more likely to report transactional or non-consensual sex (P < 0.01). Girls who reported not knowing their partner's HIV status were 14 times as likely to be HIV-seropositive than girls who knew their partner's status (adjusted odds ratio: 14.2 [1.8, 109.3]). Public health messages to promote HIV testing and disclosure within partnerships could reduce sexual risk behaviours and HIV transmission among adolescents.

Rositch AF, Gatuguta A, Choi RY, Guthrie BL, Mackelprang RD, Bosire R, Manyara L, Kiarie JN, Smith JS, Farquhar C. "Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e40766. Abstract

Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.

Rositch AF, Cherutich P, Brentlinger P, Kiarie JN, Nduati R, Farquhar C. "HIV infection and sexual partnerships and behaviour among adolescent girls in Nairobi, Kenya." Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23(7):468-74. Abstract

Early sexual partnerships place young women in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV. Few studies have examined both individual- and partnership-level characteristics of sexual relationships among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional survey of sexual history and partnerships was conducted among 761 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Nairobi, Kenya. Rapid HIV testing was conducted and correlates of HIV infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression. The HIV prevalence was 7% and seropositive adolescents had a younger age at sexual debut (P < 0.01), more sexual partners in 12 months (P = 0.03), and were more likely to report transactional or non-consensual sex (P < 0.01). Girls who reported not knowing their partner's HIV status were 14 times as likely to be HIV-seropositive than girls who knew their partner's status (adjusted odds ratio: 14.2 [1.8, 109.3]). Public health messages to promote HIV testing and disclosure within partnerships could reduce sexual risk behaviours and HIV transmission among adolescents.

Rositch, A F; Cherutich BKNRW; FP; P; J. "HIV infection and sexual partnerships and behaviour among adolescent girls in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Early sexual partnerships place young women in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV. Few studies have examined both individual- and partnership-level characteristics of sexual relationships among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional survey of sexual history and partnerships was conducted among 761 adolescent girls aged 15–19 years in Nairobi, Kenya. Rapid HIV testing was conducted and correlates of HIV infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression. The HIV prevalence was 7% and seropositive adolescents had a younger age at sexual debut (P < 0.01), more sexual partners in 12 months (P = 0.03), and were more likely to report transactional or non-consensual sex (P < 0.01). Girls who reported not knowing their partner’s HIV status were 14 times as likely to be HIV-seropositive than girls who knew their partner’s status (adjusted odds ratio: 14.2 [1.8, 109.3]). Public health messages to promote HIV testing and disclosure within partnerships could reduce sexual risk behaviours and HIV transmission among adolescents.

Roskoski R, Lim CT, Roskoski LM. "Human brain and placental choline acetyltransferase: purification and properties." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5105-10. Abstract

Choline acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6) catalyzes the biosynthesis of acetylcholine according to the following chemical equation: acetyl-CoA + choline in equilibrium to acetylcholine + CoA. In addition to nervous tissue, primate placenta is the only other animal source which contains appreciable acetylcholine and its biosynthetic enzyme. Human brain caudate nucleus and human placental choline acetyltransferase were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using ion-exchange and blue dextran-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The molecular weights determined by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis are 67000 plus or minus 3000. N-Ethylmaleimide, p-chloromercuribenzoate, and dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) inhibit the enzyme. Dithiothreitol reverses the inhibition produced by the latter two reagents. The pKa of the group associated with N-ethylmaleimide inhibition is 8.6 plus or minus 0.3. A chemically competent acetyl-thioenzyme is isolable by Sephadex gel filtration. The enzymes from the brain and placenta are thus far physically and biochemically indistinguishable.

Ross JA, Agwanda AT. "The Rise of Injectable Contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa." African Journal of Reproductive health . 2012;16(4):63-73.
Ross N, Iwuoha EI, Ikpo CO, Baker P, Njomo N, Mailu SN, Masikini M, Matinise N, Tsegaye A, Mayedwa N, Waryo T, Ozoemena KI, Williams A. "Amplification of the discharge current density of lithium-ion batteries with spinel phase Li (PtAu) 0.02 Mn1. 98O4 nano-materials." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:178-183. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
In this study the synergistic and catalytic properties of a novel nano-composite cathode material of nominal composition Li(M)xMn2-xO4 (M = Pt-Au; x # 0.2) has been explored. Li(PtAu)xMn2-xO4 nanomaterial for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIB) was synthesized by incorporation of the Pt-Au (1:1) nanoparticles onto the spinel phase LiMn2O4. Ultra-low scan rate (0.01 mV s−1) cyclic voltammetry of the cathode material in 1 M LiPF6 (in 1:1 EC:DMC), showed four sets of redox peaks, which reflect the typical redox process of the active material in the spinel structure due to lithium intercalation and deintercalation. The Li/Li(PtAu)0.02Mn1.98O4 cell had less polarization as it effectively accommodates the structural transformation during Li+ ion charge and discharge. The Li(PtAu)0.02Mn1.98O4 cathode showed an increase in discharge currents densities with an exchange current density, i0, value of 2.8 × 10−4 A cm−2 …

Rosse C. "Terminologia anatomica: considered from the perspective of next-generation knowledge sources." Clinical Anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2001;14:120-133. Abstract

This report examines the semantic structure of Terminologia Anatomica, taking one page as an example. The focus of analysis is the meaning imparted to an anatomical term by virtue of its location within the structured list. Terminologia's structure, expressed through hierarchies of headings, varied typographical styles, indentations, and an alphanumeric code, implies specific relationships among the terms embedded in the list. Together, terms and relationships can potentially capture essential elements of anatomical knowledge. The analysis focuses on these knowledge elements and evaluates the consistency and logic in their representation. Most critical of these elements are class inclusion and part-whole relationships. Since these are implied, rather than explicitly modeled, by Terminologia, the use of the term list is limited to those who have some knowledge of anatomy; computer programs are excluded from navigating through the terminology. Assuring consistency in the explicit representation of anatomical relationships would facilitate adoption of Terminologia as the anatomical standard by the various controlled medical terminology (CMT) projects. These projects are motivated by the need to computerize the patient record, and their aim is to generate machine-understandable representations of biomedical concepts, including anatomy. Because of the lack of a consistent and explicit representation of anatomy, each of these CMTs has generated its own anatomy model. None of these models is compatible with any other, yet each is consistent with textbook descriptions of anatomy. The analysis of the semantic structure of Terminologia Anatomica leads to some suggestions for enhancing the term list in ways that would facilitate its adoption as the standard for anatomical knowledge representation in biomedical informatics.

Roth EA, Ngugi EN, Masako F. "Self-deception does not explain high-risk sexual behavior in the face of HIV/AIDS: A test from northern Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, there is resistance to changing sexual behavior despite survey data indicating high levels of knowledge about HIV transmission patterns and high-risk behavior. Previous explanations for this paradox emphasize indigenous cultural models. An alternative explanation is that, due to a strong natural selection for sexual gratification, individuals evoke the evolved trait of selfdeception to continue practicing high-risk sexual behavior. This alternative is tested using survey data from an Ariaal community in Marsabit District, northern Kenya. Results indicate that respondents make highly accurate self-assessments of HIV risk, negating the concept of self-deception in this study. These results are discussed within the larger context of the applicability of evolutionary theory to the AIDS pandemic.

Rothen J, Githaka N, Kanduma EG, Cassandra Olds, Pflüger V, Mwaura S, Bishop RP, Daubenberger C. "Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for comprehensive indexing of East African ixodid tick species." Parasites & vectors. 2016;9:1-15. Abstract
n/a
Rothen-Rutishauser BM, Kiama SG, Gehr P. "A three-dimensional cellular model of the human respiratory tract to study the interaction with particles.". 2004. Abstract

A novel triple co-culture model of the human airway barrier was designed to simulate the cellular part of the air–blood barrier of the respiratory tract represented by macrophages, epithelial cells, and dendritic cells. When epithelial cells (A549 cells) were grown on filter inserts with pores of 3.0 m in diameter in a two-chamber system, they formed monolayers with polarization into apical and basolateral domains. The epithelial cell cultures were then supplemented with human blood monocyte–derived macrophages and dendritic cells on the apical and basal aspect, respectively. The single-cell cultures as well as the triple co-cultures were characterized in terms of a number of typical features, for example, morphology of cell types, integrity of epithelial layer, and expression of specific cell surface markers (CD14 for macrophages and CD86 for dendritic cells). The interplay of epithelial cells with macrophages and dendritic cells during the uptake of polystyrene particles (1 m in diameter) was investigated with confocal laser scanning and conventional transmission electron microscopy. Particles were found in all three cell types, although dendritic cells were not directly exposed to the particles. More investigations are needed to understand the translocation pathway

Rothschild L, Mwaura F, Kabaru J, Lobo N, Moulton K, Lobo C, Duboise S. "Ultrastructural and Biochemical Analysis of In Vivo and In Vitro Capsid Assembly of the Alkaliphilic Phage [Phi] 1N2-2 for Applications in Nanomedicine." Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2012;18(2):110. AbstractFull text link

Bacteriophage 1N2-2 infects a narrow range of alkaliphilic bacterial strains phylogenetically
related to the family Idiomarinacea [1]. Both phage and host bacterium were isolated from alkaline
and saline waters of Lake Nakuru, a soda lake of Kenya’s Great Rift Valley. Virion structures
including capsids must tolerate extreme alkaline environments of pH 10 and above. The phage is
morphologically and genetically related to lambdoid viruses of the family Siphoviridae (Fig. 1B)[1].
Genomic analysis revealed that 1N2-2 genes are organized in functional modules. Capsid
morphogenesis genes are homologous both in order and predicted amino acid sequence to the
corresponding genes of the coliphage HK97 (Fig. 1A )[2]. Like many dsDNA viruses, HK97
assembles multiple subunits of a single gene product into a protocapsid around a transient
protein-scaffolding core that is subsequently cleaved by a protease at the time of DNA packaging
triggering expansion and stabilization of the mature capsid [3]. 1N2-2, like HK97, lacks an
independent capsid scaffolding gene but rather, as we have inferred, the N-terminal 110 residues of
the major head protein (MHP) encoded by gene 10 probably assume a coiled-coil folding typical of
scaffolding proteins.
We cloned the 1N2-2 gene 10 MHP sequence into a pQE-Tri-system plasmid (Qiagen) and have
expressed a 46-kDa MHP protein in Escherichia coli strain SG19003 (Qiagen) that can be
precipitated by 8% PEG treatment in ice and low speed centrifugation (Fig. 1C and 1E).
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows the presence of virus-like particles (VLP)
of similar size and shape as empty proheads of naturally formed 1N2-2 (Fig. 1B). Alternatively,
the 3’ end of the gene 10 in the pQE vector was modified to eliminate the stop codon allowing in
frame translation of ten additional codons including eight histidine residues at the C-terminus of
MHP (MHP-his). Based on a Swiss-model prediction of the 1N2-2 MHP protein sequence using
the structure of phage HK97 MHP as template (PDB 1OHG)[4] we inferred that the C-terminus and
its additional modifications would be located on the surface of the recombinant capsid allowing the
purification of fully assembled capsids with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography (data not shown).
SDS-PAGE analysis and UAc-stained protein samples visualized by TEM show that MHP-his
expressed in E. coli is a protein of 46.5 kDa (Fig. 1E) that can assemble into VLPs, possibly
proheads of 46 nm in diameter (Fig. 1D). Other non-closed structures that are seen in the sample are
presumably incomplete capsids (Fig 1 C and 1D). We are currently investigating whether capsid
morphogenesis including incomplete structures and proheads produced from the expression plasmid
in E. coli differ from natural capsid morphogenesis in the alkaliphilic host of 1N2-2. We are
formulating capsid assembly buffers to produce fully closed stable VLP in vitro. We conclude that the Φ1N2-2 MHP protein, either intact or with histidineresidues at the C-terminus, is sufficient to produce VLP in theabsence of other virally-encoded proteins. Weexpectthe MHP C-terminus can be used to
display antigens on the prohead surface while modifications of the N-terminus may be used for
packaging antigens internally providing a versatile VLP platform for vaccine development and
other nanomedicine applications.

Rotich J, Nyamota W, J. K. "Nutrition knowledge and practices in management of stage 5 chronic kidney disease by adult Patients at Kenyatta National hospital, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication . 2020;10(3):613-625. Abstract

This study sought to determine nutrition knowledge and its association with practices in management of stage 5 chronic
kidney disease (CKD) among renal adult patients in Kenyatta National Hospital. A cross-sectional analytical design was used to
facilitate collection of qualitative and quantitative data and enable identification of associations between variables. Cochran formula
was used to calculate a sample of 110 respondents. A research administered questionnaire with closed ended questions was used to
collect information. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were used to describe demographic and socio-economic
characteristics of the population. Inferential statistics were done using chi square with an alpha of 0.05 to test association between
independent and dependent variables. Most participants had moderate knowledge levels whereas more than half of the participants
(66%) indicated poor nutrition management practices of their condition. There was significant association between period on dialysis
in months and practices in management of stage 5 chronic kidney disease. Knowledge on importance of diet in management of stage 5
CKD (<0.001), moderation of fluid intake (<0.001), reduction in salt/ sodium intake (<0.001), and moderation in protein intake
(<0.004) were significantly associated with nutritional management practices of stage 5 CKD. The study concluded that Knowledge
levels were low in identifying foods rich in phosphorus, calcium and fat soluble vitamins. Practice scores were also poor despite
moderate nutrition knowledge levels. Patients’ knowledge on nutrition management of their condition may be achieved through
frequent and consistent nutrition education and counseling including follow ups.
Key Terms: Knowledge, Practice, chronic kidney disease, nutrition management

Rotich E, Karani A, Omuga B, Odawa O, Oyieke J. "Socio-economic and cultural factors influencing women's reproductive health decision making among mothers delivered in Pumwani Maternity And Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2006. Abstract

The study was conducted from 30th May 2006 - July 3rd 2006 at Kenyatta and Pumwani hospitals in Kenya. The aim was to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors that influence women's reproductive health decision making. It was cross-sectional and descriptive study on a sample size of 384 subjects. A semi structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 3 groups of eight mothers each was used. The study revealed that age, marital status, level of education and employment status influences women's reproductive health decision making. The main cultural factors found to influence women's reproductive health decision making were; FGM, wife inheritance, sex of baby (preference for boys) and dowry. The conclusions arrived at was that majority of women are participating in their own reproductive health decision making though many need to be given education on different areas of reproductive health to encourage informed decision making. It was recommended that education opportunities for women on reproductive health issues be given more emphasis.

Rotich XJ. "The Confucius Institute at the University of Nairobi, Kenya: Some Lessons for Korean Studies." The Nairobi Journal of LITERATURE. 2015;8(1814-1706):109-121.
Rotich HK, Onwonga R, Koech OK, Mbau JS. "Projected Changes in Soil Organic Carbon over a 50-Year Period under Different Grazing Management Systems in Semi-Arid Grassland." Journal of Rangeland Science. 2020;10(4):357-369.
Rotich(2) SK, Rading GO, Kavishe FPL, Chown L. "Fatigue Crack Growth and Fatigue Strength Characteristics in the HAZ of AA 7075 T651." African J of Sci and Tech (AJST), 13(2), . 2016:1-12.
Rotich E, Karani A, Omuga B, Odawa O, Oyieke J. "Socio-economic and cultural factors influencing women's reproductive health decision making among mothers delivered in Pumwani Maternity And Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2006. Abstract

The study was conducted from 30th May 2006 - July 3rd 2006 at Kenyatta and Pumwani hospitals in Kenya. The aim was to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors that influence women's reproductive health decision making. It was cross-sectional and descriptive study on a sample size of 384 subjects. A semi structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 3 groups of eight mothers each was used. The study revealed that age, marital status, level of education and employment status influences women's reproductive health decision making. The main cultural factors found to influence women's reproductive health decision making were; FGM, wife inheritance, sex of baby (preference for boys) and dowry. The conclusions arrived at was that majority of women are participating in their own reproductive health decision making though many need to be given education on different areas of reproductive health to encourage informed decision making. It was recommended that education opportunities for women on reproductive health issues be given more emphasis.

Rotich HK, Onwonga R, Mbau JS, Koech OK. "Soil Organic Carbon Content and Stocks in Relation to Grazing Management in Semi-Arid Grasslands of Kenya." . Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(2).
Rotich HK, Mbau JS, Onwonga R, Koech OK. "Vegetation Dynamics in Relation to Grazing Management Practices in Semi-arid Grazing Lands of Makueni County, Kenya." Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(3):227-238.
Rotich, J. K., Mang’usho YS. "Influence of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital Health Outreach Programme on Maternal Child Health in Nandi Central Sub-County." American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS). 2017;38(1):77-91.
Rotich HK, Mbau JS, Onwonga R, Koech OK. "Vegetation Dynamics in Relation to Grazing Management Practices in Semi-arid Grazing Lands of Makueni County, Kenya." Journal of Rangeland Science. 2018;8(3):227-239.
Rotich E, Karani A, Omuga B, Odawa O, Oyieke J. "Socio-economic and cultural factors influencing women's reproductive health decision making among mothers delivered in Pumwani Maternity And Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2006. Abstract

The study was conducted from 30th May 2006 - July 3rd 2006 at Kenyatta and Pumwani hospitals in Kenya. The aim was to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors that influence women's reproductive health decision making. It was cross-sectional and descriptive study on a sample size of 384 subjects. A semi structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 3 groups of eight mothers each was used. The study revealed that age, marital status, level of education and employment status influences women's reproductive health decision making. The main cultural factors found to influence women's reproductive health decision making were; FGM, wife inheritance, sex of baby (preference for boys) and dowry. The conclusions arrived at was that majority of women are participating in their own reproductive health decision making though many need to be given education on different areas of reproductive health to encourage informed decision making. It was recommended that education opportunities for women on reproductive health issues be given more emphasis.

Roxby AC, Liu AY, Drake AL, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, De Rosa S, Farquhar C. "Short communication: T cell activation in HIV-1/herpes simplex virus-2-coinfected Kenyan women receiving valacyclovir." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):94-8. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) suppression with acyclovir or valacyclovir reduces HIV-1 viral RNA levels; one hypothesis is that HSV-2 suppression reduces immune activation. We measured T cell immune activation markers among women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir to reduce HIV-1 RNA levels among pregnant women. Although valacyclovir was associated with lower HIV-1 RNA levels, the distribution of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells was not different among women taking valacyclovir when compared to women taking placebo. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism of HIV-1 RNA reduction following herpes suppression among those coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.

Roxby AC, Matemo D, Drake AL, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, John-Stewart GC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Pregnant women and disclosure to sexual partners after testing HIV-1-seropositive during antenatal care." AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(1):33-7.
Roxby AC, Fredricks DN, Odem-Davis K, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Masese L, Fiedler TL, De Rosa S, Jaoko W, Kiarie JN, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Changes in Vaginal Microbiota and Immune Mediators in HIV-1-Seronegative Kenyan Women Initiating Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016;71(4):359-66. Abstractchanges_in_vaginal_microbiota_and_immune_mediators_in_hiv-1-seronegative_kenyan_women_initiating_depot_medroxyprogesterone_acetate.pdfPUBMED

Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is associated with HIV acquisition. We studied changes in vaginal microbiota and inflammatory milieu after DMPA initiation.

Roxby AC, Drake AL, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Matemo DN, Overbaugh J, Emery S, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, Farquhar C. "Effects of valacyclovir on markers of disease progression in postpartum women co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus-2." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(6):e38622. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.

Roxby AC, Liu AY, Drake AL, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, De Rosa S, Farquhar C. "Short communication: T cell activation in HIV-1/herpes simplex virus-2-coinfected Kenyan women receiving valacyclovir." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):94-8. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) suppression with acyclovir or valacyclovir reduces HIV-1 viral RNA levels; one hypothesis is that HSV-2 suppression reduces immune activation. We measured T cell immune activation markers among women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir to reduce HIV-1 RNA levels among pregnant women. Although valacyclovir was associated with lower HIV-1 RNA levels, the distribution of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells was not different among women taking valacyclovir when compared to women taking placebo. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism of HIV-1 RNA reduction following herpes suppression among those coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.

Roxby AC, Matemo D, Drake AL, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, John-Stewart GC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Pregnant women and disclosure to sexual partners after testing HIV-1-seropositive during antenatal care." AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(1):33-7.
Roxby AC, Atkinson C, Asbjörnsdóttir K, Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Drake AL, Wald A, Boeckh M, Richardson B, Emery V, John-Stewart G, Slyker JA. "Maternal valacyclovir and infant cytomegalovirus acquisition: a randomized controlled trial among HIV-infected women." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(2):e87855. Abstract

Studies in HIV-1-infected infants and HIV-1-exposed, uninfected infants link early cytomegalovirus (CMV) acquisition with growth delay and cognitive impairment. We investigated maternal valacyclovir to delay infant acquisition of CMV.

Roxby AC, Drake AL, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Matemo DN, Overbaugh J, Emery S, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, Farquhar C. "Effects of valacyclovir on markers of disease progression in postpartum women co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus-2." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(6):e38622. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.

Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Njaku M, Assefa Y, Chipabika G, George Ong’Amo, Jérôme Barbut GKJ. "Updated phylogenetic and systematics of the Acrapex albivena Hampson, 1910 and A. stygiata (Hampson, 1910) species groups (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini, Sesamiina), with the description of nine new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2019;55(3):219-248.
Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Goftishu M, Assefa Y, Ndemah R, Molo R, Chipab G. "Molecular phylogenetics and definition of the Acrapex minima Janse group (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini, Sesamiina) with the description of four new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2017;53(4):219-235.
Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Pallangyo B, Njaku M, Goftishu M, Assefa Y, Sezonlin M, Ong’amo G, Kergoat GJ. "Phylogeny and systematics of the Acrapex apicestriata (Bethune-Baker, 1911) species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini, Sesamiina) with the description of eight new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2017;53(2):106-130.
Rudebjer P, Chakeredza S, Dansi A, Ekaya W, Ghezae N, Aboagye LM, Kwapata M, Njoroge K, Padulosi S. "Beyond commodity crops: Strengthening young scientists’ capacity for research on underutilized species in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: 2nd International Symposium on Underutilised Plant Species. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2011.
RUFINO MC, Gachene CKK, DIOGO RVC, HAWKINS J, ONYANGO AA, SANOGO OM, WANYAMA I, YESUF G, PELSTER DE. "SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CROP-LIVESTOCK FARMS IN AFRICA.". 2021.
Rugangazi BM;, Maloiy GMO. "Salt excretion and saline drinking in the dik-dik antelope (Rhynchotragus kirkii).". 2013. AbstractWebsite

1.1. The ability of the dik-dik antelope to survive while drinking saline solutions was tested in controlled laboratory experiments by providing drinking water containing up to 0.5 M NaCl.2.2. Fluid intake increased from 230.5 ml/day when fresh water was offered to a maximum of 373.9 ml/day when 0.3 M NaCl solution was offered.3.3. At concentrations higher than 0.3 M animals lost weight, were anorexic and developed diarrhoea.4.4. It is concluded that the dik-dik antelope will probably tolerate drinking water containing 0.24 M NaCl.

Rugendo CJ, Njue N,, Gatimu JC. "woman participation in miraa (khat) Business and Academic performance of primary school children in Runyenjes Divisions, Embu, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and social study. 2012.
Ruhiu S. "Capability Approach Based ICT-for-Poverty Reduction Framework.". In: IFIP 9.4 12 th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries. Ocho Rios, Jamaica; 2013. Abstract

In the last number of years, many have looked to ICTs to enable the reduction of poverty. A lot of resources have been expended by international organizations, donors and governments in ICT4D and ICT-for-poverty reduction initiatives. The results have been mixed with many of the initiatives having negligible or negative.
Many explanations for this have been given but some have suggested that the way that the projects are carried out is problematic. One of the approaches that have had great promise for development and poverty reduction is Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (CA). This paper uses the approach to define poverty, poverty reduction and specify a framework for conceptualizing, designing, developing and evaluating poverty reduction initiatives. CA is deliberately incomplete and requires a lot of information to make it operational. Alkire’s has specified a framework for operationalizing CA for poverty reduction. This paper uses that framework to specify a framework for poverty reduction using ICTs. In acknowledgement of the importance of agency in CA, the proposed framework the central role played by the poor community in the conception and design of the project. It lays out the process of the design and implementation of the project and the role the poor community plays, while specifying the roles of the different players in the project.

Ruhiu S, Anthony Rodrigues, Audenhove LV. "Utilization of ICTs for Poverty Reduction: Towards a Poverty Reduction Framework. .". In: 1 st International Conference in Computer Science and Informatics. Mbagathi, Nairobi; 2007. Abstract

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) mean different things to different people; there is little informed discussion on what ICTs actually are; how they are evolving and converging, where they might be going and what the implications are for their further use in poverty reduction. This paper explores the various definitions and conceptualizations of ICTs with a view to arriving at a working definition and conceptualization of ICTs in our attempt to suggest the requirements of a framework for the utilization of ICTs for poverty reduction. To work towards the framework, various definitions and dimensions of poverty are explored and poverty reduction efforts using the capability approach are considered. Lastly, a framework for the utilization of ICTs for poverty reduction is suggested.

Ruigu G. "Some Aspects of Employment on Small Holder Farms in Selected Areas of Kenya.". In: Agricultural Policy Issues in East African.; 1973.

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