Publications

Found 915 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Asc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is R  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q [R] S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
R
Rambo CM. "http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/9784.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The Education Act and the Secondary School Heads’ Manual recognize school heads as
the financial controllers and accounting officers, responsible for all school revenue and
expenditure management. Prior to reforms, procurement and tendering activities in
public institutions, including secondary schools, was carried out under unclear legal
frameworks, which failed to check irregularities arising from the process. Studies
commissioned by the government and the World Bank in 1986 and 1997 revealed
serious shortcomings in the procurement system, leading to loss of public funds.
Procurement reforms were initiated to enhance efficiency and minimize loss of public
resources. Even though the reforms process was initiated about a decade earlier, little
had been documented about the extent to which the regulations had been implemented
in public secondary schools and its effect on expenditure management. To achieve the
objective of this study, a cross-sectional survey design, with quantitative and qualitative
approaches was applied to guide data sourcing, processing and analysis. Primary data
was sourced from 117, which were sampled from a national population of 3,868 schools
that have been in existence for at least ten years as at the time of this study. The sample
included 6 national, 42 provincial and 69 district schools. In terms of gender, 23 were
pure girls’ schools, 19 were boys’ schools, while 75 were mixed schools. The schools
were selected through a stratified random procedure, based on the category of schools;
viz. national, provincial or district. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were
applied to process and analyze the data. The study found that advertising tenders,
number of committee members trained in procurement had strong positive effects on
expenditure efficiency. Besides, the frequency of tender-splitting had the strongest
negative effect on expenditure efficiency. The adjusted regression models explained 45.1
percent of variance in expenditure management. The study recommends the need for:
procurement regulations to be reviewed for tender committees to include BoG, PTA
and ministry representatives; regular supervision of tender committees by the ministry
officials; training of tender committee members; technical and financial evaluation
committees to be created to enhance efficiency.

Rambo CM. "Risk Factors Influencing the Survival of Strategic Alliances: Evidence From Kenya." International Journal of Management and Marketing Research. ISSN: 1933-3153 (print) and 2157-0205 (online) . 2012.
Rambo CM, Paul A. Odundo. "Socio - E co nomic Empowerment of Women through Micro - Finance: A comparative Assessment of Funded and U nfunded W omen in Kisumu District, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster M anagement and Risk Reduction. 2010;2(2):92-107.
Rambo CM, Otieno M. "Principles and Procedures in Project Planning and Management." Nairobi: UoN; 2010.
Ramisch J;, Nyikal RA;, Kimenye LN;, Kimani SK;, Macharia JM. "Economic Evaluation of Organic and Inorganic Resources for Recapitalizing Soil Fertility in Smallholder Maize-based Cropping Systems of Central Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Structural adjustments programs (SAPs) in the last two decades have eliminated all farm-support programs leading to low usage of fertilizers by Kenyan smallholders. One way of addressing this problem is use of organic nutrient resources. This paper examines their cost-effectiveness as capital investments in replenishment of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) and soil organic matter (SOM) in smallholder, Maize-based cropping systems. On-farm trials were established in Maragwa and Kirinyaga Districts in 2003/04. Maize was planted in 3 replicates in randomised complete block design (RCBD) using different levels of organic and inorganic fertilizer resources. A blanket rate of 40kg P/ha was applied in all treatment except the control to increase organic N-utilization efficiency. The test crop was harvested, oven-dried and weighed. Net Present Values (NPV) were computed using Partial Budgeting Analysis Model. Increasing levels of inorganic N increased maize yields significantly (P<0.05). However, higher yields were necessary but not sufficient criteria to determine profitability of different treatments. Manure + 60 kg N/ha gave highest NPV (USD 564), Manure + 40kg N/ha gave second highest NPV (USD 511) in Maragwa District while Manure + 60kg N/ha gave highest NPV (USD 633) and Manure + 40kg N/ha second highest NPV (USD 618) in Kirinyaga District. These results suggested that higher N-levels were not necessarily the most economical. Use of organic resources with modest amounts of mineral fertilizers seemed more profitable and held the key to enhancement of nutrient budgets, food security and rural livelihoods.

Ramsden WH, Mannion RA, Simpkins KC, deDombal FT. "Is the appendix where you think it is–and if not does it matter?" Clinical radiology. 1993;47:100-103. Abstract

For over 100 years the recognized surface marking for the appendix has been McBurney's point (the junction of the lateral and middle thirds of a line joining the umbilicus with the right anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)). In order to test its validity, the relationship between McBurney's point and the appendix was determined on 275 double contrast barium enemas (DCBE). A wide spread of distribution of the site of the appendix base was seen. Only 35% of appendix bases were found to lie within 5 cm of McBurney's point, and 15% were more than 10 cm distant. Seventy-five per cent of appendix bases were below and medial to a line joining the umbilicus with the right ASIS. These findings are in agreement with world-wide studies conducted by the World Organisation of Gastroenterology which showed that less than half of all patients with appendicitis have tenderness maximal over McBurney's point. A record was also made in 93 cases of the position of the appendix in relation to the caecum. The importance of these results in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected appendicitis is discussed.

Randall DJ, CM W, Perry SF, Bergman H, Maloiy GMO, Mommsen TP, Wright PA. "Urea excretion as a strategy for survival in a fish living in a very alkaline environment.". 1989.
Randolph TF, M'Ibui GM, Kang'ethe EK, Lang'at AK. "Prevalence of aflatoxin M1 and B1 in milk and animal feeds from urban smallholder dairy production in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence of Aflatoxin M1 and Total Aflatoxin B1 in milk and animal feeds. Cross sectional household study. Urban and peri-urban area of Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya. Two hundred fifty seven dairy farming households and 134 non-dairy neighbouring households. The prevalence of AFM1 in milk was found to be 45.5% (178/391). The farmer prevalence was 43.5% (112/257), while that of non-farmer was 49.2% (66/ 134). There was however no statistical significant difference between the two categories. Of the 178 positive milk samples, 49% had aflatoxin levels exceeding 0.05 microg Kg(-1). The prevalence of AFB1 in the feed was found to be 98.6% (69/70) with 83% of the samples having aflatoxin B1 levels exceeding 10 microg Kg(-1). Only one feed sample had no traces of AFB1. This study points to an underlying problem that requires the action by policy makers, considering the number of samples with aflatoxin M1 [49%] and aflatoxin B1 [83%] exceeding the WHO/FAO tolerance limits for milk and feeds destined for dairy animals.

Rao, K.P.C., Sridhar, G., Mulwa, J.K, Kilavi, M.N., Esilaba, A., Athanasiadis, I. N., Valdivia RO. "Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Agricultural Systems in East Africa.". In: Handbook of Climate Change and Agroecosystems: pp. 75-124. World Scientific Publishing; 2015.
Rao KP, Maitho T, Kamamia EK, Patil AB, Sagre P. "Design and Pre-clinical Studies of Miconazole Soap Strips for Dermal Infections." International Journal of INST Pharmacy and Life Sciences. 2011;1(1):68-76.
Raphael K, Sylvester M, Mohammed S, Jennifer M. "Urban Housing Affordability in Kenya: A Case Study of the Mortgage Housing Sector in Nairobi”." Africa Habitat Review 10 (2016). Journal of School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. 2016.
Raphael Kaplinsky, Morris. M. "Impacts and Challenges of a Growing Relationship Between China and Sub Saharan Africa.". In: The Political Economy of Africa, pp. 389-409. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41; 2010.
Rashid K;, Waithaka K. "The effect of phosphorous fertilization on growth and tuberization of sweet potato, ipomoea Batatas L.".; 1985. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer levels on the growth and tuberization of two sweet potato cultivars. P did not cause any significant influence on growth or yield of vines and tubers in either cultivar. Cv. I (Musinya) produced significantly longer and a higher yield of vines than cv. II (Gikanda), but the latter produced a significantly higher yield and number of tubers than the former. There was no significant difference in dry matter accumulation in the tubers of both cultivars at all P levels and the control. However, cv. I accumulated significantly higher dry matter in the vines than cv. II, whereas cv. II accumulated significantly higher dry matter in tubers than cv. I during both seasons but P fertilization did not influence the accumulation.

Raturi AK, Waita S, Aduda B, Nyangonda T. "Photoactive Iron Pyrite Films for Photoelectrochemical Cells (PEC)." Renewable Energy. 2000;20:37-43.
Rawden HC, Kokwaro GO, Ward SA, Edwards G. "Relative contribution of cytochromes P-450 and flavin-containing monoxygenases to the metabolism of albendazole by human liver microsomes.". 2004. Abstract

Albendazole (ABZ; methyl 5-propylthio-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate) is a broad spectrum anthelmintic whose activity resides both in the parent compound and its sulphoxide metabolite (ABS). There are numerous reports of ABZ metabolism in animals but relatively few in humans. We have investigated the sulphoxidation of ABZ in human liver microsomes and recombinant systems. METHODS: The specific enzymes involved in the sulphoxidation of ABZ were determined by a combination of approaches; inhibition with an antiserum directed against cytochrome P450 reductase, the effect of selective chemical inhibitors on ABZ sulphoxidation in human liver microsomes, the capability of expressed CYP and FMO to mediate the formation of ABS, regression analysis of the rate of metabolism of ABZ to ABS in human liver microsomes against selective P450 substrates and regression analysis of the rate of ABS sulphoxidation against CYP expression measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: Comparison of Vmax values obtained following heat inactivation (3min at 45 degrees C) of flavin monoxygenases (FMO), chemical inhibition of FMO with methimazole and addition of an antiserum directed against cytochrome P450 reductase indicate that FMO and CYP contribute approximately 30% and 70%, respectively, to ABS production in vitro. Comparison of CLint values suggests CYP is a major contributor in vivo. A significant reduction in ABZ sulphoxidation (n = 3) was seen with ketoconazole (CYP3 A4; 32-37%), ritonavir (CYP3 A4: 34-42%), methimazole (FMO: 28-49%) and thioacetamide (FMO; 32-35%). Additive inhibition with ketoconazole and methimazole was 69 +/- 8% (n = 3). ABS production in heat - treated microsomes (3 min at 45 degrees C) correlated significantly with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (CYP3A4; P < 0.05) and band intensities on Western blots probed with an antibody selective for 3A4 (P < 0.05). Recombinant human CYP3 A4, CYP1A2 and FMO3 produced ABS in greater quantities than control microsomes, with those expressing CYP3A4 producing threefold more ABS than those expressing CYP1A2. Kinetic studies showed the Km values obtained with both CYP3A4 and FMO3 were similar. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the production of ABS in human liver is mediated via both FMO and CYP, principally CYP3A4, with the CYP component being the major contributor.

Rayya. "Kuwa Mume.". In: Mwavyaji wa Roho na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2012.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. ""Pendo la hebana Hadithi Nyingine".". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996.
Rayya. "Mifereji ya Machozi.". In: Wali wa Ndevu na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Vide Mua; 2010.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. "NAP (Net-Work for people Living with AIDS)-"Maendeleo Halisi" (Translation) 2002.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. ""Siri ya mama" .". In: Mimba ingali Mimba na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2006.
Rayya. "Haki Yangu Naidai.". In: Takrima Nono na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Longman; 2012.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. ""Obstacles to Muslim Female Education in Kenya, Islam In Kenya. Published by Oxford University Press.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995.
Rayya. "Picha ya Hadaa.". In: Sina Zaidi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Target Publishers; 2011.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. "co-edited "Sauti Kutoka Pwani".". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
Rayya. Mombasa Swahili Women’s Wedding Songs – A Stylistic Analysis. VDM Verlag Dr. Muller GmbH & Co.Germany 2010; 2010.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. ""Uteuzi wa Moyoni" in "Maya-Waziri wa Maradhi na hadithi Nyingine" Wamitila K. W.(mh) Longhorn Publishers.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
Rayya T. Mama Mkwe.; 2012.Website
Rayya. "Mama Mkwe.". In: Kopo la Uji na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2011.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. "co-edited "Sauti Kutoka Pwani"- Hadithi za watoto.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
Rayya. "Kikojozi.". In: Mizungu ya Manabii na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers; 2010.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. ""Kitabu Cha Kumwezesha Mwanamke Mwenye Virusi vya UKIMWI Kuishi, (Translation).". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003.
Rayya Timammy MAA. "Mshairi Mcheza Kwao Lakini Asiyetuzwa in Lugha na Fasihi katika Karne ya Ishirini Moja.". In: Mshairi Mcheza Kwao Lakini Asiyetuzwa in Lugha na Fasihi katika Karne ya Ishirini Moja. Eldoret : Mosol Kandagor/Nathan Ogechi/ Clarissa Vierke (wh) Moi University Press; 2017.
Razafindraibe H, Mobegi VA, Ommeh SC, Rakotondravao ML, Bjørnstad G, Hanotte O, Jianlin H. "Mitochondrial DNA origin of indigenous malagasy chicken." Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.. 2008;1149:77-9. Abstract

We report the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) characterization of 77 indigenous chickens (fighting and meat birds) from Madagascar, using DNA sequences of the first hypervariable segment of the D-loop. Comparison with reference samples from the African continent and Asia revealed two mtDNA haplogroups, suggesting a dual geographic and genetic origin for the indigenous Malagasy chickens. The most common haplogroup was present in 65 individuals of the two types; it is likely of Indonesian origin. The second haplogroup was observed in 12 fighting birds and meat chickens; it could be of African continental origin and/or the result of recent introgression with commercial lines. We further studied a G/A single nucleotide polymorphism at nucleotide position 1892 bp of the coding sequence of the Mx gene that is reported to be one of the candidate susceptible/resistant genes to viral infection in chicken. Our results indicate the "susceptible" allele G is the most common with frequencies of 65% and 70% in Malagasy fighting and meat chickens, respectively. However, the allelic frequency difference between the two types of chickens is not significant (P > 0.05). These results are discussed in light of our current linguistic and archaeological knowledge on the origin of indigenous Malagasy chickens.

Rebecca Lynne C, Rikesh Panchal, Emmanuel, Michael G, Moses N, Nyangaya J, O M, J M, P K, A A, A R, M P, V J. "Volatile Organic Compound Composition of Urban Air in Nairobi Kenya and Lagos Nigeria.". 2021.
Recorla LA, Achenbach TM, Ivanova MY, Turner LV, Althoff RR, Arnadottir HA, Au A, Belina M, Caldas J, Chen Y-C, Csemy L, da Rocha MM, Decoster J, Fontaine JR, Funabiki Y, Guomundsson HS, Harder VS, Sebre S, Silvares E, Simulioniene R, Sokoli E, Vazquez N, Kim YA, Leung P, Ndetei DM, Maras JS, Marcovic J, Oh KJ, Samaniego VC, Zasepa E. "Problems and adaptive functioning reported by adults in 17 societies ." International perspectives in physiology research practice. 2016;5(2):91-109.
Redfern PH, Sinei KA. "24-Hr variation in synaptosomal tryptophan-5- hydroxylase activity in the rat brain.". In: Circadian Rhythms in the Central Nervous System. London: MacMillan Press; 1985.
Redher H, Beck E, Kokwaro JO. "The alpine plant communities of Mount Kenya." Phytocoenologia. 1988;16 (4):433-463.
Rees H, Baeten J, Baron D, Cates W, Celum C, Chipato T, S C, Donnell D, Gichangi P, Hofmeyr J, Morrison C, Mugo N, Nanda K, Palanee T, Steyn P, Taylor D, Temmerman M. "DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial." Contraception . 2014;90:354-356.
Rees PH. "Highland malaria.". 1994.
Rees BI, Lari J. "Chronic intussusception in children." British Journal of Surgery. 1976;63:33-35. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Rees H, Baeten BCCCCJDW, Baeten, J, Baron, D, Cates, W, Celum, C, Chipato T, Chombes, S, Donnell, D, Gichangi, Hofmeyr, J, Morrison, C, Mugo, N, Nanda, K, Palanee, T, Steyn, P, Taylor, D, Temmerman M. "DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial." Contraception . 2014;90(2014):354-356.
Reese BE. "Development of the retina and optic pathway." Vision research. 2011;51:613-632. Abstract

Our understanding of the development of the retina and visual pathways has seen enormous advances during the past 25years. New imaging technologies, coupled with advances in molecular biology, have permitted a fuller appreciation of the histotypical events associated with proliferation, fate determination, migration, differentiation, pathway navigation, target innervation, synaptogenesis and cell death, and in many instances, in understanding the genetic, molecular, cellular and activity-dependent mechanisms underlying those developmental changes. The present review considers those advances associated with the lineal relationships between retinal nerve cells, the production of retinal nerve cell diversity, the migration, patterning and differentiation of different types of retinal nerve cells, the determinants of the decussation pattern at the optic chiasm, the formation of the retinotopic map, and the establishment of ocular domains within the thalamus.

Reese BE. "Development of the retina and optic pathway." Vision research. 2011;51:613-632. Abstract

Our understanding of the development of the retina and visual pathways has seen enormous advances during the past 25years. New imaging technologies, coupled with advances in molecular biology, have permitted a fuller appreciation of the histotypical events associated with proliferation, fate determination, migration, differentiation, pathway navigation, target innervation, synaptogenesis and cell death, and in many instances, in understanding the genetic, molecular, cellular and activity-dependent mechanisms underlying those developmental changes. The present review considers those advances associated with the lineal relationships between retinal nerve cells, the production of retinal nerve cell diversity, the migration, patterning and differentiation of different types of retinal nerve cells, the determinants of the decussation pattern at the optic chiasm, the formation of the retinotopic map, and the establishment of ocular domains within the thalamus.

Refat MS;, Saad HA;, Adam AM. "Intermolecular hydrogen bond complexes by in situ charge transfer complexation of o-tolidine with picric and chloranilic acids.". 2011. Abstract

A two new charge transfer complexes formed from the interactions between o-tolidine (o-TOL) and picric (PA) or chloranilic (CA) acids, with the compositions, [(o-TOL)(PA)(2)] and [(o-TOL)(CA)(2)] have been prepared. The (13)C NMR, (1)H NMR, (1)H-Cosy, and IR show that the charge-transfer chelation occurs via the formation of chain structures O-H⋯N intermolecular hydrogen bond between 2NH(2) groups of o-TOL molecule and OH group in each PA or CA units. Photometric titration measurements concerning the two reactions in methanol were performed and the measurements show that the donor-acceptor molar ratio was found to be 1:2 using the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The spectroscopic data were discussed in terms of formation constant, molar extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, dipole moment, standard free energy, and ionization potential. Thermal behavior of both charge transfer complexes showed that the complexes were more stable than their parents. The thermodynamic parameters were estimated from the differential thermogravimetric curves. The results indicated that the formation of molecular charge transfer complexes is spontaneous and endothermic.

Rege JEO;, Mwai OA. Improving our knowledge of tropical indigenous animal genetic resources.; 2013. Abstract

To better manage, use and conserve animal genetic resources (AnGR), we must understand the nature and distribution of both the phenotypic and genetic diversity that they posses. This module makes a case for and highlights issues and methods that underpin improved understanding of the diversity in AnGR as a basis for designing conservation and sustainable utilisation of the diversity (the subject of Module 3). The module emphasises the need to undertake phenotypic and genetic characterisation of indigenous breeds in order to improve our understanding. It also points out the role that modern technologies and indigenous knowledge may play in this process. Within the module there are links [blue] to the web resources and [burgundy] to case studies and other components that help illustrate the issues discussed. Various photographs referred to in the text are included in the appendix at the end of this document.

Rege JEO, Ochieng J, Hanotte O. "1 Livestock Genetics and Breeding." The Impact of the International Livestock Research Institute. 2020:59.
Rege JEO;, Wakhungu JW;, Lomole MA. "Genetic parameters and trends in production and reproductive traits at the Kenya Sahiwal Stud."; 1990. Abstract

Presents results of a trial conducted in Kenya Sahiwal Stud from the period 1964 through 1988 to estimate genetic parameters and trends in production traits by analysing milk yield, birth weight of calves, service period, number of services per conception and calving interval.

Rege JEO, Marshall K, Notenbaert A;, Ojango JMK, Okeyo AM. "Pro-poor animal improvement and breeding — What can science do?". 2011. Abstract

Livestock provide a wide variety of goods and services that generate income and support the livelihoods of millions of poor people in the developing world. Natural and human selections have shaped existing livestock genotypes throughout the estimated 12,000 year history since the first animal domestication. The result, in many production systems in the developing world, is a livestock genotype adapted to its environment and capable of meeting the needs of smallholder farmers. However, this adaptation is unlikely to be optimal and the rapid changes currently affecting the livestock sector, including policy and market changes, movements of germplasm frequently involving the importation of exotic breeds, and the increasing impacts of climate change are affecting the livestock genotype-environment optimum. This is challenging livestock production systems of smallholder farmers. Current challenges include: high rates of loss of the diversity in livestock populations, rapid transformation in smallholder production systems requiring significant changes in genotypes and their management; increased demand for quality and safe foods; increased market competition in a globalizing economy; increased need for complex partnership arrangements in the ever-changing livestock commodity chain; and lack of adaptive capacity to respond to the rapid system changes. Underlying all these is the general lack of strategies for genetic improvement of livestock in smallholder systems and poor livestock infrastructure in developing countries. Opportunities include increased demand for livestock products — and hence potential market opportunities, and new technologies with potential to leap-frog breeding progress in developing countries. This paper analyses options for pro-poor livestock improvement in developing countries, with particular emphasis on the potential role that science – both old and new – will have, from understanding the social underpinnings to innovative technical solutions. It concludes that one of the highest priority interventions for the smallholder systems is the development of innovative approaches for the strategic use of appropriate genotypes from the available range of global breed resources. The analysis strongly suggests that the highest priority ‘breeding intervention’ should be the provision of appropriate genotypes in a sustainable manner, underpinned by a good understanding of what breed resources exist that have demonstrated potential, where else they could be used, and how they would be delivered to smallholders. Efforts to improve/refine breeding skills of smallholders should proceed in parallel. Institutional arrangements and enabling policies are critical for the success in identifying and applying appropriate genetic technologies, improving access to input services and facilitating access to markets in order to translate productivity gains into incomes

Rego AB, Rimbui ZK. "Philosophy, Programmes and Policies in Environmental Education in Kenya." Philosophy, Programmes and Policies in Environmental Education in Kenya. 1995.
Rego AB. "The Kenyan Experience in Environmental Education." The Kenyan Experience in Environmental Education. Submitted.
Rego AB. "Public Participation and Environmental Education." Public Participation and Environmental Education. 1994.
Rego AB. "Population and the Environment” Population Studies and Research Institute (PSRI." Population and the Environment” Population Studies and Research Institute (PSRI. 1996.
Rego AB. "The Family, Population and Environment in countries in the Process of Development." The Family, Population and Environment in countries in the Process of Development. 1994.
Rego AB. "Social Degradation and desertification” in Muyanda - Mutebi, P. ." Social Degradation and desertification” in Muyanda - Mutebi, P. . 1996.
Rehani B, Brown I, Dandekar S, Sarkodie B, Mwango GM, Rehani M, Lau L, Zhang Y, Dillon W. "Radiology education in Africa: Analysis of results from 13 African countries." Journal of the American College of Radiology. 2017;14(2):247-252.
Rehman AU, Lodhi S, Murad S. "Morphological pattern of posterior cranial fossa tumors." Annals of King Edward Medical University. 2010;15. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Reichard GA, Skutches CL, Hoeldtke RD, Owen OE. "Acetone metabolism in humans during diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes. 1986;35:668-674. Abstract

Plasma acetone turnover rates were measured with the primed continuous infusion of 2-[14C]acetone in patients with moderate to severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Plasma acetone turnover rates ranged from 1.52 to 15.9 mumol X kg-1 X min-1 (108-1038 mumol X 1.73 m-2 X min-1) and were directly related to the plasma acetone concentrations that ranged from 0.47 to 7.61 mM. The average acetone turnover rate was 6.45 mumol X kg-1 X min-1 (533 mumol X 1.73 m-2 X min-1), a value twice that obtained in a similar group of diabetic ketoacidotic patients via the single-injection technique of 2-[14C]acetone administration. Degradation of urine glucose revealed that 14C from administered 2-[14C )acetone was principally located in carbons 1, 2, 5, and 6 of the glucose molecule in five of six patients. This distribution is similar to that expected from 2-[14C]pyruvate, suggesting that acetone was converted to glucose through pyruvate. In one patient, label was located predominantly in glucose carbons 3 and 4, indicating that acetone metabolism may be different in some patients. Acetol (1-hydroxyacetone) and 1,2-propanediol (PPD), two possible metabolites of acetone, were detected in plasma of the patients. The concentrations of Acetol ranged from 0 to 0.48 mM and of PPD ranged from 0 to 0.53 mM. The concentrations of each metabolite were directly related to the plasma acetone concentrations. During the continuous infusion of 2-[14C]acetone, the specific activities of plasma glucose and PPD rose continuously but did not reach constant values. Estimates of the minimal percent plasma glucose and PPD derived from plasma acetone averaged 2.1 and 74%, respectively.

Reichenbach A, Schnitzer J, Friedrich A, Ziegert W, Brückner G, Schober W. "Development of the rabbit retina. {I}. {Size} of eye and retina, and postnatal cell proliferation." Anatomy and Embryology. 1991;183:287-297. Abstract

Measures of rabbit eyes and retinal wholemounts were used to evaluate the development of retinal area and shape. The retina is shown to have a horizontal axis about a third longer than the vertical axis just before birth, and to adopt an almost symmetrical shape during postnatal development to adulthood. In general, retinal thickness is shown to decrease after birth, but differently in particular retinal regions: the reduction is marked in the periphery, and less pronounced in the visual streak. As an exception, the myelinated region–after it becomes really myelinated, from 9 days p.p.–even increases in thickness. In all regions of the retina, the absolute and relative thickness of the nuclear layers decreases, whereas the relative thickness of plexiform and fibrous layers increases. Proliferation of cells within the rabbit retina was studied during the first three postnatal weeks. 3H-thymidine incorporation was used to demonstrate DNA synthesis autoradiographically in histological sections as well as in enzymatically isolated retinal cells. A first proliferation phase occurs in the neuroblastic cell layer and ceases shortly after birth in the retinal center, but lasts for about one week in the retinal periphery. We found, however, a few 3H-thymidine-labeled cells as late as in the third postnatal week. These late-labeled cells were found within the nerve fiber layer and in the inner plexiform layer. The latter cells were shown to express antigens detected by antibodies directed to the intermediate-sized filament protein vimentin, which are known to label Müller cells and neuroepithelial stem cells. This was confirmed in our preparation of enzymatically isolated cells; all cells with autoradiographically labeled nuclei revealed a characteristic elongated morphology typical for Müller radial glia (and also for early neuroepithelial stem cells). 3H-thymidine-labeled cells in the nerve fiber layer were most probably astrocytic. In analogy to the brain, we conclude that the mammalian retina undergoes a series of proliferation phases: first an early phase producing both neurons and glial cells, and then a late phase producing glial cells, e.g., in the nerve fiber layer. Most probably, the late phase within the inner nuclear layer is glial as well, i.e., consists of dividing Müller cells; it cannot be excluded, however, that there may remain some mitotically active stem cells.

Reichenbach A, Schnitzer J, Reichelt E, Osborne NN, Fritzsche B, Puls A, Richter U, Friedrich A, Knothe A-K, Schober W, Timmermann U. "Development of the rabbit retina, {III}: {Differential} retinal growth, and density of projection neurons and interneurons." Visual Neuroscience. 1993;10:479-498. AbstractWebsite

To provide a quantitative description of postnatal retinal expansion in rabbits, a new procedure was developed to map the retinae, which cover the inner surface of hemispheres or parts of rotation ellipsoids, in situ, onto a single plane. This method, as well as the known distribution of Müller cells per unit retinal surface area, were used to estimate the redistribution of specific subpopulations of Müller cells within different topographic regions of the retinae. Müller cells are known to exist as a stable population of cells 1 week after birth and can therefore be used as “markers” for determining tissue expansion. Our results show that differential retinal expansion occurs during development. Peripheral retinal regions expand at least twice as much as the central ones. Furthermore, there is a greater vertical than horizontal expansion. This differential retinal expansion leads to a corresponding redistribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) accumulating amacrine cells. Differential retinal expansion, however, does not account for all of the changes in the centro-peripheral density gradient of cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) — mostly retinal ganglion cells — during postnatal development. The changes in the ganglion cell layer were evaluated in Nissl-stained wholemount retinal preparations. Additionally, the difference between expansion-related redistribution of cells in the GCL and Müller cells was confirmed in wholemount preparations where Müller cells (identified as vimentin positive) and cells in the GCL (identified by fluorescent supravital dyes) were simultaneously labeled. It is assumed that many of the ganglion cells within the retinal center are not translocated during retinal expansion, possibly because their axons are fixed. In contrast, 5-HT accumulating amacrine cells — which are interneurons without a retinofugal axon — display a passive redistribution together with the surrounding retinal tissue.

REISMAN HENRYA, WOLK ARTHURD. "{CHRONIC} {INTUSSUSCEPTION}." Pediatrics. 1949;4:183-187. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Ren Y, Gallucci JC, Kinghorn DA. "An Intramolecular CAr–H••• O= C Hydrogen Bond and the Configuration of Rotenoids." Planta medica. 2017;83(14/15):1194-1199. Abstract

Over the past half a century, the structure and configuration of the rotenoids, a group of natural products showing multiple promising bioactivities, have been established by interpretation of their NMR and electronic circular dichroism spectra and confirmed by analysis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The chemical shift of the H-6′ 1H NMR resonance has been found to be an indicator of either a cis or trans C/D ring system. In the present study, four structures representing the central rings of a cis-, a trans-, a dehydro-, and an oxadehydro-rotenoid have been plotted using the Mercury program based on X-ray crystal structures reported previously, with the conformations of the C/D ring system, the local bond lengths or interatomic distances, hydrogen bond angles, and the H-6′ chemical shift of these compounds presented. It is shown for the first time that a trans-fused C/D ring system of rotenoids is preferred for …

Renate C Smallegange, Wolfgang H Schmied, Karel J van Roey, Niels O Verhulst, Jeroen Spitzen, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Takken W. "Sugar-fermenting yeast as an organic source of carbon dioxide to attract the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. ." Malaria Journal. 2010;9:292.
Renaud Becquet, Milly Marston, Franc¸ois Dabis, Lawrence H. Moulton, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Max Essex, iDidier K. Ekouevi, Debra Jackson, Anna Coutsoudis, Charles Kilewo, Vale´ riane Leroy, Stefan Z. Wiktor, Ruth Nduati, Philippe Msellati, Basia Zaba PGD, the survival group" Marie-Louise Newell UNAIDSC. "Children Who Acquire HIV Infection Perinatally Are at Higher Risk of Early Death than Those Acquiring Infection through Breastmilk: A Meta-Analysis." PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 2 February 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 2 | e28510. 2012. Abstractchildren_who_acquire_hiv.pdfWebsite

Abstract
Background: Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be
updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates of infant
survival by timing of HIV-infection (perinatally or postnatally) are thus needed.
Methodology/Principal Findings: A pooled analysis was conducted of individual data of all available intervention cohorts and
randomized trials on prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission in Africa. Studies were right-censored at the time of infant
antiretroviral initiation. Overall mortality rate per 1000 child-years of follow-up was calculated by selected maternal and infant
characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves by child’s HIV infection status and timing of HIV
infection. Individual data from 12 studies were pooled, with 12,112 children of HIV-infected women. Mortality rates per 1,000
child-years follow-up were 39.3 and 381.6 for HIV-uninfected and infected children respectively. One year after acquisition of
HIV infection, an estimated 26% postnatally and 52% perinatally infected children would have died; and 4% uninfected
children by age 1 year. Mortality was independently associated with maternal death (adjusted hazard ratio 2.2, 95%CI 1.6–3.0),
maternal CD4,350 cells/ml (1.4, 1.1–1.7), postnatal (3.1, 2.1–4.1) or peri-partum HIV-infection (12.4, 10.1–15.3).
Conclusions/Results: These results update previous work and inform future UNAIDS modelling by providing survival
estimates for HIV-infected untreated African children by timing of infection. We highlight the urgent need for the
prevention of peri-partum and postnatal transmission and timely assessment of HIV infection in infants to initiate
antiretroviral care and support for HIV-infected children.

Reshid K;, Waithaka K. "The Relationship Between N, P And K Concentrations In Sweet Potato Vines And Dry Matter Accumulation In Vines And Tuberous Roots As Influenced By P Fertilization."; 1988. Abstract

Higher N concentrations in vines of 'Musinya' and 'Gikanda' cultivars showed a positive correlation with dry matter accumulation in the vines and a negative correlation with dry matter accumulation in tuberous roots during both seasons. Higher K concentrations in vines of both cultivars showed positive correlations with dry matter accumulation in tuberous roots and negative correlations with dry matter accumulation in the vines whenever the N concentration in the vines were substantially lower than the K concentrations. Phosphorus concentrations in the vines of both cultivars, however, showed cultivar differences in relationship with % dry matter accumulation in vines and tuberous roots during both seasons, though the relationships were weaker as compared to the relationships of N and K concentrations in vines and % dry matter accumulations in vines and tuberous roots.

Reuben M. “Fani katika Utenzi wa Ayubu” . Mbuthia DE, Amiri DS, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Revay T, Bodzsar N, Mobegi VE, Hanotte O, Hidas A. "Origin of Hungarian indigenous chicken breeds inferred from mitochondrial {DNA} D-loop sequences." Anim. Genet.. 2010;41:548-550. Abstract

In this study, we assessed the maternal origin of six Hungarian indigenous chicken breeds using mitochondrial DNA information. Sequences of Hungarian chickens were compared with the D-loop chicken sequences annotated in the GenBank and to nine previously described reference haplotypes representing the main haplogroups of chicken. The first 530 bases of the D-loop region were sequenced in 74 chickens of nine populations. Eleven haplotypes (HIC1-HIC11) were observed from 17 variable sites. Three sequences (HIC3,HIC8 and HIC9) of our chickens were found as unique to Hungary when searched against the NCBI GenBank database. Hungarian domestic chicken mtDNA sequences could be assigned into three clades and probably two maternal lineages. Results indicated that 86%of the Hungarian haplotypes are related to the reference sequence that likely originated from the Indian subcontinent, while the minor part of our sequences presumably derive from South East Asia, China and Japan.

Rhoton AL. "The cerebellar arteries." Neurosurgery. 2000;47:S29-68. Abstract
n/a
Riccardo Castiglia, Afework Bekele RMNO, Corti M. "Chromosomal Diversity in the Genus Arvicanthis from the Horn and East Africa: a taxonomic and phylogenetic evaluation." Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 44(3):223-235; 2006. Abstract
n/a
Richard K, Faith O, Margaret O, Anne N, Wallace B. "Effect of {ABCB}1 C3435T Polymorphism on Clinical Outcomes in Kenyan {HIV} Patients on Lopinavir-Based Regimens." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2017;5. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Richard, Fabienne;;;;;; Bukuluki P, Ahmed W, Denholm N, Dawson A, Varol N, Essén B, Johnsdotter S, Ndavi P. "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: sharing data and experiences to accelerate eradication and improve care: part 2.". 2017.
Richard K, Faith O, Margaret O, Anne N, Wallace B. "Effect of ABCB1 C3435T Polymorphism on Clinical Outcomes in Kenyan HIV Patients on Lopinavir-Based Regimens." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2017;7(13):478-488.kagiaet_al-017.pdf
RICHARD DRAYAH, N. PROFNGUGIELIZABETH. "Impact of user fees in health. Ayah RT. East Afr Med J. 1997 Dec;74(12):749-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Dec;74(12):749-50. Academic Journals; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the local aetiological spectrum of surgically relevant causes of abdominal pain. DESIGN: A prospective descriptive study was carried out. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya during the month of October 2002. SUBJECTS: Patients aged 13 years and older presenting to the casualty department with abdominal pain were followed through the hospital system to determine whether they would undergo laparotomy and, in those cases who underwent laparotomy, to determine the nature of the pathology found at laparatomy. RESULTS: Abdominal pain was a presenting complaint in 1557 (16.7%) of patients presenting to the casualty department during the study period. Abdominal pain accounted for 17.9% (398 out of 2225 patients) of all admissions via the casualty department. Laparotomy was performed on 68 (4.4%) of patients who presented with abdominal pain to the casualty department. In female patients presenting with abdominal pain, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy and acute appendicitis was 65.3% and 16.3% respectively. The incidence of neoplasia found at laparatomy, for abdominal pain, on patients admitted to the general surgical ward was 3.0%. The incidence of neoplasia, as a cause of abdominal pain resulting in laparatomy was 3.3%. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the fact, with respects to abdominal pain, that there are significant differences between the disease patterns in different geographical locations. Assuming the converse could adversely affect the management of patients with abdominal pain locally.
Richard K, Faith O, Margaret O, Anne N, Wallace B. "Effect of ABCB1 C3435T Polymorphism on Clinical Outcomes in Kenyan HIV Patients on Lopinavir-Based Regimens." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2017;7:478-488. Abstract13-jpp2017041704.pdf

n/a

Richard Bitange Nyaoga, Mingzheng Wang POM. "Does Capacity Utilization Mediate the Relationship between Operations Constraint Management and Value Chain Performance of Tea Processing Firms? Evidence from Kenya." International Strategic Management Review - Elsevier. 2015;3(1):81-95.
Richard Bitange Nyaoga, Mingzheng Wang POM. "The relationship between capacity utilization and value chain performance: Evidence from Kenyan tea processing firms." African Journal of Business Management. 2015;9(9):402-411.
Richard Bitange Nyaoga, Peterson Obara Magutu JA. "Is there a Link between Supply Chain Strategies and Firm Performance? Evidence from Large-Scale Manufacturing Firms in Kenya." Journal of Operations and Supply Chain Management. 2015;8(2):1-22.
Richard Bitange Nyaoga, Mingzheng Wang POM. "Testing the relationship between constraints management and capacity utilization of tea processing firms: Evidence from Kenya." Future Business Journal. 2015;1(1):35-50.
Richard M Mariita, Callistus KPO Ogol NOO, Okemo PO. "Antitubercular and Phytochemical Investigation of Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants Used by the Samburu Community in Kenya." Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 9(4): 379-385; 2010. Abstract
n/a
Richard N. Onwonga, Ruth C. Sitienei, Joyce J. Lelei, Kamoni P. "Complementary Effects of Legume Integration and Fertilizer application on Soil Moisture and Long-Term Carbon Stocks in Maize Systems of Kabete Sub-County, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2020.
Richard Ombaki, Kerongo J, Okwoyo J. "Formulated discrete mathematical model for delayed particle flow in cascaded sub-surface water reservoirs.". 2018. AbstractWebsite

Pollution of sub-surface water reservoirs mainly rivers, streams, ponds and dams through contaminated water point sources (CWPS) was studied. The objectives were to formulate a discrete time delay mathematical model which describes the dynamics of reservoir pollution using mixing-problem processes that involve single species contaminants such as nutrients, pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and detergents. A conceptual perspective of mixing problem process in water tanks was applied to model delayed particle flow in cascaded water reservoir systems. The concentration (x) of pollutants was expressed as a function of the inflow and outflow rates using the principle for the conservation of mass. Systems of ODEs were generated from principles of mixing problems and then refined into a system of DDEs so that the concentration of pollutant leaving the reservoir at time t would be determined at some earlier

Richards S, Vanleeuwen J, Peter SG, Wichtel J, Kamunde C, Uehlinger F, Gitau G. "Impact of mineral feeding on reproductive efficiency on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2019;31:80.
Richards S, Vanleeuwen J, Shepelo G, Gitau GK, Kamunde C, Uehlinger F, Wichtel J. "Associations of farm management practices with annual milk sales on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya." Veterinary World. 2015;8(1):88-96.
Richards S, VanLeeuwen JA, Shepelo G, Gitau GK, Wichtel J, Kamunde C, Uehlinger F. "Randomized controlled trial on impacts of dairy meal feedinginterventions on early lactation milk production in smallholder dairyfarms of Central Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2016;125:46-53.
Richardson BA, John-Stewart G, Atkinson C, Ruth Nduati, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Boeckh M, Overbaugh J, Emery V, Slyker JA. "Vertical Cytomegalovirus Transmission From HIV-Infected Women Randomized to Formula-Feed or Breastfeed Their Infants." J. Infect. Dis.. 2016;213(6):992-8. Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants. We assessed the effect of and relative contribution of breastfeeding to CMV acquisition among infants delivered by HIV-infected mothers.

Richardson BA, R W Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Acute HIV infection among Kenyan infants.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:
Clinical signs and symptoms of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in infants are not well characterized.
METHODS:
Serial clinical assessments and HIV PCR assays were conducted in a cohort of children born to HIV-seropositive mothers from birth to 2 years of age. Acute HIV infection visits were defined as those up to 3 months prior to and including the visit at which HIV DNA was first detected. Noninfection visits included all visits at which the child had test results negative for HIV, including the last visit at which a test result negative for HIV DNA was obtained in children who later acquired HIV infection. Differences in the prevalence of symptoms at acute infection versus noninfection visits were determined overall and were stratified by age at infection (<2 months vs. >or=2 months). HIV RNA was measured serially in infected infants and was compared between infants with and infants without symptoms of acute HIV infection.
RESULTS:
There were 125 acute infection visits (among 56 infants) and 3491 noninfection visits (among 306 infants). Acute HIV infection was associated with rash (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.8), failure to thrive (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.5), and lymphadenopathy (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.8). Acute HIV infection was associated with lymphadenopathy (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.0) in infants <2 months of age and with pneumonia (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.3) and dehydration (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 1.9-18.5) in infants >or=2 months of age. Infant peak viral load and mortality were not associated with symptoms of acute HIV infection. However, infants with symptoms had higher viral levels later in the course of infection than did those without symptoms (P=.05).
CONCLUSIONS:
Infants may manifest symptoms early during the course of HIV infection, and symptoms of acute HIV infection may correlate with poor viral control. Rash, failure to thrive, lymphadenopathy, pneumonia, and dehydration may signify acute HIV infection in infants.

Richter RS, Yaya A, Dodoo-Arhin D, Agyei-Tuffour B, Musembi RJ, Onwona-Agyeman B. "Preparation and Characterization of Indium and Gallium doped Transparent ZnO films for Solar cell Applications." Oriental Journal of Chemistry. 2018;34:2325-2331. Abstract
n/a
Richu SW. "Analysis of Challenges in the Implementation of Operations Research Techniques for Value Addition in the Logistics Industry in Kenya: A Survey of selected Nakuru County-Based Logistics Firms.". In: ORSEA. Uganda; 2013. Abstractanalysis_of_challenges_in_the_implementation_of_operations_r.pdf

In National and International Supply Chain Management Systems, developing ideas that add value and solve logistics problems successfully when implemented is an important determinant of economic growth and competitiveness of business organizations. The development and the deployment of scientific yet business techniques in the field of Management Science that simplify processes will enhance the expansion of markets through the efficiency and effectiveness realized in the costs involved. This study sought to analyze challenges in the implementation of Operations Research techniques on value addition in the logistics industry in Kenya; A survey of Nakuru County-Based logistics Service providers. The study covered 92 respondents drawn from a population of 100 (staff and customers). Questionnaire was used to collect data after which descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data.. The study concluded that the use of Operations Research techniques have been used but yet to be fully utilized by business firms involved in the logistics service provision in order to bring about value addition in their course of delivery of goods works and services. Inadequate Human Capital in Operations Research, absence of qualified Human Capital in Operations Research, lack of professional input, insufficient platform to develop and train professionals in the field of Operations Research and absence of motivation and recognition were some of the key challenges that deterred the implementation of operations research techniques as well as the absence of integration between the use of Operations Research techniques and organization's in value addition. The study recommends that organizations engaged in the logistics service provision should invest in the qualified and competent human capital in the area of management science (operations research) in order to attain optimization and meet customer requirements by way of value addition.
Keywords: Operations Research, Supply Chain Network, Supply Chain Management, Logistics, Value Addition, Human Capital, Organization Policy, Information Technology.

RIECHI ANDREWR. "DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS OF INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIPS: A KENYAN CASE STUDY." Internationalisation of African Higher Education: Towards Achieving the MDGs. 2013:151. Abstract
n/a
Riechi ARO. Towards improving Kenya's primary education: suggested policy interventions. Institute of Policy Analysis and Research; 2006. Abstract
n/a
Riechi A, Otieno M. The impact of HIV and AIDS on teachers in Kenya: A pilot study in Nairobi, Machakos and Siaya districts. Nairobi: Institute of Policy Analysis and Research; 2007. Abstract
n/a
Riechi ARO, Mbiti DM, Kisilu B. Policy gaps and suggested strategies of enhancing access to early childhood development and education in Kenya. Institute of Policy Analysis and Research; 2006. Abstract
n/a
Riechi A, Rasugu GK. "Increasing access to free primary education in Kenya for children in especially difficult circumstances." Perspectives (Nairobi, Kenya). 2007;1:122-137. Abstract
n/a
Riha SJ;, Blume LE;, Barret CB;, Kinyangi JM;, Lehmann CJ;, Marenya PP;, Mbugua DM;, Nicholson CF;, Ngoze SO;, Parsons D;, Verchot LV;, Pell AN. "Long-Term Human and Biophysical Dynamics of Soil Degradation in the Kenyan Highlands.".; 2006. Abstract

Agroecosystems are among the most tightly coupled of human and natural systems, as farmers make conscious decisions regarding land use and improvement, cropping systems, livestock management and labor allocation. These decisions can profoundly impact the natural resource base, which can then lead to changes in farmers' behaviors. The focus of this study is to understand the long term human and biophysical dynamics of soil degradation. We are especially interested in the role that soil degradation plays in creating poverty traps and in interventions that will strongly impact the dynamics of these systems. We have developed an integrated economic and biophysical systems dynamic model to understand and predict the long term behavior of farms in the Kenyan highlands. Additionally, we have established a chronosequence in western Kenya of farms converted from primary forest to agriculture 100, 70, 50, 30, 15, 5, and < 3 years ago. This chronosequence includes three blocks that contain all time conversions, with 3 farms per conversion. Soil chemistry and soil organic matter fractions have been measured from fields that have never received fertilizer additions. An extensive set of fertility experiments to examine the response of maize to amendment with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, manure and green manure have been established on these soils. Socioeconomic data for these farms has been collected. The chronosequence data is being used to both parameterize and evaluate the model. Preliminary findings indicate that both soil organic matter and maize yields decline after conversion from primary forest, but not at the same rates. As the soil degrades and maize yields decrease, farms become more diversified by shifting some land into perennials. This change in land use is associated with a stable, though decreased, soil fertility level. The relationship of these changes in cropping systems and soil fertility to off farm activities and income will be discussed, as well as the implications of these dynamics for preventing soil degradation and restoring fertility.

Rinkanya AN. "Code Switching in Kenyan Women’s Literature after 2000 // Matatu 46." Brill: Leiden-Boston. 2015:169-184.
Rinkanya AN. "Kenyan Women’s Literature in the Last Two Decades of the Twentieth Century ." Egerton Journal, Njoro, Kenya. 2006;VI(2 & 3):17-34.
Rinkanya AN. "Short Story in Kenya ." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2010;6:29-39.
Rinkanya AN. "• Woman for president? ‘Alternative’ future in the works of Kenyan women writers // Tydskrif vir Letterkunde." Pretoria: University of Pretoria Press. 2014;51(2):144-155.
Rinkanya AN. "• “ She would never be a doormat”: ideal female characters in Margaret Ogola’s novels // Pathways to African Feminism and Development." Journal of African Women’s Studies Centre, University of Nairobi. 2015;1(3):36-47.
Rinkanya AN. "Sheng Literature in Kenya: a Revival? ." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2005;3:41-45.
Rinkanya AN. "Conservation of Wildlife As Presented in Kenyan Fiction // To Save Wild Animals." Kwani Trust, The Society of Korea Literary Creative Writing. 2007:43-44.
Rinkanya A. "Evolution of Social Ideals in Meja Mwangi’s Novels of 1980's-1990's." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2004;2:29-45.
Rinkanya AN. "Mixed Marriages in Kenyan Women’s Novel // Under Africa’s Sky." Moscow: Kluch Publishers. 2015;9:21-27.
Rinkanya AN. "Fifty years of female short story in Kenya ." Nairobi Journal of Literature. Forthcoming.
Rinkanya AN. "Is There Literature for Adolescents in Kenya? ." The Journal of Children's Literature Studies, Staffordshire. 2007;4(3):1-19.
Rinkanya AN. "Generic Innovations in Kenyan Anglophone Novel after the Year 2000 // Under Africa’s Sky." Moscow: Moscow State University Press. 2012;6:174-191.
Rinkanya AN. "Evolution of female identity in Moyez Vassanji’s novel The In-Between World of Vikram Lall //Awaaz Voices." . Institute for Kenyan South Asian History and Culture. 2014;11(2):28-30.
Rinsland CP, Devi MV, Benner DC, Blake TA, Brown RL, Kleiner I, Dehayem A. "Multispectrum analysis of the ϑ4 band of CH3CN: Positions, intensities, self and N2 broadening and pressure-induced shifts." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer . 2008;109:974-994.
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Onywera VO. "Analysis of Factors that affect the standard of soccer in Africa. The case of East African countries." Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES). 2012;12(1):135-139.
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Mundia F. "International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2011;1(17):162-167.
Rintaugu EG, Bailasha NK. "Coach-Leadership behaviour exhibited by volleyball Coaches in Africa." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;3(9):135-139.
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Amusa LO. "Socio-demographic correlates of alcohol consumption among university athletes." African Journal of Physical Heath Education Sports and Dance. 2012;18(4:2):939-954.
Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK. "Motivational gender differences in sport and exercise participation among university sport science students." Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES) . Submitted;12(2):180-187.
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A. "Retirement from competitive sport: The experiences of Kenyan soccer players." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences. 2011;3(6):477-482.
Rintaugu EG, Munayi S, Mwangi I, Ngetich EDK. "The Grand coalition Government in Kenya: A recipe for sports Development." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2011;1(18):305-311.
Rintaugu EG, Masiga M, Mwangi IM, Were H, Litaba SA, Kinoti J, Kubai JI. "Psycho-social attributes of Kenyan university athletes: social learning and motivational theories perspectives." American International Journal of Contemporary Research. 2012;2(12):126-135.
Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK. "Assessment of physical fitness components as prediction factors of long jump performance." International Journal of Current Research. 2013;5(1):17-21.
Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK, Kamande IM. "Determinants of alcohol consumption of university- student athletes: The case of University of Nairobi,Nairobi,Kenya." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;4(5):354-361.
Rintaugu EG, Nteere JS. "Availability and adequacy of sport facilities and equipment in selected secondary schools in Kenya." The Fountain,Journal of Education. 2011;5(1):84-96.
Rintaugu EG, Masiga M, Mwangi IM, Were H, Litaba SA, Kinoti J, Kubai JI. "Psycho-social attributes of Kenyan university athletes: social learning and motivational theories perspectives.". 2012. Abstract
n/a
Rintaugu EG, Mwangi PW, Mwisukha A. "The influence of mass media in Socialization into sports of Kenyan secondary school athletes." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;3(11):471-475.
Rintaugu EG, Nteere JS. "Motivational orientations in sport: A study of college athletes in Kenya." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;3(8):168-171.
Riogi B, Odhiambo K, Ogutu O. "Lithopedion Causing Intestinal Obstruction." The Annals of African Surgery . 2010;vol 8(No 7).lithopaedon.docx
Ris MM, Deitrich RA, Von Wartburg JP. "Inhibition of aldehyde reductase isoenzymes in human and rat brain." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(20):1865-9.
Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Ommeh. M. "Paratransit Operations and Institutions in Nairobi.". In: 30th Southern African Transport. South Africa; 2011.
Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Ommeh. M. "Assessing Progress with the Implementation of the Public Transport Policy in Kenya.". In: 31st Southern African Transport Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
Ritho, N C, Nzuma J, Moyo S, Herrero M. "An assessment of the factors influencing household willingness to pay for non-marketed benefit of cattle in the agro-pastoral systems of Mozambique." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2013;8(18).
Ritho C, Ng’ang’a SK, Herrero M, Fraval S, Journal TR. "Household-oriented benefits largely outweigh commercial benefits form cattl in Mabalane District, Mozambique." The Rangeland Journal. 2018;(40)6: 565-576.
Ritho C, Mwololo H, Nzuma J. ". Do farmer demographic characteristics influence their preference for agricultural extension methods?". In: Global Food Symposium . Gottingen University Germany; 2017.
Ritho CN, Mutoko MC, Benhin JKA, Mbatia OLE. "Technical and allocative efficiency gain form integrated soil management in maize farming system in Kenya." ournal of development and Economics. 2015;(7)4:143-152 .
Ritho CN, Irungu P, Korir JK, Affognon HD, Kingori WS, Mohamed SA, Ekesi S. "Grower adoption of an integrated pest management package for management of mango-infesting fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Embu, Kenya ." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2015:35, 80-98.
Ritho CN, Nzuma JM, Mwololo HM, Ogutu SO, Kabunga N. "Determinants of actual and potential adoption of improved indigenous chicken under asymmetrical exposure conditions in rural Kenya,." African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development. 2019.
Ritman EL, Lerman A. "The {Dynamic} {Vasa} {Vasorum}." Cardiovascular research. 2007;75:649-658. AbstractWebsite

The function of vasa vasorum is both to deliver nutrients and oxygen to arterial and venous walls and to remove “waste” products, either produced by cells in the wall or introduced by diffusional transport through the endothelium of the artery or vein. Although the relationship between changes in vasa vasorum characteristics and the development of atheromatous plaques is well documented, the role of vasa vasorum, especially in terms of their appearance and disappearance in disease processes such as atherosclerosis, are still not clearly understood in terms of their being causative or merely reactive. However, even if their proliferation is merely reactive, these new microvessels may be a source of disease progression by virtue of endothelial impairment and as a pathway for monocytic cells to migrate to sites of early disease. As both these features are aspects of the vasa vasorum function, this Review focuses on the following issues: 1) acute modulation of vasa vasorum patency due to surrounding compressive forces within vessel wall and due to variable tone in the smooth muscle within proximal vasa vasorum and 2) chronic angiogenic responses due to local cytokine accumulations such as occur in the wall of arteries in the presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, accumulation of lipids, extravasated blood products (e.g., red blood cells, macrophages, inflammatory products) which attract monocytes, and response of vasa vasorum to pharmacological stimuli.

Riungu, W.K. BDM. "Influence of teaching and learning resources on enrolment of early childhood education in Imenti North Sub-county ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10):144-155.
Riungu GM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Wagacha JM, Gathumbi JK. "Management of Fusarium head blight of wheat and deoxynivalenol accumulation using antagonistic microorganisms." Plant Pathology Journal. 2008;7:13-19.
Riungu GM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Gathumbi JK. "Fusarium head blight, DON and Fusarium contamination of Wheat and Maize.". 2008.
and Riungu G. M., J. W. Muthomi NWGRDJM. "Management of Fusarium head blight of wheat and deoxynivalenol accumulation using antagonistic microorganisms." Plant Pathology Journal . 2008;7(1):13-19.
Rivas JJ, Lobato RD, Sarabia R, Cordobés F, Cabrera A, Gomez P. "Extradural hematoma: analysis of factors influencing the courses of 161 patients." Neurosurgery. 1988;23:44-51. AbstractWebsite
n/a
RIVIELLO B, NEWTON M ACHIENGLETCHFORDLS. "CRITICAL CARE IN RESOURCE LIMITED SETTINGS: LESSONS LEARNED AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS. CRITCAL CARE MED." Critical care medicine. 2011;39(4):860-867.riviello_b.pdf
RJ M, LW G, AM K. "Association of fever and diarrhea with infant teething among mothers attending two health centres in Nairobi." J Kenya Dent Assoc. 2015;2015; 6(2): 265-272(2015; 6(2): 265-272):2015; 6(2): 265-272.
RJ S, IJMwaniki. Mixed Poisson distribution in explicit form and their properties. Makere university Kampala Uganda; 2016.
RN. M. "Determinants of nutritional status in children." East Afr Med J. 2008 Oct;85(10):469-70. No abstract available. 2008.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published an article in Eastern Africa Law Review: A Journal of Law and Development, Vols. 35-40, entitled .". In: A Journal of Law and Development, Vols. 35-40, entitled. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "The Chilean Experience: Lessons for Kenyan Economic Policy in Kasned Newsline, The Professional Journal of the Kenya Accountants and Secretaries National Examinations Bord, July-September.". In: The Professional Journal of the Kenya Accountants and Secretaries National Examinations Bord, July-September. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
The article is based on the premise that there are many valuable lessons that can be learnt from the experience of other developing countries. Chile has since the early 1990s been considered as one of the most successful developing countries, registering impressive rates of growth. It has also, unlike many developing countries been able to carry out economic reforms to significantly alleviate poverty without adversely affecting growth. The lessons for Kenya which is also attempting to pursue an export-oriented strategy are evaluated.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "A Chapter entitled .". In: book entitled Rethinking Ecology and Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa, ACTS Press, 2007, forthcoming. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract

The chapter provides an overview of Kenya's key foreign policy dimensions both in African and globally. It emphasizes Kenya's role as a regional peacemaker and Kenya's contribution to several key regional integration blocs in Africa such as COMESA and the East African Community and also in various institutions of the African Union. The evolution in Kenya's foreign policy and future directions are also considered.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: Nairobi: ACTS Press, 2008. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Economist Intelligence Unit Quarterly.". In: Country Report for Kenya for the period January-December. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
The researcher collaborated on with the lead researcher in the preparation of these published reports which analysed the fundamental economic and political trends in Kenya in the year 2001 and attempted to predict the future directions of these trends.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Modern Economics, 476 pages.". In: Nairobi: Focus Publications. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
This book provides an overview of fundamental concepts in microeconomics and macroeconomics. It is invaluable for introductory courses at university level and has many applications relevant to developing countries. A mathematical approach to many of the fundamental concepts is also provided to provide quantitative insights and formulation of key ideas. Fundamental concepts are often illustrated with up recent statistics. The book therefore advances the understanding of the key concepts in economics with a particular emphasis on developing country examples.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: Berlin: German Council on Foreign Relations, 2008 pp. 11-22. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: aulines Publications Africa, 2009 pp. 75-89. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "A Review of the 1995/96 Budget.". In: Strathmore University Magazine, August. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Economic Reform Programs: No Ideal Models for stalled Economies" in Kasneb Newsline.". In: The Professional Journal of The Kenya Accountants and Secretaries National Examinations Board, July- September. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
This article considers IMF economic reform programmes in the context of developing economies. The fundamental features of these programmes are considered and then a critical appraisal is conducted of the performance of economies implementing these programmes. The evolution of IMF programmes in developing economies is also considered. Many country case studies are used to demonstrate that there are no ideal models for stalled economies.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: book entitled Rethinking Ecology and Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa, ACTS Press, 2007, forthcoming. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2007. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Book entitled Essays in Conflict and Peace Studies (Nairobi: Focus Publications, 2009) Forthcoming.". In: (Nairobi: Focus Publications, 2009) Forthcoming. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

Roberts LC, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "An analysis of determinants of access to and use of credit by smallholder farmers in Suakoko District, Liberia." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;12(24): 2093-2100. AbstractWebsite

Agricultural credit has been argued to be very important for sustainable agricultural development and poverty reduction in rural areas. This study seeks to identify and to analyze the determinants of smallholder farmers’ access to and use of credit in Suakoko district, Bong County, Liberia. This research is quantitative using a survey questionnaire distributed to 105 smallholder farmers. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and causal analysis was performed using a binary Logit regression model. Results from regression indicate that 39% of the farmers were credit users. The marginal effects of bank account and other sources of income show significant and positive effects on access to credit. However, education, occupation and group membership are significant but have negative effects on access to credit by smallholder farmers. The results also show that 38% of credit users applied credit received for agricultural activities, while the rest utilized it for non-agricultural activities. It is recommended that a policy should be established to ensure older farmers gets adult literacy while younger farmers get formal education. Moreover, the government should issue a policy aimed at increasing opportunities for off-farm activities through creation of jobs and motivating self-employment. Finally, the government should promote the creation of development groups geared towards providing collateral support for members and also serve as guarantors for farmers to receive banks credit/loans in order to increase agricultural productivity in the study area.

Key words: Credit access, rural, farmers, smallholder, Suakoko district, Liberia.

Roberts LC, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "An analysis of determinants of access to and use of credit by smallholder farmers in Suakoko district, Liberia." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR). 2017;12(24)(ISSN – 1991-637x):2093-2100.

UoN Websites Search