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P.N(v) K. "An Analysis of the relationship between acquisition of ICT skills and teaching science curriculum in NEPAD e-schools in Kenya.Researchpaper.". In: Presented at elearningAfrica International conference – Zambia and published in the e-learning Africa Book of abstracts 2010.Elearning Africa publication.; 2010.
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Philipsson J, Rege JEO, Zonabend E. Animal improvement for increased productivity and food availability.; 2011. AbstractWebsite

This module discusses important factors to consider when designing sustainable genetic improvement programmes, especially under tropical conditions. Previous attempts to launch breeding programmes in developing countries have too often failed for several reasons, although there are success stories to learn from as well. Long-term and simple strategies are necessary as is the need to efficiently exploit the potential of indigenous breeds. Increased productivity per animal or area of land used also need to be considered. However, that must be achieved while also considering the variable socio-economic and cultural values of livestock in different societies or regions. Within the module there are links [blue] to web resources and [green] to case studies and other related components of this resource that help illustrate the issues presented.

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AB K, Kosgei RJ, EJ C, S M, P O, NM O, JG K. " case report of breaking bad news with maternal death." AJOL . 2013;vol 25,( number 1, 2013 Abstract ISSN 1012, 8867).
P M, HO O, A P. " Cigarette Smoking and alcohol ingestion as risk factors for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma at Kenyatta National Hospital. ." Clinical Medicine Insights 2012. Ear, Nose and Throat . 2012:517:524.
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Joselyne NM, Waweru M, Gitau AN, Alphonse U, Patrick M. " Evaluating Anaerobic Digestion Technology in Reducing the Quantity of Solid Waste: Case of Kigali Dumpsite. ." Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection. 2020;8(ISSN: 2327-4344):204-220.
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JA O'o, MK M, NM O'o, PM M, IK C, JW W. " Intima-media thickness of the common Femoral Artery in a Black Kenyan Population: Correlation with Age, Gender and Geometric Factors." Glob J Hum Anat Physiol Res. 2016;3:1-7. Abstractintima-media-thickness-of-left-anterior-descending-coronary-artery-in-a-black-kenyan-population-correlation-with-morphological-features-2161-0940.10001631.pdf Licensee Synchro Publishe

Abstract: Femoral artery intima - media thickness is a reliable surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and is important for prediction of coronary and peripheral vascular disease, but is seldom reported among black Sub Saharan African populations. This study, therefore, aimed at describing the intima - media thickness of the femoral artery in relation with age, gender and some of its geometric factors. Materials for this study were obtained during autopsy from 208 adult black Kenyans (154 males, 54 females, mean age 36.4 years) who had died of non cardiovascular causes. Those with history of cardiovascular risk factors were excluded. Femoral artery was exposed by dissection. Terminal branching pattern was recorded, and length and bifurcation angle measured. Materials for determination of intima - media thickness were processed routinely for paraffin embedding and sectioning. Five micron sections were stained with Mason’s trichrome, examined with light microscope and pictures taken. The images were digitized and intimal and medial thickness determined according to the protocol by Nakashima et al. [1]. The mean intima - media thickness was 0.76 ± 0.016 mm. It increased with age and was higher in males than females; for trifurcations (0.95 ± 0.032 mm) and also short arteries and those with wide bifurcation angles. Age and gender differences and those between arterial trifurcation and bifurcation attained statistical significance. In conclusion, the mean femoral intima-media thickness of the black Kenyan population studied is higher than those reported for Caucasian populations, increases with age and is higher in males and cases of trifurcation. This suggests that the study population is susceptible to atherosclerosis and that variant terminal branching pattern constitutes a geometric risk factor for atherosclerosis. We recommend ultrasound screening for those at risk.

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H. MWIZERWA, GO A, K. MS, MW O, P. GACHERU, M. MUIRU, B. OBURA, B VILJOEN. " Profiling of microbial content and growth in fermented maize-based products from western Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science . 2018;6(2):509-519.
Ogeng'o J, Gakuu LN, Saidi H, Ongeti KW, Pulei A. " Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc In An African Population: Kenyan Experience." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2012;6. Abstractprolapsed_intrevertebral_disk_in_an_african_population__kenyan_experience.pdf

Background: Characteristics of Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc (PID) in Africa, reports are scanty and
often disparate.
Objectives: To evaluate the distribution of PID by location, age, gender and predisposing factors among
African patients at our hospital, the largest regional referral and teaching hospital in Kenya.
Patients and Methods: Six hundred and three cases (267 males, 336 females) of prolapsed intervertebral
disc over 11 years between January 1997 and December 2007 were analyzed for location, number of
prolapsed disks, gender, age and predisposing conditions.
Results: Of the determined locations L4/5 was the commonest (42.3%), followed by L5/S1 (25.5%).
Seventy seven (20.9%) of the patients had multiple prolapsed disks. 1.4% were in the cervical region,
and only one in the thoracic. PID was commonest in the 31 – 50 year age group females (M: F is 1:1.26,
p=0.00), with mean age 40.90+13.80 years, (range between 11- 85 years).
Conclusions: PID in Kenya is commonest in the lower lumbar region of young people more in females
and is associated with trauma.

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POKHARIYAL P, MUTURI NE, J. M. KHALAGAI G. " SPLITTING AND ADMISSIBLE TOPOLOGIES DEFINED ON THE SET OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS BETWEEN BITOPOLOGICAL SPACES." International Journal of Mathematical Archive. 2018;9(( 1),2018, ):65-68. Abstract SPLITTING AND ADMISSIBLE TOPOLOGIES DEFINED ON THE SET OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS BETWEEN BITOPOLOGICAL SPACES

In this paper, p-splitting, p-admissible, s-splitting and s-admissible topologies on the sets p−C(Y, Z) and s−C(Y, Z) are defined and their properties explored. exponential functions are introduced in function spaces and s-splitting and s-admissible topologies defined on s-C(Y, Z) compared using these mappings

W AEM, C. M, S.B.B O, P. A. " Sustainable environmental management for poverty alleviation in the Lake Victoria basin.". In: Workshop proceedings. ISSN 1028 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

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SWALEH AMIRI, Walibora K, P. I. “Utamu wa Msamaha” in Sina Zaidi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: arget Publications, ISBN 978 – 9966 – 002 – 77 - 8. Pp. 20 - 33; 2011.
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "(13) Aduda B.O. and F.W. Nyongesa, () .". In: Ceramic Transactions, 99(5) 206 . Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2000. Abstract
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P. PROFSITUMAFRANCISD. "(With G.M. Wamukoya) Environmental Management in Kenya:A Guide to the Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act 19999Centre for Research and Education on Environmental Law,Nairobi.".; 2000. Abstract

New Directions in water legislation in Kenya?. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi, March 29-30. 2000

P. PROFSITUMAFRANCISD. "(With Joy Asiema)Indegenous peoples and Environment:The case of the Pastoral Masaai of Kenya, 5(1) Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and policy 149.". In: Law Journal,Issue No.4.; 1994. Abstract

New Directions in water legislation in Kenya?. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi, March 29-30. 2000

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Ndung'u K, Purity G, Martin M, Johnson K, J K, Lawrence M, Naomi M, John K, Grace M. ". A comparative study in direct cryopreservative efficacy between Triladyl® and EDTA saline glucose 10% glycerol cryopreservative media for human and non-human infective trypanosomes." J. Protozool. Res . 2009;19:22-28.
Kariuki HN, Kanui TI, Yenesew A, Patel N, PM MPM. ". Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) root extract in Swiss albino mice." Pan African Medical journal. 2013;14:133.
Pulei A, Inyimili M, Ogeng’o J, Kitunguu P, ONGETI K, Obimbo M. ". Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9. Abstract

Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population
A Pulei, M Obimbo, K Ongeti, P Kitunguu, M Inyimili, J Ogeng’o

Abstract

Background: Knowledge of the variant anatomy of the brachial artery is important in radial arterial grafts for coronary bypass, percutaneous trans-radial approach to coronary angiography, angioplasty and flap surgery. These variations show ethnic differences but data from black populations are scarce. This study therefore describes the course in relation with median nerve, level and pattern of termination of brachial artery in a black Kenyan population.
Methods: This was a cadaveric dissection study of 162 upper limbs at the Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. The brachial artery was exposed entirely from the lower border of teres major to its point of termination. The course in relation to the median nerve and the level of termination were recorded. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 for Windows.
Results: 72.2% of the brachial arteries followed the classical pattern described in Gray’s Anatomy. Superfi cial brachioradial and superficial brachial arteries were present in 12.3% and 6.1% of the cases respectively. Brachial artery terminated at the radial neck in 79% of the cases, radial tuberosity (8.6%), and proximal arm (11.1%), mid arm (1.2%). Pattern of termination was either a bifurcation into the radial and ulnar arteries (90.1%) or trifurcation into radial, ulnar and common interosseous arteries (9.3%). We also report a case of trifurcation of the brachial artery into the profunda brachii, radial and ulnar arteries (0.6%).
Conclusion: Variations of the brachial artery in its relationship with the median nerve, level and pattern of termination are common. These may complicate arm surgical exposures, fl ap and vascular surgery. Pre-operative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

Keywords: brachial artery, bifurcation, trifurcation, superficial brachioradial artery

Matiko Mwita, Mathai M, Pauline Ng’ang’a, Jande M. ". Prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety disorders among patients on treatment for HIV/AIDS in Mwanza-Tanzania." . Tanzania J Health Sci . 2018;2(1):38-49.
S. RF, P. HM, C. M, M. BS, K. AF. ". “Clinical presentation and post-mortem findings of patients with AIDS at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of AIDS. 2000;Supplement 24:23-29.
Maitai CK, Muraguri N, Patel HA. ".A survey on the use of poisoned arrows in Kenya during the period 1964-1971." East Afr Med J. . 1973;50(2):100-104. AbstractWebsite

In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.

CR N, T C, JA S, PA W, D F, N P, FJ K, K M. ".Coma scales for children with severe falciparum malaria.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Mar-Apr;91(2):161-5. uon press; 1997. Abstract

{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55

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P. OCHILO. "10. Media Approach: Journalistic Practices in Distributing Information on Health Care.". In: Training Course of East African Journalists on Primary Health Care Phase III. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania; 1987.
P. OCHILO. "10. Media Approach: Journalistic Practices in Distributing Information on Health Care.". In: Training Course of East African Journalists on Primary Health Care Phase III. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania; 1987.
P. OCHILO. "11. Training of Journalists and Democratic Transition in Kenya.". In: Journalism Seminar on Ethical Decision Making in News Processing in Multiparty Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya.; 1992.
P. OCHILO. "12. The Media and Multi-party Politics in Africa: The Case of Kenya.". In: The Media and Multi-party Politics forum .; 1990.
P. OCHILO. "13. The Social Responsibility of the Electronic Media.". In: 10th Workshop on Broadcasting and Multi-Party Democracy . Nairobi, Kenya.; 1994.
P. OCHILO. "14. Media and Democracy and Sustainable Development: .". In: The 10th Biennial Conference of the African Council for Communication Education . Accra, Ghana; 1994.
P. OCHILO. 15. Professional Ethics: Fair Play Impartiality in Covering Elections. . Nairobi, Kenya.: United States International University (USIU) ; 1999.
P. OCHILO. "16. Professional Ethics: Fair Play and impartiality in Covering Elections .". In: Workshop on Effective Journalism in a Changing World: Fair and Impartial Coverage of Elections. United States International University Africa-Nairobi; 1996.
P. OCHILO. 16. The Growing Gap between Training and Employment in Communications in Anglophone Africa: Diagnostic and Strategies for Intervention in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. . Nairobi, Kenya.: UNESCO and ORBICOM INTERNATIONAL Network of UNESCO Chairs and Associates in Communications ; 1999.
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Mburu MM, Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Alexandra Hiscox, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "2-Butanone as a carbon dioxide mimic in attractant blends for the Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus." Malaria journal. 2017;16(1):351.
Rabe M, Price G, Krhoda G, Goodwin R. 2. Climate Change Vulnerability and Infrastructure Investment Assessment and Analysis for Small Scale Water Utilities in the Lake Victoria Basin. Guide Book for water and wastewater utilities. .; 2011. Abstract

The effect of global climate change on the built urban environment, especially installed infrastructure for the
delivery of essential services, will be particularly severe and even more so for developing countries where
resources to deal with anticipated impacts are lacking. Because the delivery of wet services is dependent on
water resources and tends to be an energy intensive operation, water and wastewater utilities will be most
vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. It is therefore imperative that the providers of these services embark on a programme of proactively adapting to the impacts of climate change and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions through improved pumping efficiencies. Because adaptation can take on many forms, utilities must apply logic and rational thinking to this process and prioritize interventions that are most likely to cost effectively address identified
impacts.

P OCHILO. "20. Training and Professional Qualifications for Journalists.". In: Media Bills Workshop organized by the Kenya Union of Journalists Association and African Council for Communication and Education for Media Practitioners. Nairobi Safari Club; Submitted.
Birithia R, Subramanian S, Villinger J, Muthomi J, Narla RD, Pappu HR. "2012. First report of tomato yellow ring virus (Tospovirus, Bunyaviridae) Infecting tomatoes in Kenya." Plant Disease. 2012;96:1384.Website
P OCHILO. 21. The Use of the Internet for the Advancement of Training and International Co-operation. . Nairobi, Kenya.: UNESCO Regional Office in Nairobi, East African Media Institute EAMI and the Friedrich Ebert Foundation.; 1996.
P OCHILO. 22. The Role of Communication in the Promotion of Peace. Nairobi, Kenya.: All Africa Conference of Churches ; 2000.
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Yenesew A., Peggoty Mutai, Matthias Heydenreich GTGMKC. "3-Hydroxyisoflavanones from the stem bark of Dalbergia melanoxylon: Isolation, antimycobacterial evaluation and molecular docking studies." Phytochemistry Letters . 2013;6 :671-675. Abstractpaper_65_mutai_et_al_phyto_2013.pdf

Two new 3-hydroxyisoflavanones, (S)-3,4′,5-trihydroxy-2′,7-dimethoxy-3′-prenylisoflavanone (trivial name kenusanone F 7-methyl ether) and (S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2′,7-dimethoxy-2″,2″-dimethylpyrano[5″,6″:3′,4′]isoflavanone (trivial name sophoronol-7-methyl ether) along with two known compounds (dalbergin and formononetin) were isolated from the stem bark of Dalbergia melanoxylon. The structures were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques. Kenusanone F 7-methyl ether showed activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas both of the new compounds were inactive against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at 10 μg/ml. Docking studies showed that the new compounds kenusanone F 7-methyl ether and sophoronol-7-methyl ether have high affinity for the M. tuberculosis drug target INHA.

P OCHILO. 3. A Review of a WHO Video Programme and two WHO Radio Programmes on Health . Finland: Geneva and University of Tampere, ; 1986.
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Anzala AO, Ball TB, Rostron T, O’Brien SJ, Plummer FA, study group NHIV, Rowland-Jones SL. "The 64I allele of the CCR2 chemokine receptor is strongly associated with delayed disease progression in a cohort of African prostitutes.". 1998.Website
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P. OCHILO. "7. Press Freedom and The Functions of the Media in Kenya." the Journal of Africa Media Review . 1993;Volume 7 (No. 3 – December, 1993).
Yenesew A, Mushibe EK, Induli M, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Kabaru JM, Heydenreich M, Cock A, Peter MG. "7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring--C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata." Phytochemistry. 2005;66:653-657.
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P. OCHILO. "8. The Role of the Media in the Prevention and Control of AIDS in Africa.". In: The AIDS Epidemiology and Control Seminar .; 1988.
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P. OCHILO. "9. A Review of Health Communication Exercised by Mass Media in Kenya.". In: the Training Course of East African Journalists on Primary Health Care. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania; 1987.
P. OCHILO. "9. The Media: Professional Independence and Fair Coverage of Elections Published in: Kenya Journal of Sciences: Series C. Humanities and Social Sciences ." Kenya Journal of Sciences: Series C. Humanities and Social Sciences . 1997;Volume 4 (No.1).
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PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ, PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI, PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "A. N. Ngari, J. I. Kinyamario, M. J. Ntiba and K. M. Mavuti, 2008, Factors affecting abundance and distribution of submerged and floating macrophytes in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, African Journal of Ecology, Vol 46 (In Press).". In: African Journal of Ecology, Vol 46 (In Press). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ, PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI, PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "A. N. Ngari, J. I. Kinyamario, M. J. Ntiba and K. M. Mavuti, 2008, Factors affecting abundance and distribution of submerged and floating macrophytes in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, African Journal of Ecology, Vol 46 (In Press).". In: African Journal of Ecology, Vol 46 (In Press). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "A.A. Ogacho, B.O. Aduda and F.W. Nyongesa (Dec. ), Thermal Shock Behaviour of a Kaolinite Refractory Prepared Using a Natural Organic Binder,.". In: Journal of Materials Science, 41(24) 8276 . Physica Status Solidi; 2006. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "Abdi,A.I., Wambua P.P., Githui,E.K. and Bulimo, (2007). Deposited 35 P.falciparum ebl-1 gene variants at Gene Bank. Received provisional accession numbers for each gene: EF205091-EF205127.". In: International association of hydrological sciences ( IAHS) publication 2000 No 259. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 2007. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "Abdi,A.I., Wambua P.P., Githui,E.K. and Bulimo, W.D. Nucleotide polymorphism in reqion I of the P.falciparum ebl-1 gene in field isolated obtained form various regions of Kenya (2007) in press.". In: International association of hydrological sciences ( IAHS) publication 2000 No 259. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 2007. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "The ability of Phenylbutazone and dexamethazone to modulate postoperative phenomena in cattle. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 28 pp. 29-32.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

The ability of Phenylbutazone and Dexamethazone to modulate post operative tempetature, limping, joint pain and joint mobility after joint surgery in calves was assessed. Intramuscular injections of 4.4mg/kg Phenylbutazone or 0.2 mg/kg Dexamethazone were given to two groups of calves. Both Dexamethazone and Phenybutazone were effective in reducing pain, limping and fever with a tendency fo Dexamethazone to be more potent than Phenylbutazone. However there was no significant difference between the ability of Dexamethazone and Phenylbitazone to module these controlled use of the anti-inflammatory drugs in the immediate post-operative period in cattle in beneficial.

B K, Ogutu O, JM M, P G. "Abnormal cervical cytology among women in a rural Kenyan population – Narok district." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2005;88:113-118.abnormal_cytology.docx
C.W Maribie, G.H.N Nyamasyo, P.N Ndegwa, Lagerlof J, Gikungu M. "Abundance and Diversity of Soil Mites (acari) along a gradient of land-use types in Taita-Taveta, Kenya,." Tropical & Sub-Tropical Agro-ecosystems. 2011;13:11-27.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Abundance and Population Structure of the Blacklip Pearl Oyster, Pinctada margaritifera L. 1758 (Bivalvia: Pteriidae).". In: Coastal Kenya Volume 1, Issue 2, 169-179. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
Omosa-Manyonyi G, Park H, Mutua G, Farah B, Bergin PJ, Laufer D, Lehrman J, Chinyenze K, Barin B, Fast P, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal specimen collection in clinical trial participants in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(10):e110228. Abstract

Mucosal specimens are essential to evaluate compartmentalized immune responses to HIV vaccine candidates and other mucosally targeted investigational products. We studied the acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal sampling in East African clinical trial participants at low risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

J.K.N. KURIA, R.G. W, P.K. G. "An account of a recent outbreak of Marek's disease in Kenya." The Kenya Veterinarian . 2001;21 :34-36.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "An accurate Epidemiological Model.". In: Applied Maths and Computation, 53:pp 1 - 12. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
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P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "An accurate epidemiological model.". In: Applied Mathematics & Computation. 1993. Vol. 53 pp. 1-12. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1993. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "An accurate Epidemiological Model.". In: Applied Maths and Computation, 53:pp 1 - 12. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1993. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "An Acousto-Ultrasonic Study of Model Defects in Model Ceramics and Ceramic Composites',.". In: Ph.D Thesis, University of London,. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991. Abstract
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A.M G, P. L, S. L, M. W, H. A-A, M. F, G. C, Z. Q, JP. S. "Active management of the third stage of labour with and without controlled cord traction: a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial." Lancet. 2012;379(9827):1721-7. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Active management of the third stage of labour reduces the risk of post-partum haemorrhage. We aimed to assess whether controlled cord traction can be omitted from active management of this stage without increasing the risk of severe haemorrhage.

METHODS:

We did a multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial in 16 hospitals and two primary health-care centres in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uganda. Women expecting to deliver singleton babies vaginally (ie, not planned caesarean section) were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) with a centrally generated allocation sequence, stratified by country, to placental delivery with gravity and maternal effort (simplified package) or controlled cord traction applied immediately after uterine contraction and cord clamping (full package). After randomisation, allocation could not be concealed from investigators, participants, or assessors. Oxytocin 10 IU was administered immediately after birth with cord clamping after 1-3 min. Uterine massage was done after placental delivery according to local policy. The primary (non-inferiority) outcome was blood loss of 1000 mL or more (severe haemorrhage). The non-inferiority margin for the risk ratio was 1·3. Analysis was by modified intention-to-treat, excluding women who had emergency caesarean sections. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN 12608000434392.

FINDINGS:

Between June 1, 2009, and Oct 30, 2010, 12,227 women were randomly assigned to the simplified package group and 12,163 to the full package group. After exclusion of women who had emergency caesarean sections, 11,861 were in the simplified package group and 11,820 were in the full package group. The primary outcome of blood loss of 1000 mL or more had a risk ratio of 1·09 (95% CI 0·91-1·31) and the upper 95% CI limit crossed the pre-stated non-inferiority margin. One case of uterine inversion occurred in the full package group. Other adverse events were haemorrhage-related.

INTERPRETATION:

Although the hypothesis of non-inferiority was not met, omission of controlled cord traction has very little effect on the risk of severe haemorrhage. Scaling up of haemorrhage prevention programmes for non-hospital settings can safely focus on use of oxytocin.

FUNDING:
United States Agency for International Development and UN Development Programme/UN Population Fund/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research

PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Activities Implemented Jointly in the Forestry Sector - Conceptual and Operational Fallacies 10 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review p. 97 (With Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1997. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
P K, S A, AN K, S.W M. "Acute abdominal aortic rupture in a mare on transit." international journal of agricultural science and veterinary medicine . 2015;3(2):20-22.
Munyua, S.J.M.;, Williamson P;, Penhale MJ;. "Acute Cellular And Humoral Responses To Equine Streptococcal Endometritis.".; 1984.
Williamson P;, Penhale JW;, Munyua SJM;, Murray J. "Acute Reaction Of Mares Uterus Of Bacterial Infection."; 1984.
Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2010;362(5):427-39. Abstract

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1.

P G, J M, Steyn P, Njau I, Cordero J. "Adolescents’ knowledge, attitudes and practices towards family planning and contraceptive use: a qualitative study from Kilifi County, Kenya." The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2016;21(Supplement 1):83.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. and R.D. Rawlings, `An Acousto-Ultrasonic Study of the Effect of Porosity of a Sintered Glass System' J.". In: Mater. Sci. 29, 2297 - 2303. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. and R.D. Rawlings, `Monitoring the Effects of Inclusions in Model Glass Systems Using Acousto-Ultrasonic Techniques,.". In: British Ceramic Transactions 95 (1), 10-14. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. and R.D. Rawlings, `Spectral Analysis of Acousto-Ultrasonic Waves for Defect Sizing.". In: ' NDT & International Vol. 94 No.4, PP. 237-240, August issue. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. `A Case for Ultrasonic Evaluation of Materials in Kenya',.". In: Discovery and Innovation 6(1), 40. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O., D.R. Newman and E.M. Ayiera, `Thermal Conductivity of Particulate Insulators: Effect of Particle Size Distribution, Moisture Content and Binders.". In: KJST Series A 13 (1-2), 116-129. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O.,ffective thermal conductivity of loose particulate systems'.". In: Journal of Materials Science 31, pp 6441-6448. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
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G.M.N, P.K.O. Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption in Manufacturing Companies in Kenya. Istanbul, Turkey: International science index; 2015.
G.M.N, P.K.O. "Advanved Manufacturing Technology and Technical Labour in Manufacturing Companies in Kenya.". In: Nairobi Innovational Week. Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Aesthetic Persuasion: The Role of the Military in Restructuring Acholi Art.". In: African Studies Association Annual Meeting November 6-9, Baltimore. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Wafula EM, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nzanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DT, Ademba GR, Pamba A. "Aetiology of acute respiratory infections in children aged below 5 years in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985.Website
Wafula EM, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nzanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DT, Ademba GR, Pamba A. "Aetiology of acute respiratory infections in children aged below 5 years in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1985.Website
Mwabu G, Arrow K, Danzon P, Gelband H, Jameson D, Laxminarayan R, Mills A, Panosian C, Peto R, White N. "Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria: killing it slowly." The Lancet. 2012;380(9857).
P. PROFSITUMAFRANCISD. "Africa and the Implementation of International environmental Law in University of Iowa College of Law Journal (Fall 2000,forthcoming)."; 2000. Abstract

New Directions in water legislation in Kenya?. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi, March 29-30. 2000

P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Africa in the World Economy". Paper Presented at an OAU Workshop on Africa's Priorit Programme for Economic recovery (APPER) in Mombasa, Kenya.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1987. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Africa: An Economic Outlook": Paper presented at an SGS International Trade Seminar at Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1988. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Park J, Michira JN, Yun SY. "African hip hop as a rhizomic art form articulating urban youth identity and resistance with reference to Kenyan genge and Ghanaian hiplife." Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa. 2019;Vol. 16(No. 1-2):99-118.
J O’o, P M, B O, K O. "AGE CHANGES IN THE TUNICA INTIMA OF THE AORTA IN GOAT (Capra hircus).". 2008. AbstractAGE CHANGES IN THE TUNICA INTIMA OF THE AORTA IN GOAT (Capra hircus)

Age changes in the aortic tunica intima may explain the higher prevalence of atherosclerosis among the elderly. Goat is a suitable model for the study of cardiovascular disease but the age changes in its aortic tunica intima are unreported. This study therefore examined structural changes that occur in the tunica intima of its aorta. Six healthy goats three aged over 60 months, and three aged less than 12 months, were used in this study. The animals were euthanized with sodium pentabarbitone and specimens taken from the various segment of the aorta studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Materials for light microscopy were fixed 10% formaldehyde solution, processed for paraffin embedding and 7 micron sections stained with Mason’s Trichrome and Weigert’s Resorcin Fuchsin/Van Gieson stains. Those for transmission electron microscopy were fixed in 3% phosphate buffered glutaraldehyde solution, post fixed in osmium tetroxide and prepared for durcupan embedding. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate, counterstained with lead citrate and examined by EM 201 phillips© electron microscope. Observations reveal that aging is characterized by endothelial discontinuities, presence of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the tunica intima, subendothelial thickening, vacuolation and disintegration of internal elastic lamina. It is concluded that the intimal breaches observed in intimal aging may promote ingression of macromolecules into the vessel wall, and underpin the higher prevalence of atherosclerosis among the elderly. Control of serum atherogenic molecules should be enhanced in this age group.

Ngowi HA, Mukaratirwa S, Lekule FP, Maingi N, Waiswa C, Sikasunge C, Afonso S, Sumbu J, Ramiandrasoa S, penrith ML, Willingham AL. "Agricultural Impact of Porcine Cysticercosis in Africa: A Review.". In: Novel Aspects on Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis. Jeneza Tirdine Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH; 2013.
Kahindi JHP, P; George T, de Moreira FMS, Karanja NK, Giller KE. "Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and ecosystem function in the tropics: the role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.". 1997. Abstract

Among the nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria, the rhizobia in symbiosis with legumes are generally the most important in agriculture, although Frankia, cyanobacteria and heterotrophic free-living N2 -fixers may fix significant amounts of nitrogen under specific conditions. The taxonomy of N2-fixing bacteria is undergoing substantial revisions due to the advent of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, and in certain cases this has proved useful in unravelling ecological relationships among confusing groups. Molecular methods are also proving useful in studies of biodiversity within populations of rhizobial species. Rhizobia are surprisingly competent free-living bacteria, although few fix nitrogen in the free-living state, and the major factors that determine their population sizes in the absence of legume hosts are environmental stresses (such as soil acidity factors), protozoal grazing and some factors associated with agricultural intensification such as increases in salinity or heavy metal pollution of the soil. Rhizobial populations generally increase in response to the presence of the host legume. Due to the high degree of host-specificity between legume hosts and rhizobial species, loss of a single rhizobial species can result in loss of N2-fixation by that legume, although many legumes can be nodulated by several species of rhizobia. However, as only a single, compatible rhizobial genotype or strain is necessary for establishment of effective N, -fixation (i.e. the basis of the rhizobial inoculant industry), it is questionable whether biodiversity within species is necessary to ensure function, although this may confer resilience in the face of further environmental stresses.

Ayuke FO, Pulleman MM, Vanlauwe B, de Goede RGM, Six J, Csuzdi C, Brussaard L. "Agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across humid to semi-arid tropical zones." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2011;148:148-154. Abstract

Earthworm and termite diversity were studied in 12 long-term agricultural field trials across the subhumid
to semi-arid tropical zones of Eastern and Western Africa. In each trial, treatments with high and low soil organic C were chosen to represent contrasts in long-term soil management effects, including tillage intensity, organic matter and nutrient management and crop rotations. For each trial, a fallow representing a relatively undisturbed reference was also sampled. Earthworm taxonomic richness decreased in the direction fallow > high-C soil > low-C soil and earthworm abundance was higher in fallow than under continuous crop production. Termite abundance was not significantly different between fallow and high and low-C treatments and termite taxonomic richness was higher in fallow soil than in the two cropping systems. We concluded that fewer species of earthworms and termites were favored under agricultural management that led to lower soil C. Results indicated that the soil disturbance induced by continuous crop production was more detrimental to earthworms than to termites, when compared to the fallow.
Keywords: Soil biodiversity, Earthworms, Termites, Agriculture, Crop management, Soil carbon, Climate

P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Agriculture Development Council activities in Aasia Lessons for Kenya Report to the ADC the Ford Foundation and the University of Nairobi. Written with W.M Mwnagi S.E. Migot-Adholla and G.M Ruigu.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1985. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Agro-biodiversity and International Law - A Conceptual Framework, Journal of Environmental Law (with Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1999. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
Piot PM, Kapita B, Ngugi EN, Mann JM, Colebunders R, Wabitsch R. "AIDS in Africa A Manual for Physicians, World Health Organization, Geneva.". 1994.Website
C.O.N K, perspective R(E) ARC. Aids: ignorance or overwhelming drive. Nairobi: USIU; 2000.
FH W, GN K, PM S, A WG, CM M. "Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya." J. Occup Environ Hyg. 2012;9(5):340-344. AbstractWebsite

The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

Pope FD, Gatari M, Ng'ang'a D,... "Airborne particulate matter monitoring in Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors [discussion paper]." Atmospheric …. 2018. AbstractWebsite

East African countries face an increasing threat from poor air quality, stemming from rapid urbanisation, population growth and a steep rise in fuel use and motorization rates. With few air quality monitoring systems available, this study provides the much needed high temporal …

Blake R, Pope F, Gatari M. "Airborne particulate matter monitoring in Nairobi, Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors." EGU General Assembly …. 2018. AbstractWebsite

This study investigated the use of low cost optical particle counters (OPCs) to measure particulate matter (PM) pollution in Nairobi, Kenya, between February and March 2017. Measurements were performed in three locations, an urban background and urban roadside …

PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Aloo, P.A., Okelo, R.O. and M.J. Ntiba. Helminth fauna of Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas) (Pisces: Chiclidae) from a tropical lake, Lake Naivasha, Kenya.". In: The Afri. J. Trop. Hydrobio. Fish.: 7, 1&2: 7-16. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Powner D, Snyder JV, Grenvik A. "Altered pulmonary capillary permeability complicating recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis." Chest. 1975;68:253-256. Abstract

Self-limited noncardiogenic interstitial pulmonary edema probably reflecting altered permeability of the pulmonary capillary membrane is reported in a patient being treated for severe diabetic ketoacidosis. The possible etiology, associated findings, and therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by facemask are discussed.

Mwangi JW, P. K. Gathumbi, Kibwage IO, Thoithi GN, Oketch-Rabah HA. "Alternative medicines and prostate enlargement-Prunus africana emphasis." Pharm. J. Kenya. 2001;(March):26-31.
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER, J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Aluvaala, E.K, Tsuma, L.M Wambua.P.P, Bulimo.W.D, and Mulaa F.J. Identification of Glycosyl Hydrolase producing Extremophilic bacterium using ribosomal DNA sequence. Sequence deposited at Gene Bank under accession number DQ 341411. (2006).". In: Gene Bank under accession number DQ 341411. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 2006. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Anacardiaceae (Mango family) of East African flora, London.". In: establishing quantitative criteria for consensus. Economic Botany, 44 (3): 369-381. University of Nairobi Press; 1986. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
E.A O, P.G N, P.K N. "Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Water Hyacinth (E. crassipes) With Ruminal Slaughterhouse Waste for Biogas Production." Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development. 2019;8(3):253-259.
J. A N-M, P.M M. "Anaesthesia in urinary tract disease.". 1990. Abstract

Surgical management of renal patients is a fascinating challenge requiring a detailed knowledge of anaesthetic techniques and a careful selection of the technique most compatible with each patient's condition. A knowledge of many facets of physiology, biochemistry and med icine that are influenced by urinary tract obstruction and renal dysfunction is paramount (Deutsch 1973). The function of the basic systems involved in homeostasis is generally impaired by anaesthesia. Therefore the degree of depression of renal haemodynarnics is inevitably of concem, especially so in anaesthesia of patients with urinary tract obstruction, or renal dysfunction (Bastron and Deutsch 1976; Deutsch 1973; Mazze and Cousins 1981). This paper deals with physiological, biochemical and medical factors that influence the action of anaesthetics in urinary tract disease, and thus affect the patient negatively. An insight is given on how to overcome some of these factors.

Maranga IO, Hampson L, Oliver AW, Gamal A, P G, Opiyo A, Holland1 CA, IN H. "Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Low Survival of Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy in Kenya. ." PLoS ONE . 2013;8(10):e78411. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078411.
Prakash, Teluve Nagarajarao; Mburu J;, Chandrashekar H;, Abebaw D. Analysis of Farmers' Willingness to Conserve Traditional Rice Varieties in the Western Ghats of South India.; 2013. Abstract

Conservation of crop genetic resources is a major preoccupation of the Indian government in particular and the international community at large. Drawing on a random sample of 228 farm households from two regions in the Western Ghats of Southern India, this study reports the main factors influencing farmers' willingness to conserve traditional rice varieties of different levels of survival ability (survivability). Estimated results of a logit model indicate that factors influencing decisions to conserve the varieties on-farm depend mainly on farmers' socio-economic characteristics, and vary between the two regions and among incentive or policy scenarios assumed. The factors do not however vary so much from the perspective of the survivability of the traditional rice varieties. Therefore, the study concludes that on-farm conservation in the two study areas requires a mix of different conservation strategies and policy incentives which may not be dependent on the levels of survivability of the traditional rice varieties.

Opinya GN, Pameijer CH, Gron P. "Analysis of Kenyan drinking water.". 1987.Website
Kiai W. An Analysis of Planning and Implementation of HIV and AIDS Communication Interventions by NGOs in Kenya. Prof. Siimiy Wandibba PIN, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2009.abstract.doc
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Analysis of Present State of Kenyan Economy.". In: Africa Quarterly, Vol.34 No.4 pp 85-94. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1994. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Park K-A, Oh SY. "Analysis of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in preterm children: retinal layer thickness and choroidal thickness profiles." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2012;53:7201-7207. Abstract

{PURPOSE To compare retinal layer thickness and choroidal thickness profiles in preterm and full-term children using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS We performed horizontal and vertical SD-OCT crosshair scans through the fovea with and without an enhanced depth technique in 31 premature and 30 full-term children. Retinal layer and choroidal thicknesses were measured at various locations including the fovea and 1.0 and 3.0 mm nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior to the fovea. After adjusting for age and the child's axial length, we compared retinal layer and choroidal thicknesses at the measurement points. RESULTS Total retinal thickness and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness at the foveal center in preterm children (256.00 ± 30.71 μm, 141.87 ± 28.75 μm, respectively) were larger than those in full-term children (217.57 ± 10.64 μm, 101.22 ± 10.90 μm, respectively, P {\textless} 0.001). Gestational age at birth was inversely correlated with both total retinal and ONL thicknesses (P {\textless} 0.001). Choroidal thickness 3.0 mm temporal to the fovea in preterm children (283.75 ± 60.47 μm) was significantly less than that in full-term children (339.89 ± 90.32

Ngugi RW, Sifunjo EK, Wainaina G, Pokhariyal G. "An analysis of the efficiency of foreign exchange market in Kenya." Economic Bulletin. 2008.
Gituro W, Kisaka SE, Ngugi RW, Pokhariyal G. "An analysis of the efficiency of the foreign exchange market in Kenya." Economics Bullletin. 2008. Abstractan_analysis_of_the_efficiency_of_the_foreign_exchange_market_in_kenya.pdf

This study examined the Efficiency Market hypothesis in its weak form using run tests, unit root tests and the Ljung-Box Q-statistics. The motivation was to determine whether foreign exchange rate returns follow a random walk. The data covered the period starting January 1994 to June 2007 for the daily closing spot price of the Kenya shillings per US dollar exchange rate. The main finding of this study is that the foreign exchange rate market is not efficient. The results showed that most of the rejections are due to significant patterns, trend stationarity and autocorrelation in foreign exchange returns. This is attributed to both
exchange rate undershooting and overshooting phenomena.

Mavuti K, Moreau J, Munyandorero J, Plisnier PD. "Analysis of trophic relationships in two shallow equatorial lakes Lake Naivasha (Kenya) and Lake Ihema (Rwanda) using a multispecifies trophic model.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

A multispecifies trophic model called ECOPATH II, which can be used to describe the trophic relationships in aquatic ecosystems on a quantitative basis, is briefly presented. When properly used, it can help to explain the trophic relationships in ecosystems and possible evolution of fishstocks after modifications of the environment (e.g. eutrophication, introduction of a new population and/or a significant increase of the fishing effort), and to compare the trophic structure of several ecosystems. Examples are provided on two shallow lakes: Lake Ihema and Lake Naivasha. They are compared with Lake George which was previously documented

Bulsara KR, Zomorodi A, Provenzale JM. "Anatomic variant of the posterior cerebral artery." American Journal of Roentgenology. 2007;188:W395. AbstractWebsite
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Mandiola E, del Sol M, Sanz ME, Olave E, Gabrielli C, Prates JC. "Anatomical variability of superior cerebellar artery medial and lateral branches." Revista chilena de anatomía. 1997;15:85-91. AbstractWebsite
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McLachlan JC, Patten D. "Anatomy teaching: ghosts of the past, present and future." Medical Education. 2006;40:243-253. AbstractWebsite

‘Ghost of the Future,’ he exclaimed, ‘I fear you more than any spectre I have seen. But as I know your purpose is to do me good, and as I hope to live to be another man from what I was, I am prepared to bear you company, and do it with a thankful heart. Will you not speak to me?’ Ebenezer Scrooge (Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol) Introduction  Anatomy teaching has perhaps the longest history of any component of formalised medical education. In this article we briefly consider the history of dissection, but also review the neglected topic of the history of the use of living anatomy. Current debates  The current debates about the advantages and disadvantages of cadavers, prosection versus dissection, and the use of living anatomy and radiology instead of cadavers are discussed. The future  Future prospects are considered, along with some of the factors that might inhibit change.

McLachlan JC, Patten D. "Anatomy teaching: {Ghosts} of the past, present and future." Medical education. 2006;40:243-53. Abstract
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Peter C, Alzen G, Omwandho COA, Bültmann E, Hertel H, Gruessner SE. "Antenatal and postnatal management of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation diagnosed by ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Antenatal diagnosis of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation (CCAM) is vital for disease surveillance and postnatal care. Ultrasonography (US) has been the imaging gold standard for antenatal CCAM assessment. However, one of the limitations of US is the “vanishing phenomenon” caused by isoechogenicity of CCAM tissue and adjacent normal lung parenchyma. Methods: Antenatal serial US were concurrently used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor macro- and microcystic lesions. Results: In both pregnant women, antenatal US and MRI confirmed the presence, in the fetus, of cystic lesions and predicted disease regression/progression as well as the need for postnatal surgical intervention. Several advantages were detected by using both—serial US and MRI (over serial US alone)—including improved signal intensity, exact volume size measurements, precise CCAM location in particular for patients with adverse ultrasound conditions. Both neonates underwent surgical resection and had an uneventful post-operative course. Conclusions: Antenatal use of MRI as well as serial US improved information regarding tissue resolution and delineation of CCAM. The information from two imaging modalities was complementary. Our literature review confirmed the emerging role of prenatal MRI for postnatal monitoring and management of CCAM.

Vogel JP, Oladapo OT, Pileggi-Castro C, Adejuyigbe EA, Althabe F, Ariff S, Ayede AI, Baqui AH, Costello A, Chikamata DM, Crowther C, Fawole B, Gibbons L, Jobe AH, Kapasa ML, Kinuthia J, Kriplani A, Kuti O, Neilson J, Patterson J, Piaggio G, Qureshi R, Qureshi Z, Sankar MJ, Stringer JSA, Temmerman M, Yunis K, Bahl R, Gülmezoglu AM. "Antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of imminent preterm birth in low-resource countries: the case for equipoise and the need for efficacy trials." British Medical Journal Global Health. 2017;2(3). AbstractWebsite

The scientific basis for antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) for women at risk of preterm birth has rapidly changed in recent years. Two landmark trials-the Antenatal Corticosteroid Trial and the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids Trial-have challenged the long-held assumptions on the comparative health benefits and harms regarding the use of ACS for preterm birth across all levels of care and contexts, including resource-limited settings. Researchers, clinicians, programme managers, policymakers and donors working in low-income and middle-income countries now face challenging questions of whether, where and how ACS can be used to optimise outcomes for both women and preterm newborns. In this article, we briefly present an appraisal of the current evidence around ACS, how these findings informed WHO's current recommendations on ACS use, and the knowledge gaps that have emerged in the light of new trial evidence. Critical considerations in the generalisability of the available evidence demonstrate that a true state of clinical equipoise exists for this treatment option in low-resource settings. An expert group convened by WHO concluded that there is a clear need for more efficacy trials of ACS in these settings to inform clinical practice.

Keywords: antenatal corticosteroids; neonatal mortality; preterm birth.

PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Anthocyanin Sensitized Nanoporous TiO2 PEC Solar Cells Prepared by Sol Gel Process.". In: Progr Colloid Polym Sci. 125, 34-37. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Anthocyanin Sensitized Nanoporous TiO2 PEC Solar Cells Prepared by Sol Gel Process.". In: Progr Colloid Polym Sci. 125, 34-37. Physica Status Solidi; 2004. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
Derese S, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich, Peter MG. "Anthraquinones, Pre-anthraquinones And Isoeleutherol In The Roots Of Aloe Species."; 1994.
Drannik AG, Nag K, Yao X-D, Henrick BM, Jain S, Ball BT, Plummer FA, Wachihi C, Kimani J, Rosenthal KL. "Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Elafin Is More Potent than Its Precursor's, Trappin-2, in Genital Epithelial Cells.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cervicovaginal lavage fluid (CVL) is a natural source of anti-HIV-1 factors; however, molecular characterization of the anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL remains elusive. In this study, we confirmed that CVLs from HIV-1-resistant (HIV-R) compared to HIV-1-susceptible (HIV-S) commercial sex workers (CSWs) contain significantly larger amounts of serine antiprotease trappin-2 (Tr) and its processed form, elafin (E). We assessed anti-HIV-1 activity of CVLs of CSWs and recombinant E and Tr on genital epithelial cells (ECs) that possess (TZM-bl) or lack (HEC-1A) canonical HIV-1 receptors. Our results showed that immunodepletion of 30% of Tr/E from CVL accounted for up to 60% of total anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL. Knockdown of endogenous Tr/E in HEC-1A cells resulted in significantly increased shedding of infectious R5 and X4 HIV-1. Pretreatment of R5, but not X4 HIV-1, with either Tr or E led to inhibition of HIV-1 infection of TZM-bl cells. Interestingly, when either HIV-1 or cells lacking canonical HIV-1 receptors were pretreated with Tr or E, HIV-1 attachment and transcytosis were significantly reduced, and decreased attachment was not associated with altered expression of syndecan-1 or CXCR4. Determination of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Tr and E anti-HIV-1 activity indicated that E is ~130 times more potent than its precursor, Tr, despite their equipotent antiprotease activities. This study provides the first experimental evidence that (i) Tr and E are among the principal anti-HIV-1 molecules of CVL; (ii) Tr and E affect cell attachment and transcytosis of HIV-1; (iii) E is more efficient than Tr regarding anti-HIV-1 activity; and (iv) the anti-HIV-1 effect of Tr and E is contextual

Shenoy S, Baliga S, Saldanha DR, Prashanth HV, others. "Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of {Pseudomonas} aeruginosa strains isolated from various clinical specimens." Indian journal of medical sciences. 2002;56:427. AbstractWebsite
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Plummer F, Chubb H, Simonsen JN, Bosire M, Slaney L, Nagelkerke NJ, Maclean I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Waiyaki P, Brunham RC. "Antibodies to opacity proteins (Opa) correlate with a reduced risk of gonococcal salpingitis."; 1994. Abstract

Acute salpingitis complicating cervical gonococcal infection is a significant cause of infertility. Relatively little data are available concerning the pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease. A cohort of 243 prostitutes residing in Nairobi were followed between March 1985 and April 1988. Gonococcal cultures were performed at each visit, and acute salpingitis was diagnosed clinically. Serum at enrollment was tested by immunoblot for antibody to gonococcal outer membrane proteins. 8.6% (146/1689) of gonococcal infections were complicated by salpingitis. Increased risk of salpingitis was associated with younger age, shorter duration of prostitution, HIV infection, number of gonococcal infections, and episodes of nongonococcal salpingitis. Rmp antibody increased the risk of salpingitis. Antibody to Opa decreased the risk of salpingitis. By logistic regression analysis, antibody to Opa was independently associated with decreased risk of gonococcal salpingitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.17-0.76); HIV infection (adjusted OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.96-12.8) and episodes of nongonococcal salpingitis (adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8-6.4) were independently associated with an increased risk of salpingitis. Antibody to Opa appears to protect against ascending gonococcal infection, perhaps by interfering with Opa mediated adherence and endocytosis. The demonstration of natural immunity that protects against upper genital tract infection in women suggests that a vaccine to prevent gonococcal salpingitis is possible.

Plummer FA, Chubb H, Simonsen JN, Bosire M, Slaney L, Maclean I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Waiyaki P, Brunham RC. "Antibody to Rmp (outer membrane protein 3) increases susceptibility to gonococcal infection.". 1993. AbstractWebsite

The severe adverse effects of gonococcal infection on human fertility suggests that Neisseria gonorrhoeae would exert powerful selection for the development of a protective immune response in humans. N. gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and must persist in humans to survive. Since it is an ecologically successful organism, it must have evolved strategies to evade any human immune response it elicits. In a longitudinal study among 243 women working as prostitutes and experiencing frequent gonococcal infection, younger women, women with HIV infection, and women with antibody to the gonococcal outer membrane protein 3 (Rmp) were at increased risk of infection (adjusted odds ratio 3.4, CI95% 1.1-10.4, P < 0.05). Rmp is highly conserved in N. gonorrhoeae and the blocking of mucosal defences may be one of its functions. As similar proteins occur in many gram negative mucosal pathogens, the enhancing effect of such proteins may be a general strategy whereby bacteria evade human immune responses.

PIP:

Between March 1985 and July 1986 researchers enrolled 243 female prostitutes in Pumwani community of Nairobi, Kenya, in a longitudinal study to examine the relationship between the antibody to the gonococcal outer membrane protein 3 (Rmp Ab) and gonococcal mucosal infection. Few women used condoms. 69% were HIV-1 seropositive. Just 9.5% (23) of the women had not had any gonococcal infections, despite probable exposure to them, indicating the possibility of some acquired protective immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoea. 90.5% had had at least 1 gonococcal infection. Women with Rmp Ab faced a greater risk of gonococcal infection than those who were Rmp Ab negative (OR = 3.4;l p .05), denoting that Rmp Ab increases susceptibility to gonococcal mucosal infections. Women older than 29 years were at lower risk of gonococcal infection than those younger than 29 years (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3; p .03). Women who used oral contraceptives (OCs) were also likely to be infected with N. gonorrhoea (OR = 3; p = .062). Further, 31% of OC users had cervical ectopy compared to just 14% of nonusers (OR = 2.8; p .005), suggesting that the effect of OCs on the cervix make it more susceptible to gonococcal infection. Rmp Ab also exists in many other gram-negative mucosal pathogens, often playing the same role as it does in N. gonorrhoea infection. Thus, Rmp Ab may be a common scheme bacteria used to elude human immune responses. These findings provide more understanding as to why N. gonorrhoea is an ecologically successful human pathogen

Mukundi MJ, Piero MN, Mwaniki NE, Murugi NJ, Daniel AS, Gathumbi PK, Muchugi AN. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Acacia nilotica in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice. Mukundi et al; 2015.mukundi-_acacia_nilotica_2015.pdf
Mdodo R, Moser SA, Jaoko W, Baddley J, Pappas P, Kempf MC, Aban IB, Odera S, Jolly P. "Antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus." Mycoses. 2011;54. Abstract
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Mdodo R, Moser SA, Jaoko W, Baddley J, Pappas P, Kempf M-C, Aban I, Odera S, Jolly P. "Antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans cerebrospinal fluid isolates from AIDS patients in Kenya." Mycoses. 2011;54:e438-e442. Abstract
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Nyaga PN;, Kasiiti J;, Macharia, J M;, Shimanter E;, Panshim, A;, Lipkin M. "Antigenic characterisation of Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) Isolated in Kenya."; 1996.
Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth OE, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of secondary metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and two aloe species." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-5. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In this study, the antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of secondary metabolites isolated from Tabernaemontana ventricosa Hochst. ex A. DC., Aloe tororoana Reynolds, and Aloe schweinfurthii var. labworana Reynolds were investigated. Overall, nineteen known compounds were isolated from the three plant species. The compounds were characterized based on their spectroscopic data. Voacristine and aloenin were the most active compounds against promastigotes of antimony-sensitive Leishmania donovani (IC50 11 ± 5.2 μM and 26 ± 6.5 µM, respectively) with low toxicity against RAW264.7, murine monocyte/macrophage-like cells. The in silico docking evaluation and in vitro NO generation assay also substantially support the antileishmanial effects of these compounds. In a cytotoxicity assay against cancer and normal cell lines, ursolic acid highly inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells, A549 …

Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth E, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and Two Aloe Species." Natural Product Research. 2021.
J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P. K. Gathumbi, S.G.Kiama. "Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msabweni,Kenya." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010;128(2):424-432.2010.antimalarial_herbal_remedies_of_msabweni_kenya_1_1.pdf
Mbindyo CM, Gitao CG, Plummer PJ, Kulohoma BW, Mulei CM, Bett R. "Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles and Genes of Staphylococci Isolated from Mastitic Cow’s Milk in Kenya." Antibiotics. 2021;10(772):https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10070772.antibiotics-10-00772_1.pdf
Juma M, Sankaradoss A, Ndomb R, Mwaura P, Damodar T, Nazir J, Pandit A, Khurana R, Masika M, Chirchir R, Gachie J, Krishna S, Sowdhamin R, Anzala O, Iyer MS. "Antimicrobial resistance profiling and phylogenetic analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates from Kenya in resource limited setting." Frontiers in Microbiology. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background: Africa has one of the highest incidences of gonorrhea. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is gaining resistance to most of the available antibiotics, compromising treatment across the world. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is an efficient way of predicting AMR determinants and their spread in the population. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies like Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) have helped in the generation of longer reads of DNA in a shorter duration with lower cost. Increasing accuracy of base-calling algorithms, high throughput, error-correction strategies, and ease of using the mobile sequencer MinION in remote areas lead to its adoption for routine microbial genome sequencing. To investigate whether MinION-only sequencing is sufficient for WGS and downstream analysis in resource-limited settings, we sequenced the genomes of 14 suspected N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods: Using WGS, the isolates were confirmed to be cases of N. gonorrhoeae (n = 9), and there were three co-occurrences of N. gonorrhoeae with Moraxella osloensis and N. meningitidis (n = 2). N. meningitidis has been implicated in sexually transmitted infections in recent years. The near-complete N. gonorrhoeae genomes (n = 10) were analyzed further for mutations/factors causing AMR using an in-house database of mutations curated from the literature.

Results: We observe that ciprofloxacin resistance is associated with multiple mutations in both gyrA and parC. Mutations conferring tetracycline (rpsJ) and sulfonamide (folP) resistance and plasmids encoding beta-lactamase were seen in all the strains, and tet(M)-containing plasmids were identified in nine strains. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 10 isolates into clades containing previously sequenced genomes from Kenya and countries across the world. Based on homology modeling of AMR targets, we see that the mutations in GyrA and ParC disrupt the hydrogen bonding with quinolone drugs and mutations in FolP may affect interaction with the antibiotic.

Conclusion: Here, we demonstrate the utility of mobile DNA sequencing technology in producing a consensus genome for sequence typing and detection of genetic determinants of AMR. The workflow followed in the study, including AMR mutation dataset creation and the genome identification, assembly, and analysis, can be used for any clinical isolate. Further studies are required to determine the utility of real-time sequencing in outbreak investigations, diagnosis, and management of infections, especially in resource-limited settings.

Kariuki1 HN, Kanui TI, Yenesew A, Patel N, Mbugua PM. "Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) root extract in Swiss albino mice." Pan African Medical journal. 2013;14( ):133.
Kariuki HN;, Kanui TI;, Yenesew A;, Patel NB;, Mbugua PM. "Antinocieptive activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. in models of central and peripheral pain." Phytopharmacology. 2012;3(1):122-129.
Yenesew A, KARIUKI HELLENN, Patel NB, Mbugua PM, Kanui TI. "Antinocieptive activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. in models of central and peripheral pain.". 2012.
Babiaka SB, Nia R, Abuga KO, Mbah JA, Nziko VN, Paper DH, Ntie-Kang F. "Antioxidant potential of flavonoid glycosides from Manniophyton fulvum Müll. (Euphorbiaceae): Identification and molecular modeling." Scientic African. 2020;8(e00423):1-7. Abstract

Chemical investigation of the leaves of Manniophyton fulvum led to the isolation of seven flavonoid glycosides: myricetin-3-O-β-Dd-rhamnoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-rhamnoside (2), quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-d-rhamnoside (4), quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside (5), rutin (6) and quercetin (7). The structures of the compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses as well as by comparison with published data. Some of the compounds showed strong antioxidant activity which validates the traditional use of the plant. An attempted correlation between the computed HOMO-LUMO energies and the measured antioxidant activities was established. We have also estimated the cardiotoxicity of the compounds by calculating the predicted logarithm of the human Ether-`a-go-go Related Gene (loghERG) using the QikProp program. These purified flavonoids are new potential lead compounds for the development of antioxidant drugs.

Kerubo L, Midiwo JO, Derese S, Langat MK, Akala HM, Waters NC, Peter M, Heydenreich M. "Antiplasmodial activity of compounds from the surface exudates of Senecio roseiflorus." Natural Products Communications. 2013;7:1-2.kerubo_et_al_3_npc.pdf
Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2020;149:104796. AbstractFitoterapia

Abstract
Five known compounds (1–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Similar investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, lupinifolin (3) showed significant activity on BEAS-2B (IC50 4.9 μM) and HePG2 (IC50 10.8 μM) human cell lines. All the other compounds showed low cytotoxicity (IC50 > 30 μM) against human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549), human liver cancer cells (HepG2), lung/bronchus cells (epithelial virus transformed) (BEAS-2B) and immortal human hepatocytes (LO2)

Graphical abstract
Unlabelled Image

Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2020;149:104796. AbstractFitoterapia

Description
A new flavanonol, 3-hydroxyerythrisenegalone (1), and four known compounds (2–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, erythrisenegalone (3) showed significant …

Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2021;149:104796. AbstractView Website

Description
Five known compounds (1–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Similar investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, lupinifolin (3) showed significant activity on BEAS-2B (IC50 4.9 μM) and HePG2 (IC50 10.8 μM …

Yenesew A, Twinomuhwezi H, Kabaru JM, Akala HM, Kiremire BT, Heydenreich M, Peter. "Antiplasmodial and larvicidal flavonoids from Derris trifoliata.". 2009.Website
Yenesew A, Twinomuhwezi H, Kabaru JM, Akala HM, Kirimire B, Heydenreich M, Peters MG, Eyase FL, Waters NC, Walsh DS. "Antiplasmodial and larvicidal flavonoids from Derris trifoliata." Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2009;23(3):001-006.
Graham SM, Masese L, Gitau R, Jalalian-Lechak Z, Richardson BA, Peshu N, Mandaliya K, Kiarie JN, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Antiretroviral adherence and development of drug resistance are the strongest predictors of genital HIV-1 shedding among women initiating treatment." J. Infect. Dis.. 2010;202(10):1538-42. Abstract

Persistent genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) shedding among women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may present a transmission risk. We investigated the associations between genital HIV-1 suppression after ART initiation and adherence, resistance, pretreatment CD4 cell count, and hormonal contraceptive use. First-line ART was initiated in 102 women. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels were measured at months 0, 3, and 6. Adherence was a strong and consistent predictor of genital HIV-1 suppression (P < .001), whereas genotypic resistance was associated with higher vaginal HIV-1 RNA level at month 6 (P = .04). These results emphasize the importance of adherence to optimize the potential benefits of ART for reducing HIV-1 transmission risk.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Okombo J, Singh K, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Peter M. Njogu, Mireille V, Keiser Jennifer, Egan T, Chibale K. "Antischistosomal activity of pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives and correlation with inhibition of β-hematin formation." ACS Infect. Dis.. 2017;3:411-420.
Patrice K, Gideon NN, Paul NN, Christopher A, Robert K. "Apis mellifera adansonii Is the Most Defensive Honeybee in Uganda." Psyche. 2018;201:6.
Sayi JG, Patel, NB, et al. "Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in elderly East Africans." East African Medical Journal. 1997;74:65-67.
Perry J Pickhardt JS. "Appendiceal length as an independent risk factor for acute appendicitis." European radiology. 2013. Abstract
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Pittman-Waller VA, Myers JG, Stewart RM, Dent DL, Page CP, Gray GA, Pruitt, Jr BA, Root HD. "Appendicitis: why so complicated? {Analysis} of 5755 consecutive appendectomies." The American surgeon. 2000;66:548-554. Abstract

A perceived high rate of complicated (gangrenous or perforated) appendicitis, despite advances in laboratory and radiographic diagnostic modalities, prompted a review of our experience with appendicitis followed by a prospective analysis that examined the time course from presentation to definitive treatment in 218 consecutive patients. In 5755 appendectomies, our overall rate of complicated appendicitis was 32 per cent; higher in males, in the young, and in the elderly; and relatively stable over each year reviewed. Prospectively, we determined that of the various time intervals, the time from the onset of symptoms to first seeking medical attention is the only significant predictor of complicated appendicitis (39.8 vs 16.5 hours for acute appendicitis). On the other hand, the time from surgical evaluation to operative intervention was significantly shorter for complicated appendicitis (3.8 vs 4.7 hours for acute appendicitis). The high rate of complicated appendicitis with its subsequent sequelae of increased morbidity and resource expenditure is primarily the direct result of patient delay in seeking medical attention and not the result of diagnostic dilemma or surgical delay. Public education, specifically targeting those groups at risk, may provide a substantial and significant solution to the complicated appendix.

Patel JP, Karanja PK, Githiri JG, Barongo JO. "APPLICATION OF EULER DECONVOLUTION TECHNIQUE IN DETERMINING DEPTHS TO MAGNETIC STRUCTURES IN MAGADI AREA, SOUTHERN KENYA RIFT." JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2016;18(1). AbstractFull Text

Magadi area is located in the southern part of the Kenyan rift, an active continental rift that is part of the East African Rift system. Thermal manifestations in the form of hot springs in the northern and southern shores of Lake Magadi and high heat flows suggest geothermal potential in the area. A ground magnetic survey was carried out in the study area with the aim of locating depths to bodies with sufficient magnetic susceptibility that may represent magmatic intrusions. The magnetic data was corrected, a total intensity magnetic contour map produced and profiles drawn across identified anomalous regions. Magnetic survey data in profile form over anomalous regions was interpreted rapidly for source positions and depths by Euler deconvolution technique. Geologic constraint was imposed by use of a structural index 1.0 that best describes prismatic bodies such as intrusive dykes. The magnetic bodies were imaged at depths ranging from 0 km to about 11 km along the profiles. The imaged depths along the profiles display discontinuities in magnetic markers due to presence of numerous faults in the area. The detected magnetic bodies may be cooling dykes that heat the underground water responsible for the numerous hot springs surrounding Lake Magadi. Such a dyke is suspected to originate from a magma chamber conducting heat to the underground water. A model whereby the faults in the region provide escape of water as hot springs is proposed.

D.D. K, Z.I. O, P.K. N. "Application of GIS to Water Quality Management for the City of Nairobi Water Supply." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(1):5-23.oonge.docx
D.D. K, Z.I. O, P.K. N. "Application of GIS to Water Quality Management for the City of Nairobi Water Supply." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(1):5-23.oonge.docx
E.M N, P.M.F M, J.M G, T.M W. "Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan.". 2000. Abstract

Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 67:251-255 A study was done to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts in goats using ultrasonography. A total of 1 390 goats were examined, 43,6 % (606/1390) of them from north-western Turkana, Kenya, and 56,4 % (784/1390) from Toposaland, southern Sudan. Hydatid cysts were visualized in 1,82 % (11/ 606) of the goats from north-western Turkana and 4,34 % (34/784) of those from Toposaland. Unlike abattoir surveys, the prevalence data obtained in this study were unbiased because entire flocks were examined. The lower prevalence rate of the disease in goats from Turkana was attributed to the hydatid disease control programme in that area, which is absent in Toposaland. Keywords: Goats, hydatid cysts, Kenya, north-western Turkana, prevalence, southern Sudan, Toposaland

KIMINGICHI WABENDE, PARK JEONGKYUNG. "APPLIED THEATRE AS A MEDIUM OF COMMUNAL COMMUNICATION: 'ACCESS TO JUSTICE' PROJECT IN KWALE, KENYA.". In: THE PELGRAVE HANDBOOK OF GLOBAL ARTS EDUCATION. LONDON: SPRINGER NATURE; 2017.
Zachariah R, Reid T, Van den Bergh R, Dahmane A, Kosgei RJ, Hinderaker SG, Tayler-Smith K, Manzi M, Kizito W, Khogali M, Kumar AMV, Baruani B, Bishinga A, Kilale AM, Nqobili M, Patten G, Sobry A, Cheti E, Nakanwagi A, Enarson DA, Edginton ME, Upshur R, Harries AD. "Applying the ICMJE authorship criteria to operational research in low-income countries: the need to engage programme managers and policy makers." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2013;18(8):1025-8.applying_the_icmje_authorship_criteria_to_operational_research_in_low-income_countries_the_need_to_engage_programme_managers_and_policy_makers.pdf
L.C. B, P.G. Mbuthia, J.M.Macharia, Mwaniki G, L.W. Njagi. "Appraisal of the village chickens potential in egg production." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2005;29:10-13.abstract-appraisal_of_village_chickens-kvaj-2005.pdf
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Arara B.K. and M.J. Ntiba. Length-weight relationship, condition factors and the food of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskal, 1775) (Pisces: Lutjanidae) from Kenya marine inshore waters. J. E. Afr. Agri. Forest., (In Press).". In: In the Proceedings of Lake Victoria 2000: A New Beginning, International Conference, May 15-19, Jinja, Uganda. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Arara B.K. and M.J. Ntiba. The reproductive biology of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskal, 1775) Pisces: Lutjanidae) from Kenya inshore marine waters.". In: Hydrobiologia, 353: 153-160. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO, L K, A.K VH, C S, K K, K H, H T. "Are cell lines a suitable model for studying endometriosis.". 2010.
ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Shongwe MB, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "As-cast and heat-treated alloys of the Pt-Al-V system at the Pt-rich corner." The Journal of Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2012;7A:505-515.

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