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Phiri, I.K., Ngowi, H., Alfonso, S., Matenga, E., Boa, M., Mukaratirwa, S., Githigia, S.M., Saimo, M., Sikasunge, C., Maingi N, Lubega, G.W., Kassuku, A., Michael, L., Siziya, S., Krecek, R.C., Noormahomed, E., Vilhema, M., P. D, Willingham AL. "The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk." Acta Tropica. 2003;87:13-23.2003.the_emergence_of_taenia_solium_cysticercosis_in_eastern_and_southern_africa_as_a_serious_agricultural_problem_and_public_health_risk.pdf
Phiri IA, et al. "Profile of African Christianity at Home and in the West.". In: Anthology of African Christianity. Oxford: Regnum; 2017.
Phiri IK, Ngowi H, Githigia S. "The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk." International Action Planning Workshop. 2003;87(1):13-23. Abstract

Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in seven ESA countries. Most of the reported findings are based on surveys utilizing lingual palpation and post-mortem examination, however, some also used serological assays. In Tanzania, community-based studies on porcine cysticercosis indicate a prevalence of 17.4% in the northern highlands district of Mbulu and a prevalence range of 5.1 – 16.9 in the southern highlands.

In Kenya recent surveys in the southwestern part of the country where smallholder pig keeping is popular indicate that of 10 – 14% of pigs are positive for cysticercosis by lingual examination. Uganda has the most pigs in Eastern Africa, most of which are kept under stallholder conditions. Preliminary surveys in 1998 and 1999 at slaughterhouses in Kampala indicated a prevalence of porcine cysticercosis between 0.12 and 1.2%, however, a rural survey in northern Uganda in 1999 indicated 34 – 45%, of pigs slaughtered in selected villages were infected.

PHOEBE DRODHIAMBOACHIENG. F. A. Odhiambo. UN-HABITAT; 1988. Abstractabstract_1.doc

Inflammation may play an important role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD), and recent studies have identified the 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) as an important mediator of inflammatory responses. Here we demonstrate a significant increase in circulating serum Hsp70 level in SCD during vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) as compared with baseline steady-state levels (P <0.05) and a significant increase in Hsp70 levels in SCD at baseline compared with normal controls (P <0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that circulating serum Hsp70 might be a marker for VOC in SCD.

Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize-Soybean on Grain Quality Traits in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(2):341-351.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Wanderi SW, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize and Promiscuous Soybean on Growth and Yield. ." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018;12(2):1-21.
Pimental D, Tort M, D’Anna L, Krawic A, Berger J, Rossman J, Mugo F, Doon N, Shriberg M, Howard E, Lee S, Talbot J. "Ecology of increasing disease, population growth, and environmental degradation.". 1998. AbstractWebsite

The World Health Organization (WHO) and other organizations report that the prevalence of human diseases during the past decade is rapidly increasing. Population growth and the pollution of water, air, and soil are contributing to the increasing number of human diseases worldwide. Currently an estimated 40% of world deaths are due to environmental degradation. The ecology of increasing diseases has complex factors of environmental degradation, population growth, and the current malnutrition of about 3.7 billion people in the world

Pinney JW, Papp B, Hyland C, Wambua L, Westhead DR, McConkey GA. "Metabolic reconstruction and analysis of parasite genomes." Trends in Parasitology. 2007;23(11):548-554.pinney_trendsparasitology2007.pdf
Piot PM, Kapita B, Ngugi EN, Mann JM, Colebunders R, Wabitsch R. "AIDS in Africa A Manual for Physicians, World Health Organization, Geneva.". 1994.Website
Pittman-Waller VA, Myers JG, Stewart RM, Dent DL, Page CP, Gray GA, Pruitt, Jr BA, Root HD. "Appendicitis: why so complicated? {Analysis} of 5755 consecutive appendectomies." The American surgeon. 2000;66:548-554. Abstract

A perceived high rate of complicated (gangrenous or perforated) appendicitis, despite advances in laboratory and radiographic diagnostic modalities, prompted a review of our experience with appendicitis followed by a prospective analysis that examined the time course from presentation to definitive treatment in 218 consecutive patients. In 5755 appendectomies, our overall rate of complicated appendicitis was 32 per cent; higher in males, in the young, and in the elderly; and relatively stable over each year reviewed. Prospectively, we determined that of the various time intervals, the time from the onset of symptoms to first seeking medical attention is the only significant predictor of complicated appendicitis (39.8 vs 16.5 hours for acute appendicitis). On the other hand, the time from surgical evaluation to operative intervention was significantly shorter for complicated appendicitis (3.8 vs 4.7 hours for acute appendicitis). The high rate of complicated appendicitis with its subsequent sequelae of increased morbidity and resource expenditure is primarily the direct result of patient delay in seeking medical attention and not the result of diagnostic dilemma or surgical delay. Public education, specifically targeting those groups at risk, may provide a substantial and significant solution to the complicated appendix.

PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Njenga FG, Nicholls PJ, Nyamai C, Kigamwa P, Davidson JR. Post-traumatic stress after terrorist attack: psychological reactions following the US embassy bombing in Nairobi: Naturalistic study. Br J Psychiatry. 2004 Oct;185:328-33.". In: Naturalistic study. Br J Psychiatry. 2004. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Kigamwa P. Perinatal death Psychiatric Aspects. Medicus Vol. 10 No. 2 Page 18-21, February 1991.". In: Medicus Vol. 10 No. 2 Page 18-21, February 1991. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Kiima DM, Njenga FG, Okonji MM, Kigamwa PA. Kenya mental health country profile. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2004 Feb-May;16(1-2):48-53.". In: Int Rev Psychiatry. 2004 Feb-May;16(1-2):48-53. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Psychiatric morbidity and referral rate among medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.Kigamwa A.East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):383-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):383-8. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Njenga FG, Nyamai C, Kigamwa P.Terrorist bombing at the USA Embassy in Nairobi: the media response. East Afr Med J. 2003 Mar;80(3):159-64.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Mar. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Kigamwa P.Psychological manifestations and heart disease East Afr Med J. 2004 Dec;81(12):609-10. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Dec. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Kigamwa P. tobacco Use Disorder, Medicus Vol. 9 No. 10, page 8,9 October 1990.". In: Medicus Vol. 9 No. 10, page 8,9 October 1990. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Kigamwa P. The Concept of disease and its applicability to mental illness. Medicus Vol.11 No. 5, page 14-16, May 1992.". In: Medicus Vol.11 No. 5, page 14-16, May 1992. EAMJ; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
Pius Mutie KK, Muasya I. "State of Kenya Population 2010; From Conflict and Crisis to Recovery." prepared on behalf of the National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development NCAPD).; 2011. Abstract
n/a
PJ C, C S-K, W W, LW M. "Pap Smear Cytological findings in women with abnormal visual inspection test results referred to Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Journal of Pathology. 2015;2(1):8-12. Abstractpap_smear_cytological_findings_in_women_with_abnormal_visual_inspection_test_results_referred_to_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Background: The challenge of cost in establishing cytology and/or Human Papillomavirus (HPV) mass screening for cervical cancer in resource limited countries prompted adoption of visual inspection techniques as alternative tests despite them having low specificity.
Objectives: To determine the pattern of cervical intraepitheliallesions and infections in women with abnormal visual inspection test results referred to Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at KNH where women who were referred to this facility after having abnormal visual inspection test results were recruited.
Results: Of the 232 participants recruited, 57(24.6%) had a report of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASUCS) or worse as follows; 5(2.2%) were ASCUS, 13(5.6%) were low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 4(1.7%) were atypical glandular cells (AGC), 1(0.4%) was atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high grade (ASC-H), 20(8.6%) were high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 18(7.8%) were reported as having carcinoma on cytology. Of these abnormal results 3(1.3%) were from 33 women (14.2%) more than 50 years of age who were also recruited in this study. Infections were detected in 1 (4.7%) of the study participants.
Conclusions and recommendations: Pap smear was useful as follow-up test as it reduced number of referrals for definitive diagnosis to 16.8% while sparing the rest (83.2%) from unnecessary treatment. Pap smear is therefore recommended as follow-up test in women with abnormal visual inspection test results. Increase awareness to service providers and the general public about the Government Policy on the use of visual inspection tests in women more than 50 years of age since 14.2% were inappropriately screened by the visual inspection test.

PK K, F T, G O'amo, JM N, EA O, A K. "Diversity and Abundance of Grasshopper and Locust Species in Nakuru County, Kenya." Asian J Conserv Biol. 2019;8(2):102-109.
PK Mbugua, CF Otieno JKKAAASOML. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: clinical presentation and precipitating factors at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi ." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82(12). Abstract

Objective: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).

Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH.

Subjects: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Results: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c >8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation.

Conclusion: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.

PL P, G M, M W, J O’ech, P. M. "The Cerebro-placental Ratio as a Prognostic Factor of Foetal Outcome in Patients with Third Trimester Hypertension." East Cent. Afr. J. Surg. . 2014;19(1):41-51.
Plasman, M., Tiberi, C., Ebinger, C., Albaric, J., Peyrat, S., Déverchère, J., Le Gall, B., Tarits, P., Roecker, S., Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Mtelela, K. MKHPGMGS, Msabi, M. KHPGGSJ. "Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa." Geophyscical Journal International. Submitted.
Plummer F, Chubb H, Simonsen JN, Bosire M, Slaney L, Nagelkerke NJ, Maclean I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Waiyaki P, Brunham RC. "Antibodies to opacity proteins (Opa) correlate with a reduced risk of gonococcal salpingitis."; 1994. Abstract

Acute salpingitis complicating cervical gonococcal infection is a significant cause of infertility. Relatively little data are available concerning the pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease. A cohort of 243 prostitutes residing in Nairobi were followed between March 1985 and April 1988. Gonococcal cultures were performed at each visit, and acute salpingitis was diagnosed clinically. Serum at enrollment was tested by immunoblot for antibody to gonococcal outer membrane proteins. 8.6% (146/1689) of gonococcal infections were complicated by salpingitis. Increased risk of salpingitis was associated with younger age, shorter duration of prostitution, HIV infection, number of gonococcal infections, and episodes of nongonococcal salpingitis. Rmp antibody increased the risk of salpingitis. Antibody to Opa decreased the risk of salpingitis. By logistic regression analysis, antibody to Opa was independently associated with decreased risk of gonococcal salpingitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.17-0.76); HIV infection (adjusted OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.96-12.8) and episodes of nongonococcal salpingitis (adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8-6.4) were independently associated with an increased risk of salpingitis. Antibody to Opa appears to protect against ascending gonococcal infection, perhaps by interfering with Opa mediated adherence and endocytosis. The demonstration of natural immunity that protects against upper genital tract infection in women suggests that a vaccine to prevent gonococcal salpingitis is possible.

Plummer FA;, Ackers M;, Gelmon L;, Kimani J;, Thabane L;, Ball B;T, Ngugi E;, Estambale B;, Nguti R;, Barasa S;, Karanja S;, Habyarimana J;, Jack W;, Chung M;, Ritvo P;, Kariri A;, Mills EJ;, Lester RT. "The HAART cell phone adherence trial (WelTel Kenya1): a randomized controlled trial protocol.". 2009. Abstract

The objectives are to compare the effectiveness of cell phone-supported SMS messaging to standard care on adherence, quality of life, retention, and mortality in a population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nairobi, Kenya. A multi-site randomized controlled open-label trial. A central randomization centre provided opaque envelopes to allocate treatments. Patients initiating ART at three comprehensive care clinics in Kenya will be randomized to receive either a structured weekly SMS (’short message system’ or text message) slogan (the intervention) or current standard of care support mechanisms alone (the control). Our hypothesis is that using a structured mobile phone protocol to keep in touch with patients will improve adherence to ART and other patient outcomes. Participants are evaluated at baseline, and then at six and twelve months after initiating ART. The care providers keep a weekly study log of all phone based communications with study participants. Primary outcomes are self-reported adherence to ART and suppression of HIV viral load at twelve months scheduled follow-up. Secondary outcomes are improvements in health, quality of life, social and economic factors, and retention on ART. Primary analysis is by ‘intention-to-treat’. Sensitivity analysis will be used to assess per-protocol effects. Analysis of covariates will be undertaken to determine factors that contribute or deter from expected and determined outcomes. This study protocol tests whether a novel structured mobile phone intervention can positively contribute to ART management in a resource-limited setting.

Plummer FA, Tyndall MW, Ndinya-Achola JO. "Sexual transmission of HIV and the role of sexually transmitted diseases.". 1994.
Plummer FA, Holton D, Anzala A, Wambugu P, Ngugi EN, Ndinya Achola JO. "Rapid Development Of Symptomatic Hiv-1 Related Disease In East-african Prostitutes.". 2002.
Plummer, FA; Nagelkerke NJ; MN-AJO; BJJ; NES; N. "The importance of core groups in the epidemiology and control of HIV-1 infection.". 1991. Abstract

In Africa, HIV transmission occurs mainly through heterosexual intercourse. High-frequency transmitter core groups are key to the epidemiology of HIV-1 and STD on the continent. The rapid growth of the HIV-1 epidemic in Africa appears to have resulted, in part, from social and economic factors which result in individuals' frequent engagement in sexual intercourse with members of HIV-infected core groups. Understanding the importance of core groups in HIV-1 transmission is therefore key to developing more effective programs for the control of HIV-1. Sections explore the core groups concept and the sexual transmission of infection, social and economic forces creating core groups in Africa, the interaction of STD and HIV-1 in core groups, the effect of STD on HIV-1 disease progression in core groups in accelerating the HIV-1 epidemic, the role of core group interventions in control programs, balancing disease control with the potential for victimization, and research needs

Plummer FA, Holton D, Anzala A, Wambugu P, Ngugi EN, Ndinya Achola JO. "Rapid Development Of Symptomatic Hiv-1 Related Disease In East-african Prostitutes.". 2002.
Plummer FA, Ngugi EN, Embree J, Fowke K, Ndinya-Achola J, MacDonald K, Ball T, Nagelkerke N, Kimani J, Ma L. "Rapid selection for HLA alleles that protect against HIV-1 infection correlates significantly to the declining incidence of HIV-1 in an East African sex worker population."; 2007.
Plummer FA, Chubb H, Simonsen JN, Bosire M, Slaney L, Maclean I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Waiyaki P, Brunham RC. "Antibody to Rmp (outer membrane protein 3) increases susceptibility to gonococcal infection.". 1993. AbstractWebsite

The severe adverse effects of gonococcal infection on human fertility suggests that Neisseria gonorrhoeae would exert powerful selection for the development of a protective immune response in humans. N. gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and must persist in humans to survive. Since it is an ecologically successful organism, it must have evolved strategies to evade any human immune response it elicits. In a longitudinal study among 243 women working as prostitutes and experiencing frequent gonococcal infection, younger women, women with HIV infection, and women with antibody to the gonococcal outer membrane protein 3 (Rmp) were at increased risk of infection (adjusted odds ratio 3.4, CI95% 1.1-10.4, P < 0.05). Rmp is highly conserved in N. gonorrhoeae and the blocking of mucosal defences may be one of its functions. As similar proteins occur in many gram negative mucosal pathogens, the enhancing effect of such proteins may be a general strategy whereby bacteria evade human immune responses.

PIP:

Between March 1985 and July 1986 researchers enrolled 243 female prostitutes in Pumwani community of Nairobi, Kenya, in a longitudinal study to examine the relationship between the antibody to the gonococcal outer membrane protein 3 (Rmp Ab) and gonococcal mucosal infection. Few women used condoms. 69% were HIV-1 seropositive. Just 9.5% (23) of the women had not had any gonococcal infections, despite probable exposure to them, indicating the possibility of some acquired protective immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoea. 90.5% had had at least 1 gonococcal infection. Women with Rmp Ab faced a greater risk of gonococcal infection than those who were Rmp Ab negative (OR = 3.4;l p .05), denoting that Rmp Ab increases susceptibility to gonococcal mucosal infections. Women older than 29 years were at lower risk of gonococcal infection than those younger than 29 years (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3; p .03). Women who used oral contraceptives (OCs) were also likely to be infected with N. gonorrhoea (OR = 3; p = .062). Further, 31% of OC users had cervical ectopy compared to just 14% of nonusers (OR = 2.8; p .005), suggesting that the effect of OCs on the cervix make it more susceptible to gonococcal infection. Rmp Ab also exists in many other gram-negative mucosal pathogens, often playing the same role as it does in N. gonorrhoea infection. Thus, Rmp Ab may be a common scheme bacteria used to elude human immune responses. These findings provide more understanding as to why N. gonorrhoea is an ecologically successful human pathogen

Plummer FA, Holton D, Anzala A, Wambugu P, Ngugi EN, Ndinya Achola JO. "Rapid Development Of Symptomatic Hiv-1 Related Disease In East-african Prostitutes.". 2002.
Plummer FA, Ngugi EN, Embree J, Fowke K, Ndinya-Achola J, MacDonald K, Ball T, Nagelkerke N, Kimani J, Ma L. "Rapid selection for HLA alleles that protect against HIV-1 infection correlates significantly to the declining incidence of HIV-1 in an East African sex worker population.". 2007.
Plummer FA, Moses S, Willbond B, Rao PJVR, Ngugi EN, Nagelkerke NJD, Jha P. "Reducing HIV Transmission in Developing Countries.". 2011. Abstract

Although the global response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the developing world has, in general, been inadequate, there are key interventions which have been proven to be effective in reducing the incidence of HIV and relevant risky behaviors. We review and analyze these interventions according to three criteria: importance to HIV transmission, amenability to change, and cost-effectiveness.

Plummer FA, Luo M, Ball TB, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Tuff J, Lacap P, Price H. "A Trim5alpha Exon 2 Polymorphism is Associated with Protection from HIV-1 Infection in Pumwani Sexworker Cohort.". 2010. Abstract

The innate immune component TRIM5α has the ability to restrict retrovirus infection in a species-specific manner. TRIM5α of some primate species restricts infection by HIV-1, while huTRIM5α lacks this specificity. Previous studies have suggested that certain polymorphisms in huTRIM5 may enhance or impair the proteins affinity for HIV-1. This study investigates the role of TRIM5 polymorphisms in resistance/susceptibility to HIV-1 within the Pumwani sex worker cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. A group of women within this cohort remain HIV-1 seronegative and PCR negative despite repeated exposure to HIV-1 through active sex work. Design A 1 kb fragment of Trim5alpha gene, including exon 2, from 1032 women enrolled in the Pumwani sex worker cohort was amplified and sequenced. SNPs and haplotypes were compared between HIV-1 positive and resistant women. Methods The TRIM5 exon 2 genomic fragment was amplified, sequenced and genotyped. Pypop32-0.6.0 was used to determine SNP and haplotype frequencies and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS-13.0 for windows. Results A TRIM5 SNP (rs10838525) resulting in the amino acid change from Arginine to Glutamine at codon 136, was enriched in HIV-1 resistant individuals (p=1.104E-05; OR:2.991; CI95%:1.806–4.953) and women with 136Q were less likely to seroconvert (p=0.002; Log Rank: 12.799). Wild type TRIM5α exon 2 was associated with susceptibility to HIV-1 (p=0.006; OR:0.279; 95%CI:0.105–0.740) and rapid seroconversion (p=0.001; Log Rank: 14.475). Conclusions Our findings suggest that a shift from arginine to glutamine at codon 136 in the coiled-coil region of TRIM5α confers protection against HIV-1 in the Pumwani sex worker cohort. Keywords: TRIM5α, Single nucleotide polymorphism, HIV-1, Sex Workers, Taxonomy-based Sequence Analysis, Disease Association, Disease Resistance

Plummer FA, Holton D, Anzala A, Wambugu P, Ngugi EN, Ndinya Achola JO. "Rapid Development Of Symptomatic Hiv-1 Related Disease In East-african Prostitutes.". 2002.
Plummer FA, Ngugi EN. "Strategies for control of AIDS in Africa.". 1988. AbstractWebsite

Stratégies générales pour le contrôle de l'infection. Prévention primaire de la transmission sexuelle du HIV, stratégies pour la réduction de l'exposition des sujets sensibles. Contrôle des transmissions périnatales et parentérales

PM N, L. RL, LW. I, C. KJ, O. AC. "Nocturnal activities of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Baringo County, Kenya." African Journal of Health Sciences . 2012;23:298-305.
PMN K, PO L, Wangoh J. "Effect of Lactoperoxidase-Thiocyanate-Hydrogen Peroxide System and Storage Temperature on Keeping Quality of Raw Camel Milk." . African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Agriculture Online. 2010;10(10).
PN N, LW I, SK M. "Effect of puparia incubation temperature: increased infection rates of Trypanosoma congolense in Glossina morsitans centralis, G. fuscipes fuscipes and G. brevipalpis." Medical and veterinary entomology. 1992;6(2):127-130. AbstractPubMed link

Puparia of Glossina morsitans centralis (Machado), G.fuscipes fuscipes (Newstead) and G.brevipalpis (Newstead) were incubated at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 28 +/- 1:25 +/- 1 degrees C, day:night or 29 +/- 1 degrees C throughout the puparial period, and maintained at 70-80% relative humidity. Puparial mortality was higher at 29 than at 25 degrees C (optimum temperature) in all three species, particularly in G.f.fuscipes and G.brevipalpis. Adults of G.m.centralis from puparia incubated at 29 degrees C, and those of this subspecies, G.f.fuscipes and G.brevipalpis from puparia incubated at 28:25 degrees C, day:night or 25 degrees C throughout, were infected as tenerals (27 h old) by feeding them at the same time on goats infected with Trypanosoma congolense (Broden) IL 1180 after the parasites were detected in the wet blood film. Infection rates on day 25 post-infected feed were higher in G.m.centralis from puparia incubated at 29 degrees C and in adults of the three different tsetse species from puparia incubated at 28:25 degrees C, day:night, than in those from puparia incubated at 25 degrees C. However, in G.f.fuscipes the labral and hypopharyngeal infection rates were not significantly different from those of the tsetse produced by puparia kept at 25 degrees C.

PN Katiku, Gachuiri CK, Mbugua PN. "The Bio-economics Of S Tall Managed Dairy Cattle Feeding Regimes In Mbeere District Of Estern Kenya." University of Nairobi Animal Production . 2013.
PO M, J A, RB N. "Is there a Link between Supply Chain Strategies and Firm Performance? Evidence from Large-Scale Manufacturing Firms in Kenya." Journal of Operations and Supply Chain Management. 2015;8(2):1-22.
PO O, Gathumbi P K, DN K, C BL, JD M, and others. "Survey of Health Status of Domestic Rabbits in Selected Organized Farms in Kenya." International Journal of veterinary Science. 2015;4(1):15-22.
Pogodina VV. "Elizaveta Nilolaevna Levkovich-75th birthday." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):509.
Pokhariya GP, Kikechi CB, Simwa RO. "On Local Linear Regression Estimation of Finite Population Totals in Model Based Surveys." American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics. 2018;7((3)):92-101 . Abstracthttp://thescipub.com/journals/ajas

In this paper, nonparametric regression is employed which provides an estimation of unknown finite population
totals. A robust estimator of finite population totals in model based inference is constructed using the procedure of local linear
regression. In particular, robustness properties of the proposed estimator are derived and a brief comparison between the
performances of the derived estimator and some existing estimators is made in terms of bias, MSE and relative efficiency.
Results indicate that the local linear regression estimator is more efficient and performing better than the Horvitz-Thompson
and Dorfman estimators, regardless of whether the model is specified or mispecified. The local linear regression estimator also
outperforms the linear regression estimator in all the populations except when the population is linear. The confidence
intervals generated by the model based local linear regression method are much tighter than those generated by the design
based Horvitz-Thompson method. Generally the model based approach outperforms the design based approach regardless of
whether the underlying model is correctly specified or not but that effect decreases as the model variance increases.
Keywords: Nonparametric Regression, Finite Population Totals, Local Linear Regression, Robustness Properties,
Confidence Intervals, Model Based Surveys

Pokhariyal GP, Moturi CA, Hasssanali J. "Simulation Model for Dental Arch Shapes in Humans.". In: East African Medical Journal, November 2004, pp 599 . African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 2004. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

POKHARIYAL P, MUTURI NE, J. M. KHALAGAI G. " SPLITTING AND ADMISSIBLE TOPOLOGIES DEFINED ON THE SET OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS BETWEEN BITOPOLOGICAL SPACES." International Journal of Mathematical Archive. 2018;9(( 1),2018, ):65-68. Abstract SPLITTING AND ADMISSIBLE TOPOLOGIES DEFINED ON THE SET OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS BETWEEN BITOPOLOGICAL SPACES

In this paper, p-splitting, p-admissible, s-splitting and s-admissible topologies on the sets p−C(Y, Z) and s−C(Y, Z) are defined and their properties explored. exponential functions are introduced in function spaces and s-splitting and s-admissible topologies defined on s-C(Y, Z) compared using these mappings

Pokhariyal GP. "Modeling influence of business excellence parameters on sustainable high performance of organizations." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):134-139. AbstractWebsite

Organizations aspire to have sustainable high performance in order to have competitive advantage in the
market. Business excellence models provide frameworks to be applied by organizations in order to
develop thoughts, so that adequate actions be taken in a systematic and structured way to accomplish
sustainable high financial as well as non-financial performance. Various business excellence models
proposed by organizations as well as researchers are discussed. In this paper a mathematical model is
proposed in which independent variables are: top management team characteristic, mission vision and
core values, technology and innovation, and customer focus. Motivation and culture are moderating
variables. Government policies and global economy are intervening variables. The financial and nonfinancial performance, are dependent variables. The proposed model would yield corresponding
regression equations, representing stated hypotheses to be tested for the collected data from the field for
the chosen business organization. Further correlation coefficient can also be computed to check the
relationship between variables. From the estimated regression equations, through various tests, the
elasticity of the coefficients of model parameters and their statistical significance can be investigated.
Adequate recommendations can then be made to achieve the sustainable high performance for the
selected organization.

Pokhariyal GP;, Mahasi J. "Two Stage Interest Rate Pass Through In Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Interest rate volatility is a major concern for emerging economies due to its crippling effects on the economy. There is wide ranging disconsensus on the effectiveness and speed of various tools. This paper proposes timely monetary policy mediation to curb interest rate volatility through the determination of the total time taken for the effects of monetary policy instruments to transmit to via the interest rate channel to market rates. A change in the Central Bank Rate (CBR) will trigger a corresponding change in intermediate variables (Treasury bill (Tbill), Repurchase agreement (REPO) and Interbank rates) in the first stage of transmission. The second stage measures the transmission from the intermediate variables to market rates. The study uses an Auto Distributed Lag (ADL) specification parameterized as an Error Correction Model (ECM) with primary data coming from Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). The results indicate it takes 7 days for monetary policy adduced shocks to transmit from CBR to REPO, 3 months from CBR to T-bill and 12 months from CBR to interbank for the l" stage. At the second stage it takes 3 months for the adduced shocks to transmit from interbank to market rates and 10 months from T-bill to market rates. The paper proposes that CBK considers alternative monetary policy transmission channels as well as adopting a hybrid approach to monetary policy control. The study is the first to measure the complete two stage interest rate pass-through in Kenya and will contribute the scarce but steadily growing pool of literature on the subject in Kenya and Sub-Saharan Africa. The study will aid economists in determining the appropriateness ofthe interest rate channel based on its speed

Pokhariyal GP. Pokhariyal.; 2013.
Polkovnikova-Wamoto A, M M, Vander Stoep A, Kumar M. "Haven of safety’ and ‘secure base’: a qualitative inquiry into factors affecting child attachment security in Nairobi, Kenya, ." Journal of Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. An International Interdisciplinary Journal for Research, Policy and Care.. 2016;11(4).
Polline M, Mutua JM, MBUYA TO, Kyekyere E. "Recipe Development and Mechanical Characterization of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene 3D Printing Filament." Open Journal of Composite Materials. 2021;11(3):47-61. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2021.113005

Recycled polypropylene filaments for fused filament fabrication were investigated with and without 14 wt% short fibre carbon reinforcements. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the filaments and 3D printed specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and standard tensile testing. It was observed that recycled polypropylene filaments with 14 wt% short carbon fibre reinforcement contained pores that were dispersed throughout the microstructure of the filament. A two-stage filament extrusion process was observed to improve the spatial distribution of carbon fibre reinforcement but did not reduce the pores. Recycled polypropylene filaments without reinforcement extruded at high screw speeds above 20 rpm contained a centreline cavity but no spatially distributed pores. However, this cavity is eliminated when extrusion is carried out at screw speeds below 20 rpm. For 3D printed specimens, interlayer cavities were observed larger for specimens printed from 14 wt% carbon fibre reinforced recycled polypropylene than those printed from unreinforced filaments. The values of tensile strength for the filaments were 21.82 MPa and 24.22 MPa, which reduced to 19.72 MPa and 22.70 MPa, respectively, for 3D printed samples using the filaments. Likewise, the young’s modulus of the filaments was 1208.6 MPa and 1412.7 MPa, which reduced to 961.5 MPa and 1352.3 MPa, respectively, for the 3D printed samples. The percentage elongation at failure for the recycled polypropylene filament was 9.83% but reduced to 3.84% for the samples printed with 14 wt% carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene filaments whose elongation to failure was 6.58%. The SEM observations on the fractured tensile test samples showed interlayer gaps between the printed and the adjacent raster layers. These gaps accounted for the reduction in the mechanical properties of the printed parts.

Poole DC, Copp SW, Ferguson SK, Musch TI. "Skeletal muscle capillary function: contemporary observations and novel hypotheses." Experimental physiology. 2013;98:1645-1658. Abstract

The capillary bed constitutes a vast surface that facilitates exchange of O2, substrates and metabolites between blood and organs. In contracting skeletal muscle, capillary blood flow and O2 diffusing capacity, as well as O2 flux, may increase two orders of magnitude above resting values. Chronic diseases, such as heart failure and diabetes, and also sepsis impair these processes, leading to compromised energetic, metabolic and, ultimately, contractile function. Among researchers seeking to understand blood-myocyte exchange in health and the basis for dysfunction in disease, there is a fundamental disconnect between microcirculation specialists and many physiologists and physiologist clinicians. While the former observe capillaries and capillary function directly (muscle intravital microscopy), the latter generally use indirect methodologies (e.g. post-mortem tissue analysis, 1-methyl xanthine, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, permeability-surface area product) and interpret their findings based upon August Krogh's observations made nearly a century ago. 'Kroghian' theory holds that only a small fraction of capillaries support red blood cell (RBC) flux in resting muscle, leaving the vast majority to be 'recruited' (i.e. to initiate RBC flux) during contractions, which would constitute the basis for increasing surface area for capillary exchange and reducing capillary-mitochondrial diffusion distances. Experimental techniques each have their strengths and weaknesses, and often the correct or complete answer to a problem emerges from integration across multiple technologies. Today, Krogh's entrenched 'capillary recruitment' hypothesis is challenged by direct observations of capillaries in contracting muscle, which is something that he and his colleagues could not do. Moreover, in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, application of a range of contemporary physiological technologies, including intravital microscopy of contracting muscle, magnetic resonance, near-infrared spectroscopy and phosphorescence quenching, combined with elegant in situ and in vivo models, suggest that the role of the capillary bed, at least in contracting muscle, is subserved without the necessity for de novo capillary recruitment of previously non-flowing capillaries. When viewed within the context of the capillary recruitment hypothesis, this evidence casts serious doubt on the interpretation of those data that are based upon Kroghian theory and indirect methodologies. Thus, today a wealth of evidence calls for a radical revision of blood-muscle exchange theory to one in which most capillaries support RBC flux at rest and, during contractions, capillary surface area is 'recruited' along the length of previously flowing capillaries. This occurs, in part, by elevating capillary haematocrit and extending the length of the capillary available for blood-myocyte exchange (i.e. longitudinal recruitment). Our understanding of blood-myocyte O2 and substrate/metabolite exchange in health and the mechanistic basis for dysfunction in disease demands no less.

Poonamjeet L, Ongeti K, Pulei A, Ogengo J, Mandela P. "Gender Related Patterns In The Shape And Dimensions Of The Foramen Magnum In An Adult Kenyan Population." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(2):138-141. Abstract

Foramen magnum is a useful landmark in the base of the skull. Its shape and dimensions show ethnic and gender differences. This data is useful in forensic medicine and anthropology but are unknown among Kenyans. Two hundred and two dry adult skulls from the Osteology Department at the National Museums of Kenya, were studied. The shape of the foramen magnum was oval, circular and polygonal in 13%, 24% and 63% of the cases respectively. The foramen magnum does not show sexual dimorphism in shape among Africans. The shape of foramen magnum cannot be used in solitude to ascertain the gender of skulls.

Pope FD, Michael Gatari, Ng’ang’a D, Poynter A, Blake R. "Particulate matter air pollution monitoring in Nairobi, Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors. ." Atmos Chem and Phys. 2018.
Pope FD, Gatari M, Ng'ang'a D,... "Airborne particulate matter monitoring in Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors [discussion paper]." Atmospheric …. 2018. AbstractWebsite

East African countries face an increasing threat from poor air quality, stemming from rapid urbanisation, population growth and a steep rise in fuel use and motorization rates. With few air quality monitoring systems available, this study provides the much needed high temporal …

Popescu MR, Zugun FE, Cojocaru E, Tocan L, Folescu R, Zamfir CL. "Morphometric study of aortic wall parameters evolution in newborn and child." Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie. 2013;54:399-404. Abstract

The largest artery in the human body, intimately connected to the heart, aorta is usually regarded as the major source of oxygenated blood for the circulatory system. The three concentric layers, which surround the aortic lumen-the tunics intima, media and adventitia, transform the aorta in a large elastic duct, which is irregular calibrated according to its segments. The special aortic distensibility is facilitated by its elastic circumferential lamellar complex. Any disturbance of its structural components is able to interfere with its normal and vital activity. Our study intends to reveal that the development of elastic lamellae should be regarded not only as an indispensable step for the aortic wall configuration, but also like a process in a firm connection with the rest of aortic wall components. The transition from intrauterine life to a new stage of life, childhood, has to determine an adequate adaptation of almost all the components of aortic wall, in order to sustain a consistent pulsatile blood flow. Stereological quantitative analysis of thoracic aortic fragments prelevated from newborns and children was performed in order to estimate the dynamic of vascular wall increase. We first estimated the general configuration of the thoracic aortic wall, quantifying the principal constituents; the connective tissue profile, investigated through its main elements, collagen and elastic fibers, supports the idea that each type of fiber has a distinct evolution in different groups of ages and has to be correlated with their involvement in maintaining of the aortic wall mechanical properties. Elastic fibers percentage volume was increased in both examined groups, with a small difference reported in children aorta, while collagen fibers exhibit a slow increase in children aorta. Our morphometric quantitative assessment suggests that further studies have to draw of in a precisely manner the outline of the secretory well defined function of vascular smooth muscle cells; the elucidation of the manner in which the secretory pathway for each type of fiber becomes fully adapted to every stage of aortic development will allow a new perspective in aortic pathology.

Porkhariyal GP, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "W2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian Manifold." Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. 2013;3(2):119-128.w2-_recurrent_lp_-sasakian_manifold.pdf
Powell CA, Mealey BL, Deas DE, McDonnell HT, Moritz AJ. "Post-surgical infections: prevalence associated with various periodontal surgical procedures." Journal of periodontology. 2005;76:329-333. AbstractWebsite
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Powner D, Snyder JV, Grenvik A. "Altered pulmonary capillary permeability complicating recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis." Chest. 1975;68:253-256. Abstract

Self-limited noncardiogenic interstitial pulmonary edema probably reflecting altered permeability of the pulmonary capillary membrane is reported in a patient being treated for severe diabetic ketoacidosis. The possible etiology, associated findings, and therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by facemask are discussed.

PP P, Leoncini L, EA R, L T. "Virus-encoded microRNA contributes to the molecular profile of EBV-positive Burkitt lymphomas." Oncotarget . 2016;7(1):224-240. AbstractWebsite

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive neoplasm characterized by consistent morphology and phenotype, typical clinical behavior and distinctive molecular profile. The latter is mostly driven by the MYC over-expression associated with the characteristic translocation (8;14) (q24; q32) or with variant lesions. Additional genetic events can contribute to Burkitt Lymphoma pathobiology and retain clinical significance. A pathogenetic role for Epstein-Barr virus infection in Burkitt lymphomagenesis has been suggested; however, the exact function of the virus is largely unknown.In this study, we investigated the molecular profiles (genes and microRNAs) of Epstein-Barr virus-positive and -negative BL, to identify specific patterns relying on the differential expression and role of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded microRNAs.First, we found significant differences in the expression of viral microRNAs and in selected target genes. Among others, we identified LIN28B, CGNL1, GCET2, MRAS, PLCD4, SEL1L, SXX1, and the tyrosine kinases encoding STK10/STK33, all provided with potential pathogenetic significance. GCET2, also validated by immunohistochemistry, appeared to be a useful marker for distinguishing EBV-positive and EBV-negative cases. Further, we provided solid evidences that the EBV-encoded microRNAs (e.g. BART6) significantly mold the transcriptional landscape of Burkitt Lymphoma clones.In conclusion, our data indicated significant differences in the transcriptional profiles of EBV-positive and EBV-negative BL and highlight the role of virus encoded miRNA.

Prabhu RH, Patravale VB, Joshi MD. "Polymeric nanoparticles for targeted treatment in oncology: current insights." Int J Nanomedicine. 2015;10:1001-18. Abstract

Chemotherapy, a major strategy for cancer treatment, lacks the specificity to localize the cancer therapeutics in the tumor site, thereby affecting normal healthy tissues and advocating toxic adverse effects. Nanotechnological intervention has greatly revolutionized the therapy of cancer by surmounting the current limitations in conventional chemotherapy, which include undesirable biodistribution, cancer cell drug resistance, and severe systemic side effects. Nanoparticles (NPs) achieve preferential accumulation in the tumor site by virtue of their passive and ligand-based targeting mechanisms. Polymer-based nanomedicine, an arena that entails the use of polymeric NPs, polymer micelles, dendrimers, polymersomes, polyplexes, polymer-lipid hybrid systems, and polymer-drug/protein conjugates for improvement in efficacy of cancer therapeutics, has been widely explored. The broad scope for chemically modifying the polymer into desired construct makes it a versatile delivery system. Several polymer-based therapeutic NPs have been approved for clinical use. This review provides an insight into the advances in polymer-based targeted nanocarriers with focus on therapeutic aspects in the field of oncology.

Prabhu RH, Patravale VB, Joshi MD. "Polymeric nanoparticles for targeted treatment in oncology: current insights." Int J Nanomedicine. 2015;10:1001-18. Abstract

Chemotherapy, a major strategy for cancer treatment, lacks the specificity to localize the cancer therapeutics in the tumor site, thereby affecting normal healthy tissues and advocating toxic adverse effects. Nanotechnological intervention has greatly revolutionized the therapy of cancer by surmounting the current limitations in conventional chemotherapy, which include undesirable biodistribution, cancer cell drug resistance, and severe systemic side effects. Nanoparticles (NPs) achieve preferential accumulation in the tumor site by virtue of their passive and ligand-based targeting mechanisms. Polymer-based nanomedicine, an arena that entails the use of polymeric NPs, polymer micelles, dendrimers, polymersomes, polyplexes, polymer-lipid hybrid systems, and polymer-drug/protein conjugates for improvement in efficacy of cancer therapeutics, has been widely explored. The broad scope for chemically modifying the polymer into desired construct makes it a versatile delivery system. Several polymer-based therapeutic NPs have been approved for clinical use. This review provides an insight into the advances in polymer-based targeted nanocarriers with focus on therapeutic aspects in the field of oncology.

Pradeep G, Ogot MM. "A compromise experimental design method for parametric polynomial response surface approximations." Quality control and applied statistics. 2008;53:69-74. Abstract

Información del artículo A compromise experimental design method for parametric polynomial response surface approximations.

Prakash V, Ambuko J, Belik W, Huang J, Timmermans A. "Food losses and waste in the context of sustainable food systems." A Report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 2014. Abstract
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Prakash, Teluve Nagarajarao; Mburu J;, Chandrashekar H;, Abebaw D. Analysis of Farmers' Willingness to Conserve Traditional Rice Varieties in the Western Ghats of South India.; 2013. Abstract

Conservation of crop genetic resources is a major preoccupation of the Indian government in particular and the international community at large. Drawing on a random sample of 228 farm households from two regions in the Western Ghats of Southern India, this study reports the main factors influencing farmers' willingness to conserve traditional rice varieties of different levels of survival ability (survivability). Estimated results of a logit model indicate that factors influencing decisions to conserve the varieties on-farm depend mainly on farmers' socio-economic characteristics, and vary between the two regions and among incentive or policy scenarios assumed. The factors do not however vary so much from the perspective of the survivability of the traditional rice varieties. Therefore, the study concludes that on-farm conservation in the two study areas requires a mix of different conservation strategies and policy incentives which may not be dependent on the levels of survivability of the traditional rice varieties.

Prasad SP. "The Use of the Public Trust Doctrine in Environmental Law.". In: The Use of the Public Trust Doctrine in Environmental Law. Hyderabad India: ICFAI Press; 2008.
Prassinos NN, Galatos AD, Raptopoulos D. "A comparison of propofol, thiopental or ketamine as induction agents in goats." Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia. 2005;32:289-296. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare propofol, thiopental and ketamine as induction agents before halothane anaesthesia in goats. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized cross-over study. Animals Seven healthy adult female goats with mean (+/-SD; range) body mass of 38.9 +/- 3.29 kg; 35-45 kg. METHODS: The seven animals were used on 21 occasions. Each received all three anaesthetics in a randomized cross-over design, with an interval of at least 2 weeks before re-use. Anaesthesia was induced with intravenous (IV) propofol (3 mg kg(-1)), thiopental (8 mg kg(-1), IV) or ketamine (10 mg kg(-1), IV). Following tracheal intubation, anaesthesia was maintained with halothane for 30 minutes. Indirect blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and arterial blood gases were monitored. The quality of induction and recovery, recovery times and incidence of side-effects were recorded. RESULTS: Induction of anaesthesia was smooth and uneventful, and tracheal intubation was easily performed in all but two goats receiving ketamine. Changes in cardiopulmonary variables and acid-base status were similar with all three induction agents and were within clinically acceptable limits. Mean recovery times (time to recovery of swallowing reflex and to standing) were significantly shorter, and side-effects, e.g. apnoea, regurgitation, hypersalivation and tympany, were less common in goats receiving propofol, compared with the other treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Propofol 3 mg kg(-1) IV is superior to thiopental and ketamine as an induction agent before halothane anaesthesia in goats. It provides uneventful recovery which is more rapid than thiopental or ketamine, so reduces anaesthetic risk.

Prentice HA, Price MA, Porter TR, Cormier E, Mugavero MJ, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Amornkul PN, Allen S, Hunter E, Kaslow RA, Gilmour J, Tang J. "Dynamics of viremia in primary HIV-1 infection in Africans: insights from analyses of host and viral correlates." Virology. 2014;449:254-62. Abstract

In HIV-1 infection, plasma viral load (VL) has dual implications for pathogenesis and public health. Based on well-known patterns of HIV-1 evolution and immune escape, we hypothesized that VL is an evolving quantitative trait that depends heavily on duration of infection (DOI), demographic features, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes and viral characteristics. Prospective data from 421 African seroconverters with at least four eligible visits did show relatively steady VL beyond 3 months of untreated infection, but host and viral factors independently associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal VL often varied by analytical approaches and sliding time windows. Specifically, the effects of age, HLA-B(⁎)53 and infecting HIV-1 subtypes (A1, C and others) on VL were either sporadic or highly sensitive to time windows. These observations were strengthened by the addition of 111 seroconverters with 2-3 eligible VL results, suggesting that DOI should be a critical parameter in epidemiological and clinical studies.

Prentice HA, Porter TR PMACHFPKKKLSEJAAPNEDA, Allen S, Hunter E KRAGTIAVIAHIVRNJJ;. "HLA-B*57 versus HLA-B*81 in HIV-1 Infection: Slow and Steady Wins the Race?" J Virol. . 2013;87(7):4043-51.
PRESTON CHITERE. "Termini and Routes in Nairobi.". In: South African Transport Conference (SATC). Pretoria. SA; 2012.
PRESTON CHITERE. "Declining food security among resource limited in the Mumias Sugar Scheme in Western Kenya and potential for improvement." Working with Rural Communities, 2nd Edn., Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. 2011.
Preston C, Cheater F, Baker R, Hearnshaw HM. "Left in limbo: patients' views on care across the primary/secondary interface.". 1999.Website
PRESTON CHITERE. "Choice of methods of farmer contact." Agricultural Administration. 1982;11(3).
PRESTON CHITERE. "Public Road Transport Services in the City of Nairobi.". In: South African Transport Conference (SATC). Pretoria.; 2012.
Preston C, Cheater F, Baker R, Hearnshaw HM. "Left in limbo: patients' views on care across the primary/secondary interface.". 1999.Website
PRESTON CHITERE. "Termini and Routes in Nairobi.". In: South African Transport Conference (SATC). Pretoria. SA; 2011.
PRESTON CHITERE. "The Community development movement in Africa during the Colonial Period (1945-63) with emphasis on Kenya." Colonialism and Transition to Modernity in Africa. Ibrahim Babangida University, Lapai: J. Mangut and T. Wuam Publishers. 2012.
Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Winnie Mitullah, Risper Orero, Ommeh. M. "Paratransit Operations in Nairobi: Development of Their Routes and Termini, 30th Southern African Transport Conference,." Pretoria, South Africa; 2011.
Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Ommeh. M. "Public Road Transport Services in the City of Nairobi, Kenya: A Case Study of the Potential for Their Conversion into a Hybrid Transport Mode.". In: Southern Africa Transport Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
Pretorius B, Ambuko J, Papargyropoulou E, Schönfeldt HC. "Guiding Nutritious Food Choices and Diets along Food Systems." Sustainability. 2021;13:9501. Abstract
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Price B, Elliott G, Ogot M. "Experimental optimization of transverse jet injector geometries for mixing into a supersonic flow.". In: 29th AIAA, Fluid Dynamics Conference.; 1998:. Abstract

Preliminary experiments were performed in a supersonic wind tunnel at a Mach number of
3.0 in which transverse injection into a crossflow was optimized. The method is used to find
the locations of circular cross section holes which provide optimum mixing. The holes were
located on injector disks which could be fabricated on a rapid prototyping stereolithography
system. The injected gas, seeded with ethanol vapor, is illuminated at various locations
downstream using an ND: YAG pulsed laser providing spanwise images of the injected …

Price MA;, Rida W;, Mwangome M;, Mutua G;, Middelkoop K;, Roux S;, Okuku HS;, Bekker LG;, Anzala O;, Ngugi EN;, Stevens, G; Chetty P;, Amornkul PN;, Sanders EJ. "Identifying at-risk populations in Kenya and South Africa: HIV incidence in cohorts of men who report sex with men, sex workers, and youth.". 2012. Abstract

To identify and describe populations at risk for HIV in 3 clinical research centers in Kenya and South Africa. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Volunteers reporting recent sexual activity, multiple partners, transactional sex, sex with an HIV-positive partner, or, if male, sex with men (MSM; in Kenya only) were enrolled. Sexually active minors were enrolled in South Africa only. Risk behavior, HIV testing, and clinical data were obtained at follow-up visits. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2008, 3023 volunteers were screened, 2113 enrolled, and 1834 contributed data on HIV incidence. MSM had the highest HIV incidence rate of 6.8 cases per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9 to 9.2] followed by women in Kilifi and Cape Town (2.7 cases per 100 person-years, 95% CI: 1.7 to 4.2). No seroconversions were observed in Nairobi women or men in Nairobi or Cape Town who were not MSM. In 327 MSM, predictors of HIV acquisition included report of genital ulcer (Hazard Ratio: 4.5, 95% CI: 1.7 to 11.6), not completing secondary school education (HR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6 to 7.2) and reporting receptive anal intercourse (HR: 8.2, 95% CI: 2.7 to 25.0). Paying for sex was inversely associated with HIV infection (HR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.8). 279 (13.0%) volunteers did not return after the first visit; subsequent attrition rates ranged from 10.4 to 21.8 volunteers per 100 person-years across clinical research centers. CONCLUSIONS: Finding, enrolling, and retaining risk populations for HIV prevention trials is challenging in Africa. African MSM are not frequently engaged for research, have high HIV incidence, need urgent risk reduction counseling, and may represent a suitable population for future HIV prevention trials.

Price MA, Rida W MMMROHSBLGANSCMGKS, Amornkul PN SEJ. "Identifying at-risk populations in Kenya and South Africa: HIV incidence in cohorts of men who report sex with men, sex workers, and youth." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.. 2012;59(2):185-93.
Prisca J. "The role of indigenous languages in understanding Kiswahili proverbs." The University of nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2016;5(2224-1655):161-173.
Prisca J. "A Comparative Account of Possession Expression in Tugen and Kiswahili." International Journal of Language and Linguistics. . 2019;7(2):55-62.
Prisca J. "Case marking in Tugen." Nilo-Saharan-Models & Descriptions. 2015;28:37-47.
Priscilla N, Karani A, Waithera M. "Reciprocal Relationship between Cancer Pain and Performance of Activities of Living." International Journal of Health Professions (IJHP) . 2014;2(1):53-57.
Prodehl C, Jacob AWB, Thybo H, Dindi E, Stangl R. "Crustal structure on the northeastern flank of the Kenya rift." Tectonophysics. 1993;236:271-290. Abstract

The KRISP flank line E converges with the Kenya rift at an angle of about 45° and is approximately parallel to the older Anza graben to the north. The depth to the basement is almost zero along the entire onshore part of the profile with higher velocities at the southeastern end indicative of extensive Precambrian gabbroic intrusions in the upper crust. The Moho shallows steadily from about 35 km at the southeastern end of the profile to about 24 km under-Lake Turkana. Even though the Moho rises fairly steadily, there is significant heterogeneity in the crust above it. This shows that the extension is unevenly distributed between the upper and the lower crust. The Moho is laminated and variably reflective. Compared to the KRISP cross-line D further south, the crust is unexpectedly thin and shows extension increasing in a northerly direction. This extension is probably not associated with the Anza and Kenya rifting but with the profile’s position on the slope of the Kenya dome. The indications are that there is a relatively abrupt change to a 20-km Moho depth near the Lake Turkana Central shotpoint. This change to a mid-rift crustal thickness occurs not at the postulated margin at the southeastern shore of Lake Turkana but at least 50 km further to the northwest. We suggest that the position of this margin may need to be redefined. The Pn velocity is quite high at 8.1 km/s. This may indicate either a cold upper mantle or anisotropy. An upper-mantle reflector has been identified between 15 and 20 km below the Moho. It dips gently away from the rift.

Prof, Wamutiso K. "Culture shock in South Korea.". In: Korean Studies Conference. Safari Club (Lilian Towers), Nairobi, KENYA; 2014.
Prof, Wamutiso K. "Viongozi.". In: An Institute of Kiswahili Research Journal.; 2006.
PROF CAMBERLIN PIERRE, DR GITAU WILSON, DR OETTLI PASCAL, PROF OGALLO LABAN, DR BOIS BENJAMIN. "Spatial interpolation of daily rainfall stochastic generation parameters over East Africa." Climate Research. 2014;59(1):39-60.Abstract weblink
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O., D.R. Newman and E.M. Ayiera, `Thermal Conductivity of Particulate Insulators: Effect of Particle Size Distribution, Moisture Content and Binders.". In: KJST Series A 13 (1-2), 116-129. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O.,ffective thermal conductivity of loose particulate systems'.". In: Journal of Materials Science 31, pp 6441-6448. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Anthocyanin Sensitized Nanoporous TiO2 PEC Solar Cells Prepared by Sol Gel Process.". In: Progr Colloid Polym Sci. 125, 34-37. Physica Status Solidi; 2004. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Waita S.M.,Aduda, B.O., Mwabora, J.M., Granqvist, C.G., Lindquist, S.E.,Niklasson, G.A., Hagfeldt, A., Boaschloo G. (2007)Electron Transportand Recombination in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from Obliquely Sputter Deposited and Thermally Annealed .". In: Journal of Electroanalytic Chemistry, 605, 151-156. Physica Status Solidi; 2007. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "An Acousto-Ultrasonic Study of Model Defects in Model Ceramics and Ceramic Composites',.". In: Ph.D Thesis, University of London,. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Nyongesa, F.W. and Aduda, B.O., (`An Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Clay Refractories'.". In: AJST Series B vol.7 (2) July, P 53-57. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1995. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. and R.D. Rawlings, `Spectral Analysis of Acousto-Ultrasonic Waves for Defect Sizing.". In: ' NDT & International Vol. 94 No.4, PP. 237-240, August issue. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Stability of anthocyanin sensitized TiO2 photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells prepared by sol gel process.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Science & Engineering Series 3(2) 2003, 56-61. Physica Status Solidi; 2003. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Anthocyanin Sensitized Nanoporous TiO2 PEC Solar Cells Prepared by Sol Gel Process.". In: Progr Colloid Polym Sci. 125, 34-37. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "A.A. Ogacho, B.O. Aduda and F.W. Nyongesa (Dec. ), Thermal Shock Behaviour of a Kaolinite Refractory Prepared Using a Natural Organic Binder,.". In: Journal of Materials Science, 41(24) 8276 . Physica Status Solidi; 2006. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. and R.D. Rawlings, `An Acousto-Ultrasonic Study of the Effect of Porosity of a Sintered Glass System' J.". In: Mater. Sci. 29, 2297 - 2303. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. and R.D. Rawlings, `Monitoring the Effects of Inclusions in Model Glass Systems Using Acousto-Ultrasonic Techniques,.". In: British Ceramic Transactions 95 (1), 10-14. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "(13) Aduda B.O. and F.W. Nyongesa, () .". In: Ceramic Transactions, 99(5) 206 . Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2000. Abstract
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PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "O. Aduda, Materials Science, Promotion of Science and Technology (POST).". In: .), Vol. XII No. 1, p19 . Physica Status Solidi; 2006. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. `A Case for Ultrasonic Evaluation of Materials in Kenya',.". In: Discovery and Innovation 6(1), 40. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994. Abstract
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PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Factors influencing differential larval habitat productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes in a western Kenyan village.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Albert O. Mala & Lucy W. Irungu; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background & objectives: The study was undertaken to characterize factors influencing differential productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in a rural village in western Kenya . Methods: Longitudinal larval sampling was done using an area sampler for 3 months. Emerged adults were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nutrient content was analyzed using persulphate oxidation method. Water pH was measured using an Orion pH/conductivity meter. Turbidity was measured using a Hach 2100A turbidity meter. Algal count density was estimated using a sedge-wick rafter cell.   Results: A total 3367 larvae were harvested. Out of 500 adults subjected to PCR analysis 358 (71.6%) were Anopheles gambiae s.s., 127 (25.4%) An. arabiensis while PCR amplification failed for 15 (3%) specimens.  Rainwater pools were the most productive habitat type. There was a positive association between algal density and larval density (p<0). Total nitrogen, water pH and turbidity were positively correlated with larval density (p<0.01) and pH was negatively associated with larval density.   Conclusion: Results indicate water nutrient and algal content in larval habitats of An. gambiae play crucial, dual roles in the resource ecology of these mosquitoes. Overall, the findings of this study support the notion that anti-larval source reduction measures aimed at manipulating physicochemical variables in larval habitats to eliminate larval production have a chance of succeeding in an integrated vector control program.   Key words Anopheles gambiae; larval productivity, nutrients; rainwater pools
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Muriu S.M., Shilulu J.I., Muturi E.J., Irungu l.W., Mwangangi J.M., Mukabana R.W., Jacob B.G., Githure J.I., and Novak R.J., (2008). Host choice and multiple blood feeding behaviour of malaria vectors and other anophelines in Mwea rice irrigation scheme, .". In: Malaria Journal 7:43. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Studies were conducted between April 2004 and February 2006 to determine the blood-feeding pattern of anopheles mosquitoes in Mwea Kenya. Samples were collected indoors by pyrethrum spay catch and outdoors by Centers for Disease Control light traps and processed for blood meal analysis by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. A total of 3.333 blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes representing four Anopheles species were collected and 2.796 of the samples were assayed, with Anopheles arabiensis comprising 76.2% (n=2.542) followed in decreasing order by Anopheles coustani 8.9% (n=297), Anopheles pharoensis 8.2 % (n=272) and anopheles funestus 6.7% (n=222).  All mosquito species had a high preference for bovine (range 56.3-71.4%) over human (range 1.1-23.9%) or goat (0.1-2.2%) blood meals.  Some individuals from all the four species were found to contain mixed blood meals.  The bovine blood index (BBI) for An. arabiensis was significantly higher for populations collected indoors (71.8%), than populations collected outdoors (41.3%), but the human blood index (HBI) did not differ significantly between the two populations.  In contrast, BBI for indoor collected An. funestus (51.4%) was significantly lower than for outdoor collected populations (78.8%) and the HBI was significantly higher indoors (28.7%) than outdoors (2.4%).  Anthropophily of An. funestus was lowest within the rice scheme, moderate in unplanned rice agro-ecosystem, and highest within the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem.  Anthropophily of An. Arabiensis was significantly higher in the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem than in the other agro-ecosystems. These findings suggest that rice cultivation has an effect on host choice by Anopheles mosquitoes.  The study further indicate that zooprophylaxis may be a potential strategy for malaria control, but there is need to assess how domestic animals may influence arboviruses epidemiology before adapting the strategy.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch) Sorok and Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill to adult Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire) in the laboratory.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Philip M. Ngumbi 1,2, Lucy W. Irungu2, Paul N. Ndegwa2 & Nguya K. Maniania3 1Kenya Medical Research; 2011.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "IN VITRO EFFECTS OF WARBURGIA UGANDENSIS, PSIADIA PUNCTULATA AND CHASMANTHERA DEPENDENS ON LEISHMANIA MAJOR PROMASTIGOTES.". In: Afr. J. Trad. CAM 7 (3): 264-275. Edward K. Githinji, Lucy W. Irungu, Willy K. Tonui, Geoffrey M. Rukunga, Charles Mutai, Charles N. M; 2010. Abstract

Plant extracts from Warburgia ugandensis Sprague (Family: Canellaceae), Psiadia punctulata Vatke (Family: Compositae) and Chasmanthera dependens Hoschst (Family: Menispermaceae) were tested for activity on Leishmania major promastigotes (Strain IDU/KE/83 = NLB-144) and infected macrophages in vitro. Plants were collected from Baringo district, dried, extracted, weighed and tested for antileishmanial activity. Serial dilutions of the crude extracts were assayed for their activity against Leishmania major in cell free cultures and in infected macrophages in vitro. Inhibitory concentrations and levels of cytotoxicity were determined. Warburgia ugandensis, Psiadia punctulata and Chasmanthera dependens had an IC(50) of 1.114 mg/ml, 2.216 mg/ml and 4.648 mg/ml, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the drugs on BALB/c peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant as compared to the highly toxic drug of choice Pentostam(®). The supernatants from control and Leishmania infected macrophages were analyzed for their nitrite contents by Griess reaction and nitrite absorbance measured at 540 nm. Warburgia ugandensis (stem bark water extract), Chasmanthera dependens (stem bark water extract) and Psiadia punctulata (stem bark methanol extract) produced 112.3%, 94% and 88.5% more nitric oxide than the untreated infected macrophages respectively. Plant crude extracts had significant (p<0.05) anti-leishmanial and immunomodulative effects but insignificant cytotoxic effects at 1mg/ml concentration. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis of the differences between mean values obtained from the experimental group compared to the controls was done by students't test. ANOVA was used to determine the differences between the various treatment groups. The analysis program Probit was used to determine IC(50)s.

PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Nocturnal activities of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psydhodidae) in Baringo District, Kenya. Submitted to TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Ngumbi PM, Robert LL, Irungu LW, Kaburi JC, Githure JI; 2010.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Dry season ecology of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in Baringo, Kenya.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Albert O Mala 1,2*; 2011. Abstract
{ Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background: Pre-adult stages of malaria vectors in semi-arid areas are confronted with highly variable and challenging climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to determine which larval habitat types are most productive in terms of larval densities in the dry and wet seasons within semi-arid environments, and how vector species productivity is partitioned over time.   Methods: Larval habitats were mapped and larvae sampled longitudinally using standard dipping techniques. Larvae were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Physical characteristics of larval habitats, including water depth, turbidity, and presence of floating and emergent vegetation were recorded. Water depth was measured using a metal ruler. Turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperatures salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured in the field using the hand-held water chemistry meters.   Results: Mean larval densities were higher in the dry season than during the wet season but the differences in density were not statistically significant (F = 0.04
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Insecticide evaluation against the Legume bud Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Tryb.) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).". In: Kenya J. Sci & Tech. 4 (1): 35-42. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1983.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Occurrence of Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosu s.l. Diptera: Simuliidae in nine river system in Kenya.". In: Journal of Medical Entomology, 23:111-112. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1986.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Relationships between Plasmodium falciparum transmission by vector populations and the incidence of severe disease at mine sites on the Kenya Coast.". In: Am. J. Trop. Med.Hyp., 52 (3): 201-206. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1995.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Resistance of cowpea varieties to the legume bud Thrip Megalurothrips sjostedti (tryb.) (Thysanoptera: Trhripidae) in Kenya.". In: Kenya J. Sci.& Tech. Series B., 2: 3-7. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1980. Abstract
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PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Sampling techniques for Populations of Pine Woolly Aphid Pineus pini (Gmelin) (Homoptera).". In: Kenya Sci. & Tech., 3:9-18. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1982. Abstract
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PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Charasterization of Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosum s.l. populations from six river systems in Kenya by cellulose acetate eletate electrophoresis.". In: Trans.R. Soc.Trop. Med & Hyg. 80: 914-922. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1986.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Biochemical identification of Phlebotomus (Larroussius) pedifer and Phlebotomus (Larroussius) elegonensis.". In: Bioch system. & ecol., 16 (1/8): 655-659. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1988.sf07230719.pdf
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Science and Technology for Development.". In: Proceedings of Seminar, 21-24 March, Nairobi, 215pp. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1979. Abstract
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PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Establishment of Pine Woolly Aphid Pineus pini (L) (Homoptera: Adelgidae) on some host trees.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Tech.3:61-68. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1982. Abstract
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PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Populurothrips dynamic and seasonal incidence of the legume bud thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Tryb.) (Thysanoptera: Thripicae) in cowpea fields in Kenya.". In: Kenya J. Sci. & Tech: 5 (1&2) 15-25, 1984. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1984.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Mermithidae (Nematoda) infection of the aquatic stages of Simulium (Edwardsellum) from the Nine river systems in Kenya.". In: Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash., 54 (1): 156-157. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1987.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Science and Technology and the Future.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium, 10-12 July, Nairobi, Kenya. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1979. Abstract
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PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI, N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "WN Ekaya, JI Kinyamario and CN Karue. Abiotic and herbaceous vegetational characteristics of an arid rangeland in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 117-124. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Indigenous Snake Bite Remedies Of The Luo Of Western Kenya;.". In: Journal Of Ethnobiology Volume 25, Issue 1 (March 2005) Pp. 129. University of Nairobi Press; 2005. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal plants of East Africa. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau.". In: First Edition. 4to. Hard cover. Dust jacket. Study of medicinal plants and their uses in East Africa. Pp. (xii),384, photos, line-drawings. Some light browning. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Economic importance and local use of the Kenyan mangroves.". In: Proceedings of the Kenyan Seminar on Agroforestry. ICRAF, Nairobi, pp. 377-386. University of Nairobi Press; 1980. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Anacardiaceae (Mango family) of East African flora, London.". In: establishing quantitative criteria for consensus. Economic Botany, 44 (3): 369-381. University of Nairobi Press; 1986. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Herbal remedies of the Luo of Siaya District, Kenya:.". In: Establishing Quantitative criteria for consensus. Economic Botany 44(3): 369-381. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Flowering Plant Families of East Africa.". In: An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy; 292pp. ill. 1994 East African Educ. Publ. University of Nairobi Press; 1994. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Luo Biological Dictionary; 264pp 1998 East African Educ. Publ.". In: Journal Of Ethnobiology Volume 25, Issue 1 (March 2005) Pp. 129. University of Nairobi Press; 1998. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal Plants of East Africa Ed. 1, Nairobi,.". In: First Edition. 4to. Hard cover. Dust jacket. Study of medicinal plants and their uses in East Africa. Pp. (xii),384, photos, line-drawings. Some light browning. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Classification of East African Crops, Nairobi,.". In: Proceedings of the Kenyan Seminar on Agroforestry. ICRAF, Nairobi, pp. 377-386. University of Nairobi Press; 1980. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "The distribution and economic importance of the mangrove forests in Kenya.". In: Journal of the East African Natural history Society 75:1-12. University of Nairobi Press; 1985. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal plants of East Africa. Kenya, Literature Bureau Nairobi.". In: Establishing Quantitative criteria for consensus. Economic Botany 44(3): 369-381. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal Plants of East Africa Ed. 2, Nairobi.". In: An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy; 292pp. ill. 1994 East African Educ. Publ. University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Luo Biological Dictionary (Jointly authored with Prof. Timothy Johns of McGill University, Canada).". In: A well researched ethnobiological lexicon describing all the plants and animals known to and used by the Luo community in East Africa. University of Nairobi Press; 1998. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Luo-English Botanical Dictionary, Nairobi,.". In: First Edition. 4to. Hard cover. Dust jacket. Study of medicinal plants and their uses in East Africa. Pp. (xii),384, photos, line-drawings. Some light browning. University of Nairobi Press; 1972. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal Plants of East Africa, 3rd Edition.". In: Proceedings of 5th of African Crop Science Conference. Lagos Nigeria. University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal Plants of East Africa, East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi, p.223.". In: Proceedings of the Kenyan Seminar on Agroforestry. ICRAF, Nairobi, pp. 377-386. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Rutaceae (Orange family) of East African flora, London,.". In: Journal of the East African Natural history Society 75:1-12. University of Nairobi Press; 1982. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Herbal remedies of the Luo of Siaya District, Kenya:.". In: establishing quantitative criteria for consensus. Economic Botany, 44 (3): 369-381. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Food plants of the Luo Siaya district, Kenya. Economic Botany 45: 103-113.". In: An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy; 292pp. ill. 1994 East African Educ. Publ. University of Nairobi Press; 1991. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.

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