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Paul O, Owino W, Oketch T. "A Focus on the Health Management Boards and Human Resource Development Issues.". In: Governance of District Health Systems.; 2001.
PAUL PROFBAKI, OMULO DRMITOCOLLINS. "Cauchy Analysis of the Linearized Anti-symmetric Sector of the Massive Non-symmetric Gravitational Theory.". In: J. Math. Phys. Vol7, No.40, 3439 (1999). Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1999.
Paul O. "Impact of peer education on HIV/AIDS behaviour change among secondary school youths: A static group comparison analysis of a peer education project in Rachuonyo District, Kenya.". In: Global Helath Metrics and Evaluation (GHME) "Data, Debates and Directions" Conference. Seattle, U.S.A.; 2013.about_ihme.pdfihme_brochure_2011.pdfihme_researchers.pdfihme_ghdx.jpga_comparative_risk_assessment_of_burden_of_disease_and_injury_attributable_to_67_risk_factors.pdfage-specific_and_sex-specific_mortality_in_187_countries_1970-2010.pdfcommon_values_in_assessing_health_outcomes.pdfdisability-adjusted_life_years_dalys.pdfgbd_2010_design_definitions_and_metrics.pdfglobal_and_regional_mortality_from_235_causes_of_death_for_20_age_groups_in_1990_and_2010.pdfhealthy_life_expectancy_for_187_countries_1990-2010.pdfyears_lived_with_disability_ylds_for_1160_sequelae_of_289_diseases_and_injuries_1990-2010.pdffigures_-_cod_appendix.pptxfigures_-_cod.pptxfigures_-_dalys.pptxfigures_-_disability_weights.pptxfigures_-_hale.pptxfigures_-_mortality_appendix.pptxfigures_-_mortality.pptxfigures_-_overview_appendix.pptxfigures_-_overview.pptxfigures_-_risk_factors.pptxfigures_-_ylds_appendix.pptxgbd_2010_design_definitions_and_metrics.pdfgbd_2010_a_multi-investigator_collaboration_for_global_comparative_descriptive_epidemiology.pdfa_comparative_risk_assessment_of_burden_of_disease_and_injury_attributable_to_67_risk_factors.pdfage-specific_and_sex-specific_mortality_in_187_countries_1970-2010.pdfcommon_values_in_assessing_health_outcomes_from_disease_and_injury_disability_weights.pdfdisability-adjusted_life_years_dalys_for_291_diseases_and_injuries_in_21_regions_1990-2010.pdfglobal_and_regional_mortality_from_235_causes_of_death_for_20_age_groups_in_1990_and_2010.pdfhealthy_life_expectancy_for_187_countries_1990-2010.pdfuk_health_performance.pdfyears_lived_with_disability_ylds_for_1160_sequelae_of_289_diseases_and_injuries_1990-2010.pdfihme_gbdposter_mapside.jpgihme_gbdposter_storyside.jpgbuilding_momentum_global_progress_toward_reducing_maternal_and_child_mortality_ihme_0610.pdffinancing_global_health_2009_tracking_development_assistance_for_health_ihme_0709.pdffinancing_global_health_2010_development_assistance_and_country_spending_in_economic_uncertainty_ihme_1110.pdffinancing_global_health_2011_continued_growth_as_mdg_deadline_approaches_ihme_1211.pdfthe_challenge_ahead_progress_and_setbacks_in_breast_and_cervical_cancer_ihme_0911.pdf50_years_of_violent_war_deaths_bmj_062008.pdfa_novel_framework_for_validating_and_applying_small_area_measurement_strategies__population_health_metrics_1010.pdfa_randomised_assessment_of_the_mexican_universal_health_insurance_programme_thelancet_040909.pdfa_randomised_assessment_of_the_mexican_universal_health_insurance_programme_thelancet_040909.pdfadverse_health_outcomes_of_road_traffic_injuries_in_iran_archives_of_iranian_medicine_051909.pdfalgorithms_for_enhancing_public_health_utility_of_national_cause_of_death_data_population_health_metrics_052410.pdfassessing_quality_of_medical_death_certification_mexico_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfassessment_of_population-level_effect_of_avahan_an_hiv_prevention_initiative_in_india_the_lancet_1011.pdfbreast_and_cervical_cancer_in_187_countries_between_1980_and_2010_the_lancet_0911.pdfburden_of_injuries_in_iranian_children_in_2005_population_health_metrics_043110.pdfcoverage_of_cervical_cancer_screening_in_57_countries_plos_061708.pdfdevelopment_assistance_for_health_thelancet_062009.pdfdiabetes_in_the_us_population_health_metrics_092509.pdfdirect_estimation_of_cause-specific_mortality_fractions_from_verbal_autopsies_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfestimating_population_cause-specific_mortality_fractions_from_in-hospital_mortality_plos_112007.pdfestimating_the_distribution_of_external_causes_in_hospital_data_from_injury_diagnosis_accident_analysis_and_prevention_070808.pdfexposing_misclassified_hiv_aids_deaths_in_south_africa_bulletin_of_the_world_health_organization_040111.pdffalling_behind_life_expectancy_in_us_counties_from_2000_to_2007_in_an_international_context_population_health_metrics_0611.pdfhas_the_dots_strategy_improved_case_finding_or_treatment_success_plos_030508.pdfhigh_total_serum_cholesterol_medication_coverage_and_therapeutic_control_bulletin_of_the_world_health_organization_0311.pdfhow_does_satisfaction_with_the_health-care_system_relate_to_patient_experience_bulletin_of_the_world_health_organization_030409.pdfimproving_the_public_health_utility_of_global_cardiovascular_mortality_data_population_health_metrics_031511.pdfin_denial_elsevier_article.pdfincreased_educational_attainment_and_its_effect_on_child_mortality_in_175_countries_between_1970_and_2009_the_lancet_0910.pdfindias_janani_suraksha_yojana_impact_evaluation_the_lancet_060410.pdflimitations_of_methods_for_measuring_out-of-pocket_private_health_expenditures_bulletin_of_the_world_health_organization_062909.pdfmalaria_trends_between_1980_and_2010_ihme_020212.pdfmaternal_mortality_for_181_countries_the_lancet_041210.pdfmeasuring_adult_mortality_using_sibling_survival_plos_041310.pdfmeasuring_under-five_mortality_plos_041310.pdfmillenium_can_we_achieve_millenium_development_goal_4_the_lancet_092207.pdfmillennium_a_systematic_analysis_of_progress_towards_millenium_development_goal_4_the_lancet_052410.pdfmodeling_causes_of_death_an_integrated_approach_using_codem_ihme_010611.pdfnational_and_subnational_mortality_effects_of_metabolic_risk_factors_and_smoking_in_iran_population_health_metrics_1011.pdfnational_regional_and_global_trends_in_systolic_blood_pressure_since_1980_the_lancet_020311.pdfnet_benefits_plos_medicine_0911.pdfperformance_of_interva_for_assigning_cuases_of_death_to_verbal_autopsies_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfperformance_of_physcian-certified_verbal_autopsies_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfperformance_of_the_tariff_method_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfpopulation_health_metrics_research_consortium_gold_standard_verbal_autopsy_validation_study_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfpreventable_causes_of_death_in_the_us_plos_042809.pdfprevention_of_cardiovascular_disease_in_high-risk_individuals_the_lancet_121507.pdfproduction_and_analysis_of_health_indicators_and_the_role_of_academia_plos_1110.pdfprogress_towards_millennium_development_goals_4_and_5_on_maternal_and_child_mortality_the_lancet_0911.pdfpublic_financing_of_health_in_developing_countries_the_lancet_0401710.pdfrandom_forests_for_verbal_autopsy_analysis_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfrobust_metrics_for_assessing_the_performance_of_different_verbal_autopsy_cause_assignment_methods_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfsimplified_symptom_pattern_method_for_verbal_autopsy_analysis_population_health_metrics_0811.pdfstrengthening_the_science_thelancet_040508.pdfthe_effects_of_four_preventable_risk_factors_on_national_life_expectancy_in_the_us_plos_032310.pdftracking_population_health_based_on_self-reported_impairments_american_journal_of_epidemiology_051809.pdftracking_progress_towards_universal_childhood_immunisation_and_the_impact_of_global_initiatives_the_lancet_121308.pdftrends_and_cardiovascular_mortality_circulation_021908.pdftrends_in_mortality_and_cross_country_mortality_disparities_in_the_us_plos_042208.pdftrends_in_self-rated_health_american_journal_of_epidemiology_062909.pdfunderstanding_the_decline_of_mean_systolic_blood_pressure_in_japan_bulletin_of_the_world_health_organization_091708.pdfus_ranking_nejm_perspective_011410.pdfvalidation_of_the_symptom_pattern_method_plos_medicine_112007.pdfwhat_can_we_conclude_from_death_registration_plos_041310.pdfworldwide_mortality_in_men_and_women_thelancet_043010.pdfafter_40_years_the_worlds_women_are_far_more_educated_christiansciencemonitor_091610.pdfaids_awareness_boosts_global_health_funding_afp_113010.pdfcash_for_vaccination_rates_exaggerated_financial_times_121208.pdfcash_on_delivery_hindustan_times_060410.pdfdiabetes_most_prevalent_in_southern_united_states_study_finds_science_daily_092509.pdffinancial_crisis_may_kill_in_congo_as_global_health_aid_stalls_businessweek_011812.pdfglobal_health_funding_still_healthy_but_may_need_better_focus___humanosphere_093010.pdfgood_news_from_the_childbirth_front_new_york_times_041610.pdflife_spans_falling_for_least-healthy_americans_study_by_harvard_uw_finds_the_seattle_times_042208.pdflocal_healthcare_reform_outpaces_the_us___the_australian_011610.pdfmaternal_deaths_decline_sharply_across_the_globe_-_new_york_times_041310.pdfnew_study_doubles_estimate_of_global_malaria_deaths_the_washington_post_020212.pdfqa_with_dr._christopher_murray_time_041610.pdfrace_to_save_mothers_children_set_to_fall_short_afp_111911.pdfspoonful_of_ingenuity_the_economist_010710.pdfstraight_talk_with_christopher_murray_nature__1009.pdfthe_power_of_numbers_the_economist_052710.pdfthe_worlds_under-funded_health_crisis_forbes_061809.pdfwomen_less_likely_to_die_in_childbirth_in_albania_than_in_uk_the_guardian_041210.pdfwomens_cancers_reach_two_million_bbc_news_111411.pdfworldwide_war_deaths_underestimated_abc_news_062108.pdf
PAUL PROFBAKI. "A torsionic .". In: Maseno Journal of Education, Arts and Science Vol.5 No.1 March 2003 . Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki , SPH 201: Mechanics II, A peer reviewed Physics lecture module for distance learners.". In: published by the University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, Spreading Astronomy Education through Africa.". In: Proceedings of IAU GA SpS2, Cambridge University Press(2007) eds. Jay M. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2007.
Paul O, C. R, D. O. "Community awareness, Participation and Perceptions About the Road Maintenance Levy fund Projects in Kenya." Global Journal of Business Research. 2014;8(2).
Paul BK, Vanlauwe B, Hoogmoed M, Hurisso TT, Ndabamenye T, Terano Y, Six J, Ayuke FO, Pulleman MM. "Exclusion of soil macrofauna did not affect soil quality but increased crop yields in a sub-humid tropical maize-based system. ." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 208: 75-85.. 2015;208:75-85.
Paul O. "Management of roads maintenance levy fund at Agency level in Kenya: A focus on challenges, prospects and policy.". In: 2013 COSTA RICA GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BUSINESS 7 FIANANCE . COSTA RICA; 2013.
Paul O, Kioko U, Muriithi EM, Odhiambo T, Samwel O. Mwanda. "Peer Education and Behaviour Change on Hiv/Aids Prevention in Secondary Schools in Rachuonyo District, Kenya: Prospects and Policy." Global Journal of Human Social Sciences . 2014;14-G(4 Version 1.0).
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P.Baki .". In: University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1999.
Paul O, NJERU E, U. K, J. K. "HIV/AIDS Financing and Spending in Eastern and Southern Africa." Pretoria: IDASA; 2010.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki , SPH 101: Mechanics I, A peer reviewed Physics lecture module for distance learners.". In: published by University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, Looking for Secrets in the Stars, Society Magazine, East African Standard, Saturday, August 28th (2004).". In: published by the University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
Paul BK, Vanlauwe B, Ayuke F, Gassnerc A, Hoogmoed M, Hurissoa TT, Koala S, Lelei D, Ndabamenyea T, Six J. "Medium-term impact of tillage and residue management on soil aggregate stability, soil carbon and crop productivity." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2013;164:14-22. Abstract

Conservation agriculture is widely promoted for soil conservation and crop productivity increase,
although rigorous empirical evidence from sub-Saharan Africa is still limited. This study aimed to quantify
the medium-term impact of tillage (conventional and reduced) and crop residue management (retention
and removal) on soil and crop performance in a maize–soybean rotation. A replicated field trial
was started in sub-humid Western Kenya in 2003, and measurements were taken from 2005 to 2008.
Conventional tillage negatively affected soil aggregate stability when compared to reduced tillage, as
indicated by lower mean weight diameter values upon wet sieving at 0–15 cm (PT < 0.001). This suggests
increased susceptibility to slaking and soil erosion. Tillage and residue management alone did not affect
soil C contents after 11 cropping seasons, but when residue was incorporated by tillage, soil C was higher
at 15–30 cm (PT*R = 0.037). Lack of treatment effects on the C content of different aggregate fractions
indicated that reduced tillage and/or residue retention did not increase physical C protection. The weak
residue effect on aggregate stability and soil C may be attributed to insufficient residue retention. Soybean
grain yields tended to be suppressed under reduced tillage without residue retention, especially
in wet seasons (PT*R = 0.070). Consequently, future research should establish, for different climatic zones
and soil types, the critical minimum residue retention levels for soil conservation and crop productivity.
Keywords: Reduced tillage, Crop residue management, Soil aggregate stability, Crop yields, Soil organic, carbon, Sub-Saharan Africa

PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, SPH 305: Classical Mechanics , A peer reviewed Physics lecture module for distance learners .". In: published by the University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
Paul A. Odundo, MURIITHI EVANSONMURIUKI, Origa JO, Gatumu JC. "Project Method and Learner Achievement in Physics in Kenyan Secondary Schools.". In: International Journal of Education and Research. Vol. 1 No. 7, July 2013.; 2013.abstract_-international_journal_of_education_and_research_vol._1_no._7_july_2013.docx
Paul K. Muoria, Philip Muruthi DRNOO, Munene E. "Cross-sectional survey of gastro-intestinal parasites of Grevy’s zebras in southern Samburu, Kenya." Afr. J. Ecol. 43:392-395; 2005. Abstract
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Paul Kamau, Muluvi A, Githuku S, Ikiara M. "Kenya's Trade within the East African Community: Institutional and Regulatory Framework." AGI Bulletins - Brookings. 2012.
Paul Kamau. "Declining Confidence in Economic Performance in Kenya." Afrobarometer Briefing Paper No. 107. 2012.
Paul Kamau, Dorothy McCormick. "Market Diversification Strategy and Success of Food Processing Firms in Kenya.". In: 3rd Joint Nordic Conference on Development Research at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, 5 - 6 . Gothenburg, Sweden; 2015.
Paul Kamau. "Opportunities and Challenges of the Multilateral Trading System: The Kenyan Experience under WTO." Institute for International Studies) Vol. 37 Number 1, pp. 101-116; 2004. Abstract
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and Paul Kamau, Dorothy McCormick GM. "Availability of Technical Skills in the Kenyan Clothing industry and its implications on Competitiveness in the Post-MFA Era." Ethiopia: Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology, Bahir Dar University; 2014.
Paul Kamau, Samuel Ngigi. "Potential for Women Fish Traders to Upgrade within the Fish Trade Value Chain: Evidence from Kenya ." DBA Africa Management Review. 2013;3(2):93-107.
Paul Kamau, Dorothy McCormick, George M. Availability of Technical Skills in the Kenyan Clothing Industry and Its Implications on Comptetitiveness in the Post MFA Era. Bahir Dar, Ethiopia : Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology, Bahir Dar University ; 2014.
Paul Kamau, Dorothy McCormick, Pinaud N. "The Developmental Impact of Asian Drivers on Kenya with emphasis on textile and clothing." The World Economy. 2009;111 (10):1467-1495.
Paul O Okumu, PK Gathumbi DNKLCBJDMJKSMMWCKG. "Survey of health status of domestic rabbits in selected organized farms in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;4:15-21. Abstract
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PAULINE MISSNYAMWEYA. "Reproductive Health Programs in Kenya. Research Report (to be published).". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 4th Biennial Scientific conference2004. Taylor & Francis; 1997.
PAULINE MISSNYAMWEYA. ""Inheritance Laws and Women in Kenya" 1994 (Study undertaken for the Public Law Institute).". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 4th Biennial Scientific conference2004. Taylor & Francis; 1994.
PAULINE MISSNYAMWEYA. ""Consumer Protection: Criteria for Intervention" Nairobi University Law Journal, issue no. 3, 6-21.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 4th Biennial Scientific conference2004. Taylor & Francis; 1995.
PAULINE MISSNYAMWEYA. "The Informal Sector in Kenya: A Baseline Survey of the Determinant Laws. Nairobi: Public Law Institute.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 4th Biennial Scientific conference2004. Taylor & Francis; 1997.
PAULINE MISSNYAMWEYA. ""Kenya African National Union - its Structure and Constitutional Significance" - LL.B Dissertation.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 4th Biennial Scientific conference2004. Taylor & Francis; 1989.
PAULINE MISSNYAMWEYA. ""Consumer Protection: Criteria for Intervention" - University of Nairobi Law Journal Issue No. 3, 1995: 6-21.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 4th Biennial Scientific conference2004. Taylor & Francis; 1995.
PAULINE MISSNYAMWEYA. ""Reproductive Rights and National/Customary Laws" in Reproductive Health Policy Reforms in East Africa - Report of a Workshop held in Nairobi, October 23-24 1997 Ed. JKG Mati MD.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 4th Biennial Scientific conference2004. Taylor & Francis; 1997.
PAULINE MISSNYAMWEYA. ""The Rights of Women" - Paper presented at the Christian Single Parents Seminar at the Limuru Conference Centre, Limuru, Kenya, 30th September - 1st October.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 4th Biennial Scientific conference2004. Taylor & Francis; 1995.
Pauline Aluka1*, Fabrice Davrieux2, Kahiu Ngugi3*, Rose Omaria4, Gerard2 F,, J.N Kiiru, and MD2, Pinard. "The Diversity of Green Bean Biochemical Compounds in Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) as Evaluated by." Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture ·. 2016;12(2):1-13.the_diversity_of_green_bean_biochemical.pdf
Pauw GD, Wagacha PW, De Schryver G-M. "Automatic diacritic restoration for resource-scarce languages.". In: International Conference on Text, Speech and Dialogue. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg; 2007. Abstract

The orthography of many resource-scarce languages includes diacritically marked
characters. Falling outside the scope of the standard Latin encoding, these characters are
often represented in digital language resources as their unmarked equivalents. This renders
corpus compilation more difficult, as these languages typically do not have the benefit of
large electronic dictionaries to perform diacritic restoration.

Pauw GD, de Schryver G-M, Waiganjo Wagacha P. "Data-Driven Part-of-Speech Tagging of Kiswahili." In: P. Sojka, c}ek I K{\v, K. Pala, eds. Proceedings of Text, Speech and Dialogue, Ninth International Conference. Vol. 4188/2006. Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag; 2006:. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4188/2006. Abstract
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Pauw GD, Wagacha PW. "Bootstrapping morphological analysis of Gĩkũyũ using unsupervised maximum entropy learning." Eighth Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association. 2007. AbstractFull Text

This paper describes a proof-of-the-principle experiment in which maximum entropy
learning is used for the automatic induction of shallow morphological features for the
resourcescarce Bantu language of Gıkuyu. This novel approach circumvents the limitations
of typical unsupervised morphological induction methods that employ minimum-edit
distance metrics to establish morphological similarity between words. The experimental
results show that the unsupervised maximum entropy learning approach compares

Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, de Schryver G-M. "Bootstrapping Machine Translation for the Language Pair English - Kiswahili." In: J. Aisbett, G. Gibbon, A.J. Rodrigues, K.K. Migga, R. Nath, G.R. Renardel, eds. Special Topics in Computing and ICT Research - Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. Kampala, Uganda: Fountain Publishers; 2008:. Abstract
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Pauw GD, Wagacha PW, De Schryver G-M. "Towards english-swahili machine translation." Research Workshop of the Israel Science Foundation. 2011. AbstractFull Text

Even though the Bantu language of Swahili is spoken by more than fifty million people in
East and Central Africa, it is surprisingly resource-scarce from a language technological
point of view, an unfortunate situation that holds for most, if not all languages on the
continent. The increasing amount of digitally available, vernacular data has prompted
researchers to investigate the applicability of corpus-based approaches to African language
technology. In this vein, the SAWA corpus project attempts to collect and deploy a parallel

Pauw GD, Wagacha PW, De Schryver G-M. "Exploring the SAWA corpus: collection and deployment of a parallel corpus English—Swahili." Language resources and evaluation. 2011;45(3):331-344. Abstract

Research in machine translation and corpus annotation has greatly benefited from the increasing availability of word-aligned parallel corpora. This paper presents ongoing research on the development and application of the sawa corpus, a two-million-word parallel corpus English-Swahili. We describe the data collection phase and zero in on the difficulties of finding appropriate and easily accessible data for this language pair. In the data annotation phase, the corpus was semi-automatically sentence and word-aligned and morphosyntactic information was added to both the English and Swahili portion of the corpus. The annotated parallel corpus allows us to investigate two possible uses. We describe experiments with the projection of part-of-speech tagging annotation from English onto Swahili, as well as the development of a basic statistical machine translation system for this language pair, using the parallel corpus and a consolidated database of existing English-Swahili translation dictionaries. We particularly focus on the difficulties of translating English into the morphologically more complex Bantu language of Swahili.

Pauw DG, De Schryver G-M, Wagacha PW. "Kiswahili Part-of-Speech Tagger–Demonstration system.". 2006.Full text link
Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, de Schryver G-M. "Automatic diacritic restoration for resource-scarce languages." In: s}ek VM{\v, Mautner P, eds. Proceedings of Text, Speech and Dialogue, Tenth International Conference. Vol. 4629. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg; 2007:. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4629. Abstract
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Pauw GD, Wagacha PW, De Schryver G-M. "The SAWA corpus: a parallel corpus English-Swahili." Association for Computational Linguistics. 2009:9-16. AbstractFull Text

Abstract Research in data-driven methods for Machine Translation has greatly benefited
from the increasing availability of parallel corpora. Processing the same text in two different
languages yields useful information on how words and phrases are translated from a source
language into a target language. To investigate this, a parallel corpus is typically aligned by
linking linguistic tokens in the source language to the corresponding units in the target
language. An aligned parallel corpus therefore facilitates the automatic development of a

Pauw GD, de Schryver G-M, Waiganjo Wagacha P. "A Corpus-based Survey of Four Electronic Swahili - English Dictionaries." Lexikos. 2009;19:340. Abstract
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Pauw GD, de Schryver GM, Forcada ML, Sarasola K, Tyers FM, Wagacha PW. "Language Technology for Normalisation of Less-Resourced Languages." Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC2012). 2012:2012. Abstract

The 8th International Workshop of the ISCA Special Interest Group on Speech and
Language Technology for Minority Languages (SALTMIL) 1 and the Fourth Workshop on
African Language Technology (AfLaT2012) 2 is held as a joint effort as part of the 2012
International Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC 2012). Entitled
“Language technology for normalisation of less-resourced languages”, the workshop is
intended to continue the series of SALTMIL/LREC workshops on computational language

Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, D.A. Abade. "Unsupervised Induction of Dholuo Word Classes using Maximum Entropy Learning." In: K. Getao, E. Omwenga, eds. Proceedings of the First International Computer Science and ICT Conference. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2007:. Abstract
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Pauw GD, Wagacha P, De Schryver G-M. "Bootstrapping machine translation for the language pair English-Kiswahili." Special Topics in Computing and ICT Research-Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. 2008:30-37. AbstractFull Text

HTQO VJG increasing availability of parallel corpora. Processing the same text in two
different languages yields useful information on how words and phrases are translated from
a source language into a target language. To investigate this, a parallel corpus is typically
aligned by linking linguistic tokens in the source language to the corresponding units in the
target language. An aligned parallel corpus therefore facilitates the automatic

Pauw GD, De Schryver G-M, Wagacha PW. Kiswahili part-of-speech tagger: demonstration system.; 2006.
Pauw GD, Anyango Maajabu NJ, Waiganjo Wagacha P. "A Knowledge-Light Approach to Luo Machine Translation and Part-of-Speech Tagging." In: Pauw GD, H. Groenewald, de Schryver G-M, eds. Proceedings of the Second Workshop on African Language Technology (AfLaT 2010). Valetta, Malta: European Language Resources Association (ELRA); 2010:. Abstract
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Pavel Kurasov, Ogik R. "On equi-transmitting matrices." Reports on Mathematical Physics. 2016;78(2):199-218. AbstractWebsite

Equi-transmitting scattering matrices are studied. A complete description of such matrices up to order five is given. It is shown that the standard matching conditions matrix is essentially the only equi-transmitting matrix for orders 3 and 5. For orders 4 and 6, there exists other equi-transmitting ones but all such matrices have zero trace

Peacock C, Ahuya CO, Ojango JMK, Okeyo AM. "Practical crossbreeding for improved livelihoods in developing countries: The FARM Africa goat project.". 2011. Abstract

Successful livestock improvement programmes focusing on low-input smallholder production systems though rare, are possible using community-based approaches. This paper outlines important design and implementation components of a goat improvement programme undertaken by FARM Africa in the eastern highlands of Kenya. Through strong capacity building initiatives at grass-roots level, producers were empowered to undertake a goat genetic improvement programme that benefitted them in several ways. This resulted in the farmers forming their own umbrella organizations to cater for their interests as producers in accessing animal health and breeding services, production inputs, and marketing goats and goat products. In seven years, the population of improved goats in one of the project areas increased from 2100 to 5500, and the livelihoods of the participating farmers improved. Income from sales of milk and improved breeding and slaughter stock increased, while food security improved as a result of daily milk consumption and improved crop yields resulting from use of the rich goat manure. The project has, however, faced challenges arising mainly from the popularity of the improved goats within the Eastern Africa region, which has resulted in sale of a large number of the young animals, leaving few replacements within the project area. Uptake of goat breeding by private commercial farmers to provide breeding stock and replacement animals is currently lacking. Further research and evaluation is required on how to strengthen collective-action based institutions to improve services within smallholder farmer communities.

i.dos Pedro A. Segura, Hideshige Takada JCKESTKSO-AJO-AEBSOVWJMMA. "Global occurrence of anti-infectives in contaminated surface waters: Impact of income inequality between countries." Environmental International. 2015;80:89-97. Abstract
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Peichl L. "Diversity of mammalian photoreceptor properties: adaptations to habitat and lifestyle?" The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology. 2005;287:1001-1012. Abstract

All mammalian retinae contain rod photoreceptors for low-light vision and cone photoreceptors for daylight and color vision. Most nonprimate mammals have dichromatic color vision based on two cone types with spectrally different visual pigments: a short-wavelength-sensitive (S-)cone and a long-wavelength-sensitive (L-)cone. Superimposed on this basic similarity, there are remarkable differences between species. This article reviews some striking examples. The density ratio of cones to rods ranges from 1:200 in the most nocturnal to 20:1 in a few diurnal species. In some species, the proportion of the spectral cone types and their distribution across the retina deviate from the pattern found in most mammals, including a complete absence of S-cones. Depending on species, the spectral sensitivity of the L-cone pigment may peak in the green, yellow, or orange, and that of the S-cone pigment in the blue, violet, or near-ultraviolet. While exclusive expression of one pigment per cone is the rule, some species feature coexpression of the L- and S-pigment in a significant proportion of their cones. It is widely assumed that all these variations represent adaptations to specific visual needs associated with particular habitats and lifestyles. However, in many cases we have not yet identified the adaptive value of a given photoreceptor arrangement. Comparative anatomy is a fruitful approach to explore the range of possible arrangements within the blueprint of the mammalian retina and to identify species with particularly interesting or puzzling patterns that deserve further scrutiny with physiological and behavioral assays.

Peichl L, Sandmann D, Boycott BB. "Comparative {Anatomy} and {Function} of {Mammalian} {Horizontal} {Cells}." In: Chalupa LM, Finlay BL, eds. Development and {Organization} of the {Retina}. Springer US; 1998:. {NATO} {ASI} {Series}. Abstract

Near the end of his life Ramón y Cajal (1933) summarized aspects of his view of the retina and, under the section heading “The paradox of vertebrate retinal horizontal cells” admitted defeat in understanding their role in visual processing. By then, horizontal cells had been identified and studied anatomically for more than six decades; today, six decades later, they are still amongst the most enigmatic neurons (historical reviews, e.g., Wässle et al., 1978a; Gallego, 1986; Piccolino, 1986, 1988). Numerous studies, using an ever-increasing arsenal of methods, have modified some of Cajal’s observations and added many new ones. For technical reasons, there has been a concentration on horizontal cell physiology and cellular biology in non-mammalian vertebrate retinae (reviewed in Dowling, 1987; Djamgoz et al., 1995; Kamermans & Spekreijse, 1995), and the results have been generalized to deduce mammalian horizontal cell function. Most recently, however, an increasing number of studies are examining mammalian horizontal cells with physiological and immunocytochemical approaches; and comparative anatomical studies are demonstrating previously unsuspected differences between species. More specific questions can now be asked although, as yet, answers are still scant. This review summarizes some earlier views of mammalian horizontal cell morphology and connectivity, then focuses on how some of the newer findings have modified the issues, and tries to suggest where answers may be sought.

Peichl, Leo. "Diversity of mammalian photoreceptor properties: {Adaptations} to habitat and lifestyle?" The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology. 2005;287A:1001-1012. AbstractWebsite

All mammalian retinae contain rod photoreceptors for low-light vision and cone photoreceptors for daylight and color vision. Most nonprimate mammals have dichromatic color vision based on two cone types with spectrally different visual pigments: a short-wavelength-sensitive (S-)cone and a long-wavelength-sensitive (L-)cone. Superimposed on this basic similarity, there are remarkable differences between species. This article reviews some striking examples. The density ratio of cones to rods ranges from 1:200 in the most nocturnal to 20:1 in a few diurnal species. In some species, the proportion of the spectral cone types and their distribution across the retina deviate from the pattern found in most mammals, including a complete absence of S-cones. Depending on species, the spectral sensitivity of the L-cone pigment may peak in the green, yellow, or orange, and that of the S-cone pigment in the blue, violet, or near-ultraviolet. While exclusive expression of one pigment per cone is the rule, some species feature coexpression of the L- and S-pigment in a significant proportion of their cones. It is widely assumed that all these variations represent adaptations to specific visual needs associated with particular habitats and lifestyles. However, in many cases we have not yet identified the adaptive value of a given photoreceptor arrangement. Comparative anatomy is a fruitful approach to explore the range of possible arrangements within the blueprint of the mammalian retina and to identify species with particularly interesting or puzzling patterns that deserve further scrutiny with physiological and behavioral assays. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Peichl L, Sandmann D, Boycott BB. "Comparative {Anatomy} and {Function} of {Mammalian} {Horizontal} {Cells}." In: Chalupa LM, Finlay BL, eds. Development and {Organization} of the {Retina}. Springer US; 1998:. {NATO} {ASI} {Series}. Abstract

Near the end of his life Ramón y Cajal (1933) summarized aspects of his view of the retina and, under the section heading “The paradox of vertebrate retinal horizontal cells” admitted defeat in understanding their role in visual processing. By then, horizontal cells had been identified and studied anatomically for more than six decades; today, six decades later, they are still amongst the most enigmatic neurons (historical reviews, e.g., Wässle et al., 1978a; Gallego, 1986; Piccolino, 1986, 1988). Numerous studies, using an ever-increasing arsenal of methods, have modified some of Cajal’s observations and added many new ones. For technical reasons, there has been a concentration on horizontal cell physiology and cellular biology in non-mammalian vertebrate retinae (reviewed in Dowling, 1987; Djamgoz et al., 1995; Kamermans & Spekreijse, 1995), and the results have been generalized to deduce mammalian horizontal cell function. Most recently, however, an increasing number of studies are examining mammalian horizontal cells with physiological and immunocytochemical approaches; and comparative anatomical studies are demonstrating previously unsuspected differences between species. More specific questions can now be asked although, as yet, answers are still scant. This review summarizes some earlier views of mammalian horizontal cell morphology and connectivity, then focuses on how some of the newer findings have modified the issues, and tries to suggest where answers may be sought.

Pellé R, Graham SP, Njahira MN, Osaso J, Saya RM, Odongo DO, Toye PG, Spooner PR, Musoke AJ, Mwangi DM, Taracha E, Morrison IW, Weir W, Silva JC, Bishop RP. "Two Theileria parva CD8 T cell antigen genes are more variable in buffalo than cattle parasites, but differ in pattern of sequence diversity." PLoS ONE . 2011;29(6(4)):e19015.
Pelz RB, Ogot M. "Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design.". 1998. Abstract

The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

Pelz R, Ogot M, Aly S, Cantelmi F, Burke B, Pelz R, Ogot M, Aly S, Cantelmi F, Burke B. "Global stochastic methods in MDO/CFD.". In: 35th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1997:. Abstract

The purpose of this paper is three-fold. We present two multidisciplinary applications of
global (stochastic) optimization problems in aerospace design which range from preliminary
to advanced design. One application involves the preliminary sizing code FLOPS, and the
other, high-fidelity aerodynamics and structural mechanics analyses codes. We look at the
viability of the stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA) for these
applications. In the high-fidelity application, we use a proof-of-concept problem to …

Penninah Ogada A. "The Struggle for Survival Amongst Rural Women in Kenya: Deference to Culture vs Socio-economic Needs." Ph.D. Dissertation, Northeastern University, Hope Lewis & Robert Weiss - Advisors,; 2003. Abstract
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Penninah Ogada A. "Gender & Diversity Institute." Conference paper AAUW International Symposium, Washington D.C; 2002. Abstract
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Penninah Ogada A. "Facilitation and Hindrance of Identity: Gender, Religion, Ethnicity and Politics in Kenya.". presented at(REDET) Workshop in Arusha; 2006. Abstract
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Penninah Ogada A. "Hate Speech and Overt Polarization of Citizens Towards Elections in 2013." Presented at Kenya2013 Election Watch Forum, Sarova Stanley; 2013. Abstract
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Penninah Ogada A. "Gender and Governance: Kenya." UNIFEM/RECESSPA High Profile Seminar, Holiday Inn, Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
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Penninah Ogada A. "Integrating APRM into University Education: Workshop for African Academics." presented at aWorkshop Hosted by the South African Institute of International Affairs at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, S. Africa; 2009. Abstract
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Pennise DM, Smith KR, Kithinji JP, Rezende ME, Raad TJ, Zhang J, Fan C. "Emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from charcoal making in Kenya and Brazil.". 2001.Website
Pere K, Mbatia B, Muge EK, Wekesa VW. "Dagaa (Rastrinoebola argentea) protein hydrolysate as a nitrogen source in microbial culture media." Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology. 2017;5:008-012. Abstract
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Perez M-TR, Caminos E. "Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and of its functional receptor in neonatal and adult rat retina." Neuroscience Letters. 1995;183:96-99. AbstractWebsite

The expression of mRNA coding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and for its functional receptor, the full-length tyrosine kinase receptor trkB (trkB mRNA), was examined in early postnatal and adult rat retina by in situ hybridization using digoxygenin and radioactively-labeled oligonucleotide probes. BDNF and trkB mRNAs are expressed in the ganglion cell layer at postnatal-days (PN) 1, 4, 7, 14, 60, in proximal neuroblastic layer (PN 1, 4, 7), and proximal inner nuclear layer (PN 14, 60). Subpopulations of developing and mature retinal cells are thus capable of synthesizing BDNF.

PeRRin MR. "Niche separation in African parrots.". In: Proceedings of the 12th Pan-African ornithological congress. Avian Demographic Unit RawsonvilleCape Town; 2008:. Abstract
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Perry BD, Kyendo TM, Mbugua SW, Price JE, Varma S. "Increasing Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Urban Dog Populations of High Human Population Density Suburbs; A Case Study in Nairobi, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 1995;22:137-142. Abstract
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Perry VH. "The ganglion cell layer of the retina of the rat: a {Golgi} study." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing papers of a Biological character. Royal Society (Great Britain). 1979;204:363-375. Abstract

In whole-mounts of Golgi stained rat retinae four cell types are described in the ganglion cell layer. Three of these cell types are considered to be analogous to the alpha, delta and gamma cells described in the cat retina by Boycott & Wässle (1974). The fourth cell type is thoughtt to be a displaced amacrine cell. All the cell types described are present in all parts of the retina. There is no evidence for an increase in dendritic field size with increasing distance from the optic disk.

Perry VH, Oehler R, Cowey A. "Retinal ganglion cells that project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque monkey." Neuroscience. 1984;12:1101-1123. AbstractWebsite

Horseradish peroxidase was deposited in the optic nerve to retrogradely label and reveal the dendritic form of all classes of ganglion cell, or it was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus to reveal only those classes projecting to the thalamus. The results were compared with those of the accompanying paper in which the ganglion cells projecting to the midbrain are selectively revealed. Two major classes of ganglion cells are described, the Pα and Pβ cells. For both classes dendritic field size increases with eccentricity from the fovea and there is no overlap in the two classes at any given eccentricity. Cell body size shows a similar mean difference but with a slight overlap. Both cell bodies and dendritic fields are larger along the temporal horizontal meridian than the nasal horizontal meridian, for Pα and for Pβ cells, but these differences are reduced when naso-temporal differences in ganglion cell density are taken into account, that is, size correlates closely with density. Injections restricted to the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus labelled almost exclusively Pβ cells, whereas injections confined to the magnocellular layers labelled almost exclusively Pα cells. As midbrain injections label no Pβ cells and few Pα cells it can be shown that about 80% of ganglion cells are Pβ cells projecting to parvocellular lateral geniculate nucleus, and that about 10% are Pα cells projecting to magnocellular layers. The coverage factor, that is the number of cells covering each point on the retina, varied from 1.9–2.3 for Pβ cells, and from 2–7 for Pα cells. Comparing the results with those of comparable investigations on cats and rabbits shows a much clearer segregation of the terminal targets of different classes of ganglion cell in monkeys, the greatest difference being the absence in the monkey of a projection to the geniculate from gamma- and epsilon-like cells. Further, axons which branch and innervate both thalamus and midbrain are rare in monkeys but common in other mammals. Comparing the results with those from physiological investigations suggests that the Pβ cells correspond to colour-opponent cells, whereas Pα cells correspond to the achromatic broad-band magnocellular cells.

Perry BD, Kyendo TM, Mbugua SW, Price JE, Varma S. "Increasing Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Urban Dog Populations of High Human Population Density Suburbs; A Case Study in Nairobi, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 1995;22:137-142.
Perry J Pickhardt JS. "Appendiceal length as an independent risk factor for acute appendicitis." European radiology. 2013. Abstract
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Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. The Role of the East African Legislative Assembly. In Ajulu,R. The Making of Region: The Revival of the East African Community.". In: Institute for Global Dialogue. Midrand, South Africa. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
This chapter discusses the expected contribution of the East African Legislative Assembly to the revival and consolidation of the East African Community and the eventual political federation. It also discusses the challenges that the Assembly is likely to face while playing this role. In this regard, the chapter offers some suggestions on how this role can be enhanced. It ends with a brief discussion of the future of the East African Community.
Peter GS, Gitau GK, Mulei CM, Vanleeuwen J, Richards S, Wichtel J, Uehlinger F, Mainga O. "Prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in pre-weaned calves on smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini district, Kenya." Veterinary World . 2015;8(9):1118-1125.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2001. The Power of Knowledge: The Impact of Voter Education and Electoral Behaviour in a Kenyan Constituency.". In: In Ludeki Chweya (ed) Electoral Politics in Kenya. ClariPress, Nairobi PP.47-69. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "If Laivino Dead: An Aesthetic.". In: University of Nairobi-Great Lakes Colleges Association, Nairobi. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2002. The Public Service and the Politics of Succession. Mute L et al. (edts). Building and Open Society, The Politics of Transition in Kenya.". In: Claripress, Nairobi, Kenya. pp 157-174. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002.
Peter SG. "Zoonotic Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Infections and their Potential Reservoirs: A Review." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2020;9(1):1-9.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2003. Reflections on Electoral System and Practice in Kenya.". In: Hekima, Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol.11, N umber 1,pp 102-116. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

The current electoral system in Kenya was adopted at the Lancaster House Conference in 1962 during the negotiations for Kenya's independence. Numerous laws and regulations that have their origins in the current constitution govern the entire electoral process. Despite these the political and administrative environment often hinders the conduct of free and fair elections in the country, a fact that has serious negative implications for the development and attempts to institutionalise democracy in the country. There has been very weak support to the Electoral Commission by other key stakeholders such as political parties especially since the reintroduction of multiparty politics in 1992.There is an urgent need to re-examine the electoral laws and to empower the Electoral Commission of Kenya in order to improve the management of elections. The ongoing constitutional review provides a golden opportunity for this.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1990. Themes in World History.". In: Longman. Kenya Ltd. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Graphic Design for Development: The Case of Road Safety.". In: UNESCO /ICOGRAD A, Conference Proceedings Nairobi Kenya. University of Nairobi Press; 1986. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2003. The Political Context of Governance. In Kenya's Democratic transition Challenges and Opportunities.". In: African Centre for Economic Growth. Nairobi Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1997. Oginga Odinga. In: The Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Sahara.". In: Charles Scribner's Sons. Macmillan Publishing, USA.P.357. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "The Problems of Defining African Design.". In: Design Review, U.K. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Peter C, Alzen G, Omwandho COA, Bültmann E, Hertel H, Gruessner SE. "Antenatal and postnatal management of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation diagnosed by ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Antenatal diagnosis of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation (CCAM) is vital for disease surveillance and postnatal care. Ultrasonography (US) has been the imaging gold standard for antenatal CCAM assessment. However, one of the limitations of US is the “vanishing phenomenon” caused by isoechogenicity of CCAM tissue and adjacent normal lung parenchyma. Methods: Antenatal serial US were concurrently used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor macro- and microcystic lesions. Results: In both pregnant women, antenatal US and MRI confirmed the presence, in the fetus, of cystic lesions and predicted disease regression/progression as well as the need for postnatal surgical intervention. Several advantages were detected by using both—serial US and MRI (over serial US alone)—including improved signal intensity, exact volume size measurements, precise CCAM location in particular for patients with adverse ultrasound conditions. Both neonates underwent surgical resection and had an uneventful post-operative course. Conclusions: Antenatal use of MRI as well as serial US improved information regarding tissue resolution and delineation of CCAM. The information from two imaging modalities was complementary. Our literature review confirmed the emerging role of prenatal MRI for postnatal monitoring and management of CCAM.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. Challenging the Political Order: The Politics of Presidential Succession In Kenya. In Bahemuka and Brockington (edited) East Africa In Transition, Images, Identities and Institutions.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This paper analyses the politics of presidential succession that occupied the time resources and energy of the political class since the opening up of the political space in the late 1980s and earlyb1990s. The paper has three major arguments. First it argues that the changes that were sought constituted a major challenge to the established political order as it sought to dislodge those in power and to make the government responsive to the citizens. This was being done in a context in which political leaders consider it illegal to challenge those in authority. Secondly the paper argues that those challenging the political order by seeking the presidency faced an uphill task precisely because they were up against a well-established political machine in the name of the Kenya Africa National Union (KANU). Finally the paper argues that the politics surrounding presidential succession gravitated around two major interests, namely ethnic and class interests.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1999. Governance and Structural Adjustment In Kenya.". In: Hyden et al (Des) Perspectives on African Governance. Africa World Press, Inc. PP 105-122. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999.
PETER DRMUGWE. "Newton VE, Macharia I, Mugwe P, Ototo B, Kan SW.Evaluation of the use of a questionnaire to detect hearing loss in Kenyan pre-school children.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001 Mar;57(3):229-34.". In: Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001 Mar;57(3):229-34. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2001. Abstract
In developing countries, there is a lack of trained personnel and testing equipment to facilitate the early detection of hearing impairment in children. A questionnaire offers a low cost option and the value of this for detecting hearing impairment in pre-school children was determined in several districts in Kenya. The questionnaire was completed by either teachers, parents/carers or community nurses. The children were subsequently tested using pure tone audiometry and visual examination of the ear by ENT Clinical Officers, who were not given prior access to the results of the questionnaire. A total of 757 (88%) questionnaires were completed. Of the 735 children, who could be tested using pure tone audiometry, four were found to have a unilateral hearing impairment and one was detected by the questionnaire. A total of 13 children had a bilateral hearing impairment >40 dB HL. All were detected using the questionnaire. There were eight males and five females with ages ranging from 4.2 to 6.9 years, mean age 5.7 years and median age 5.8 years. Eight had a sensorineural hearing impairment and two a mixed hearing impairment. Three of the children with a sensorineural hearing loss had a family history of hearing impairment. No question detected all children with a hearing impairment and some questions were more discerning than others. There was 100% sensitivity for the questionnaire when a hearing loss of >40 dB was considered, but specificity was lower at 75%. Negative predictive value was 100%, but the positive predictive value was low, 6.75%. It was concluded that a questionnaire of this nature could be usefully applied at Primary Health Care level for detecting hearing impairment at the pre-school stage. There would be need for services available for diagnosis, treatment and habilitation before a screening programme was introduced.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Personhood and Art: Social Change and Commentary Among the Acoli.". In: Indiana University Press. University of Nairobi Press; 2000. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. Evolution of Governance Practice in Kenya. An Overview in Bujra Abdala (ed). Democratic Transition in Kenya: The Struggle from Liberal to Social Democracy.". In: African Centre for Economic Growth in collaboration with Development Policy Management Forum. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Since the 1990s, political discourse in Kenya and indeed in other Sub-Saharan Africa n countries has centred on issues of governance. This is because of the emerging consensus in the country , especially among scholars that the major social economic, political and human rights problems that Kenya is experiencing emanate from the nature of governance in the country(Kanyinga;2001;37).As a result , a number of initiatives to improve governance have been and continue to be undertaken in Kenya. These initiatives cover the four dimensions of governance, namely political, economic, administrative and legal. This chapter provides background material on the nature and trends of governance in Kenya . It highlights the major trends in governance since independence in 1963 , pointing out their impact on society generally and socio- economic development and stability in particular. The approach adopted is historical and examinees the mode of governance both during the presidency of Kenyatta and that of Moi. The final section of the chapter identifies areas of governance that require priority attention for improvement
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2001.The Practice of Governance.Making Informed Choices.". In: A Hand Book for Civic Education. Jointly produced by Civic Education for Marginalized Communities (CEDMAC) Constitution and Reform Education Consortium (CRE-CO), Ecumenical Civic Education Programme (ECEP) and the Gender Consortium. Nairobi Kenya. PP. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Mismatch in Design Education.". In: University of Art and Design, Helsinki. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2002. Recent Constitutional Developments in Kenya.". In: In Saida Yahya-Othmos (edt). Politics, Governance and Cooperation in East Africa. Mkuki Ya Nyota Publications, Dar-es-Salaam. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002.
Peter SG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with infections in smallholder dairy cattle in Nairobi City County, Kenya." Vet World. 2019;12(10):1599-1607. Abstract

Ehrlichiosis caused by is a tick-borne disease of great economic importance in cattle production worldwide. Despite its economic impact, limited knowledge is available on its epidemiology in Africa, including Kenya. Suspected cases of infections have been reported in the recent past to the University of Nairobi's Veterinary Hospital, prompting the need to investigate their possible re-emergence. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of among smallholder dairy cattle in Nairobi City County and to assess potential risk factors. This knowledge may guide the development of appropriate control strategies of ehrlichiosis, subsequently reducing associated losses.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2003. Beyond Campaign Rhetoric; The challenges for NARC Government.". In: Wajibu. A Journal of Social and Religious Concern. Vol.18, number 1-2, May -July.pp 23-25. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

The current electoral system in Kenya was adopted at the Lancaster House Conference in 1962 during the negotiations for Kenya's independence. Numerous laws and regulations that have their origins in the current constitution govern the entire electoral process. Despite these the political and administrative environment often hinders the conduct of free and fair elections in the country, a fact that has serious negative implications for the development and attempts to institutionalise democracy in the country. There has been very weak support to the Electoral Commission by other key stakeholders such as political parties especially since the reintroduction of multiparty politics in 1992.There is an urgent need to re-examine the electoral laws and to empower the Electoral Commission of Kenya in order to improve the management of elections. The ongoing constitutional review provides a golden opportunity for this.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "E.S. Atieno- Odhiambo and Wanyande, Peter. 1988. History and Government of Kenya.". In: Longman. Kenya Limited. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1988.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2003. The Politics of Alliance Building: The Search For Opposition Unity.". In: Oyugi, Wanyande and Mbai (Edts). The Politics of Transition In Kenya: From KANU to NARC. Book Print, Nairobi Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1997. The Mass Media as Civil Society and Their Role in Democratic transition in Kenya.". In: Africa Media Review, Vol. 10 No. 3 pp1-20. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Aesthetic Persuasion: The Role of the Military in Restructuring Acholi Art.". In: African Studies Association Annual Meeting November 6-9, Baltimore. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. Decentralization and Local Goverance: A Conceptual and Theoretical Discourse.". In: Regional Development Dialogue Journal of the United Nations Center for Regional Ddevelopment (UNCRD) Vol, 25, No 1 Spring pp1-13. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
Peter K. Factors influencing integration of ICT in teaching and learning . Germany: VDM/ academic publications Germany ISBN 2010 97863929183; 2010.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande Peter. 1998. The Significance of Voter Education in the Democratization Process. In The Road to Democracy.". In: A Publication of The Eastern And Southern African Universities Research Programme. Tema Publishers, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. PP87-104. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1998.
PETER DRMUGWE. "Hatcher J, Smith A, Mackenzie I, Thompson S, Bal I, Macharia I, Mugwe P, Okoth-Olende C, Oburra H, Wanjohi Z, et al.A prevalence study of ear problems in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, May 1992.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995 Nov;33(3):19.". In: Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995 Nov;33(3):197-205. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1995. Abstract
Information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and related ear pathologies in children in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. A pilot study for a clinical trial of simple treatments for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, provided information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and ear pathologies. Five-thousand-three-hundred-sixty-eight children from 57 randomly chosen primary schools in Kiambu district were examined. Simple otoscopy was performed by clinical officers with specialty training in ENT, and hering testing was performed by trained nurses, using a hand held field audiometer. Microbiological specimens were obtained from those children with CSOM. Five-point-six percent of the children had a hearing impairment of > 30 dB HL in one or both ears, with 2.2% having bilateral hearing impairment. Two-point-four percent had at least one perforated tympanic membrane, and 1.1% had CSOM. Eight-point-six percent of the children had wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. There is evidence of a relationship between hearing impairment and both CSOM and wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. The most common organisms found were Pseudomonas spp. (34%), Proteus spp. (34%) and Eschericia coli (19%). These results are comparable with other studies in Africa and indicate a considerable burden of ear disease in Kiambu district, Kenya.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Cultural Factors Contradicting Behavior Modification Messages.". In: 2nd National HIV/AIDS/STI Conference Ministry of Health, Mbagathi. University of Nairobi Press; 1998. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. Refugees and Internally Displaces Persons Phenomenon in Africa: A Governance Perspective.". In: Journal of the Regional Development Studies, Vol. 10. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Since the 1990s, political discourse in Kenya and indeed in other Sub-Saharan Africa n countries has centred on issues of governance. This is because of the emerging consensus in the country , especially among scholars that the major social economic, political and human rights problems that Kenya is experiencing emanate from the nature of governance in the country(Kanyinga;2001;37).As a result , a number of initiatives to improve governance have been and continue to be undertaken in Kenya. These initiatives cover the four dimensions of governance, namely political, economic, administrative and legal. This chapter provides background material on the nature and trends of governance in Kenya . It highlights the major trends in governance since independence in 1963 , pointing out their impact on society generally and socio- economic development and stability in particular. The approach adopted is historical and examinees the mode of governance both during the presidency of Kenyatta and that of Moi. The final section of the chapter identifies areas of governance that require priority attention for improvement
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2001. Management Politics in Kenya\.". In: Journal of African Political Science. Vol. 6, No.1 pp 106-117. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Nakedness in East African Aesthetics.". In: Action Publishers. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2006. Electoral Politics and Election Outcomes in Kenya. Africa Development. Special Issue on Electoral Politics In Africa.". In: Vol XXXI No3, 2006.pp 62-80. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2001. Governance, Democracy and Development in East Africa. In P. Samanta and Risen (ed).". In: Realizing African Development - A Millennial Analysis Centre for Indo-African Development Studies, Calcutta PP.1-22. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
Peter SG, Gitau GK, Richards S, Vanleeuwen JA, Uehlinger F, Mulei CM, Kibet RR. "Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, and diarrhea in smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini Sub-County, Nyeri County, Kenya." Vet World. 2016;9(8):811-9. Abstract

This study was undertaken to determine the household, calf management, and calf factors associated with the occurrence of Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and diarrhea in pre-weaned calves reared in smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini Sub-County of Nyeri County, Kenya. In addition, the study also evaluated factors associated with average daily weight gain in the same pre-weaned calves.

PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "It Takes One to Toy Toy: Oneness in East African Aesthetic Expression.". In: Network of African. University of Nairobi Press; 2003. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Peter O, Daniel O, William O, Shem W. "Households’ climate change adaptive capacity in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya." Journal Of Humanities And Social Science. 2017;22(3):26-32. Abstractresearchgate.net

A households’ climate change adaptive (CCA) capacity simply refers to the household head’s potential to effectively respond to climate change induced forcings. The households’ adaptive capacity hinges on several factors. This paper reports the evaluation results of the households’ CCA capacity in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), Kenya. The knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of households are said to be predictors of households’ CCA capacity. There is evidence that over the past 30 years, a number of permanent streams in the LVB, Kenya, have dried up. Across sectional survey was conducted in Gwasi and Nyando areas within the LVB, Kenya. The level of education of respondents was 44.2% (n=523) primary, 35% high school and 20.8% diploma training and above. The level of awareness of CC was 62% and 94.6% among the male respondents in Gwasi and Nyando respectively. About 57.9% (n=523) stated that both human activities and natural changes are responsible for the CC. Approximately 27.2% (n=261) and 33.5 % (n=262) in Gwasi and Nyando respectively store roof catchment water. Approximately 35.3 % (n=261) and 22.2% (n=262) in Gwasi and Nyando respectively keep donkeys for water transport. These results reveals that the CCA was positively influenced by household heads’ KAP
Keywords: Households, adaptive capacity, climate change and variability.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande. Peter. 2002. Joseph D, Otiende. A Biography.". In: Published under the series . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract

The current electoral system in Kenya was adopted at the Lancaster House Conference in 1962 during the negotiations for Kenya's independence. Numerous laws and regulations that have their origins in the current constitution govern the entire electoral process. Despite these the political and administrative environment often hinders the conduct of free and fair elections in the country, a fact that has serious negative implications for the development and attempts to institutionalise democracy in the country. There has been very weak support to the Electoral Commission by other key stakeholders such as political parties especially since the reintroduction of multiparty politics in 1992.There is an urgent need to re-examine the electoral laws and to empower the Electoral Commission of Kenya in order to improve the management of elections. The ongoing constitutional review provides a golden opportunity for this.

Peter SG, Aboge GO, Kariuki HW, Kanduma EG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM, Mainga AO. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16(1):364. Abstract

Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species are tick-borne pathogens of both veterinary and public health importance. The current status of these pathogens, including emerging species such as Ehrlichia minasensis and Anaplasma platys, infecting cattle in Kenya, remain unclear, mainly because of limitation in the diagnostic techniques. Therefore, we investigated the Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species infecting dairy cattle in Nairobi, Kenya using molecular methods.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1987. Women's Groups in Participatory Development: Kenya's Development Experience Through Harambee.". In: Development: Journal of the Society for International Development. Vol.2 No.3, pp. 94-102. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1987.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2003. Affirmative Action for Kenyan Women: An Analysis of the Relevant Provision of the Draft Constitution. In Maria Nzomo (edts) Perspectives on Gender Discourse. Women in Politics: Challenges on Democratic Transition in Kenya.". In: Henrich Boll Foundation, East and North Africa Region. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
The paper examines the issues of affirmative action as currently provided for in the Draft constitution and seeks to shed insights into the impact of these provisions on the under- representation of women in major decision making state organs and the low level of political participation by women. In short the paper seeks to find out whether or not these provisions will be a panacea to the problems of under representation of women in public decision-making institutions including parliament and local authorities. The paper argues that the proposed affirmative action is major victory for Kenyan women and marks a positive step towards gender parity in Kenyan politics. However affirmative action by itself will not lead to gender parity and solve the political marginalization of women in the medium and long term. It will not result in the nomination of capable and influential women committed to the cause of women. It may in fact be counterproductive in the short and medium run. The women will have to put considerable pressure on those nominated through affirmative action to represent them to do precisely that.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1995. The State, Democracy, and Sustainable Development in Africa. In Charles Okigbo (ed) Media and Sustainable Development.". In: A Publication of the African Council for Communication Education. Printed by Kenya Litho Nairobi, Kenya PP190-223. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1995.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Traditional Products and Cultural Identity.". In: Conference Proceedings Powai, India. University of Nairobi Press; 1986. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, Oyugi W, and C odhiambo- Mbai . 2003. The Politics of Transition in Kenya: FROM KANU To NARC.". In: Published by Henrich Boll Foundation Nairobi, Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter et al. 1997. History and Government.". In: Longhorn, Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Fat of the Land: The Problems of Design Education for Small Business Development.". In: Design Institute and South Africa Bureau of Standards, Cape Town. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. NEPAD and Security In the IGAD Region. Security In the Age of Globalization.". In: In Makumi Mwagiru (edit) African Regional Henrich Boll Foundation Regional Office for Eastern Africa, Nairobi. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1999. Human Capital Development in Kenya.". In: Ngethe and Owino (edited) From Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965. Towards Indigenising Policy Debate in Kenya. A publication of the Institute for Policy Analysis and Research. Nairobi, Kenya. PP 240-266. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Design and the African Cultural Identity.". In: Design for Development Initiative, Durban. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Peter Akuon HX. "Gain of Spatial Diversity with Conjoint Signals.". In: IEEE Africon. Cape Town, South Africa; 2017.
Peter Aweer Duot Ajak, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Wanyoike MMM. "Evaluation of Dairy Cattle Productivity in Smallholder Farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;2(1).
Peter M. F. Mbithi, Judith S. Mbau, Nzioka J. Muthama, Hellen Inyega JKM, Kala JM. "Higher education and skills development in Africa: An analytical paper on the role of higher learning Institutions on sustainable development." Journal of Sustainability, Environment & Peace. 2021;4(2):58-73.
Peter Musau Moses, Abungu DNO. "Solving The Active Distribution Network Reconfiguration (ADNR) Problem Taking Into Consideration A Stochastic Wind Scenario and Load Uncertainity." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. 2013;3(7).p._musau_and_dr._abungu.pdf
Peter P.W & Gathungu J. "Performance Contracting , Psychological contracts and service Delivery ." LAP Lambert Academic Publishing . 2013:1-43.
Peters BS, Jaoko W, Vardas E, Panayotakopoulos G, Fast P, Klavinskis L, Bogoshi M, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Dally L, Klavinskis L, Farah B, Tarragona T, Bart P-A, Robinson A, Pieterse C, Stevens W, Thomas R, Barin B, McMichael AJ, McIntyre JA, Pantaleo G, Hanke T´aˇs, Bwayo JJ. "Studies of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine candidate based on modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) with and without DNA priming: Effects of dosage and route on safety and immunogenicity.". 2006. Abstract

Two parallel studies evaluated safety and immunogenicity of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine in 192 HIV-seronegative, low-risk volunteers. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and plasmid DNA (pTHr) expressed HIV-1 clade A gag p24 and p17 fused to a string of 25 overlapping CD8+ T cell epitopes (HIVA). Methods: These studies compared intramuscular, subcutaneous, and intradermal MVA at dosage levels ranging from 5×106–2.5×108 pfu. In Study IAVI-010, DNA vaccine was given as a prime at months 0 and 1, followed by MVA as a boost at months 5 and 8. In Study IAVI-011, MVA alone was given at months 0 and 2. Regular safety monitoring was performed. Immunogenicity was measured by the interferon (IFN)- ELISPOT assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Results: No serious adverse events were attributed to either vaccine; most adverse events were mild or moderate, although MVA resulted in some severe local reactions. Five vaccine recipients had at least one positive IFN- ELISPOT response, but none were sustained. Conclusion: This HIV-1 vaccine candidate was in general safe and well-tolerated. Local reactions were common, but tolerable. Detectable immune responses were infrequent.

Peters DA, Courtemanche DJ, Heran MKS, Ludemann JP, Prendiville JS. "Treatment of cystic lymphatic vascular malformations with {OK}-432 sclerotherapy." Plastic and reconstructive surgery. 2006;118:1441-1446. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Peters PJ, Stringer J, McConnell MS, Kiarie J, Ratanasuwan W, Intalapaporn P, Potter D, Mutsotso W, Zulu I, Borkowf CB, Bolu O, Brooks JT, Weidle PJ. "Nevirapine-associated hepatotoxicity was not predicted by CD4 count ≥250 cells/μL among women in Zambia, Thailand and Kenya." HIV Med.. 2010;11(10):650-60. Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for developing severe hepatotoxicity (grade 3 or 4 hepatotoxicity) and rash-associated hepatotoxicity (rash with ≥ grade 2 hepatotoxicity) among women initiating nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Peterson DW, Maitai CK, Sparber SB. "Relative potencies of two phenylalkylamines found in the abused plant Catha edulis, khat." Life Sci.. 1980;27(22):2143-7.
Peterson DL, Gleisner JM, Blakley RL. "Bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase: purification and properties of the enzyme." Biochemistry. 1975;14(24):5261-7. Abstract

A purification procedure is reported for obtaining bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase in high yield and amounts of 100-200 mg. A key step in the procedure is the use of an affinity gel prepared by coupling pteroyl-L-lysine to Sepharose. The purified reductase has a specific activity of about 100 units/mg and is homogeneous as judged by analytical ultracentrifugation, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and titration with methotrexate. The products of the first step of Edman degradation indicated a minimum purity of 79%. The reductase has a molecular weight of about 21500 on the basis of amino acid composition and 22100 +/- 300 from equilibrium sedimentation. It is not inhibited by antiserum to the Streptococcus faecium reductase (isoenzyme 2). Unlike the reductase of many other vertebrate tissues, the bovine enzyme is inhibited by mercurials rather than activated and it has a single pH optimum at both low and high ionic strength. However, the position of the pH optimum is shifted and the activity increased by increasing ionic strength. Automatic Edman degradation has been used to determine 34 of the amino-terminal 37 amino acid residues. Considerable homology exists between this region and the corresponding regions of the reductase from S. faecium and from Escherichia coli. This strengthens the idea that this region contributes to the structure of the binding site for dihydrofolate.

PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers, English Units 1-6,Institute of In-service Teacher Training and Ministry of Education, Mogadishu - Somalia.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1990.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, A., Report on the National Accreditation Workshop, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and UK Department for International Development (DFID), 2000.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers: English, Unit 1 Grammar,Part One, School of Distance Studies, University of Nairobi and Ministry of Education,Science and Technology, 81 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi A, Matiru, B and Schlete R (eds) Teach Your Best: A Handbook for University Lecturers, Institute for Socio-Cultural Studies, University of Kassel .". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1995.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, Oxenham, J et al, Strengthening of Livelihoods with Literacy,Institute of International Cooperation of the German Adult Education Association, Bonn, Germany.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers: English, Unit 1 Grammar,Part Two, School of Distance Studies, University of Nairobi and Ministry of EducationScience and Technology, 68 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P and Macheru N.,Project Proposal Writing, Kenya Adult Education Association.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, A., Kenya: The African Medical Research Foundation in Case Studies of Non-formal Education by Distance and Open Learning, Commonwealth of Learning Vancouver, Canada and the British Development for International Development, UK (DFID) 2000,.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
This study documents the experience of the Distance Education Project of the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF), Kenya Country Office. The African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) is an independent, non-profit organisation founded in 1957. It is one of the few international Non- Governmental Organisations (NGOs) based in Africa, with headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The Distance Education Project focuses on workers who have little or no access to any other form of continuing education. (Brye et al, 1990). As a result, their medical skills and capabilities often deteriorate which inevitably leads to poor service delivery. (DE Proposal to USAID, 1989/94). Some observations of the study were that: There seems to be a fairly wide geographical distribution of learners. However, a closer look reveals that learners seem to come in clusters from certain areas, especially where there is a larger health care facility. This suggests that information on availability of the AMREF courses is obtained by word of mouth rather than by an aggressive effort to advertise the project in areas with low enrolment. On the other hand, while the majority of learners stated that they find the courses relevant to their work, almost 20% indicated that the course they are taking is not directly related to their work. 30% of respondents stated that AMREF courses should be upgraded, recognised by employers and educational institutions and considered for promotions. Perhaps, if the courses offered by AMREF are aimed at a particular category of health worker and are so structured as to start from the basic training level, bringing the learner up to a higher level through a series of related courses, there would be a stronger case for recognition of the certificates. When planning an education programme, it is important to see it as a continuing programme, bringing a learner from a lower level to a higher level of learning. The respondents noted an increase in knowledge and acquired a variety of skills as a result of the completion of the AMREF DE course(s). Generally, DE learners learned about new medical conditions especially in the area of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), gained new skills in physical examination, refreshed their knowledge in areas previously studied and noted an increase in confidence in the workplace. One of the most common complaints amongst correspondence learners was that it took too long for course materials to be received after registration for a course. In addition, most active correspondence learners had not had an opportunity to meet with their tutors. Fifty five (55) learners from the sample population stated that they had never met their tutors. For distance learners who study alone, it is important to establish a system of quick response and promote a caring attitude to encourage learners to complete their course of studies. This is even more important in this case where face to face sessions have been discontinued.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, Oxenham, J et al, Skills and Literacy Training for Better Livelihoods:A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002.
PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "Polychlorinated Biphenyls As Health Hazards Submitted to East African Medical Journal Mbeo PO; Omwandho CA; Tumbo-Oeri AG; Mecha EO.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "Assessing Management of Medical Needs of Orphans in Orphanages in Nyanza Province (Submitted) Sahara Journal, 2005 Mbeo PO; Omwandho CA; Tumbo-Oeri AG.". In: AWC/FES Research Publications. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "The Role Of Pharmacists In Providing Emergency Contraception In Kenya Submitted To The Pharmaceutical Society Of Kenya Journal Maiyo VC; Mbeo PO.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "Integration Of ICT Into The Management Of Access To Treatment And Monitoring Of ART In Rural Kenya Submitted to 14th International Conference on AIDS and STI.". In: 14th International Conference on AIDS and STI. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "In Pursuit Of Millennium Development Goals: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya Mbeo PO; Omwandho CA; Tumbo-Oeri AG.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
and Philip Kilbride, Collette Suda EN. Street Children in Kenya - Voices ofChildren in Search ofa Childhood. London: bergin & Garvey; 2000. Abstract

This book results from a cross-national and interdisciplinary research effort.
Although Collette Suda (C. S.), a rural sociologist, and Enos Njeru (E. N.), and
Philip Kilbride (P. K.), both anthropologists, were all academically trained in
the United States, we have benefited from an "insider" -" outsider" dialogue in
writing this book. C. S. and E. N., as Kenyans, kept our work closely grounded
in local language, cultural interpretations, and applied recommendations. P. K.
focused on ethnography as an "outsider," as non-Kenyans must do, and also
sought to coordinate our findings with comparative, cultural, and theoretical
concerns beyond the Kenyan scene. We operated, however, on some occasions
as insiders or outsiders given P. K.' s research on children and family in East
Africa since 1967 and E. N.'s and C. S.'s international travel, education, and
living experiences abroad. More details about our collaboration in research and
writing together are provided in the text.
Street children are often portrayed by the public and sometimes in
publications as a separate, socially distinct category of person. We have tried to
emphasize here social complexities that problemtize this simplistic view.
Following a holistic perspective, we have emphasized throughout the book how
street children in Kenya, in fact, live like other Kenyans, embedded, for
example, in similar institutions, informal work routines, cultural beliefs, and
family relations. Such involvements are not dissimilar in many respects from
others who make up the working poor in Nairobi. Still, street children do stand
apart as a distinct social category both in their own minds and that of the public
as well. We will consider reasons for this and which social characteristics seem
widely shared among street children. Throughout, however, while recognizing
commonalities, we attempt to emphasize the rich variation among children that
we discovered in our research.
In our book we seek to systematically provide information about street girls.
An awareness of difference and variation as our work progressed compelled us
to emphasize gender differences at every tum. We also wanted to highlight gender inasmuch as compared to boys, very little is published about street girls.
This is strikingly true in Kenya but, to a great degree, elsewhere in the world-as
well. We decided to incorporate a gendered analysis throughout the book rather
than providing separate chapters on girls. This decision was taken so as to
better put across the idea that there are commonalities among all street children
irrespective of gender differences. When all is said and done, boys and girls in
Kenya share a common label and many similar problems.
As part of our holistic perspective, we have taken special note of how the
current problem of street children in Kenya stands in sharp contrast to
indigenous derived practices and experiences associated with childhood in
Kenya. The street child is but a recent event in the culture history of Kenya.
Specifically, we have emphasized Kenyan family cultural beliefs and indigenous
practices as an interpretive framework not only because we believe this to be
relevant, but also inasmuch as family and gender issues themselves, apart from
street children, have occupied us prior to and throughout our work with street
children. For better or worse, we have tried here to relate social topics we know
the most about to the situation of street children. Only the reader can judge if
we have overstated our family-friendly interpretation and related practical
recommendations with which we conclude this book. We trust that most readers
will agree that family analysis is certainly relevant to a full understanding of
street children in Kenya. Whatever interpretive conclusions arise on this point,
we all hope that our descriptive materials about street children stand alone and
are informative in their own right.
Throughout our research and writing, we have followed research methods
that attempt to involve the voices of street children concerning events, beliefs,
experiences, and aspirations that they privilege in their own discourse about
themselves. Ethnography, focus group, and social survey converge around our
experience near research methodology. Overall, previous published materials in
Kenya have not systematically privileged children's voices in the multirnethod
sense that we have attempted here. Nevertheless, we have also set out
theoretical objectives and conceptual categories derived from our own
disciplinary, theoretical concerns and comparative understandings about street
children globally. Therefore, we will consider interplay between children's
voices and our theoretical framework as part of our discussion of methodology.
However, inclusion of street children's voices here is more than simply a
matter of epistemology. Our ultimate intention of being able to better suggest
some applied, practical recommendations to policy makers also compels us to
consider children's perspectives wherever possible. It is unlikely that many
policy recommendations concerning street children will get very far before
people first learn directly from the children about themselves. How best to
assist them is also something street children have thought about and about which
they have strong opinions. We end our book with policy recommendations that
take into account, but which are not limited to, the voices of those children
represented in our research. Weare hopeful that our recommendations, about social policy and applications of our research in Kenya will be of interest to all
of those thinking about applied solutions to what is, in fact, a global problem
concerning street children in many nations.
We use pseudonyms in this book for most individuals whom we encountered
in fieldwork. In particular, we have used real or invented nicknames for all
street children on the advice of street children who, themselves, use nicknames
to conceal their identities from the police. An exception is "Mama Ford," a
buyer of waste products from street boys who, after reading what we had written
about her with approval, requested that we give her real name, Josephine
Karanja, in publication.
We have also not published photographs so as to conceal the identities of
street children, most of whom are regularly under harassment from the police.
Moreover, most street children may want their past lives on the streets kept
private in the future. There is a rapid turnover on the streets such that as far as
the street children described here are concerned, all have left the streets or now
live in different locations in Nairobi. The wheel of field research and
publication grinds slowly; in our case, that has served our desire to protect the
identities of our informants as well as to become familiar with changes in their
lives over time.

Philippon N, Camberlin P, Moron V, Gitau W, Ozer P. "Recent Evolution of the March-May Rainfall in East Africa: Spatial Patterns and Sub-seasonal Scenarios." Actes du 27e Colloque International de l'Association Internationale de Climatologie. 2014:687-692. AbstractORBi

Using raingauge daily rainfall data documenting the Horn of Africa and the Long Rains over the period 1961-2012, the aim of this study is three-fold:1/ confirming the drying trend detected by Lyon et DeWitt (2012) during the Long Rains using gridded rainfall, 2/ understanding how this drying is expressed at the intraannual time scale using the sub-seasonal scenario approach developed by Moron et al. (2013) and 3/ assess its impact on vegetation. A drying is actually measured using raingauge data but is less severe than the one measured using gridded data. It is the strongest at the driest stations and during the rainfall climatological peak (April). It seems to be associated with a higher frequency of the dry subseasonal scenarios i.e. characterized by negative rainfall anomalies through the whole or the core of the seasonal cycle. But we don't observe yet a diminution of the vegetation photosynthetic activity in response to the rainfall decrease. To the contrary, the Rainfall Use Efficiency (RUE) displays a slightly positive trend.

Philipsson, J; Zonabend BRC; OAME;. Global perspectives on animal genetic resources for sustainable agriculture and food production in the tropics.; 2011. Abstract

This first module provides some insight into the need for better use of animal genetic resources (AnGR) in the context of projected demand for food in developing countries until 2020. Worldwide, about a billion people do not have enough to eat; a livestock revolution is currently underway to meet the nutritional needs and improve the livelihood of poor people. However, the recent international food and financial crises have again worsened the situation for many of the world’s poor. The module provides the background, facts and reasons for increased attention to improved utilization and maintenance of AnGR for food and agriculture in developing countries. It also provides a list of some key literature. References and links are made to web resources and to other parts of this resource. Some case studies on breed resources and other relevant components of this resource (CD and web version) help illustrate the issues presented.

Philipsson J, Rege JEO, Zonabend E. Animal improvement for increased productivity and food availability.; 2011. AbstractWebsite

This module discusses important factors to consider when designing sustainable genetic improvement programmes, especially under tropical conditions. Previous attempts to launch breeding programmes in developing countries have too often failed for several reasons, although there are success stories to learn from as well. Long-term and simple strategies are necessary as is the need to efficiently exploit the potential of indigenous breeds. Increased productivity per animal or area of land used also need to be considered. However, that must be achieved while also considering the variable socio-economic and cultural values of livestock in different societies or regions. Within the module there are links [blue] to web resources and [green] to case studies and other related components of this resource that help illustrate the issues presented.

Phipps W, Saracino M SHMLJMWCMCRSSWK. "Oral HHV-8 replication among women in Mombasa, Kenya." Journal of Medical Virology. 2014;86(10):1759-65.
Phiri, I.K., Ngowi, H., Alfonso, S., Matenga, E., Boa, M., Mukaratirwa, S., Githigia, S.M., Saimo, M., Sikasunge, C., Maingi N, Lubega, G.W., Kassuku, A., Michael, L., Siziya, S., Krecek, R.C., Noormahomed, E., Vilhema, M., P. D, Willingham AL. "The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk." Acta Tropica. 2003;87:13-23.2003.the_emergence_of_taenia_solium_cysticercosis_in_eastern_and_southern_africa_as_a_serious_agricultural_problem_and_public_health_risk.pdf
Phiri IA, et al. "Profile of African Christianity at Home and in the West.". In: Anthology of African Christianity. Oxford: Regnum; 2017.

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