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Padmavathi G. "Study of the variations of superior cerebellar artery in human cadavers." International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2014;2:699-703. AbstractWebsite
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Paesen J, Quintens I, Thoithi G, Roets E, Reybrouck G, Hoogmartens J. "Quantitative analysis of quaternary ammonium antiseptics using thin-layer densitometry." J. Chromatogr. A. 1994;677:377-384.
Page MM, Alberti KG, Greenwood R, Gumaa KA, Hockaday TD, Lowy C, Nabarro JD, Pyke DA, Sönksen PH, Watkins PJ, West TE. "Treatment of diabetic coma with continuous low-dose infusion of insulin." British Medical Journal. 1974;2:687-690. Abstract

Thirty-eight patients in diabetic coma from four different centres were treated with a continuous low-dose intravenous infusion of insulin at an average dose of 7.2 IU/hr. All patients recovered rapidly except for one profoundly shocked patient who died. The mean fall in plasma glucose was 58% four hours after the start of insulin. Blood ketone bodies and plasma free fatty acids showed a similar response. There was no significant difference in plasma glucose response according to severity of acidosis or previous treatment with insulin. Hypokalaemia was uncommon. In the treatment of diabetic coma this technique has proved simple, safe, and effective.

Pai BS, Varma RG, Kulkarni RN, Nirmala S, Manjunath LC, Rakshith S. "Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation." Neurology India. 2007;55:31-41. Abstract

CONTEXT: The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation is very complex and variable. Surgical approaches to this area are considered risky due to the presence of the various important blood vessels and neural structures. AIMS: To document the microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation along with variations in the Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors studied 25 cadaveric brain specimens. Microsurgical dissection was carried out from the vertebral arteries to the basilar artery and its branches, the basilar artery bifurcation, posterior cerebral artery and its various branches. Measurements of the outer diameters of the vertebral artery, basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery and their lengths were taken. RESULTS: The mean diameter of the vertebral artery was 3.4 mm on the left and 2.9 mm on the right. The diameter of the basilar artery varied from 3-7 mm (mean of 4.3 mm). The length varied from 24-35 mm (mean of 24.9 mm). The basilar artery gave off paramedian and circumferential perforating arteries. The origin of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) varied from 0-21 mm (mean 10.0 mm) from the vertebrobasilar junction. The diameter of the AICA varied from being hypoplastic i.e., CONCLUSIONS: The authors have documented the various anomalies as well as the differences of the anatomy in this area in the Indian population as compared to the Western literature.

Palczewski K, Baehr W. "The {Retinoid} {Cycle} and {Retinal} {Diseases}.". In: {eLS}. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2001. Abstract

The ‘retinoid cycle’ is a complex recycling system that replenishes the 11-cis-retinal chromophore of rod and cone visual pigments after its isomerization to all-trans-retinal by light. Recycling takes place in retinal rod and cone photoreceptor outer segments and the retinal pigment epithelium. Correct functioning of the retinoid cycle is of fundamental importance in vertebrate vision.

Palczewski K, Baehr W. "The {Retinoid} {Cycle} and {Retinal} {Diseases}.". In: {eLS}. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2001. Abstract

The ‘retinoid cycle’ is a complex recycling system that replenishes the 11-cis-retinal chromophore of rod and cone visual pigments after its isomerization to all-trans-retinal by light. Recycling takes place in retinal rod and cone photoreceptor outer segments and the retinal pigment epithelium. Correct functioning of the retinoid cycle is of fundamental importance in vertebrate vision.

Pamela M, Misiani Musa, Julius O’o, Moses O, Gichambira G. "Estimation of the length of the tibia from dimensions of the distal articular surfaces of the tibia in adult Kenyans. ." International J. of Healthcare & Biomedical Research . 2013;1(4):250-257. AbstractIJHBR

Introduction: The present study was planned to determine the utility of distal tibial dimensions in estimation of the length of the tibia in a Kenyan population.
Materials and methods: A total of 156 tibiae were obtained for the present study from the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi and the osteology collection of the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi. Measurements were taken directly from the bone using a digital pair of vernier calipers (Sealey Professional ToolsTM). Morphometric data were analyzed and measurements were expressed in means ± standard deviation. For those dimensions that showed a linear association with the length of the tibia, Pearson’s correlation test was carried out. Linear regression to derive equations for estimation of the length of the tibia was carried out.
Results: The height of the fibular incisura, breadth of the medial malleolus and the length and width of the tibial plafond displayed moderate linear association with the length of the tibia. The linear regression models generated for length estimation yielded low coefficients of determination.
Conclusion: Though, it is possible to estimate the length of the tibia from its distal dimensions, caution should be observed when using these dimensions because the estimates from the equations incorporating them have low accuracy.

Pamnani P, Rajab J.A G’a KJNR. "Disseminated Histoplasmosis diagnosed on Bone Marrow Aspirate Cytology." EAMJ. 2010;86:102-105.
Pankau MD, Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Langat A, Otieno V, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC, Lehman DA. "Decay of HIV DNA in the Reservoir and the Impact of Short Treatment Interruption in Kenyan Infants." Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(1):ofx268. Abstract

We compared change in HIV reservoir DNA following continued antiretroviral therapy (ART) vs short treatment interruption (TI) in early ART-treated Kenyan infants. While HIV DNA in the reservoir decayed with continued ART, HIV DNA levels were similar to pre-TI HIV DNA reservoir levels in most children after short TI.

Pantazis N, Morrison C APNLSRAMCJLKPMCAT, in and Group. TCASCADECECANRSP-CISG; 1220. "Differences in HIV natural history among African and non-African seroconverters in Europe and seroconverters in sub-Saharan Africa." PLoS One.. 2012;7(3):e32369.
Paolo Colangelo, Marco Corti EVFANORMWV. "Mitochondrial phylogeny reveals differential modes of chromosomal evolution in the genus Tatera (Gerbilliscus) (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) in Africa." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35: 556-568; 2005. Abstract
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Papah MB, Marande KS, Omondi OR, Onyango DW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae.". 2012. Abstractabstract-spermiogenesis_and_sperm_ultrastructure_of_lake_magadi_tilapia.pdfWebsite

Papah, et al. 2012. . Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae)., 25-27 April. Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference. , Safari Park Hotel Nairobi.

PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in lake magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference, Alexandria Egypt. Elsevier; 2012.
Papah, et al. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure in Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference. Safari Park Hotel Nairobi.; 2012.
Papah, et al. "Lake Magadi Ecosystem: Current Research Trends and Future Perspectives.". In: 1st International One Health Conference. Hilton Hotel, Addis Ababa Ethiopia; 2013.
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in lake magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference, Alexandria Egypt. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2012. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Papah MB, et al. "Morphological evaluation of spermatogenesis in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami): A fish living on the edge." Tissue and cell. 2013;45:371-382. AbstractSciencedirect

Spermatogenesis in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami), a cichlid fish endemic to the highly alkaline and saline Lake Magadi in Kenya, was evaluated using light and transmission electron microscopy. Spermatogenesis, typified by its three major phases (spermatocytogenesis, meiosis and spermiogenesis), was demonstrated by the presence of maturational spermatogenic cells namely spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. Primary spermatogonia, the largest of all the germ cells, underwent a series of mitotic divisions producing primary spermatocytes, which then entered two consecutive meiotic divisions to produce secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. Spermatids, in turn, passed through three structurally distinct developmental stages typical of type-I spermiogenesis to yield typical primitive anacrosomal spermatozoa of the externally fertilizing type (aquasperm). The spermatozoon of this fish exhibited a spheroidal head with the nucleus containing highly electron-dense chromatin globules, a midpiece containing ten ovoid mitochondria arranged in two rows and a flagellum formed by the typical 9+2 microtubule axoneme. In addition, the midpiece, with no cytoplasmic sheath, appeared to end blindly distally in a lobe-like pattern around the flagellum; a feature that was unique and considered adaptive for the spermatozoon of this species to the harsh external environment. These observations show that the testis of A. grahami often undergoes active spermatogenesis despite the harsh environmental conditions to which it is exposed on a daily basis within the lake. Further, the spermiogenic features and spermatozoal ultrastructure appear to be characteristic of Cichlidae and, therefore, may be of phylogenetic significance.

PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Elsevier; 2012.
Papah MB, Kisia SM, Ojoo RO, Makanya AN, Wood CM, Kavembe GD, Maina JN, Johannsson OE, Bergman HL, Laurent P, Chevalier C, Bianchini A, Bianchini LF, Onyango DW. "Morphological evaluation of spermatogenesis in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami): a fish living on the edge." Tissue Cell. 2013;45(6):371-82. Abstract

Spermatogenesis in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami), a cichlid fish endemic to the highly alkaline and saline Lake Magadi in Kenya, was evaluated using light and transmission electron microscopy. Spermatogenesis, typified by its three major phases (spermatocytogenesis, meiosis and spermiogenesis), was demonstrated by the presence of maturational spermatogenic cells namely spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. Primary spermatogonia, the largest of all the germ cells, underwent a series of mitotic divisions producing primary spermatocytes, which then entered two consecutive meiotic divisions to produce secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. Spermatids, in turn, passed through three structurally distinct developmental stages typical of type-I spermiogenesis to yield typical primitive anacrosomal spermatozoa of the externally fertilizing type (aquasperm). The spermatozoon of this fish exhibited a spheroidal head with the nucleus containing highly electron-dense chromatin globules, a midpiece containing ten ovoid mitochondria arranged in two rows and a flagellum formed by the typical 9 + 2 microtubule axoneme. In addition, the midpiece, with no cytoplasmic sheath, appeared to end blindly distally in a lobe-like pattern around the flagellum; a feature that was unique and considered adaptive for the spermatozoon of this species to the harsh external environment. These observations show that the testis of A. grahami often undergoes active spermatogenesis despite the harsh environmental conditions to which it is exposed on a daily basis within the lake. Further, the spermiogenic features and spermatozoal ultrastructure appear to be characteristic of Cichlidae and, therefore, may be of phylogenetic significance.

Papah, et al. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in lake magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference. Alexandria Egypt; 2012.
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2012. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Papavramidis T, Papavramidis S. "Solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas: review of 718 patients reported in {English} literature." Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2005;200:965-972. Abstract
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Pape E, Muthumbi A, Kamanu CP, Vanreusel A. "Size-dependent distribution and feeding habits of Terebralia palustris in mangrove habitats of Gazi Bay, Kenya. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science,. 2008;76(4):797-808.
Parangi S, Phitayakorn R. Thyroid {Disease}. ABC-CLIO; 2010. AbstractWebsite
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Parita S, Chinwe SI, Romanus O, Joshua N. "Options for Improving the Communication of Seasonal Rainfall Forecasts to Smallholder Farmers – The Case of Kenya." German Development Institute. 2012;17/2012(17/2012):1-4.
Parita S, Francis M, James M. Environmental Audits and Educational Institutions. Lamberts Publishing; 2012.
Park J, Michira JN, Yun SY. "African hip hop as a rhizomic art form articulating urban youth identity and resistance with reference to Kenyan genge and Ghanaian hiplife." Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa. 2019;Vol. 16(No. 1-2):99-118.
Park K-A, Oh SY. "Analysis of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in preterm children: retinal layer thickness and choroidal thickness profiles." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2012;53:7201-7207. Abstract

{PURPOSE To compare retinal layer thickness and choroidal thickness profiles in preterm and full-term children using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS We performed horizontal and vertical SD-OCT crosshair scans through the fovea with and without an enhanced depth technique in 31 premature and 30 full-term children. Retinal layer and choroidal thicknesses were measured at various locations including the fovea and 1.0 and 3.0 mm nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior to the fovea. After adjusting for age and the child's axial length, we compared retinal layer and choroidal thicknesses at the measurement points. RESULTS Total retinal thickness and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness at the foveal center in preterm children (256.00 ± 30.71 μm, 141.87 ± 28.75 μm, respectively) were larger than those in full-term children (217.57 ± 10.64 μm, 101.22 ± 10.90 μm, respectively, P {\textless} 0.001). Gestational age at birth was inversely correlated with both total retinal and ONL thicknesses (P {\textless} 0.001). Choroidal thickness 3.0 mm temporal to the fovea in preterm children (283.75 ± 60.47 μm) was significantly less than that in full-term children (339.89 ± 90.32

PARK JEONGKYUNG. "Love and War in Alex La Guma’s “Thang’s Bicycle." Korean Association of African Studies. 2019;57:161-182.
Parka SY, Senegačnikb J. "The provision of citizenship education through NGOs: Case studies from England and South Korea." Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. 2007;Volume 37(Issue 3):417-420.provision_of_citizenship_education_through_ngos_-_case_studies_frm_england__s.korea_.pdf
Parkar RB, Wanyoike GJ, Otieno D, J O. "Day Care Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy outcomes at a dedicated unit in Nairobi, Kenya: Is it time to change?" East African Medical Journal . 2017;94:6-12.
Parmeejet A. "'SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION IN KERIO VALLEY.". In: Arid & Semi Arid Region Development Programme (ASAL) . Nairobi; 1985.
Parmeejet A. 'FLEXIBILITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION FACILITIES. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1984.
Parmeejet A. "Guidelines for the Classification & Equivalence of Foreign Degrees and Diplomas.". In: Public Service Commission, Government of the Republic of Kenya. Nairobi; 1985.
Parnavelas JG, Globus A, Kaups P. "Changes in {Lateral} {Geniculate} {Neurones} of {Rats} as a {Result} of {Continuous} {Exposure} to {Light}." Nature. 1973;245:287-288. AbstractWebsite

THE results of several investigators demonstrate that environmental manipulations can affect the structure of the brain. Environmental conditions studied most often have been deprivation and enrichment. In the visual system different forms of light deprivation have been found to induce a decrease in spine density1–3, dendritic branching4,5 and in cell areas6. A number of studies have described changes resulting from enriched environmental conditions, including an increase in cortical weight and depth7,8, ratio of glial cells to neurones9, spine density10, and dendritic branching11. The effects of excess light stimulation in the visual system have also been studied. Continuous exposure to light has been found to cause irreversible damage to photoreceptors12,13 and an increase in spine density in the visual cortex of albino rats14. Under these conditions, investigators have reported a decrease or absence of evoked potentials in adult albino rats15. Black-white discrimination and two pattern discrimination tests did not indicate any difference between these animals and control rats16. We have been able to show significant quantitative morphological changes in the dendritic field of neurones in the dorsal lateral geniculate of rats reared under continuous illumination from birth to 35 d.

Paron P, Olago DO, Omuto CT. Kenya: A Natural Outlook: Methods and Applications.; 2013. AbstractKenya: A Natural Outlook: Methods and Applications

Kenya is a thriving country in East Africa: its economy is largely based on the natural environment that frames the tourism sector, mainly through safaris and holidays on the coast. The natural environment also underpins the second largest industry: agriculture. Kenya’s social, technological, and industrial developments are a reference for many neighboring countries. Kenya plays a leading role in Africa and attracts huge amounts of investments. Furthermore, the humanitarian community has made Nairobi its base for international headquarters and regional offices. This makes Kenya a possible model for development and investment in its widest sense. This book aims at updating the holistic view on Kenya’s natural environment and resources. It provides a sound scientific introduction to this country’s physical and socioeconomic setting and its evolution through time and will appeal to a broad audience of students – in Kenya and abroad – as well as those working in the development and humanitarian sectors and to international donors looking for a scientific compendium on Kenya’s environment. Its structure and references allow the reader to deepen his or her knowledge of every theme touched on in the book.

Paron P, Olago D, Omuto CT. Kenya: A Natural Outlook Geo-Environmental Resources and Hazards. Netherlands: Elsevier; 2013.
Parton WJ, Scurlock JMO, Ojima DS, Gilmanov TG, Scholes RJ, Schimel DS, Kinyamario JI. "Observations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide.". Submitted. AbstractObservations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide

Century is a model of terrestrial biogeochemistry based on relationships between climate, human management (fire, grazing), soil properties, plant productivity, and decomposition. The grassland version of the Century model was tested using observed data from 11 temperate and tropical grasslands around the world. The results show that soil C and N levels can be simulated to within ±25% of the observed values (100 and 75% of the time, respectively) for a diverse set of soils. Peak live biomass and plant production can be simulated within ± 25% of the observed values (57 and 60% of the time, respectively) for burned, fertilized, and irrigated grassland sites where precipitation ranged from 22 to over 150 cm. Live biomass can be generally predicted to within ±50% of the observed values (57% of the time). The model underestimated the live biomass in extremely high plant production years at two of the Russian sites. A comparison of Century model results with statistical models showed that the Century model had slightly higher r2 values than the statistical models. Data and calibrated model results from this study are useful for analysis and description of grassland carbon dynamics, and as a reference point for testing more physiologically based models prediction's of net primary production and biomass. Results indicate that prediction of plant and soil organic matter (C and N) dynamics requires knowledge of climate, soil texture, and N inputs.

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Sekkade-Kigondu C B. A Survey to determine the knowledge attitude and practice of Family Planning among the Nursing Staff of Kenyatta National Hospital. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 9 (1): 49, 1991.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 9 (1): 49, 1991. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

In this study, a total of 519 patients were interviewed. 82.5% had incomplete abortion. The implication of abortion especially when induced is emphasised. Economic implications that are contributed by the youth are stressed. 83.6% of the patients had not used any contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is stressed. The role of the physician in providing contraception and appropriate contraceptive knowledge is discussed. PIP: A study of 519 consecutive women admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with the diagnosis of abortion revealed that the majority were young and had a history of nonuse of contraception. Abortion was incomplete in 428 (83%) of cases; 60 (12%) cases involved sepsis. Women 20-24 years of age accounted for 221 (43%) of the abortions; the other two most represented age groups were 25-29 years (28%) and 14-19 years (17%). 460 (89%) of the abortion patients had never used a contraceptive method. The most frequently cited reasons for nonuse were desire for pregnancy (48%), no conscious reason (13%), procrastination in getting to a family planning clinic (8%), no knowledge of family planning (6%), and fear of side effects (6%). Of the 64 cases of failed contraception, 27 were using the pill, 25 had an IUD in place, and 8 were relying on the rhythm method. Among contraceptive users, the major sources of information about contraception were nurses (52%), radio and newspapers (19%), and other women (15%). Only 4% indicated that a physician had discussed family planning with them. Given the resource drain that treatment of incomplete abortion can place on Kenya's health care system and the risk of abortion-induced pelvic infection and subsequent infertility, Kenya's health workers should be encouraged to be more aggressive in promoting family planning use among young women.

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Sekkade -Kigondu C, Qureshi Z P, Karanja JG, Jaldesa GW, Kaihura DMM Abstracts of Research in Reproductive Health by Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1971 - 1995. Published 1996.". In: Reproductive Health by Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1971 - 1995. Published 1996. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Solomon M M. A Survey on the knowledge and attitudes of men in Machakos town towards Vasectomy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 11 (1): 10, 1995.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 11 (1): 10, 1995. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1995. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Raassen T J I P. Vesico-vaginal fistulae occurring after total abdominal Hysterectomy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 115,1998.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 115,1998. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA. "Qureshi Z P, Raassen TJIP. Obstetric Fistula Repair Programme of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University of Nairobi. Proceedings of the 1st Meeting of the East, Central and Southern Africa Association of Obstetrical and Gynaecologic.". In: Uganda 1997 Published 1998. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P Current Management of Hypertensive Disease in Pregnancy, East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):169-71.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):169-71. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P. Thesis for the University of Nairobi, Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1989.". In: Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1989. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1989. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA. "Stanback J, Qureshi Z, Sekkade-Kigondu C. Advance Provision of Oral Contraceptives to Family Planning Clients in Kenya 1: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):257-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):257-8. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Solomon M M. A Survey on the knowledge and attitudes of men in Machakos town towards Vasectomy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 11 (1): 10, 1995.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 11 (1): 10, 1995. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Raassen TJIP. Obstetric Fistula Repair Programme of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University of Nairobi. Proceedings of the 1st Meeting of the East, Central and Southern Africa Association of Obstetrical and Gynaecologic.". In: Uganda 1997 Published 1998. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Jaldesa GW, Qureshi ZP, Wanjala S M H, Sekkade-Kigondu C. Factors Enhancing the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation among the Kenyan Somalis. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 110, 1998.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 110, 1998. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Solomon MM Three case reports on Abdominal Pregnancy seen at Machakos General Hospital. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 12 (1): 12, 1996.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 12 (1): 12, 1996. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Stanback J, Qureshi Z, Sekkade-Kigondu C. Advance Provision of Oral Contraceptives to Family Planning Clients in Kenya 1: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):257-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):257-8. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA. "Qureshi Z P, Raassen T J I P. Vesico-vaginal fistulae occurring after total abdominal Hysterectomy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 115,1998.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 115,1998. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Sekkade -Kigondu C, Qureshi Z P, Karanja JG, Jaldesa GW, Kaihura DMM Abstracts of Research in Gynaecology and Family Planning by Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1971 - 1995. Published 1996.". In: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1971 - 1995. Published 1996. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z P, Solomon MM Three case reports on Abdominal Pregnancy seen at Machakos General Hospital. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 12 (1): 12, 1996.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 12 (1): 12, 1996. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Jaldesa GW, Wanjala SMH, Qureshi Z P, Sekkade-Kigondu C. Maternal Morbidity and Mortality at Garissa Provincial Hospital, 3 year retrospective Survey. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 ( 2 ), 68, 1998.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 ( 2 ), 68, 1998. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Sekkade -Kigondu C, Qureshi Z P, Karanja JG, Jaldesa GW, Kaihura DMM Abstracts of Research in Reproductive Health by Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1971 - 1995. Published 1996.". In: Reproductive Health by Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1971 - 1995. Published 1996. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Stanback J, Nutley T, Gitonga J, Qureshi Z P Menstruation Requirements as a Barrier to Contraceptive Access in Kenya E.A.M.J. 76 ( 3 ): 124, 1999.". In: E.A.M.J. 76 ( 3 ): 124, 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA. "Jaldesa GW, Wanjala SMH, Qureshi Z P, Sekkade-Kigondu C. Maternal Morbidity and Mortality at Garissa Provincial Hospital, 3 year retrospective Survey. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 ( 2 ), 68, 1998.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 ( 2 ), 68, 1998. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Qureshi Z Editorial Safe motherhood in Africa: Achievable Goal or a Dream?". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jan;82. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
Paschalia Mbutu, Dr. Wanjiru Gichuhi DGN. "Traditional Birth Attendants and Childbirth in Kenya: A Case of Kitui West Sub County." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2018;6(5):1-18.
Paschalia Mbutu, Dr. Wanjiru Gichuhi DGN. "Choice of Place of Delivery during Pregnancy in Kenya: A Case of Kitui West Sub-County." International Journal ofbScience Arts and Commerce. 2018;3(5).
Patel, N. B KKSTPG. "Effect of Catha edulis (khat) on learning and memory on CBA mice.". In: International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) World Congress. Melbourne, Australia.; 2008.
Patel JP, Raja PKS. "A palaeomagnetic study of lower Proterozoic granites from Western Kenya.". 1979. AbstractA palaeomagnetic study of lower Proterozoic granites from Western Kenya

This paper reports a palaeomagnetic study of the lower Proterozoic granites, exposed in the western part of Kenya and dated at 2530 ± 50 Ma (λRb= 1.39 × 10−11 yr−1). Ten sites out of 13 have yielded stable palaeomagnetic directions which are believed to be primary. Polished section and thermomagnetic analyses indicate titanomagnetite grains as the main carrier of the primary component of the natural remanence. The mean palaeomagnetic north pole is calculated at 210.7° E, 60.9° N with A95= 13.5°.

Patel NB. "Mechanism of action of cathinone, the active ingredient of khat (catha edulis)." East African Medical Journal. 2000;77:329-332.
Patel, NB XZ-p, et al. "Response of nerve growth cone to focal electric currents." J. Neuroscience Res. 1985;13:245-256.
Patel A, Sethuraman R, Prajapati P, Naveen YG. "A comparative analysis of staining characteristics of mouthrinses on provisional acrylic resin: An in vitro study." Journal of Interdisciplinary Dentistry. 2013;3(3):167-173. Abstract

Aim and Objective: Provisionalization is essential for tooth protection and treatment outcome evaluation. Utmost care should be taken to maintain the soft tissue health when provisionals are cemented. Mouthrinses are commonly used as an adjunct to protect against caries and periodontal diseases. Thesesolutions are responsible for discolouration of provisional materials. In the present study, the aim is to assess the staining potentials of a chlorhexidine gluconate rinse, a benzydamine hydrochloride rinse and a tea tree oil rinse on a provisional acrylic material in vitro by application of a digital system for colour analysis Materials and Method: In this study, the staining potentials of a tea tree oil, a chlorhexidine gluconate rinse, and a benzydamine hydrochloride rinse was investigated; whereas distilled water was used as the control. Results: Color change of a commercially available provisional restorative material was evaluated after 24 hours immersion in three different mouthrinses. ∆E values obtained were 1.76 for chlorhexidine gluconate, 1.55 for benzydamine hydrochloride and 1.88 for TTO. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it is concluded that benzydamine hydrochloride exerts the least perceptible change in colour of bisacryl composite provisional resin material.
Clinical Relevance to Interdisciplinary Dentistry

Dentistry today is vastly different from what it was before.
Today it is in the era of interdisciplinary approach from independent to interdependent.
It is more result oriented and more successful when any case or situation is handled combined by interdisciplinary experts.
Action and role of mouthrinses and their interdisciplinary outcome is evaluated in the present study.

Patel NB. "Physiology of Pain.". In: Guide to Pain Management in Low Resource Settings. washington, USA: International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP); 2009.chapter_3_physiology_of_pain_.pdf
Patel MS, Ottieno JAM. "Optimum two stage group-screening designs." Communications in Statistics-Theory and Methods. 1984;13(21):2649-2663. AbstractFull text link

In this paper, emphasis has been given to both the expected number of runs and the expected number of incorrect decisions and two stage group-screening designs have been obtained which minimise one fixing the other or minimise some sort of cost function which connects the two. Some group-screening plans have been given at the end as illustrations.
Keywords: group-screening plans, orthogonal main-effect plans, group-factor

Patel SC, Jumba GF, Akmal S. "Laparoscopic appendicectomy at the {Aga} {Khan} {Hospital}, {Nairobi}." East African medical journal. 2004;80:447-451. AbstractWebsite
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Patel JP, Raja PKS. "Paleomagnetic results from the Narosura and Magadi volcanics of Kenya.". 1979. AbstractPaleomagnetic results from the Narosura and Magadi volcanics of Kenya

Results of a paleomagnetic study carried out on the exposed volcanic rocks on the western side of the South Kenya Rift Valley are presented. Nine stratigraphic groups ranging in age from Miocene to Pleistocene were sampled. The rocks consist of basalts, trachytes, nephelinites, melanephelinites, olivine melanephelinites and ignimbrites. Paleomagnetic poles obtained for different age ranges are as follows: Period I (0.64–0.72 Ma), 116°E, 85°N (A95 = 6°); Period II (1.6–6.9 Ma), 297°E, 84°N (A95 = 4°); Period III (12.0–15.0 Ma), 34°E, 80°N (A95 = 9°). The results for Period II show large secular variations which are in disagreement with the model predictions for near-equatorial sites.

Patel JP. "Palaeomagnetic results from late Archaean and early proterozoic granites from South Western Kenya.". 1989. AbstractPalaeomagnetic results from late Archaean and early proterozoic granites from South Western Kenya

Results of a palaeomagnetic study carried out on the Migori granites exposed in the South Western part of Kenya are presented. The granites of Post-Nyanzian and Post-Kavirondian ages are dated at View the MathML source, respectively, using the whole rock RbSr isochron method. Alternating frequency and thermal demagnetization techniques have been used to isolate characteristic components of natural remanence. Opaque petrological and thermomagnetic studies indicate titanomagnetite grains as the main carrier of the primary component. The mean palaeomagnetic poles for the Post-Nyanzian and the Post-Kavirondian granites are located at 336°E, 72°N (View the MathML source) and 263°E, 41°N (View the MathML source), respectively.

Patel NB. "Reversible inhibition of neurite growth by focal electric currents." Prog Clin Biol Res. 1986;210:271-278.
Patel NB. "Neurobiology of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk).". In: Neglected Tropical Diseases and Conditions of the Nervous System. New York: Springer; 2014.
Patel JP, MANGALA MJ. "Elemental analysis of carbonatite samples from Mrima Hill, Kenya, by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF).". 1994. AbstractWebsite

A total of 30 radioactive carbonatite samples from four zones of the Mrima Hill were analysed using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Thorium with a mean concentration of 770 μg/g is the main source of high environmental radiation. The concentration of cerium, barium, niobium and iron are significant and worth economic exploitation. For validity of the results, certified reference materials IAEA (Soil-7) and the Canadian (SY-3) samples were analysed by the same method

Patel NB. "Natural Amphetamine” Khat: A Cultural Tradition or a Drug of Abuse?.". In: International Review of Neurobiology, Vol. 120. Burlington: Academic Press; 2015.
Patel, Nilesh; Poo M-ming. "Orientation of neurite growth by extracellular electric fields." J. Neuroscience. 1982;2:483-496.
Patel JP. "Seismic Contributions of the Kenyan Rift Valley.". 1994. AbstractWebsite

The past and the present understanding of the deep lithospheric structures beneath the Kenyan Rift Valley is reviewed and the results of the long-range explosion seismic experiment are discussed. A sill like intrusive body exists in the lower crust and there is only moderate crustal thinning beneath the central sector. No evidence has been established for the 'axial intrusion' to shallow depths.

Patel, NB; Kioy PG; UGFRPF; S;, Kalaria RN;, Kioy PG;, Kariuki M;, Unverzagt F;, Hendrie H;, Gatere S;, Freidland RP. "High APOE e 4 allele frequency in elderly Kikuyus in Kenya.". 2000.
Patel JP, Gacii P. "Palaeomagnetic Studies Of The Kapiti Phonolite Of Kenya.". 1972. AbstractPalaeomagnetic Studies Of The Kapiti Phonolite Of Kenya

Specimens of Kapiti phonolite from sixteen sites were treated in an alternating field up to 900 Oe peak. Four sites were discarded on the basis of Watson's Criterion for randomness. Variations in various magnetic parameters along a vertical section of the rock indicate that a hard secondary component of magnetization of high coercive force is present in the surface samples of the rock — a possible cause for the poor grouping of directions of the remaining sites. Weathering may have introduced this component in the surface samples. The Kapiti phonolite possesses both normal and reverse polarities. The Pole position for the Upper Miocene is calculated at 81°N, 118°E with a circle of confidence of 17°.

Patel NB. "Nitric oxide: A new biological messenger." East African Medical Journal. 1994;17:75-76.
Patel NB. "Physiology of Pain.". In: Guide to Pain Management in Low Resource Settings. IASP; 2009.
Patel, Nilesh; Poo M-ming. "Perturbation of neurite growth by pulsed and focal electric fields." J. Neuroscience. 1984;4:2939-2947.
Patel JP, Karanja PK, Githiri JG, Barongo JO. "APPLICATION OF EULER DECONVOLUTION TECHNIQUE IN DETERMINING DEPTHS TO MAGNETIC STRUCTURES IN MAGADI AREA, SOUTHERN KENYA RIFT." JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2016;18(1). AbstractFull Text

Magadi area is located in the southern part of the Kenyan rift, an active continental rift that is part of the East African Rift system. Thermal manifestations in the form of hot springs in the northern and southern shores of Lake Magadi and high heat flows suggest geothermal potential in the area. A ground magnetic survey was carried out in the study area with the aim of locating depths to bodies with sufficient magnetic susceptibility that may represent magmatic intrusions. The magnetic data was corrected, a total intensity magnetic contour map produced and profiles drawn across identified anomalous regions. Magnetic survey data in profile form over anomalous regions was interpreted rapidly for source positions and depths by Euler deconvolution technique. Geologic constraint was imposed by use of a structural index 1.0 that best describes prismatic bodies such as intrusive dykes. The magnetic bodies were imaged at depths ranging from 0 km to about 11 km along the profiles. The imaged depths along the profiles display discontinuities in magnetic markers due to presence of numerous faults in the area. The detected magnetic bodies may be cooling dykes that heat the underground water responsible for the numerous hot springs surrounding Lake Magadi. Such a dyke is suspected to originate from a magma chamber conducting heat to the underground water. A model whereby the faults in the region provide escape of water as hot springs is proposed.

Patel JP, MANGALA MJ. "MS MMMMAAAA." Nucl. Geophys. 1994. AbstractWebsite

A total of 30 radioactive carbonatite samples from four zones of the Mrima Hill were analysed using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Thorium with a mean concentration of 770 pg/g is the main source of high environmental radiation. The …

Paterson LKA&. "The Role of the Judiciary in Environmental Governance in Kenya.". In: The Role of the Judiciary in Environmental Governance: Comparative Perspectives. (Wolters Kluwer Law International; 2009.
Patrice K, Gideon NN, Paul NN, Christopher A, Robert K. "Apis mellifera adansonii Is the Most Defensive Honeybee in Uganda." Psyche. 2018;201:6.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Improving Tools and Techniques for Crisis Management: The Ecological Sources of Conflict: Experiences from Eastern Africa Romanian Journal of Political Science, Volume 1 No. 2 (with Jeremy Lind).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2001. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Land Tenure, Land Use and Sustainability in Kenya: Towards Innovative Use of Property Rights in Wildlife Management' in C.O. Okidi et al. eds., Land Use for Sustainable Development, Cambridge University Press, New York.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2005. Abstractland_tenure.pdf

Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.

PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "The Development of Biosafety regulation in Africa in the context of the Cartegena Protocol: Legal and Administrative issue (11.1 Review of European community & International Environmental Law p.62.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Cmmunity Farmers and Breeders Rights in Africa: Towards a Legal Frameworkfor sui generis Legislation in University of Nairobi Laq Journal.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Law and the Status of Women in Kenya' in Janet K. Macharia ed., Women Laws, Customs and Practices in East Africa: Laying the foundation (1996) (with Victoria Mucai-Kattambo & Janet Kabeberi-Macharia).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1996. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Globalization and the International Governance of Modern Biotechnology in Kenya: Implications for Food Security IDS Working Paper 199, Biotechnology Policy Series 20, Brighton, United Kingdom, IDS.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Joint Implementatio of Global Environmental Agreements: Socio-Economic Dimensions', in Kalipada Catterjee ed., Activities Implemented Jointly to Mitigate Climate Change - Developing Countries Perspectives (New Delhi: Development Alternatives, 1997), p. 3.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1997. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Kenya Biodiversity Study: Intellectual Property Rights and Ownership' in UNEP/GPK, The Costs, Benefits and Unmet Needs of Biological Diversity Conservation in Kenya (with Dan Bondi Ogalla).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1992. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERI-MBOTE. "‘Land Tenure, Land Use and Sustainability in Kenya: Towards Innovative Use of Property Rights in Wildlife Management’,.". In: Land Use for Sustainable Development. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2007.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Community, Farmers and Breeders Rights in Africa: Towards a Legal Framework for Sui generis Legislation reprinted in the ICFAI Journal of Intellectual Property Rights (Volume II Number 4.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "The Management of Generic Resources: Developments in the 1997 Sessions of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agricultre, Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law & Policy 1997 Yearbook p. 78 (With Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1998. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Biotechnology in Kenya' in Calestous Juma et. al eds., Coming to Life: Biotechnology in African Economic Recovery (with Boniface Makau).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1994. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Custody and the Rights of and over Children' in Kivutha Kibwana & Lawrence Mute eds., Law and the Quest for Gender Equality in Kenya.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2000. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Towards Greater Access to Justice in Environmental Disputes in Kenya: Opportunities for Intervention, Submitted on request to the Indian Journal of Environmental Law.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstracttowards_greater_access_to_justice.pdf

Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.

PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Biological Diversity Management in Africa: Legal and Policy Perspectives in the run-up to WSSDD (11.1 Review of European Community &International Environmental Law p. 38 (With Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Gender Dimensions of Law Colonialism and Inheritance in East Africa: Kenyan Women's Experiences, (VRU-Verfassung und Recht in Ubersee - Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Women as Victims of Crime in University of Nairobi Law Journal.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1995. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERI-MBOTE. "The Land Question in Kenya: Legal and Ethical Dimensions”, in Governance.". In: Institutions and the Human Condition. NAIROBI: Strathmore University and Law Africa; 2009.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Plant Genetic Resources in Africa's Renewal: Policy, Legal and Programmatic Issues under the New Partnership for Africa's Development IPGRI, Nairobi 2003 (With Kent Nnadozie, Dan Kiambi, John Mugabe & Kwesi Attah-Krah).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Property Rights and Biodiversity Conservation: Towards the Recognition of Women's Rights', in Anoja Wickramasinghe ed., Development Issues Across Regions - Women, Land and Forestry (Peradeniya: CORRENSA, p. 279 (with Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1997. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERI-MBOTE. "‘Biotechnology & Trade: Environmental Considerations’, in International Commission on Trade and Sustainable Development,.". In: Trading in Genes: Development Perspectives on Biotechnology, Trade and Sustainability.; 2005.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Gender, Conflict and Regional Security' in Makumi Mwagiru ed., African Regional Security in the Age of Globalisation, Heinrich Boell Foundation, Nairobi.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Law, colonialism and Environmental Management in Africa 6 Review of Europea Community & International Environmental Law 1997), p. 23 (with Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1997. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Intellectual Property Rights and Communication in Journal of Media Development (1993) (with Bernard Sihanya).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1993. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERI-MBOTE. "‘Water and food security in the River Nile Basin: The perspectives of governments and NGOS of upstream countries’.". In: Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concept. Berlin – Heidelberg – New York – Hong Kong – London – Milan – Paris – Tokyo; 2007.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Agro-biodiversity and International Law - A Conceptual Framework, Journal of Environmental Law (with Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1999. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Towards a Liability and Redness System under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: A Review of the Kenya National Legal System, East African Law Journal.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Community, farmers' and Breeders' Rights in Africa: Towards a Legal Framework for sui generis Legislation' in Cecil Machena & Gracian Banda eds., Policy and Legal Framework for Community, Farmers' and Breeders' Rights in Southern Africa p. 120.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Innovation and Policy Process: Case of Transgenic Sweet Potato in Kenya, 37/26 Economic & Political weekly, (6 July 2002) (with H. Odame & D. Wafula).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Gender Considerations in Constitution-Making: Engendering Women's Rights in the Legal Process in University of Nairobi Law.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Dolphin Bycatches in Tuna Fisheries: A Smokescreen Hiding the Real Issues? 27 Ocean Development & International Law p.333 (with Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1996. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERI-MBOTE. "Biotechnology & Food Security: Some Policy & Institutional Considerations.". In: Encyclopaedia on Globalization. Moschovits; 2005.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'The Impact of Internatinal Treaties on Land and Resource Rights', in Munyaradzi Saruchera, ed., Securing Land and Resorce Rights: Pan-African Perspectives, Chapter 5, 48, Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies, Cape Town, South African.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Activities Implemented Jointly in the Forestry Sector - Conceptual and Operational Fallacies 10 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review p. 97 (With Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1997. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Women, Law and the Democratization Processing Kenya' in Wanjiku Kabira et. Al., Democratic Change in Kenya (1992) (with Kivutha Kibwana).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1992. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERI-MBOTE. "‘Following God's Constitution: The Gender Dimension in the Ogiek Claim to Mau Forest Complex'.". In: Paths are Made by Walking: Human Rights Interfacing Gendered Realities and Plural Legalities. Weaver Press; 2006.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "The Coverage of Gender Issues in the Draft Bill of the Constitution of Kenya, 2002: Have the Hens Finally Come Home to Roost for Kenyan Women? University of Nairobi Law Journal.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Joint Implementation and Forestry Projects - Conceptual and Operational Fallacies, 74 International Affairs p. 393 (with Philippe Cullet.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1998. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Patents and Development', in Yash Vyas et. al eds. Law and Development in the Third World.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1994. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
Patricia Nthoki Muia UOGN&. "Impact of intellectual stimulation on students’ performance at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in public secondary schools, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research. 2017;6(11):1034-1042 .
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Mugunieri, L.G., Irungu, P. and J.M. Omiti (2004). Performance of community-based animal health workers in the delivery of livestock health services. Tropical Animal Health and Production 36:523-535.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004. Abstract
Since the liberalization of animal health services in Kenya in the early 1990s, community-based animal health workers (CBAHWs) have become an important alternative animal health delivery channel in the country's marginal areas. However, professional veterinary practitioners have questioned the effectiveness of CBAHW programmes in animal health service delivery in Kenya. This is partly due to lack of information about their performance and partly because CBAHW programmes were implemented before the necessary changes in the existing legal, policy and institutional frameworks had been made. This study was designed to provide such information. In this regard, the productivity of livestock herds among farmers who utilized the services of CBAHWs was compared to that of livestock belonging to farmers who utilized the services of professional veterinarians. The annual live births per mature female (birth ratio) and the proportion of young stock to mature females (breeding index) was computed over a period of 3 years in cattle and goat herds under care of CBAHWs and professional veterinarians. The birth ratios in cattle and goats under CBAHWs were not significantly different from those under the care of professional veterinarians (p>0.05). Furthermore, the breeding index of cattle and goats under the two categories was not statistically different. Besides the CBAHWs providing clinical services, they also created positive externalities through participatory learning enjoyed by neighbouring livestock keepers, who later dispensed with their services. Policy attention is therefore needed to enhance the participation of CBAHWs in animal health service delivery and to appropriately integrate their activities into the existing formal animal health delivery system in Kenya. Interventions that improve the professional development of these workers, with emphasis on areas pertaining to care of young stock, would not only promote the sustainability of CBAHW programmes but would also improve livestock productivity in the country's marginal areas
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Njoka, T,J. and P.I.D. Kinyua, 2006. The logistic model-generated carrying capacities, maximum sustained offtake rates and optimal stocking rates for Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Reaves, T.G, P.I.D. Kinyua, G.M. Muchiri and D.W. Kabiru, 1978. Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report.". In: Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1978. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Githuku, S.N., P. Irungu and A. Wambugu (2009). Technical Efficiency in Kenya.". In: Paper accepted for publication in the African Journal for Agricultural and Resource Economics. In press. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2009. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Kinyua, P.I.D., 1980. Agroforestry in Arid and Semi-arid Areas:Agroforestry Development in Kenya. Proc.: Second Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry, Nairobi.". In: Second Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry, Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1980. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Kinyua P.I.D., 1998. Game Ranching in Machakos District: An Application of Mathematical Programming to the Study of Wildlife Policy. Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia.". In: An Application of Mathematical Programming to the Study of Wildlife Policy. Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1998. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Catley, A., Irungu, P., Simiyu, K., Dadye, J., Kiragu, J., Mwakio, W. and Nyamwaro S.O. (2002). Participatory investigations on bovine trypanosomiasis in Tana River district, Kenya. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 16(1):55-66.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Bett, B., Orenge, C., Irungu, P. and Munga, L.K. (2004). Epidemiological factors that influence time-totreatment of trypanosomosis in Orma Boran cattle raised at Galana Ranch, Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology 120(1- 2):43-53.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004. Abstract
Four thousand nine hundred and seventy-one trypanosomosis-surveillance records from an open population of Orma Boran cattle raised under natural trypanosomosis challenge in Galana Ranch, Kenya between the years 1990 and 2000 were analysed. The objective of the analysis was to identify epidemiological factors that influenced time-to-treatment of trypanosomosis cases. Under the surveillance programme, blood was being examined fortnightly for trypanosomosis using buffy coat technique. Infected animals were treated when their packed cell volumes (PCV) fell to 25% or lower. The number of days between the first diagnosis and treatment of trypanosomosis cases was obtained from the difference between diagnosis and treatment dates. Days-to-treatment clustered around the screening periods; therefore, time-to-treatment was represented by a series of time points 0-8 at 14-day intervals. Factors postulated to affect the outcome (time-to-treatment) were age of an animal at time of diagnosis, sex, number of trypanosome infections, trypanosome species and season of the year. Five animal generations were generated from birth dates and treated as nuisance parameters. Conditional logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to the data, the former to analyse factors that influenced treatment after time 0 (outcome dichotomised as time 0 or >0) and the latter to analyse factors that influenced time-to-treatment for cases that were treated after time 0, excluding all cases treated on time 0. The majority of the cases (89.5%) were treated on the same day of diagnosis. Trypanosome infections were more likely to be treated after time 0 in dry than in wet season. Similarly, the rate of treatment was lower in the dry than the wet season. An increase in number of previous trypanosome infections reduced the odds of an animal being treated after time 0. Animals that had been exposed to many infections before had higher rates of treatment than those that had minimal experiences. We offer possible reasons for these observations and conclude that selection of animals for breeding purposes in programmes geared towards improving trypanotolerance should take into consideration the environmental factors that affect classification of an animal as being resistant or susceptible.
PATRICK MRTHENYATHUITA. "Mathuva J.M., MacOPiyo. L.Kironchi, J., and Thenya, T. 1997: "Pre-Drainage Environmental Impact Study (PDEIS) for Laikipia Wetlands, Laikipia District". Report prepared for ASAL Development Programme, Laikipia District.". In: Proc. Of the 9th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya. PP 176-178,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Irungu, P., Mugunieri, L.G. and Omiti, J.M. (2006). Determinants of farmers.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
Patrick M, Majok MA. "The challenge of reconciliation in post-conflict Sudan." Journal of Science Technology Education and Management (J-STEM. 2012;3(No.1):195-197.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Reaves, T.G, P.I.D. Kinyua, G.M. Muchiri and D.W. Kabiru, 1979. Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Long Rains 1979. Margarine Project Report.". In: Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Long Rains 1979. Margarine Project Report. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1979. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "van Kooten, G.C., E.H. Bulte and Patrick Kinyua, 1997. Game Cropping and Wildlife Conservation in Kenya: A Dynamic Simulation Model with Adaptive Control, Agricultural Systems 54 (August): 439-462.". In: A Dynamic Simulation Model with Adaptive Control, Agricultural Systems 54 (August): 439-462. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1997. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Kinyua P.I.D. and J.T. Njoka, 2001. Animal Exchange Ratios: An Alternative Point of View. African Journal of Ecology vol 39,59-64.". In: An Alternative Point of View. African Journal of Ecology vol 39,59-64. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Irungu, P., Nyamwaro, S.O. and Masiga, D.K. (2002). Financial implications of rearing sheep and goats under natural trypanosomosis challenge at Galana Ranch, Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 34(6):503-513.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
A study to compare the profitability of rearing sheep and goats under natural trypanosomosis challenge was carried out on Galana ranch in south-eastern Kenya between July 1996 and October 1997. Seventy-nine male weaner sheep and 79 male weaner goats were monitored monthly for weight changes and fortnightly for trypanosomosis. The animals of each species were divided into two groups. Group 1 was an untreated control, while group 2 was treated with isometamidium chloride (Samorin) at 0.5 mg/kg body weight every 3 months. In both groups, trypanosome infections were detected by microscopy and treated with diminazene aceturate (Veriben), at 3.5 mg/kg body weight, when the packed cell volume reached 17% or below. The profitability of each drug regime was expressed as the marginal revenue over the cost of trypanosomosis (MOT). There were greater losses occasioned by trypanosomosis in sheep than in goats. Animals of both species on chemoprophylaxis gave higher MOT values than those that received chemotherapy on diagnosis. However, the MOT values for the chemoprophylactic regime were higher for sheep than for goats, suggesting that the greater weight gain by sheep more then compensated for the higher cost of maintaining them under high trypanosomosis challenge. Thus, a Galana rancher would be better off keeping sheep rather than goats, other things being equal. The marginal revenue per dose of Samorin was lower than that of Veriben for both species, suggesting that strategic use of Samorin timed to precede the peak incidence of trypanosomosis might be a better option to raise the overall profitability in sheep and goats.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Mugunieri, G.L., Omiti, J., Irungu, P. (2004). Integrating community-based animal health workers into the formal veterinary service delivery system in Kenya. Agrekon 43(1):89-100.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004. Abstract
The community-based animal health workers (CBAHWs) model has been one of the ways utilised in delivery of animal health services following the veterinary service reforms. Government statutory bodies have opposed the establishment of these programs arguing that their approach to animal health delivery does not fit within the existing technical, legal and policy framework. This study gives an account of the nature, characteristics, and activities of CBAHWs and provides information that would guide policy debate regarding their integration into formal health service delivery. It indicates that these programs provide mainly curative health services but the issue of sustainability has continued to dodge most of them. It establishes that, for trainees to continue actively providing services, continued professional development obtained through regular refresher training and entrepreneurship exemplified by proper record keeping are important. It therefore recommends that policy review is needed to address the role of CBAHWs and appropriately integrate their activities within the formal animal health delivery system.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Reaves, T.G, P.I.D. Kinyua, G.M. Muchiri and D.W. Kabiru, 1978. Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Long Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report.". In: Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Long Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1978. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Irungu, P., P.M. Ithondeka, E. Wafula, S.N. Wekesa, H. Wesonga and T.W. Manga (2009). Strategies for revitalizing Kenya.". In: Paper submitted to Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2009. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Kinyua, P.I.D., 1988. Developing Models for Early Weaning of Beef Calves in Kenya. M.sc. Thesis, University of Wyoming.". In: M.sc. Thesis, University of Wyoming. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1988. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

Patrick G, Charles G, Joseph M, Edward M. "Effects of soil management practices and tillage systems on surface soil water conservation and crusty formation on a sandy loam in semi-arid Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

The effect of different soil management practices on crust strength and thickness, soil water conservation and crop performance was investigated on a ferric lixisol in a semi-arid environment of eastem Kenya. The studv proved that manure and mulching with minimum tillage have a greater effect on the water balance of crusted soils and maize emergence. There was increase in steady infiltration rates, amount of soil water stored in the soil and better drainage. The physical effect of mulch was less important in the rehabilitation of crusted soils in the study site when it was incorporated into the soil. Manure and surface mulch with minimum tillage should therefore be taken into account in land management and water conservation in the semi-arid areas of Kenya. The response of crops to the improved water availability due to manure with minimum and with conventional tillage and surface mulch was very clear. These management practices should be recommended when considering the effectiveness of soil and water management techniques in the study area. Keywords: Crust strength and thickness; Soil management: Tillage methods: Steady infiltration rates and available soil moisture

PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Kinyua P.I.D., G.C. Van Kooten and E.H. Bulte, 1998. African Wildlife Policy: Protecting Wildlife Herbivores on Private Game Ranches, European Review of Agricultural Economics 27 (2):227-244.". In: Protecting Wildlife Herbivores on Private Game Ranches, European Review of Agricultural Economics 27 (2):227-244. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1998. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

Patrick K, Mercy M, Margaret O, Collins O, Alessandra F, Amanj K, B G, Brian G. "Clinical and Financial Implications of Medicine Consumption Patterns at a Leading Referral Hospital in Kenya to Guide Future Planning of Care. Front." Front. Pharmacol. 2018;(9):1348.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Masiga, D.K., Okech, G., Irungu, P., Ouma, J.O., Wekesa, S., Ouma, B., Guya, S.O. and Ndung.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Trypanosomosis is a major impediment to livestock production and economic development in those areas of Africa where it is endemic. Although small ruminants appear to perform better than cattle in various agroecological zones, the importance of trypanosomosis has not been extensively investigated in these livestock. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of trypanosomosis in sheep and goats in an endemic area and to evaluate the performance of different breeds under high tsetse challenge and the potential role of chemoprophylaxis in the control of the disease. The results showed that tsetse flies feed readily on small ruminants, and that these animals are susceptible to trypanosomosis. The Small East African goats acquired fewer infections than the Black Head Persian and Dorper sheep used in the study. In both sheep and goats, chemoprophylaxis with isometamidium chloride (Samorin, Rhone Merieux, Annecy, France) was protective, resulting in fewer infections and higher body weight gain. Trypanosomosis caused anaemia in both sheep and goats, and animals whose PCV fell below 15% rarely recovered, even with trypanocidal drug treatment. The peak transmission period was between 1 and 3 months after the peak tsetse fly density, which raises the possibility of effective strategic prophylaxis
PATRICK ALILA NM. "Child Labour: New and Enduring Forms." ISBN 978-9966-786-07-4; 2009. Abstract
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PATRICK ALILA, et al. "Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions." University of Nairobi Press; 2007. Abstract
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Patrick G Mwangi, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mbugua PN, Isako T. "EFFECT OF GROWTH STAGE OF DUAL PURPOSE SORGHUM ON SILAGE QUALITY." American Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019;4.
Patrick G.O. Weke, Ogutu C, Odwesso G. "BLUE, ABLE and Simplified Linear Estimation of the Selected Order Statistics from the Logistic Distribution." Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics. 2016;52(3):149-234.
Paul O, C. R, D. O. "Community awareness, Participation and Perceptions About the Road Maintenance Levy fund Projects in Kenya." Global Journal of Business Research. 2014;8(2).
Paul BK, Vanlauwe B, Hoogmoed M, Hurisso TT, Ndabamenye T, Terano Y, Six J, Ayuke FO, Pulleman MM. "Exclusion of soil macrofauna did not affect soil quality but increased crop yields in a sub-humid tropical maize-based system. ." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 208: 75-85.. 2015;208:75-85.
Paul O. "Management of roads maintenance levy fund at Agency level in Kenya: A focus on challenges, prospects and policy.". In: 2013 COSTA RICA GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BUSINESS 7 FIANANCE . COSTA RICA; 2013.
Paul O, Kioko U, Muriithi EM, Odhiambo T, Samwel O. Mwanda. "Peer Education and Behaviour Change on Hiv/Aids Prevention in Secondary Schools in Rachuonyo District, Kenya: Prospects and Policy." Global Journal of Human Social Sciences . 2014;14-G(4 Version 1.0).
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P.Baki .". In: University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1999.
Paul O, NJERU E, U. K, J. K. "HIV/AIDS Financing and Spending in Eastern and Southern Africa." Pretoria: IDASA; 2010.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki , SPH 101: Mechanics I, A peer reviewed Physics lecture module for distance learners.". In: published by University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, Looking for Secrets in the Stars, Society Magazine, East African Standard, Saturday, August 28th (2004).". In: published by the University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
Paul BK, Vanlauwe B, Ayuke F, Gassnerc A, Hoogmoed M, Hurissoa TT, Koala S, Lelei D, Ndabamenyea T, Six J. "Medium-term impact of tillage and residue management on soil aggregate stability, soil carbon and crop productivity." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2013;164:14-22. Abstract

Conservation agriculture is widely promoted for soil conservation and crop productivity increase,
although rigorous empirical evidence from sub-Saharan Africa is still limited. This study aimed to quantify
the medium-term impact of tillage (conventional and reduced) and crop residue management (retention
and removal) on soil and crop performance in a maize–soybean rotation. A replicated field trial
was started in sub-humid Western Kenya in 2003, and measurements were taken from 2005 to 2008.
Conventional tillage negatively affected soil aggregate stability when compared to reduced tillage, as
indicated by lower mean weight diameter values upon wet sieving at 0–15 cm (PT < 0.001). This suggests
increased susceptibility to slaking and soil erosion. Tillage and residue management alone did not affect
soil C contents after 11 cropping seasons, but when residue was incorporated by tillage, soil C was higher
at 15–30 cm (PT*R = 0.037). Lack of treatment effects on the C content of different aggregate fractions
indicated that reduced tillage and/or residue retention did not increase physical C protection. The weak
residue effect on aggregate stability and soil C may be attributed to insufficient residue retention. Soybean
grain yields tended to be suppressed under reduced tillage without residue retention, especially
in wet seasons (PT*R = 0.070). Consequently, future research should establish, for different climatic zones
and soil types, the critical minimum residue retention levels for soil conservation and crop productivity.
Keywords: Reduced tillage, Crop residue management, Soil aggregate stability, Crop yields, Soil organic, carbon, Sub-Saharan Africa

PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, SPH 305: Classical Mechanics , A peer reviewed Physics lecture module for distance learners .". In: published by the University of Nairobi. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
Paul O. "Kenya Journal of Education Planning Economics and Management,." A journal of Education Management Society of Kenya. 2011;3(3). AbstractWebsite

The gross anatomy of the pulmonary arterial system of the giraffe with comparative data from other Artiodactyla. 

Paul O, C. R, D. O. "Flow of funds for sustainable road maintenance in Kenya." Review of Business and Finance Studies. 2014;5(1).
Paul BK, Pulleman MM, Ayuke FO, Six J, Vanlauwe B. "Response to G.W Sileshi letter to the editor on AGEE13857 (2015): Exclusion of soil macrofauna did not affect soil quality. Statistical artefact or true lack of effect." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2016;221:282-284.

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