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2017
and Ogumo E. O., Kunyanga OKCNMW. "Current knowledge and performance of existing charcoal coolers in improving the overall quality and shelf-life of French beans." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;12(49):3399-3409.
Ondeto BM, Nyundo C, Kamau L, Muriu SM, Mwangangi JM, Njagi K, Mathenge EM, Ochanda H. "Current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):429.
Mwaguni S, Ayiemba E, Onyari J. "DANCING TO THE TUNE OF OPPORTUNITIES –HUMAN SETTLEMENTS ALIGNED TO SHARE THE JACKPOT OF KENYA’S COASTAL TOURISM BENEFITS SPOIL THE BROTH.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

This paper highlights how human settlements aligned themselves to share the benefits to arise from coastal tourism development in
the Kenya coast, but have come to bedevil the industry through poor management of domestic waste. The study area comprised of
Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu and Diani-Chale, which are two important tourist destinations in the country. It attempted to establish
population numbers in these habitations, the waste loads generated, and how it was managed. The study was accomplished through
field visits, library research and application of the World Health Organization (WHO 1989) rapid assessment methods for land, air
and water pollution. The relevant data for assessment was obtained from records of population census, bed nights, occupancy, and the
waste disposal methods in use. The study revealed that human settlements aligned themselves in clusters inland, reflecting the clusters
of the beach hotels dotting the shore line of the Indian Ocean. Large volumes of domestic waste were being generated in both the
human settlements and in the hotels. Management of the waste in the settlements was largely on-site and mixed, through the use of
both pit latrines and septic-tank/soakage pit systems in the human settlements, and only through septic-tank/soakage pits in the hotel
establishments. None of the settlements had wastewater treatment facilities. Only 5 beach hotels had wastewater treatment plants.
While the settlements positioned themselves to benefit from the tourism industry, tapping in business and employment opportunities,
the arrangement has seemed to spoil the broth as the settlements came to be the main source domestic waste affecting environmental
quality and undermining tourism growth and sustainability. Also, through the large number of visitors, during the peak tourist periods,
the beach hotels themselves have come contribute to large waste generation. On-site sanitation, it is concluded, is not appropriate for
managing domestic waste in coastal areas dependent on good quality environmental to flourish the tourism economic sector. Tourism
thrives in areas where the environment is aesthetically appealing; domestic waste undermine. Consequently, it is recommended that
innovative approaches are pursued for domestic waste management in order to flourish and sustain the industry.

Parkar RB, Wanyoike GJ, Otieno D, J O. "Day Care Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy outcomes at a dedicated unit in Nairobi, Kenya: Is it time to change?" East African Medical Journal . 2017;94:6-12.
Njogu PM, Okombo J, Chibale K. "Designed Hybrid Compounds for Tropical Parasitic Diseases.". In: Design of Hybrid Molecules for Drug Development (First Edition). London: Elsevier; 2017.
Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "Designing mAgriculture Applications for Rural Smallholder Farmers.". 2017. Abstract

ICT has been widely accepted and adopted as a key driver for various sectors of
the economy for both the developing and developed nations. In developing countries, there
have been multiple interventions to employ the available technology such as mobile,
wireless, radio and TV technologies in key areas that concern human development such as
health, agriculture, education and finance. The design and development practices, are
mostly borrowed from established markets with different user profiles, and do not always

Wanyoike AN, Oleche OM. "Determinants of Demand for Healthcare Services in Private Hospitals in Kenya." International Journal of Novel Research in Marketing Management and Economics . 2017;4(3):9-30.
Maalim H, Omuga B, Ongeso A, Okube T. "Determinants of Mode of Delivery Among Postnatal Mothers Admitted in Wajir County Referral Hospital, Kenya." EC Gynaecology. 2017;6(4):128-138. Abstract

Background: Globally, giving birth through the natural process, ‘Vaginally’ has been widely accepted as unquestioned mode of birth. On the other hand, use of caesarean Section (CS), which involves a surgical incision, has also been utilized as a mode of delivery especially among women with medical or obstetric indications. Delivery through CS is a life saving measure which plays a crucial role in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality from direct causes such as hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and obstructed labor [1]. In Kenya, the National maternal mortality rate was 362/100,000. However, in the study area, Wajir county, it was 1683/100,000 [2]. Advances in technology and its adoption in reproductive health have resulted in an increase in the number of Caesarean delivery in the recent years. This has increased options for preferred mode of delivery for mothers and plays a significant role in reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates. However, in most African countries, mainly in rural and marginalized areas, use of caesarian section remains low even when there is clear indication. Despite this, limited studies to establish determinants of modes of delivery have been done especially in remote rural areas such as Wajir County.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to establish determinants of mode of delivery among postnatal mothers admitted in Wajir County referral Hospital.
Materials and Methods: A hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Mixed method of quantitative and qualitative data was employed among 178 postnatal mothers who were systematically sampled from Wajir county Referral hospital.
Quantitative data was collected using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and qualitative data was collected using Focus group discussion from the postnatal mothers. Descriptive analysis using means, frequency and proportions was computed. Chi-square test
(p < 0.05) with corresponding 95% confidence interval was used to determine the association between the various variables.
Results: The prevalence of Caesarian Section delivery among the respondents was 32%. Analyses with Chi-Square test of independence revealed that maternal age (p = 0.001), marital status (p = 0.016), level of education (p = 0.007), parity (p = 0.03), FGM practice
(p = 0.001) and belonging to the social health groups (p = 0.001) were the variables significantly associated with mode of delivery. A substantial number of women did not have sufficient knowledge on delivery options, benefits and risks to inform their decisions on delivery modes.
Conclusion: Vaginal Delivery is the most preferred mode of delivery even when CS is medically indicated. Caesarian section acceptance remains low due to lack of correct knowledge, poor attitude towards CS and lack of proper women counseling during ANC visits. Therefore, there is need for educational and economic empowerment of women and girls complemented with effective community sensitization and awareness campaigns on delivery-related complications, risks and alternative delivery options for emergency cases.
Keywords: Mode of Delivery; Postnatal Mothers; Wajir County Referral Hospital; Vaginal Delivery

Muthini D, Nyikal R, Otieno DJ. "Determinants of Small-Scale Mango Farmers’ Market Channel Choices in Kenya: An Application of the Two-Step Cragg’s Estimation Procedure." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics (JDAE). 2017;9(5):111-120. AbstractWebsite

The study estimates small-scale mango farmers’ choice of market channels using the Cragg’s two-step procedure where the farmer decides on the channel in the first step and the proportion sold to the selected channel in the second step. Cross section data was collected from a sample of 224 mango farmers selected through multistage sampling just after the mango season. The study was carried out in Makueni County in Eastern Kenya. The county is leading in production of mangoes in Kenya, having produced over 146,000 tonnes valued at over 18 million US dollars, in 2015. The data was analyzed using Cragg’s two step regression model. The first step assessed factors that determine choice of a particular channel, while the second step assessed factors that influence the proportion of produce sold to the channel. Results show that socio-economic factors significant in the first stage are not necessarily significant in the second stage. In some cases, the direction of effect reverses. Factors such as distance to tarmac road, number of mango trees in the farm, membership in producer marketing groups, training in mango agronomy, and access to extension services affect choice of export market channel. Only membership to mango marketing groups significantly influences proportion sold. Household income, distance to tarmac, number of trees, market information, and gender significantly affect choice of the direct market channel. The direct market channel earns farmers the largest margins, followed by the export channel. However, majority of farmers sell to brokers followed by export channel. It was found that despite being aware that they could fetch higher prices through direct selling, they lacked financial capacity, transport resources, and information on market locations and requirements. Policies need to enhance financial capacity of farmers, as well as expand efforts to disseminate timely and accurate market information.

Key words: Small-scale farmers, mango market channels, Kenya. Collapse

Muatha IT, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "Determinants of smallholder farmers’ awareness of agricultural extension devolution in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR). 2017;12(10)(ISSN – 1991-637x):3549-3555.
Tesesia MI, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "Determinants of smallholder farmers’ awareness of agricultural extension devolution in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR) . 2017;12(51):3549-3555.
Opanga SA, Mwang’ombe NJ, Okalebo FA, Oluka M, Kuria K. "Determinants of the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis among neurotrauma patients at a referral hospital in Kenya: Findings and implications." Journal of Infectious Diseases and Preventive Medicine. 2017:1-7.
Wanyoike AN, Oleche OM. "Determinants of Utilization of Health Care Services in Kenya." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2017;7(10).
Okoth S. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica. 2017;213(4):93. Abstract10.10072fs10681-017-1883-7.pdfWebsite

Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus
flavus cause Fusarium ear rot (FER) and Aspergillus
ear rot (AER) of maize, respectively. Both pathogens
are of concern to producers as they reduce grain yield
and affect quality. F. verticillioides and A. flavus also
contaminate maize grain with the mycotoxins fumonisins
and aflatoxins, respectively, which has been
associated with mycotoxicosis in humans and animals.
The occurrence of common resistance mechanisms to
FER and AER has been reported. Hence, ten Kenyan
inbred lines resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation
were evaluated for resistance to FER, F.
verticillioides colonisation and fumonisin accumulation;
and compared to nine South African lines
resistant to FER and fumonisin accumulation. Field
trials were conducted at three localities in South Africa
and two localities in Kenya. FER severity was
determined by visual assessment, while F. verticillioides
colonisation and fumonisin content were
quantified by real-time PCR and liquid chromatography
tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Significant
genotype x environment interactions was
determined at each location (P B 0.05). Kenyan
inbred CML495 was most resistant to FER and F.
verticillioides colonisation, and accumulated the lowest
concentration of fumonisins across localities. It
was, however, not significantly more resistant than
Kenyan lines CML264 and CKL05015, and the South
African line RO549 W, which also exhibited low FER
severity (B5%), fungal target DNA (B0.025 ng lL-1
)
and fumonisin levels (B2.5 mg kg-1
). Inbred lines
resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation appear to
be promising sources of resistance to F. verticillioides
and fumonisin contamination.
Keywords Fusarium ear rot Aspergillus ear rot
Resistance Mycotoxins Maize inbred lines
In

Rose LJ, Okoth S, Beukes I, Ouko A, Mouton M, Bradley CF, Makumbi D, Viljoen A. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica . 2017:213-93.
English MM, Irimu GG, Nyamai RR, Were FF, Garner PP, Opiyo NN, F W. "Developing guidelines in low-income and middle-income countries: lessons from Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2017;1(6). AbstractWebsite

There are few examples of sustained nationally organised, evidence-informed clinical guidelines development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the evolution of efforts from 2005 to 2015 to support evidence-informed decision making to guide admission hospital care practices in Kenya. The approach to conduct reviews, present evidence, and structure and promote transparency of consensus-based procedures for making recommendations improved over four distinct rounds of policy making. Efforts to engage important voices extended from government and academia initially to include multiple professional associations, regulators and practitioners. More than 100 people have been engaged in the decision-making process; an increasing number outside the research team has contributed to the conduct of systematic reviews, and 31 clinical policy recommendations has been developed. Recommendations were incorporated into clinical guideline booklets that have been widely disseminated with a popular knowledge and skills training course. Both helped translate evidence into practice. We contend that these efforts have helped improve the use of evidence to inform policy. The systematic reviews, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approaches and evidence to decision-making process are well understood by clinicians, and the process has helped create a broad community engaged in evidence translation together with a social or professional norm to use evidence in paediatric care in Kenya. Specific sustained efforts should be made to support capacity and evidence-based decision making in other African settings and clinical disciplines.

Kimani J, Osanjo GO, Sang R, Ochieng J, Mulaa F. "Development of Dromedary Antibody-based Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Chikungunya virus Infections." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(2).
Wambua L, Bernd Schneider, Allan Okwaro, Joseph Odhiambo Wanga, Olive Imali, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Lavender Agutu, Cassandra Olds, Chris Stephen Jones. "Development of field-applicable tests for rapid and sensitive detection of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae." Molecular and cellular probes. 2017;35:44-56.
Awad O, Malek A, Ogeng’o J. "DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA ON JUNCTIONAL AND LABYRINTHINE ZONES OF PLACENTA IN SPRAGUE DAWELY RAT." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2017;6(1):840-846. Abstractdifferential_effects_of_chronic_iron_deficiency.pdfWebsite

Iron deficiency anaemia causes adverse pregnancy outcome. Studies reveal its generalized effects on
histomorphometry of the placenta, without details on specific zones nor effect of gestational age. These data are
important for planning intervention. This study was, therefore, designed to describe the histomorphometric changes
associated with iron deficiency anaemia on placenta of albino rat. Fourty nine (49) Sprague – Dawely albino rats
were randomly separated into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was rendered anaemic by
removing 1.5 ml of blood per bleed on five alternate days. Placentas were collected on gestational days 17, 19 and
21. Five cubic milimetre segments were fixed in 10 % buffered formaldehyde solution; dehydrated in ethanol and
embedded in paraffin wax. Five micron thick sections were cut, deparaffinized and stained with Hematoxylin and
Eosin. Micrographs were taken using Leica ICC 50 digital photomicrographic camera attached to a computer at
magnification x40 and the thickness of the labyrinth and junctional zones measured. Student t- test was used to
compare values for the experimental and control groups. The labyrinth in the chronic anaemia group was thinner
than in the control group at gestational days 17, 19 and 21. The junctional zone, on the other hand, was consistently
thicker in anaemic than in the control animals. The difference in thickness of junctional zone varied with gestational
age. At gestational day 17, the zone was significantly thicker in the anaemic group (628.9 μ) than in the control
(381 μ). On day 19 and 21, however, the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the effects of
chronic iron deficiency anaemia on the labyrinth differ from those on the junctional zone of the placenta. This
differential effect appears to depend on the function and gestational age. The decrease in thickness of the labyrinth
may be designed to maintain placental diffusion capacity while increased thickness of the junctional zone constitutes
a compensatory physical and nutritional adaptation to hypoxia.

Okumu PO, Karanja DN, Gathumbi PK. Diseases of domestic rabbits and associated risk factors in Kenya. Germany : LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing ; 2017.
Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BB. "Diversity, distribution and abundance of potential rift valley fever vectors in Baringo County, Kenya." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2017;4(4):42-48.ondiba_etal_2018.pdf
ODHIAMBO G O, J W, OLUOCH M F, J. OOKO. "Dividend Announcements and Market Value of Shares in the Agricultural Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017;4(3):213-228.
Odhiambo, G. WOOJJ & M. "Dividend Announcements and Market Value of Shares in the Agricultural Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. ." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017.
Soki KB, Were AJ, OGOLA EN, Nyale GM, Murage MM. "An echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary pressures in hemodialysis patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(6). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Background: A high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been noted. In these patients, PH increases morbidity and mortality and worsens prognosis post-renal transplant. Its aetiopathogenesis may be multifactorial, involving the process of haemodialysis itself.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of PH among patients with ESRD undergoing haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), using Doppler echocardiography

Design: 117 patients were consecutively recruited into this cross-sectional study.
Medical history was used to exclude patients with possible PH of known aetiology. Patients were examined for features of fluid overload. Each patient then underwent haemodialysis followed by echocardiography within two hours. Haemoglobin was measured.

Setting: The Renal Unit, KNH, a tertiary hospital in Nairobi

Subjects: Patients undergoing regular haemodialysis within the renal unit, thirteen years and above, who gave written informed consent or assent.

Results: 63.2% of the participants were male. Mean age was 44 years. Prevalence of PH among ESRD patients was 32.5%, with a median PASP of 47.3mmHg and a range of 36.1–79 mmHg. A strong association between PH and EF of less than 50%, as a marker of LV dysfunction, was demonstrated.

Conclusion: The prevalence of PH among end-stage renal disease patients was high. This suggests an indication for routinely screening haemodialysis patients for PH.

Keywords: ESRD: End stage renal disease, LV: Left ventricle, KNH: Kenyatta National Hospital, PASP: Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, PH: Pulmonary Hypertension

Ogot M, Okudan Gül E. "Educating for Complex Problem Solving Using Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ).". In: Learning to Solve Complex Scientific Problems. Routledge; 2017:. Abstract

This chapter focuses on a potential remedy for the situation: adoption of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), a systematic problem-solving methodology that provides a structured process during the initial stages of design and supports the problem-solving process by providing design information that novice designers may not possess. It provides steps that allow design teams to explore nontraditional solutions and not restrict themselves to common, comfortable ones. The latter problem can be addressed by introducing a small subset of the TRIZ toolset as part of existing design courses. The case study presents a brief summary of results from a formal ideation assessment of two cohorts of first-year students in the same introductory engineering design course. Although it provides a vast and powerful set of tools, this chapter has presented a reduced toolset that is easy to learn and can be incorporated into …

J Okwako, Musembi R, F Nyongesa, Ogacho A. Effect of Annealing on Structural and Optical Properties of CZTS thin films Deposited by SILAR Technique.. TUNISIA: ANSOLE DAYS; 2017.
Ogilo F. "EFFECT OF BANKING REGULATIONS ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;Vol. 2 No. 9, November-2017(2(9)):72-78.
Wanjiru KG, Digolo Patrick Ochieng Obonyo, Boniface N, Owino MS. "Effect of Computer Based Instruction on Learners’ Performance in Art and Design in public secondary schools in Kenya. ." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies.. 2017;5(6).
Otieno PS, Ogutu CA, Mburu J, Nyikal RA. "Effect of Global-GAP Policy on Climate Change Perceptions of Smallholder French Beans Farmers in Central and Eastern Regions, Kenya." Climate . 2017;5(2). AbstractWebsite

The risks posed by climate change to Sub Saharan Africa’s (SSA) smallholder fresh export fruit and vegetables production are amplifying the significance of farmers’ climate change perceptions in enhancing adoption of suitable adaptation strategies. Production of fresh export fruit and vegetables in Kenya has increasingly been done under the Global-GAP standard scheme by smallholder farmers to improve both environmental conservation and market access. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Global-GAP policy on climate change perceptions of smallholder French beans farmers. The analysis was based on data collected from a random sample of 616 households interviewed in the Central and Eastern regions of Kenya. The study used principal component analysis (PCA) to extract farmers’ key prevailing climate change perceptions and logit regression model to examine the effect of Global-GAP policy on climate change perceptions among other socio-economic factors. The PCA analysis extracted three components proxying for ‘droughts’, ‘delay in rainy seasons’, ‘diseases and pests’ and three proxying for ‘hot days’, ‘floods’, and ‘diseases and pests’ as summarizing maximum variance in the perceptions in the Central and Eastern region respectively. The common, study area-wide climate change perception was identified as incidence of diseases and pest. Logit regression analysis found that Global-GAP policy significantly influenced and improved farmers’ probability of perceiving climate change. Other factors found to influence farmers’ probability of having the identified climate change perceptions included regional specificity, access to agricultural extension service, access to credit, plot size, and soil fertility. The policy implication of this study is that the government and service providers should mainstream factors like Global-GAP compliance and regional considerations found to improve probability of perceiving climate change in awareness creation extension strategies, towards enhancing adoption of adaptation measures in the smallholder fruits and vegetables farming sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: Global-GAP certification; climate change perception; principal component analysis; logit regression model; smallholder; French beans farming; Kenya

Otieno PS, Ogutu CA, Mburu J, Nyikal RA. "Effect of Global-GAP policy on smallholder French beans farmers’ climate change adaptation strategies in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2017;12(8):577-587.
Mbogo NW, Kinama JM, Onyango CM, JN K. "Effect of inorganic fertilizer and cattle manure on growth and yield of two Kenyan potato varieties." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR). 2017;10(1):65-72.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, CKK G. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, Mureithi SM, Koech OK, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017;6(1):41.
Kinyanjui E, Ochieng DE. "Effect of Remittances from Diaspora on Financial Sector Deepening in the East African Community ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):82-10. Abstract

Abstract
Purpose – This paper investigated the effect of diaspora remittances on financial sector deepening in the East African Community. Personal diaspora remittances were used as a measure of remittances from diaspora. The three proxies for financial deepening that were employed in the study were domestic credit as a ratio of GDP, total credit provided by the financial sector as a percentage of GDP and degree of monetization, M2 as a percentage of GDP.
Methodology – The study adopted an explanatory research design. It employed panel data analysis - fixed effects method, to model the linear regression equation. The population of the study was the five East African Community member countries and covered a 20-year period (1997 to 2016). The data for this study was obtained from the World Bank statistics website.
Findings – This study established that there exists a positive relationship between remittances from diaspora and financial sector deepening in the EAC but this relationship is not significant. The three models analyzed in this study, show that a 0.31, 0.08 and 0.28 change respectively, in remittances in the respective models, leads to a unit change in the level of financial sector deepening in the EAC.
Implications – The results of this study show that an increase in the level of remittances leads to increased financial deepening in the EAC economies. There is therefore need for the government in liaison with the private sector, to provide a conducive environment for development of financially innovative products that ease and reduce the cost of sending remittances as this will foster further financial deepening, which has the positive effect of financial inclusion, access to credit and economic growth.
Value – This study recommended the fostering of activities that are geared towards the ease of sending remittances and cost reduction of sending the remittances through employment of new financial technologies. Further studies have also been recommended to increase the frontiers of the study especially on developed countries in order to gain more conclusive understanding and generalizability of the remittances-financial sector deepening nexus.

Key Words; Diaspora remittances, Financial sector deepening, East Africa Community

Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia P G, W O. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:435-443.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbuthia PG, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2017;65(3):439-447.
Mumia BI, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nyongesa M, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Seed Potato Tuber Storage Methods on Occurrence of Potato Diseases." International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences . 2017;4(4):23-48.
Mwangi PM, Ochieng DE. "The Effect of Selected Macro-economic Variables on Exchange Rates in Kenya." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):162-177. Abstractthe_effect_of_selected_macro_economic_variables_on_exchange_rates_in_kenya.pdf

Purpose – This paper sought to establish the effect of selected macro-economic variables
on exchange rates in Kenya. The selected macro-economic variables for this study were
interest rates, inflation rates and trade flows.
Methodology – The study was modeled as a descriptive survey. A data collection sheet
was used to collect secondary data from the published bulletin and other publications by
Central Bank of Kenya and Kenya National Bureau of Statistics for a period of ten years
between 2006 and 2015. The data was examined using descriptive, correlation and
regression analyses.
Findings - Results of the study showed that interest rate had a positive correlation
coefficient of 0.446 with exchange rate, Inflation rate and exchange rate had a correlation
coefficient of negative 0.395 while the Level of aggregation of trade flows had a
correlation coefficient of positive 0.829 to the exchange rate. The value of R square was
0.745, a discovery that 74.5 percent of the deviations in exchange rates in Kenya
occurred due to changes in interest rate, inflation rate and trade flows at 95 percent
confidence level. The significance value obtained was less than p=0.05 implying that the
model was statistically significant in predicting how the macro economic variables of
interest rate, inflation rate and trade flows affect exchange rates in Kenya.
Implications - The Kenyan shilling has been depreciating in value over the years
implying a weakening of its purchasing power in the international markets. Policy makers
should come up with policies that will contribute to reversing this trend. Managing the
prevailing levels of inflation, interest rates and trade flows will be key as they have been
found to significantly affect exchange rates.
Value - The study will act as a guide to variou

Abong'o DA, Onyatta JO, Mbugua H. "The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances on Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;6(3):1-10.
Munyao SM, ODOCK SO, Rucha K. "Effect of service quality management practices on operational performance of petroleum distributing firms in Kenya." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(2):49-71. Abstract

The desire of any service organization is to deliver quality service that meets their customer expectations so as to remain profitable and in business. The service market has now become more competitive than ever before and meeting customer needs is a necessity. Petroleum distributing firms in Kenya are at a great task of perfecting their service delivery systems to ensure that their customers get quality product at the right time, right quantity and above all safely. Well managed service quality practices have the potential of transforming the operational performance of an organization. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of adoption of service quality management practices by petroleum distributing firms in Kenya, the challenges they face in the implementation of these practices and the effect of these practices on the firms’ operational performance. The study was carried out through a descriptive survey of 32 petroleum distributing firms in Kenya. Drop and pick later questionnaires were used to collect primary data. The collected data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and descriptive statistics like mean and standard deviation used to summarize the findings. The regression analysis technique was used to establish the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The research findings were presented in tables. The findings indicated that petroleum distributing firms adopted various service quality management practices to a large extent. The findings also indicated that the firms were faced by various challenges in their endeavour to implement the service quality management practices. Further, the findings indicated that there existed generally a positive relationship between service quality management practices and operational performance. The main conclusion was that the adoption of service quality management practices by petroleum distributing firms was inevitable since it improved the operational performance of these firms. The researcher recommends that policy makers should ensure organizations embrace service quality management practices for improved productivity and better returns from their investments. The researcher concludes by suggesting that similar research to be carried out in other sectors of the economy other than petroleum industry.

Otieno AO, Karuku GN, Raude JM, Koech OK. "Effectiveness of the Horizontal, Vertical and Hybrid Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Systems in Polishing Municipal Wastewater." Environmental Management and Sustainable Development. 2017;6(2):158-173.
Waweru G, Ochieng’ DDE. "EFFECTS OF CAPITAL FLOWS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN KENYA ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):1-17. Abstracteffects_of_capital_flows_on_economic_growth_in_kenya.pdf

Purpose -This study investigated the immediate and lagged effects of the various forms of capital flows - FDI flows, portfolio flows and “Other investments capital flows” (which mainly represents corporate, financial institutions and general government borrowings as well as remittances from the diaspora) - on economic growth in Kenya over a 30 year period from 1984 to 2014.
Methodology – The study adopted a quantitative research design in the form of an econometric model known as Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDLM). Findings -FDI and portfolio investments flows have a negative impact on the GDP growth rate and that their impact is not statistically significant.However, other investments flows, which mainly represent corporate, financial institutions, general government borrowings and remittances from the diaspora, have a positive impact on GDP growth rate and the impact is statistically significant.Based on the study findings, it can be inferred that a significant slowdown or a reversal in capital flows in form of “Other investments capital flows” into Kenya result into significant slowdown in economic growth in the country. Implications -Policy makers may lay much emphasis on attracting portfolio investment flows and “Other investments capital flows”, while investors and firms should consider the upside opportunities that may be created by increase in other investments capital flows and the downside risks that could results from a significant slowdown or a reversal in these forms of capital flows into the country.

Keywords: Capital flows, Economic growth, FDI flows, portfolio investment flows, Private equity, Diaspora remittances, Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model.

AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of exposure to effluent contaminated river water on boar reproduction." Inter J Vet Sci. 2017;6(1):49-52.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "The effects of Intermolecular Interaction in Line Broadening Phenomena.". In: J. Molecular Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 2017. Abstract

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Waruiru RM, Munyua WK, Mavuti SK, Otieno RO, Mutune MN, Maina VM. "Effects of medicated urea-molasses block supplementation on productivity and gastrointestinal nematode infestation of sheep in central Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 2017;29(161).
Okoth S. "Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell)." International journal of microbiology. 2017:1-9. Abstract5273893.pdfWebsite

This study was undertaken with an aim of exploring the effectiveness of medicinal plant extracts in the control of aflatoxin
production. Antifungal properties, photosensitization, and phytochemical composition of aqueous and organic extracts of fruits
fromSolanumaculeastrum, bark fromSyzygium cordatum, and leaves from Prunus africana, Ocimum lamiifolium, Lippia kituiensis,
and Spinacia oleracea were tested. Spores from four-day-old cultures of previously identified toxigenic fungi, UONV017 and
UONV003, were used. Disc diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to test the antifungal activity. The spores were
suspended in 2ml of each extract separately and treated with visible light (420 nm) for varying periods. Organic extracts displayed
species and concentration dependent antifungal activity. Solanum aculeastrum had the highest zones of inhibition diameters in
both strains: UONV017 (mean = 18.50 ± 0.71 mm) and UONV003 (mean = 11.92 ± 0.94 mm) at 600mg/ml. Aqueous extracts
had no antifungal activity because all diameters were below 8 mm. Solanum aculeastrum had the lowest minimum inhibitory
concentration at 25mg/ml against A. flavusUONV017.All the plant extracts in combinationwith light reduced the viability of fungal
conidia compared with the controls without light, without extracts, and without both extracts and light. Six bioactive compounds
were analyzed in the plant extracts. Medicinal plant extracts in this study can control conidia viability and hence with further
development can control toxigenic fungal spread.

Njoki LM, Okoth SA, Wachira PM. "Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell)." International Journal of Microbiology. 2017:Pages 9 doi:10.1155/2017/5273893.
Angima, C., Mwangi, J.W., Kaijage, Ogutu M. "Effects of pricing and reinsurance practices on performance of general insurance firms in East Africa." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(7):28-40.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, M CHARLES. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJ EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
Masinde SP, Ochieng DDE. "Effects of Working Capital Management on Financial Performance of Energy and Petroleum Companies Listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):61-79. Abstract

Purpose – This paper sought to establish the effect of Working Capital Management on the financial performance of Energy and Petroleum Companies listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. Methodology – The study was modelled as correlation survey. A data collection sheet was used to collect secondary data from the published financial statements of all Energy and Petroleum companies listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange for a period of eight years between 2007 and 2014. Both descriptive and quantitative analyses were adopted. Pearson correlation, regression and ANOVA analysis were also conducted. Findings - The study suggests that Working Capital Management influence the Return on Assets significantly. 17.8% of the variations in profitability were influenced by variations in the Working Capital Management. The study establishes that the influence of Working Capital Management on profitability is statistically significant. The study finds weak negative associations between profitability and inventory conversion period, accounts collection period, accounts payable period and cash conversion cycles. The study establishes that the negative relationships between accounts payable period, cash conversion cycle and profitability are statistically significant. The relationships between accounts collection period, inventory conversion period and performance are not statistically significant. Implications - It is incumbent upon the Finance Managers of Energy and Petroleum companies listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange to understand the Energy and Petroleum business operations, and put in place robust Working Capital Management framework because of significant and positive impact on the financial performance of these companies. Value - A vibrant and profitable Energy and Petroleum sector has been identified as a key pillar to the achievement of Kenya’s Vision 2030. It is critical therefore, to reevaluate existing Working Capital Management framework of these companies for robustness in order to realize the Vision 2030.

Key Words: Working Capital Management, Financial Performance, Nairobi Securities Exchange

Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Otieno RO, Gitari RN. "Efficacy of copper oxide wire particles against predominant gastrointestinal nematodes of indigenous goats in Kenya." Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. 2017;4(12):522-526.
Wabomba JN, Shiundu PM, Onyari JM, Yanful E. "Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cu (Ii) Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using a Kenyan Micaceous Mineral." International Journal of Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(4):181-198. AbstractInternational Journal of Innovation Education and Research

Description
Copper (II) sorption on a Kenyan micaceous mineral (Mica-K) was studied in the batch mode. The effects of different experimental parameters such as; initial concentration, contact time, sorbent dose, pH, particle size, agitation speed, competition and temperature on the kinetics of copper removal were studied. The sorption pattern of copper onto Mica-K followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters for copper sorption on Mica-K were also determined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis of metal ion-equilibrated Mica-K, demonstrated that copper, cadmium and Zinc containing nodules existed on the surface of Mica-K.

Wabomba JN, Shiundu PM, Onyari JM, Yanful E. "Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cu(Ii) Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using a Kenyan Micaceous Mineral.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Copper (II) sorption on a Kenyan micaceous mineral (Mica-K) was studied in the batch mode. The effects of different experimental parameters such as; initial concentration, contact time, sorbent dose, pH, particle size, agitation speed, competition and temperature on the kinetics of copper removal were studied. The sorption pattern of copper onto Mica-K followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters for copper sorption on Mica-K were also determined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis of metal ion-equilibrated Mica-K, demonstrated that copper, cadmium and Zinc containing nodules existed on the surface of Mica-K.

Mukisa MT, Ochieng DO, Waiganjo PW. "Evaluating the sustainability of mHealt h systems in developing countries: the knowledge gap." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2017;6(7):1363-1367. AbstractJournal website

The use of mobile technology in healthcare, known as mHealth is being explored across the developing countries as part of the effort to tackle growing disease burden through, prevention and appropriate and prompt intervention strategies. Although the
outcomes of some of the implemented mHealth projects have been successful with very promising results, a significant number of the projects have failed after a short period of use. Studies carried out on the failed projects pointed to lack of sustainability. Review of
existing technology evaluation model against the cited challenges reveals significant deficiencies in the models and thus not suitable to evaluate sustainability of mHealth system in developing countries. It is clear that there exist a knowledge gap and hence the need to
develop and validate a suitable mHealth system sustainability evaluation model.
Keywords: Evaluation, mHealth, Model, Sustainability

Mukisa MT, Ochieng DO, Waiganjo PW. "Evaluating the sustainability of mHealt h systems in developing countries: the knowledge gap." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2017;6(7):1363-1367. AbstractJournal website

The use of mobile technology in healthcare, known as mHealth is being explored across the developing countries as part of the effort to tackle growing disease burden through, prevention and appropriate and prompt intervention strategies. Although the outcomes of some of the implemented mHealth projects have been successful with very promising results, a significant number of the projects have failed after a short period of use. Studies carried out on the failed projects pointed to lack of sustainability. Review of existing technology evaluation model against the cited challenges reveals significant deficiencies in the models and thus not suitable to evaluate sustainability of mHealth system in developing countries. It is clear that there exist a knowledge gap and hence the need to develop and validate a suitable mHealth system sustainability evaluation model.
Keywords: Evaluation, mHealth, Model, Sustainability

Mavuti 9 31 SK, Otieno RO, Mbaria JM, Maina JG, Mbuthia PG, R.M Waruiru. "Evaluation of fish farm management Practices in Nyeri County, Kenya International Journal of Fisheries." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2017;5 (3):165-170.
Achieng BO, Nzuve FM, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM. "Evaluation of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes for resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;10(6):85-94.
Elias M, Richter U, Hensel O, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Expansion of Crop Cultivation and its Impacts on Land Cover Changes in the Borana Rangeland Southern Ethiopia.". 2017. Abstract

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Abinya NA, Mwanda WO, Maina JMD, Odhiambo AO, Oyiro PO, Mwanzi SA, Dindi E, Waweru A. "Exploring Occupational and Familial Risks for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia." Journal of US-China Medical Science . 2017;1(14):31-35.cml_risk_us-china_publ.pdf
Kang’ethe EK, Gatwiri M, Sirma AJ, Ouko EO, Mburugu-Musoti CK, Kitala PM, Nduhiu GJ, Nderitu JG, JK Mungatu, Hietaniemi V, V Joutsjoki, Korhonen HJ. "Exposure of Kenyan population to aflatoxins in foods with special reference to Nandi and Makueni counties." Food Quality and Safety. 2017;1 (2):131-137.
Maina EM, Oboko RO, Waiganjo PW. "Extending moodle grouping functionality using artificial intelligent techniques." AFRICON, 2017 IEEE. 2017:55-58. AbstractFull website link

Learning Management Systems such as Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning
Environment (Moodle) only supports random group assignment or instructor based
assignment method. However, with the understanding that random assignment method only
increases the likelihood of heterogeneity in the group, while instructor based method
involves the instructors and it is not dynamic, there is need to develop a group formation
mechanism which can guarantee heterogeneity based on learner's collaboration
competence level, has dynamism in grouping students and has less instructor involvement.
In view of this, this paper discusses how to extend Moodle grouping functionality in
discussion forums using an intelligent grouping algorithm which has the capability to mine
discussion forum data in Moodle and cluster students to different clusters based

KIPLAGAT CHEBONSAMMY, Onyari JM, Mulaa F, wabomba J. "Extraction and characterization of gelatin from Lates niloticus and potential industrial applications." Biofarmasi Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry. 2017;15(2):53-64. Abstract

Kiplagat CS, Onyari JM, Mulaa F, Wabomba J. 2018. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from Lates niloticus and potential industrial applications. Biofarmasi J Nat Prod Biochem 16: 53-64. This research aims to extract and characterize gelatin from Lates niloticus (Nile perch) scales, then blend it with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Hydrolysis of the scales was done using a crude alkaline protease harvested from a bacterium, Bacillus cereus strain wwcp 1, obtained from Lake Bogoria. The lyophilized solution yielded 16.3% of gelatin powder calculated from the dry weight of the scales. The sample was characterized using infrared spectroscopy and showed peaks at 3442 cm-1, 1653 cm-1 and~ 1590 cm-1 corresponding to Amide A, Amide I and Amide II bands respectively. The amino acid analysis shows that glycine was the most abundant amino acid (21.7%), followed by proline (14.6%) and alanine (11.8%). Isoleucine, Histidine, and Tyrosine were the least abundant (1.8, 1.4 and 0.9% respectively). Polyvinyl alcohol-gelatin blend films of various compositions ranging from 10% to 90% PVA were prepared by solution casting method. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA) tests showed the films had glass transition, melting and thermal decomposition onset temperatures intermediate between those of the respective individual polymers (PVA and gelatin). The thermal stability of the films reduced with the increase in the amount of the less thermally stable constituent. Lastly, potential applications of the prepared blend films were investigated. Batch experiments to assess the potential of the polymer blend …

Ogada CN, Mutave RJ. "Factors that influence the use of the incisive pappila as refference to maxilary anterior tooth positions." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(8):592-596.
Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru RM, Okumu PO, W. K Munyua, Kibebe HW. "Farmer practices that influence risk factors, prevalence and control strategies of rabbit coccidiosis in Central Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(7).www_lrrd_org_lrrd29_7_koko29134_html.pdf
Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru RM, Okumu PO, Kitala P, Gichure JN. "Farmer practices that influence risk factors, prevalence and control strategies of rabbit coccidiosis in Central Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(7):2017http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd29/7/koko29134.html.
Waruiru RM, Munyua WK, Gathumbi PK, Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Okumu PO, Wanyoike M, Gichure JN, Kitala P, Mailu S. "Farmer practices that influence risk factors, prevalence and control strategies of rabbit coccidiosis in central Kenya. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(134).
Ogot MM. "Feasibility on the Use of Pre-Compressed Scrap Tire Strips as Components of Laminated Building Structures.". In: International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa. Vol. 28. Trans Tech Publ; 2017:. Abstract

This study developed the necessary underlying experimental data and models to demonstrate the feasibility of using pre-compression of scrap tire strips as components of laminates within building structures. The approach presents an economical alternative for the reuse of scrap tires, while accounting for the tire material properties that may not be directly suitable for use in building structures. The proposed approach exploits the elasticity of the tire material as the basis for creating adhesion between the strip tire laminates. Pre-compression of the tire laminates creates frictional forces that prevent layer separation, and able to withstand winds up to 140 mph. Both experimental and theoretical approaches are presented to show the approaches potential.

Ogeng’o J, ONGETI K, Mwachaka P. "Features of atherosclerosis of common carotid arteries among black Kenyans." J. Morphol. Sci . 2017;34(2):54-57. Abstractfeatures_of_atherosclerosis_of_common_carotid_arteries_among_black_kenyans.pdf

Introduction: Data on the features of atherosclerosis of common carotid artery are important for informing strategies against ischaemic stroke in Subsaharan Africa, but are scarce. Materials and Methods: This study therefore investigated, by light microscopy, the presence of features of atherosclerosis in the left common carotid artery among 108 black Kenyans [76 males; 32 females; Mean age 36.4, range 22-82 years] who suffered violent death. Specimens from the distal segment of the artery were prepared for routine paraffin embedding, and 5μ sections stained with Mason’s Trichome. Results: At least one feature of atherosclerosis was observed in 22 (20.4%) cases. Intimal hyperplasia alone was present in all the 22 cases followed by Intimal hyperplasia and degeneration of internal elastic lamina 19 (17.6%); Intimal hyperplasia combined with disintegration of internal elastic lamina and medial degeneration 17 (15.7%). Thickening of tunica adventitia with neovascularization were present in 8 (7.4%) of cases. All the features were more frequent in males than females (1.4:1) and those over 40 years old. Eight of the cases (36.4%) were in individuals aged below 40 years. Conclusion: Multiple features of atherosclerosis in common carotid artery are present in over 20% of the asymptomatic black Kenyans studied. They occur more frequently in males, and affect individuals younger than 40 years. These features appear in all three layers of the vessel wall, suggesting that the disease has attained several stages of severity in this population. We recommend early screening for the disease in individuals at risk.

Okoth S. "Field evaluation of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbred lines in Kenya and South Africa." Journal of Crop Improvement. 2017;31(6):862-878. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
Aflatoxin, a carcinogenic toxin, is produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) grain by these fungi occurs before harvest, and the easiest strategy to prevent this is to develop/use maize varieties resistant to Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin accumulation. The objective of this investigation was to identify potential sources of resistance among 23 maize inbred lines (13 obtained from the MAIZE Competitive Grants Initiative, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre and 10 from Agricultural Research Council, South Africa). The inbred lines were planted in a randomized complete-block design at two locations each in Kenya and South Africa. Maize ears were inoculated at silking with three toxigenic strains of A. flavus. The inoculated ears in each plot were harvested at 12–18% moisture, dried, and visually assessed for Aspergillus ear rot (AER). Aflatoxin concentration in the kernels was determined using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Significant variation for both AER and aflatoxin concentration existed among the inbred lines at both locations in Kenya and one location in South Africa. Combined analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.001) lines × locations interaction for both AER and aflatoxin concentration. Higher incidences of AER (0–86.0%) and aflatoxin concentration (0.21–6.51 µg/kg) were recorded at Kiboko in Kenya than at the other three locations. A stronger genetic correlation (rG = 0.936, p < 0.0001) between the AER and aflatoxin concentration was recorded in Potchefstroom than at the other three locations. Repeatability of aflatoxin concentration was high at Kiboko (0.87) and Potchefstroom in South Africa (0.74). Three inbred lines, CML247, CML444, and CML495, emerged as potentially useful sources of resistance to AER and aflatoxin accumulation as they showed low levels of aflatoxin contamination in both localities in Kenya and in South Africa.

Okoth S, Rose LJ, Ouko A, I B, H S, M M, BC F, D M, A V. "Field evaluation of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbred lines in Kenya and South Africa. ." Journal of Crop Improvement. 2017;31(6):862-878.
Otieno SP. "Fifty Years of Impotent Theatre in Schools and Colleges Drama Festival: A (con)textual examination of a Troubled Conscience in Theatre." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;vol. 1(Issue 4):85-95.
Otieno SP, Ndede LA, Musonye M. "Film as an Artefact: Confronting Kenya's History through the Kitchen Toto and Nairobi Half Life." Journal of African Theatre Film and Media Discourse. 2017;vol. 1(Issue 1):61-84.
Musonye MM, Ndede L, Otieno SP. "Film as an Artifact: Confronting Kenya's History through The Kitchen Toto and Nairobi Half Life." The Journal of African Theatre, Film and Media Discourse . 2017;1(1):69-84.
Nzioka OM, Kaijage E, Ochieng DE. "Financial Integration, Macroeconomic Volatility And Economic Growth In The East African Community." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(19):317-331. Abstract

This study aimed at determining the moderating effect of macroeconomic
volatility on the relationship between financial integration and
economic growth in the EAC.
The study adopted a positivistic research philosophy and casual research
design.. Generalized-two stage least squares instrumental variable regression
model (G2SLSIV) was then conducted to test the hypothesis. The findings of
the study showed that, macro-economic volatility does not have a significant
moderating effect on the relationship between financial integration and
economic growth. Therefore, the study recommends that, the governments of
respective member states work on a monetary policy that aims to attain a
single digit level of inflation rate (low inflation targeting), in the spirit of
macro-economic convergence. The study culminates with acknowledging the
limitations encountered and provides suggestions for further research.

Kimunduu GM, MWANGI MIRIE, Kaijage E, Ochieng DE. "Financial Performance and Dividend Policy." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(28):138-154. Abstractfinancial_performance_and_dividend_policy.pdf

Past studies on the relationship between dividend policy and firm
performance continue being an unresolved predicament with few studies
interrogating the causality relationship between financial performance and
dividend policy. The purpose of this study was to establish the nature of
relationship between financial performance and dividend policy of firms
listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. The study applied positivism
research philosophy and descriptive causal research design. The study was
anchored on hypothetical view that the relationship between financial
performance and dividend policy of firms listed at the Nairobi securities
exchange is not significant which was tested against a sample size of 31
firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange selected using purposive
sampling technique. The research findings were as follows: There was a
statistically significant direct association between return on equity and
dividend policy. This implies that as firm profitability improve; a
corresponding proportionate change in dividend payout ratio is initiated by
management. In addition, it was established that there was a statistically
significant positive linkage between operating cash flows and dividend
policy which denotes that as cash flow levels from operating activities
change, dividend payout ratio will change in the same direction leading

Ronoh K, Kamucha G, Odongo W, Olwal T, Omwansa T. Firefly Algorithm based Power Control in Wireless TV White Space Network. Cape Town, South Africa; 2017.
Amimo JO, Njuguna JN, Machuka E, Okoth E, Djikeng A. "First Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Bocavirus Strains from East Africa." Genome Announcement. 2017.
Opuko Hellen A., G. MM. "Flexible Work Practices and Job Performance in the Transport and Logistics Industry: The Kenyan perspective." DBA Africa Management Review. 2017;7(2):38-49.
Sarguta R. Four Routes to Mixed Poisson Distributions. Ottieno JAM, Mwaniki JI, Kipchirchir IC, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Mutende EA, Mwangi M, NJIHIA JM, Ochieng DE. "Free Cash Flows, Agency Costs and Performance of Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange.". In: The Pan-African Journal of Business Management. Vol. 1.; 2017:. Abstractfree_cash_flows_agency_costs_and_performance_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities.pdf

Abstract: Firm performance is affected by various factors, both internal and external. Internal
factors include firm characteristics such as firm size, age, liquidity, leverage, profitability,
growth prospects among others. External factors include regulation, agency costs and general
macro-economic factors. This paper sought to establish the influence of agency costs on the
relationship between free cash flows and firm performance. The second objective was to assess
the influence of agency costs on the relationship between free cash flows and performance of
firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. The study used both primary data and secondary
panel data which were obtained from all firms listed at the NSE for the period 2006 to 2015.
Panel data and simple regression analyses using OLS were employed in the study. Results
indicate that free cash flows have a significant positive relationship with firm performance, and,
agency costs have a positive significant moderating effect on the relationship between free cash
flows and firm performance. All the predictor variables had a joint positive and significant effect
on performance. The main academic contribution of the study is that free cash flows have a
positive relationship with firm performance and that agency costs; and specifically, firm
monitoring and corporate governance has a positive and significant effect on the performance of
firms listed at the NSE. Firm managers, shareholders, practitioners, the government and other
regulators should, therefore, enhance firm monitoring and corporate governance because the
benefits derived from investing therein seem to outweigh the costs.

Otieno SP, Ndede, L.A., Musonye M. "From the Snow of Kilimanjaro to Nairobi Half Life: Over 94 Years of Film in Kenya." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;Vol. 1(Issue 5):51-63.
Musonye MM, Ndede L, Otieno SP. "From The Snows of Kilimanjaro to Nairobi Half Life: Over 94 Years of Film in Kenya." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;1(5).
Ogeng’o JA. "GALLSTONE DISEASE: A CALL TO AWARENESS IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2017;6(2): 914-915. Abstract

Gallstone disease (GSD) is a major global health problem that causes high morbidity and mortality constituting a significant
economic burden in developed countries (Shaffer, 2006; Stinton and Shaffer, 2012; Njeze, 2013). It was previously
considered rare in sub-Saharan Africa (Stinton and Shaffer, 2012; Njeze, 2013). Its prevalence, however, is steadily rising
and has already attained considerable proportions in a number of countries perhaps consequent to epidemiological and
demographic transitions (Eze et al., 2016). This condition is important for several reasons – First, it is one of the most
common causes of upper gastrointestinal morbidity and may mimic / be associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, hiatal
hernia, esophagitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenitis; acute and chronic pancreatitis, hepatitis and portal vein
thrombosis among others (Sabitha et al., 2016). Secondly, it is a predisposing / risk factor for overall mortality and other
diseases including various gastrointestinal cancers, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; cardiovascular diseases (CVD)
especially coronary heart, cerebrovascular, peripheral vascular diseases, arterial stiffness and heart failure (Yu et al., 2017).
The risk for CVD is independent of age, gender and other comorbidities (Olaiya et al., 2013). Thirdly, patients with GSD
appear to have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus; dyslipidemia,
hyperinsulinemia, sedentary life style and gut microbiota dysbiosis (Lv et al., 2015).

Mungai E, Ogot M. "Generic strategies and firm performance: An investigation of informal sector micro-enterprises in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Management. 2017;12:148. Abstract

Micro-enterprises (MEs) have been shown to collectively be the largest employer in most developing countries
thus playing a significant role in the countries economies. Using informal sector micro-enterprise furniture
makers (wood and metal) in Nairobi, Kenya and based on Porter's competitive business strategies typology, this
study sought to determine if the strategies employed by the informal sector MEs fit within the typology
framework, and if membership within the strategic groups in the typology are a predictor of better business
business performance. From the study, although membership within the two focus strategic groups of
differentiation and low cost was confirmed, unlike studies done with medium and large enterprises, membership
was not found to be a predictor of better business performance. Porter's typology may therefore not adequately
capture the competitive business activities relevant to and directly by MEs, presenting an opportunity for
research into the development of competitive business strategy typologies directly derived from their activities
and therefore applicable to them.

Keywords: competitive business typology, micro-enterprises, business performance, informal sector

Okoth S. "Genetic characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum isolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes in Colombia: the Amazon region, a challenge for malaria diagnosis and control." PloS one. 2017:1-17. Abstractjournal.pone_.0163137.pdfWebsite

Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich
protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparumisolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its
homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on
365 P. falciparumdried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparumendemic sites in
Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparumparasites in the country. We found a high proportion
of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites
were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in
Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and
from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes.
Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative
parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype
corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks
reportedin Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian
Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites
from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high
genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53
PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in
Amazonas because of the high proportionof parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and
implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be
prioritised.Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparumparasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive human migration
occurring in the region.

Osena G, Amugune NO, Nyaboga EN. "Genetic Stability of Cassava Plants Regenerated Through Organogenesis Using Microsatellite Markers." Journal of Plant Sciences. 2017;5(1):19-28.
Jakubowski H, Xie J, Mitra AK, Ghooi R, Hosseinkhani S, Alipour M, Hajipour B, Obiero G. "The Global Ethics Corner: foundations, beliefs, and the teaching of biomedical and scientific ethics around the world." Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education. 2017;45(5):385-395. Abstract

The profound advances in the biomolecular sciences over the last decades have enabled similar advances in biomedicine. These advances have increasingly challenged our abilities to deploy them in an equitable and ethically acceptable manner. As such, it has become necessary and important to teach biomedical and scientific ethics to our students who will become the researchers, medical professionals, and global citizens of the future. As advances in the biosciences and medicine are made, developed, and used across the globe, our survival on an endangered planet requires global dialog and consensual action. To that end, a group of us from around the world have come together to describe the differing foundations of our ethical beliefs, and how ethical issues in biomedicine and in science are described and confronted in our countries. We hope to show the commonality in our beliefs and practices.

Ananga A, Obuya J, Ochieng J, Tsolova V. "Grape seed nutraceuticals for disease prevention: current status and future prospects." Phenolic Compounds–Biological Activity. 2017:119-137.
Ananga A, Obuya J, Ochieng J, Tsolova V. "Grape seed nutraceuticals for disease prevention: current status and future prospects." Phenolic Compounds–Biological Activity. 2017:119-137.
Mukonzo SE, ODOCK SO. "Green manufacturing and operational performance of a firm: Case of a cement manufacturing firm in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2017;8(4):106-120. Abstract

Green Manufacturing includes all practices connected with ecological concerns that constantly incorporate environmental manufacturing processes and products. Green Manufacturing considers decrease from the start or prevention, recycling and green product designs. It focuses on the greening production stage where pollutants are largely generated. The outcomes of these strategies would be no pollution, defects, downtime and zero inventories. The study sought to establish the relationship between green manufacturing practices and operational performance of a selected cement manufacturing company in Kenya. Secondary data on green manufacturing practices and operational performance was collected for a period of 4 years from 2011-2014. The results indicate a significant relationship between green manufacturing practices and operational performance. There is also compliance with the Kenya’s environmental management and co-ordination regulations for 1999 on the part of the cement manufacturing firm. The study emphasizes the implementation of green manufacturing projects that would focus on eliminating or controlling all kinds of pollution in its conclusion.

Key Words: Green Manufacturing; Emissions; Dust; Pollution; Waste Management; Operational Performance

Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM. "Gross and Histo-Pathologic Findings in Goats with Plastic bags in the Rumen.". 2017.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Gross and histopathologic findings in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen.". In: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. Vol. 5.; 2017:.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Gross and histopathologic findings in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine . 2017;5:152-158.
Serem JK, John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Daniel W. Gakuya, G.Kiama S, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and 3 blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health, .". 2017;19(1):478-486,.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Lachenmeier DW. "High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health." Foods. 2017;6:89. Abstract

Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, ‘chang’aa’, (n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8–85.8% vol and 28.3–56.7% vol for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3–4.2 and 4.4–4.8 for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100%) and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

Nyongesa AW, Patel N, Wango EO, Onyango DW. "High khat dose and long-term exposure impairs spermatogenesis: experimental study using rabbit model." J. Morphol. Sci. 2017;34(3):156-167.morphology_paper.pdf
Okoth S. "Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and Bolivia." PLOS One. 2017:1-13. Abstractjournal.pone_.0171150.pdfWebsite

More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3), are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para) and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2%) of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients). In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples) to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples). In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4%) tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples) were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region.

Ogeng’o J, Ominde BS, Ongeti KW, Olabu B, Maseghe P, Machira J, Murunga A. "HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN THE LEFT ANTERIOR DESCENDING CORONARY ARTERIES AMONG BLACK KENYANS." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2017;6(3):1033-1044. Abstracthistomorphological_features_of_atherosclerosis_in.pdf

The pattern of coronary artery atherosclerosis is valuable in informing mitigation strategies for coronary
heart disease. Histomorphological data on this disease among Africans living in Sub Saharan Africa are,
however, scarce. The left anterior descending is one of the most commonly afflicted arteries. This
study, therefore, examined the left anterior descending artery of 213 black Kenyans [Mean age 36.8
years, range 5 – 82 years] who had died of non cardiovascular causes for features of atherosclerosis.
The individuals were divided into male and female, then into 10-yr age groups. Specimens were
obtained from the proximal segment of the artery during autopsy at the Department of Human
Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. They were processed routinely for paraffin embedding and
sectioning. Five micron sections were stained with Haematoxylin/Eosin and Mason’s trichrome and
examined with light microscope. Micrographs of representative features were taken using a high
resolution digital camera. At least one feature of atherosclerosis was present in 54 (25.4%) of the
individuals. The features observed included severe intimal hyperplasia (34; 63%), disintegration of the
internal elastic lamina [30; 55.6%]; atherosclerotic plaque (20; 37%), adventitial thicknening (14;
26%) and mural neovascularization (10; 18.5%). The mean age of those with features of
atherosclerosis was 38.4 years, range 6 – 62 years with 25 (46.3%) being aged 40 years and below. Of
these, the male: female ratio was 1.7:1. In conclusion, features of atherosclerosis are present in over
25% of the population studied. The disease affects young people, including women. Proactive
preventive measures including follow – up should commence early, and involve both men and women

Serem Jared K., John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Daniel W. Gakuya, G.Kiama S, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological Evaluation of Spleen, Liver and Kidneys from Pigs Fed on Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets Global Veterinaria 19 (1): 478-486, .". 2017.
Serem JK, Muturi JK, Wahome RG, Gakuya DW, Kiama SG, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological Evaluation of Spleen, Liver and Kidneys from Pigs Fed on Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets." Global Veterinaria . 2017;19(1):478-486.
Serem JK, John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Kiama, S.G., Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological evaluation of spleen, liver and kidneys from pigs fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal diets. Global Veterinaria,.". 2017;19(1):478-486.
Olago D, Campisano CJ, Cohen AS, Arrowsmith RJ, Asrat A, Behrensmeyer AK, et al. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: High-Resolution Paleoclimate Records from the East African Rift System and Their Implications for Understanding the Environmental Context of Hominin Evolution." Paleo Anthropology. 2017;1:43. Abstract2017_campisano_et_al._hspdp_drilling_paper.pdfFull Text

The possibility of a causal relationship between Earth history processes and hominin evolution in Africa has been the subject of intensive paleoanthropological research for the last 25 years. One fundamental question is: can any geohistorical processes, in particular, climatic ones, be characterized with sufficient precision to enable temporal correlation with events in hominin evolution and provide support for a possible causal mechanism for evolutionary changes? Previous attempts to link paleoclimate and hominin evolution have centered on evidence from the outcrops where the hominin fossils are found, as understanding whether and how hominin populations responded to habitat change must be examined at the local basinal scale. However, these outcrop records typically provide incomplete, low-resolution climate and environmental histories, and surface weathering often precludes the application of highly sensitive, state-of-the-art paleoenvironmental methods. continuous and well-preserved deep-sea drill core records have provided an alternative approach to reconstructing the context of hominin evolution, but have been collected at great distances from hominin sites and typically integrate information over vast spatial scales. The goal of the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) is to analyze climate and other Earth system dynamics using detailed paleoenvironmental data acquired through scientific drilling of lacustrine depocenters at or near six key paleoanthropological sites in Kenya and Ethiopia. This review provides an overview of a unique collaboration of paleoanthropologists and earth scientists who have joined together to explicitly explore key hypotheses linking environmental history and mammalian (including hominin) evolution and potentially develop new testable hypotheses. With a focus on continuous, high-resolution proxies at timescales relevant to both biological and cultural evolution, the HSPDP aims to dramatically expand our understanding of the environmental history of eastern Africa during a significant portion of the Late Neogene and Quaternary, and to generate useful models of long-term environmental dynamics in the region.

Ogara WO, Gitahi N, Mainga AO, Ongoro E. "Human carnivores conflict in Wamba District, Samburu County, Kenya." International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation. 2017;Vol. 9(9):284-291.human_carnivore_conflic_in_wamba_samburu_county.pdf
O.Ogara W, Gitahi N, Alfred O. Mainga, Ongoro E. "Human carnivores conflict in Wamba District, Samburu County, Kenya." International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation,. 2017; 9(9):pp. 284-291.
O.Ogara W, Gitahi N, Alfred O. Mainga, Ongoro E. "Human carnivores conflict in Wamba District, Samburu County, Kenya." International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation,. 2017; 9(9):pp. 284-291.
O.Ogara W, Gitahi N, Alfred O. Mainga, Ongoro E. "Human carnivores conflict in Wamba District, Samburu County, Kenya." International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation,. 2017; 9(9):pp. 284-291.
Ngaina JN, Opere AO. "Hydrological Characteristics of Lower Nzoia Sub-basin in Kenya." Hydrol Current Res . 2017;8:4; DOI: 10.4172/2157-7587.1000285.
Olag D, Wolff C, Verschuren D, Daele MEV, Waldmann N, Meyer I, Lane CS, der Meeren VT, Ombori T, Kasanzu C. "ICDP Project DeepCHALLA: Reconstructing 250,000 Years of Climate Change and Environmental History on the East African Equator." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2017. AbstractFull Text

Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-m deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change in easternmost equatorial Africa. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered this sediment record down to 214.8 m below the lake floor, with 100% recovery of the uppermost 121.3 m (the last 160 kyr BP) and ca.85% recovery of the older part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector identified in seismic stratigraphy. This acoustic basement represents a ca.2-m thick layer of coarsely laminated, diatom-rich organic mud mixed with volcanic sand and silt deposited 250 kyr ago, overlying an estimated 20-30 m of unsampled lacustrine deposits representing the earliest phase of lake development. Down-hole logging produced profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth- scale to both the recovered cores and the seismic stratigraphy. An estimated 74% of the recovered sequence is finely laminated (varved), and continuously so over the upper 72.3 m (the last 90 kyr). All other sections display at least cm-scale lamination, demonstrating persistence of a tranquil, profundal depositional environment throughout lake history. The sequence is interrupted only by 32 visible tephra layers 2 to 9 mm thick; and by several dozen fine-grained turbidites up to 108 cm thick, most of which are clearly bracketed between a non-erosive base and a diatom-laden cap. Tie points between sediment markers and the corresponding seismic reflectors support a preliminary age model inferring a near-constant rate of sediment accumulation over at least the last glacial cycle (140 kyr BP to present). This great time span combined with the exquisite temporal resolution of the Lake Challa sediments provides great opportunities to study past tropical climate dynamics at both short (inter-annual to decadal) and long (glacial-interglacial) time scales; and to assess the multi-faceted impact of this climate change on the region's freshwater resources, the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and the history of the African landscape in which modern humans (our species, Homo sapiens) originally evolved and have lived ever since.

Akello MO, Nzuve F, Olubayo F, Macharia G, Muthomi J. "Identification of Resistance Sources to Wheat Stem Rust from Introduced Genotypes in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(2):73-87.
Gathumbi JK, Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LW, Midiwo JO. "Identification of the Antimicrobial Compounds in Garlic Grown at Laikipia County." International Journal of Agricultural Research and Review. 2017;5(5):636-643.
Otieno SP. "Identity and Musical Score in Tosh Gitonga’s Nairobi Half Life." Journal of African Theatre, Film and Media Discourse. 2017;vol. 1(Issue 1):98-108.
Orao J. "Identity and Nationalism in MG Vassanji’s ‚The In-Between World of Vikram Lall’.". In: Samosa Festival. University of Nairobi; 2017.
Osaaji MG. "iii. “Public Interest Litigation on the Right to Adequate Food: Evolving Issues and Emerging Applications” .". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2017.
Kodhiambo MO, B.K.Amugune, Oyugi J. "Impact of devolution on the trends of paediatric malaria admissions and mortality in Homa-Bay County, Kenya." East and Central Africa Medical Journal. 2017;3(1):3-6.
Falkenstrom F, Gee MG, Kuria MW, Othieno CJ, Kumar M. "Improving the effectiveness of psychotherapy in two public hospitals in Nairobi." BJP Psych. International. 2017;14(3).
Thuo BM, Thoithi GN, Maingi N, Ndwigah SN, Gitari RN, Otieno RO. "In vitro anthelmintic activity of Albizia gummifera, Crotalaria axillaris, Manilkara discolor, Teclea trichocarpa and Zanthoxylum usambarense using sheep nematodes." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(1):38-42.
Motomura K, Ganchimeg T, Nagata C, Ota E, Vogel JP, Betran AP, Torloni MR, Jayaratne K, Jwa SC, Mittal S, Recidoro ZD, Matsumoto K, Fujieda M, Nafiou I, Yunis K, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Souza JP, Mori R. "Incidence and outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior caesarean section: WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." Scientific Reports. 2017;7. AbstractWebsite

Caesarean section (CS) is increasing globally, and women with prior CS are at higher risk of uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. However, little is known about the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of uterine rupture in women with prior CS, especially in developing countries. To investigate this, we conducted a secondary analysis of the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health, which included data on delivery from 359 facilities in 29 countries. The incidence of uterine rupture among women with at least one prior CS was 0.5% (170/37,366), ranging from 0.2% in high-Human Development Index (HDI) countries to 1.0% in low-HDI countries. Factors significantly associated with uterine rupture included giving birth in medium- or low-HDI countries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.0 and 3.88, respectively), lower maternal educational level (≤6 years) (AOR 1.71), spontaneous onset of labour (AOR 1.62), and gestational age at birth <37 weeks (AOR 3.52). Women with uterine rupture had significantly higher risk of maternal death (AOR 4.45) and perinatal death (AOR 33.34). Women with prior CS, especially in resource-limited settings, are facing higher risk of uterine rupture and subsequent adverse outcomes. Further studies are needed for prevention/management strategies in these settings.

Use of caesarean section (CS) deliveries has been steadily increasing, from 6.7% in 1990 to 19.1% in 2014 globally1,2. Consequently, the number of deliveries by mothers with prior CS is also on the rise1.

Women with prior CS are at higher risk of uterine rupture. The reported incidence of uterine rupture among women with prior CS ranged from 0.22% to 0.5% in some developed countries3,4,5,6. The risk factors for uterine rupture in women with a history of CS include prior classical incision, labour induction or argumentation, macrosomia, increasing maternal age, post-term delivery, short maternal stature, no prior vaginal delivery, and prior periviable CS4,7,8,9,10,11. Uterine rupture poses considerable risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. The prevalence of maternal and perinatal complications, such as severe post-hemorrhagic anemia, major puerperal infection, bladder injury, hysterectomy, and perinatal mortality, are significantly higher in women with uterine rupture than women without uterine rupture4,10,12,13.

A World Health Organization (WHO) systematic review to determine the prevalence of uterine rupture worldwide identified uterine rupture as a serious obstetric complication being more prevalent and with more serious consequences in developing countries than in developed countries14. In developing countries, uterine rupture has been reportedly associated with obstructed labour, grand multiparity, injudicious obstetric interventions/manipulations, lack of antenatal care, unbooked status, poor access to emergency obstetric care, and low socioeconomic status rather than prior CS15,16,17,18. However, uterine rupture after prior CS is becoming more common as the availability of CS increases in these settings18. According to a literature review on uterine rupture in developing countries, the proportion of women with prior CS or uterine scar among women who had uterine rupture was up to 64%18. A study in India reported that the incidence of uterine rupture among women with prior CS was 1.69%19. Nevertheless, there are few studies about the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior CS from these settings.

Typically, uterine rupture occurs suddenly and requires immediate critical emergency care for mothers, fetuses, or neonates. The strategies for prevention and management, as well as the quality of affordable care for women at risk of or experiencing uterine rupture, are likely to vary across settings depending on their diagnostic capacity, availability of obstetric interventions, and human and facility resources. Therefore, the findings in developed countries may not be generalizable to low-resource countries and settings. The aim of this analysis was to describe the incidence, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior CS using data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which was conducted in facilities in 29 countries worldwide from 2010 to 2011.

Ogada CN, Mutave RJ. "Incisive Papilla and Positions of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Among Kenyans of African Descent." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(5):385-390.
Kariuki BN, Saidi H, Ndung’u B, Kaisha W, Ogeng’o J. "INFLUENCE OF AGE ON GALLBLADDER MORPHOMETRY." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2017;6(2):987-994. Abstractinfluence_of_age_on_gallbladder_morphometry.pdf

Morphometric properties of the gallbladder such as length, diameter and volume are determinants of gallbladder
function. These parameters are altered with age and may explain the age-related reduction in gallbladder
contractility associated with gallstone formation. Ninety-two gallbladder specimens of subjects aged between 21
and 84 were sourced from City mortuary and the Department of Human anatomy during autopsy. For each
gallbladder specimen, measurements of length and circumference were taken to the accuracy of 0.1millimetres
(mm) and used to calculate the gallbladder volume. These measurements were standardized using
measurements of liver length and weight. Data were recorded by age categories in age groups of 21-30, 31-40,
41-50, 51-60 and 61 or more years. The mean gallbladder volume was 47.948 (±19.080) cm3 and showed a
statistically significant increase with age (p <0.001). There was also a significant increase of gallbladder length
(p =0.01) and diameter (p <0.001). A positive correlation was observed between gallbladder length, diameter
and volume; 0.282, 0.485 and 0.480 respectively (p = 0.01). The gallbladder volume which is a function of
length and diameter, shows a statistically significant increase with age. Notably, there is a marked increase in
these parameters after the fifth decade. This could explain the exponential increase in prevalence of cholelithiasis
by 4 to 10 times after the fifth decade of life.

Kante M, Oboko R, Chepken C. "Influence of Perception and Quality of ICT‐Based Agricultural Input Information on Use of ICTs by Farmers in Developing Countries: Case of Sikasso in Mali." The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 2017;83(1):1-21.Full website link
Wambua, P.M., Okoth, S.A, Kalai, J.M. "Influence of Principals’ Involvement of Students in Decision Making on Discipline in Secondary Schools, Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(22).7.pdf
Klopp J, Orwa D, Wagacha PW, Williams S, White A. "Informal 2.0: Seeing and Improving Urban Informal Practices through Digital Technologies The Digital Matatus case in Nairobi." Field Actions Science Reports. The journal of field actions. 2017;(16):39-43. Abstractfull text link

Conceived out of collaboration between Kenyan and American universities and the technology sector in Nairobi, Digital Matatus shows how to leverage the ubiquitous nature of cellphone technology to collect missing data for essential infrastructure - including those with high levels of informality. The project captured transit data in standardized form for Nairobi’s semi-formal bus system, developed the first public transit map for such a system and made the map and data free to the public, spurring innovation and improved services for citizens.
While most cities develop sophisticated IT projects to make their organization smarter, the Digital Matatus case suggests the value of a much more modest and bottom-up approach: it encourages reliance on common technologies like cellphones to understand and improve existing urban services – that often involve informality – in emerging countries. By developing the first-ever high quality data set and map of the Matatu network (very common semi-informal mini-buses in Kenya), the projects promotes a new, low-cost and more practical vision of smart and transit-oriented cities.

Lutta HO, Wesonga HO, Odongo DO, Thiaucourt F, Naessens J. "Inoculation of Mycoplasma mycoides by endotracheal intubation produces a milder disease than by contact transmission." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:477-484.
Ouma GO, Dieye AM, Ogallo LO, Olang LO. "Institutional Challenges in Scaling-up Climate Change Adaptation Actions: Experiences from Rural Communities in Senegal and Kenya." Climate and Development. 2017:1-10. Abstractinstitutional_challenges_in_scaling_up_climate_change_adaptation_actions_experiences_from_rural_communities_in_senegal_and_kenya.pdfTaylor &amp; Francis

Regional institutions in Africa have the potential to reinforce the adaptive capacity of rural communities in handling climate change impacts. The institutional arrangements provide the rationale for scaling-up adaptation actions by setting the roles of individual players involved in the planning process at local, national and regional levels. The scaling-up then seeks to extend and disseminate the lessons learnt across the levels to support refinement and inclusive implementation of long-term climate change adaptation strategies. This article discusses these considerations through studies of two rural communities faced with the implementation of climate change adaptation strategies in Senegal and Kenya. The cases illustrate different approaches of institutional arrangements and scaling-up of adaptation actions from community to national levels. The lessons from the
communities are typical of most vulnerable rural regions and were hence important for extended dissemination
considering that the impacts of climate change in Africa are felt largely at community levels. A reduction of this
vulnerability requires efficient and realistic adaptation strategies that seek to understand the rural communities while developing considerate policy-based alternatives at all levels of administration

Omondi HM, Ochieng DE. "INTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCING EXTERNAL AUDITORS INDEPENDENCE AMONG PRACTICING ACCOUNTANTS IN KENYA." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):117-144. Abstract

Methodology - The study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design and used primary
data. The collected data was analyzed with the help of the SPSS software version 22 and presented
with the help of frequency distributions, computation of mean and standard deviation. The
association between the research variables was presented using an ordinal a regression model.
Findings – The study established that internal factors influence auditor independence by 31.7%.
From the results of the research, it also revealed that there is a significant relationship between
audit tenure, audit firm size and audit independence. This was indicated with a p-value of 0.029
and 0.009. The study also established that there is no significant relationship between audit
committee and audit independence with a p-value of 0.465. The study concludes that audit tenure
and firm size affect audit independence and thereby the study recommends the need for ICPAK
to develop a policy that will guide audit tenure and audit committee.
Implications –The study findings suggest that ICPAK develops a policy that will guide the audit
tenure and audit committees, this will in essence promote an understanding of the auditors‟ independence
in the profession. The study also further suggested that similar studies should be carried
and focus on the perception of users such as institutional and private investors, audit committees
and members of regulatory bodies.
Value -The findings of the study concludes that audit tenure and firm size affect audit independence
and thereby the study recommends the need for the Institute of Certified Public Accountants
of Kenya (ICPAK) to develop a policy that will guid

Kimunduu GM, MWANGI MIRIE, Kaijage E, Ochieng DE. "Intervening Effect of Cash Holdings in the Relationship Between Financial Performance and Dividend Policy." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(28):264-281. Abstract

Many studies on relationship between financial performance and
dividend policy have resulted to controversial outcome with few studies
questioning the intervening effect of cash holdings. The purpose of this study
was to evaluate the effect of cash holdings on the relationship between
financial performance and dividend policy. The study applied positivism
research philosophy and descriptive causal research design. The study was
anchored on hypothetical view that the relationship between financial
performance and dividend policy of firms listed at the Nairobi securities
exchange is not intervened by cash holdings which was tested against a
sample size of 31 firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange selected
using purposive sampling technique. The research findings were as follows:
There was a significant direct association between operating cash flows and
dividend policy which was intervened by cash holdings. In general it was
concluded that the link between financial performance and dividend policy
of firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange was significant. The study
outcome augment existing knowledge on financial performance and dividend
policy for it is evident that firms with ability to generate income directly
influence dividend payout ratio and therefore, top management should
enhance financial performance an

Mwaniki OK, Abongo DA, Onyatta JO, Kithure JG. "Investigating the Effects of Formulation and Geographical Location on Degradation of Carbendazim in French Beans, Kenya." The International Journal of Science & Technolodge . 2017;5(2):44-51.
Mwaniki O K, A A’oD, O OJ, G KJ. "Investigating the Effects of Formulation, and Geographical Location on Degradation of Carbendazim in French Beans, Kenya." The International Journal of Science & Technology . 2017;5(2):44-51.
Orono, S, Gitao, C.G., others. Investigation of Malignant Catarrhal Fever in cattle comparing PCR and ELISA methods for diagnosis. 6-8 December , International Conference Centre (AICC) in Arusha: TAWIRI; 2017.tawiri_mcf_presentation.pdftawiri_mcf_presentation.pdf
Ogeng’o JA, Ongeti KW, Olabu BO, Ominde BS. "Involvement of multiple cell lineages in Atherogenesis." Anatomy Journal of Africa.. 2017;6(1): 924-933. Abstractinvolvement_of_multiple_cell_lineages_in.pdfWebsite

Atherogenesis is a multicellular event. Early reports concentrated on the role of endotheliocytes, monocyte -
macrophages and smooth muscle cells. Recognition of the immuno-inflammatory nature of the process,
however, expanded the scope of cellular involvement and more recent reviews emphasize the role of immune
and inflammatory cells. In addition, recent studies reveal that other cells are also involved. Elucidation of all
the types of cells involved is valuable to inform therapeutic interventions for this disease, but most accounts
concentrate on cells which are the target of the study and may fail to include other cells. This review therefore
aimed at consolidating information on the various cells involved in atherogenesis. Review of contemporary
literature was done for cells in the vessel wall and in blood to check for their potential role in atherogenesis.
It has been shown that atherogenesis involves all the cells present in the various coats of the vessel wall –
endotheliocytes, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, pericytes, mast cells, dendritic cells,
macrophages and immigrant cells usually found in blood, namely monocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes,
platelets and red blood cells. These cells promote atherogenesis by secreting several products which influence
inflammation, migration, proliferation and secretory activity of each other in a manner that synergises their
activities. Therapeutic interventions should target the various cell types.

Samita F, Ochieng CO, Owuor PO, Manguro LOA, Midiwo JO. "Isolation of a new β-carboline alkaloid from aerial parts of Triclisia sacleuxii and its antibacterial and cytotoxicity effects." Natural product research. 2017;31(5):529-536. AbstractFull text link

A new β-carboline alkaloid named sacleuximine A (1) together with known compounds palmatine (2), isotetrandrine (3), trans-N-feruloyltyramine (4), trans-N-caffeoyltyramine (5), yangambin (6), syringaresinol (7), sesamin (8), (+) epi-quercitol (9), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), β-sitosterol (11), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (12) and myricetin 3-O-β-glucose (1→6) α-rhamnoside (13) have been isolated from methanol extract of Triclisia sacleuxii aerial parts. Compounds 1–10 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human hepatocarcinoma (Hep3B) and human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells lines and also for antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The cytotoxicity (IC50) values ranged between 0.15 and 36.7 μM while the minimum inhibitory concentrations were found to be in the range of 3.9 and 125 μM, respectively. This is the first report of antibacterial compounds and the isolation of lignans together with a β-carboline alkaloid from T. sacleuxii.
Keywords: Triclisia sacleuxii, Menispermaceae, secondary metabolites, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, aerial parts

Mwafulirwa GAS, Obiero G, Mpeketula P. "Isolation of indigenous glyphosate degrading microbes from selected agro ecological zones of Malawi." Research Journal of Recent Sciences. 2017;6(12):1-8.
A WG, D. A, O. AA, GN K, I.N M, J.K M. "Kinetics and Isothermal Studies of Lambda Cyhalothrin Sorption on eburru Soils in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2017;10(1):24-34.
Bochaberi JO, Onyatta JO, Okemwa KE. "Kinetics of Cadmium Adsorption in Aqueous Media Using Banana Stem Biomass." International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET). 2017;6(7):751-755.
Makworo NK, Ochieng VO, Ogoyi DO, Mukabana RW. "Knock down efficacy of commercially available insecticides against Anopheles gambiae." Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology Vol. 2017;5(2):077-084.
Mirara A, Maitho T, Okoth UA. "Legal Setup and Performance of Post-Privatization Artificial Insemination Service Providers in Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Livestock Research. 2017;7(1).
Ogeng’o J. "Lessons from a case of tubal twin pregnancy." Anatomy Journal of Africa.. 2017;6(1):817-819. Abstract

Unilateral tubal twin pregnancy illustrates and amplifies fundamental phenomena in developmental and
reproductive anatomy. Knowledge of this condition is also important to practicing obstetricians and
gynaecologists because it may constitute a diagnostic challenge, management dilemma, complex ethical
issues and increased risk for maternal morbidity and mortality (Benn et al., 2016). Previously considered
a rare occurence, recent data suggest that the condition is not uncommon (Svirsky et al., 2010). Indeed,
there are many reports (Vohra et al., 2014), including several from Sub-Saharan Africa (Makinde and
Ogunniyi, 1990). The case reported by Pulei et al., in Anat J Afr 2017; 6 (1) reveals several unique
features in the profile of risk factors, location, chorionicity and amnionicity, mode and time of
presentation, condition of the tube, diagnosis and fetal viability. There was no evidence of the
conventional risk factors (Sivalingam et al., 2011). This is consistent with several other reported cases
where it occurred spontaneously (Abi Khalil et al., 2016). In the present case, however, the patient had
multiple intramural and subserosal leiomyomata. Intramural myomata are known to disrupt uterine
contractility which may interfere with transport of the ovum and hence predispose to ectopic pregnancy
(Ajibade et al., 2012). It is probable, therefore, that this was the predisposing factor. Accordingly, it may
be useful to monitor patients with uterine fibroids for potential to suffer ectopic pregnancy. Family
history of twinning may have been useful, and is advocated, in view of the fact that it is one of the major
predisposing factors.

Oredo J. "Make Value from Big Data." MANAGEMENT March (2017).
Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Ochieng AO, Anyona DN, Nyamongo IK, Estambale B. "Malaria vector species distribution and seasonal population dynamics across varied ecological zones in Baringo County, Kenya." Journal of Mosquito Research. 2017;7(21):174-183.ondiba_et_al_2017.pdf
Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae, Shalo P. "Management and mitigation of health risks associated with the occurrence of mycotoxins along the maize value chain in two counties in Kenya." Food Quality and Safety. 2017;1(4):268-274.
Kang’ethe EK, H Korhonen, KA Marimba, G Nduhiu, JK Mungatu, Okoth SA, V Joutsjoki, LW Wamae. "Management and mitigation of health risks associated with the occurrence of mycotoxins along the maize value chain in two counties in Kenya." Food Quality and Safety,. 2017;1(4):268-274.
Mota SF, Oliveira DF, Heleno VCG, Soares ACF, Midiwo JO, Souza EA. "Methyl and p-Bromobenzyl Esters of Hydrogenated Kaurenoic Acid for Controlling Anthracnose in Common Bean Plants." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2017;65(8):1489-1495. AbstractFull text link

Kaurenoic acid derivatives were prepared and submitted to in vitro assays with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose disease in the common bean. The most active substances were found to be methyl and p-bromobenzylesters, 7 and 9, respectively, of the hydrogenated kaurenoic acid, which presented a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.097 and 0.131 mM, respectively, while the commercial fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) presented a MIC of 0.143 mM. Substances 7 (1.401 mM) and 9 (1.886 mM) reduced the severity of anthracnose in common bean to values statistically comparable to MT (2.044 mM). According to an in silico study, both compounds 7 and 9 are inhibitors of the ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) enzyme produced by other organisms, the amino acid sequence of which could be detected in fungal genomes. These substances appeared to act against C. lindemuthianum by inhibiting its KSI. Therefore, substances 7 and 9 are promising for the development of new fungicides.
Keywords: Colletotrichum lindemuthianum; ent-kauran-18-oic acid methyl ester; ent-kauran-18-oic acid p-bromobenzyl ester; fungicide; ketosteroid isomerase

Njage PMK, Sawe CT, Onyango CM, I HABIB, NJAGI EDMUNDNJERU, AERTS MARC, MOLENBERGHS GEERT. "Microbial Performance of Food Safety Control and Assurance Activities in a Fresh Produce Processing Sector Measured Using a Microbial Assessment Scheme and Statistical Modeling." Journal of Food Protection. 2017;80(1):177-188.
Okumu MO, Ochola FO, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gakuya DW, Kinyua AW, Okumu PO, Kiama SG. "Mitigative effects of Moringa Oleifera against liver injury induced by artesunate-amodiaquine antimalarial combination in wistar rats." Clinical Phytoscience. 2017;3(18):1-8.mitigative_effects_of_moringa_oleifera_against_liv.pdf
Okumu MO, Ochola FO, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gakuya DW, Kinyua AW, Okumu PO, Kiama SG. "Mitigative effects of Moringa oleifera against liver injury induced by artesunate-amodiaquine antimalarial combination in wistar rats." Clinical Phytoscience,. 2017;3(1):18.mitigative_effect_moringa.pdf
Okumu MO, Ochola FO, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gakuya DW, Kinyua AW, Okumu PO, Kiama SG. "Mitigative effects of Moringa oleifera against liver injury induced by artesunate-amodiaquine antimalarial combination in wistar rats." Clinical Phytoscience,. 2017;3(1):18.
Bwihangane A, Gitao C, Bisismwa P, Okafor C, Bebora L. "Mixed infection of peste des petits ruminants and Capripox in goats in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." Hindawi Journal of veterinary Medicine. 2017;4(4):348-355.ahadi_mixed_infection.pdf
Ireri BN, Wario RD, Omwenga EI, Oboko R, Mukiri MI. "Mobile Learning: Content Format and Packaging for Effective Teaching and Learning in a Learner-Centered Pedagogy." Handbook of Research on Transformative Digital Content and Learning Technologies. 2017. AbstractFull Text Link

When an instructor is able to identify, develop and apply appropriate digital media
content that motivates learners and encourages them to learn, the process of learning is
empowered. This study has identified multimedia digital content packaged in the format of
video as the most preferred learning media by the learners. Content formats that had highest
hit rate with accessed mean rate above 300 (discussion forums, video clips, and graphics)
are discussed.

Wakoko-Studstill  F, Khaitsa ML, Okech SG, Kaneene JB, Pithua P, Blackmon S, Rogers H, Shepelo G, Wambua MD, Komba E, Samson R, Gebrewahde TT, Habimana R, Kibogo A, Kasonev V, Okite A, Aijuka W, Kabasa JD. "Model African Union: experiential pedagogical approach to teaching one health in veterinary medicine and public health.". 2017.
Wakoko-Studstill F, Khaitsa ML, Okech SG, Kaneene JB, Pithua P, Blackmon S, Rogers H, Shepelo G, Wambua MD, Komba E, Samson R, Gebrewahde TT, Habimana R, Kibogo A, Kasonev V, Okite A, Aijuka W, Kabasa JD. "Model African Union: experiential pedagogical approach to teaching one health in veterinary medicine and public health. The Pan African Medical Journal." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2017;27(4):18.
Hadullo K, Oboko R, Omwenga E. "A model for evaluating e-learning systems quality in higher education in developing countries." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2017;13(2). AbstractFull text link

The rapid growth of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has brought
about significant changes in the practice of e-learning globally. In recent years, there has
been an increasing adoption of Learning Management System (LMS) assisted e-learning in
higher education institutions (HEIs) in developing countries. Despite the perceived benefits
attached to e-learning, several studies concur that there are still many challenges facing e-
learning.

Oboko R, Omwenga E. "A model for evaluating e-learning systems quality in higher education in developing countries Kennedy Hadullo Technical University of Mombasa, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2017;13(2). Abstract

The rapid growth of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has
brought about significant changes in the practice of e-learning globally. In recent years,
there has been an increasing adoption of Learning Management System (LMS) assisted e-
learning in higher education institutions (HEIs) in developing countries. Despite the
perceived benefits attached to e-learning, several studies concur that there are still many
challenges facing e-learning.

Maina ME, Wagacha PW, Oboko RO. "A Model for Improving Online Collaborative Learning through Machine Learning." IGI Global. 2017:424-440. AbstractFull Text

Online collaborative learning provides new opportunities for student
collaboration in an online learning environment and at the same time spawns new
challenges for teachers supporting group work. With the current Course Management
Systems (CMS) such as Moodle, technology has provided online tools that include
discussions forums, chat rooms, e-mails, newsgroups, workshops, etc. These tools provide a
collaborative learning environment. To include constructivist learning in an online learning ...

O.M.Ondimu, V.A.Ganesan, GATARI MJ, Marijnissen JCM, Agostinho LLF. "Modeling simple-jet mode electrohydrodynamic-atomization droplets' trajectories and spray pattern for a single nozzle system." Journal of Electrostatics. 2017;89:77-87.
Ochieng DE, JM N, Mwangi M, Mutende EA. "The moderating role of firm characteristics on the relationship between free cash flows and financial performance of firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis,. 2017;6(4):55-57. Abstract

This paper sought to find out the influence of firm characteristics on the
relationship between free cash flows and firm financial performance. Specifically,
the objectives of the study were two-fold: first, to establish the relationship
between free cash flows and financial performance of firms listed at the NSE; and
secondly, to determine the influence of firm characteristics on the relationship
between free cash flows and financial performance of firms listed at the NSE. The
firm characteristics considered in this study are firm size and age. The study used
secondary panel data which was obtained from all firms listed at the NSE for the
period 2006 to 2015. Regression analysis was employed in data analysis. Results
indicate that free cash flows have a significant positive effect on financial
performance; while firm characteristics have a negative significant moderating
effect on the relationship between free cash flows and financial performance. The
main academic contribution of the study is that free cash flows have a positive
statistically significant effect on financial performance. The study recommends
that firm managers, shareholders and practitioners should focus more on the need
for firms to generate more FCF

Okoth S. "Molecular profile of malaria drug resistance markers of Plasmodium falciparum in Suriname." Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2017:02655-16. Abstractantimicrob._agents_chemother.-2017-chenet-aac.02655-16.pdfWebsite

In Suriname, an artesunate monotherapy therapeutic efficacy trial was recently conducted to evaluate partial artemisinin resistance emerging in Plasmodium falciparum. We genotyped the PfK13 propeller domain of P. falciparum in forty samples as well as other mutations proposed to be associated with artemisinin resistant mutants. We did not find any mutations previously associated with artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia but we found fixed resistance mutations for chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Additionally, the Pfcrt C350R mutation, associated with reversal of CQ resistance and piperaquine selective pressure was present in 62% of the samples. Our results from neutral microsatellite data also confirmed a high parasite gene flow in the Guiana Shield. Although recruiting participants for therapeutic efficacy studies in very low malaria endemic areas is challenging due to the low number of malaria cases reported, conducting these studies along with molecular surveillance remains essential to monitor artemisinin resistant alleles and to characterize the population structure P. falciparum in areas targeting malaria elimination.

Mgalula ME, Richter U, Hensel O, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Monitoring Vegetation Index Dynamics in Semi-Arid Rangelands Using Rainfall, Ground Survey and MODIS Data.". 2017. Abstract

n/a

Ondieki DK, Nyaboga EN, Wagacha JM, Mwaura FB. "Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Rhizobia Nodulating Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) from Agricultural Soils of Lower Eastern Kenya." International journal of microbiology. 2017;2017.
Osano BO, Were F, Mathews S. "Mortality among 5-17 year old children in Kenya ." PanAfrican Medical Journal. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: global mortality trends have changed over time and are expected to continue changing with a reduction in communicable diseases and an increase of non-communicable disease. Increased survival of children beyond five years may change mortality patterns for these children. There are few studies in Africa that explore the causes of mortality in children over five years. The objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate and clinical profiles of children aged 5-17 years who died in six Kenyan hospitals in 2013.
 
Methods: retrospective review of patients’ medical records to abstract data on diagnosis for those who died in year 2013. Data was analysed to provide descriptive statistics and explored differences in mortality rates between age groups and gender.
 
Results: we retrieved 4,520 patient records. The in-hospital mortality rate was 3.5% (95%CI 3.0-4.1) with variations in deaths between the ages and gender. Among the deaths, 60% suffered from communicable diseases, maternal and nutritional causes; 41.3% suffered from non-communicable diseases. A further 11.9% succumbed to traumatic injuries. The predominant clinical diagnoses among patients who died were HIV/AIDS, respiratory tract infections and malaria.
 
Conclusion: infectious causes had the highest proportion of diagnoses among children aged 5-17 years who died.

Kevin John Oratungye, Oludhe C, Moses Mwangi Manene, Komutunga E. "A multivariate analysis approach in determining potential hotspots of seasonal rainfall change over Uganda." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2017;2(1):31-41. AbstractWebsite

Evidence of climate change continues to emerge in Uganda as indicated by recent floods in Teso subregion and Kasese district, landslides in Bududa and long droughts experienced in Karamoja. The major objective of the study was to identify potential hotspots of rainfall change in Uganda during March-May and October-December seasons. Monthly rainfall data for the period extending from 1951 to 2010 were used in the study. ArcGIS, a geographic information system tool was used to determine geographical areas that have experienced changes in seasonal rainfall over the decades 1981-2010 relative to the longterm mean (1951-2010). Mbale, Mbarara and Moroto were identified as areas of potential rainfall change. The historical rainfall series for the identified areas were tested for inhomogeneities using Standard Normal Homogeneity and Pettitt tests and found to be homogenous. Multivariate two-sample Hotelling T2-test was used to generate evidence of rainfall change in the identified areas by comparing mean seasonal rainfall vectors between the sub-periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. Results indicated a significant simultaneous decrease in mean rainfall over Moroto and Mbarara areas across the March-May season with April having the highest decrease (11 mm and 18 mm respectively). Mean rainfall in Mbale was found to have increased simultaneously across both wet seasons with April and October experiencing the greatest increase (10 mm apiece). These changes have detrimental effects on crop and livestock farming as well as human lives. There is need for increased climate change adaptation and resilience action in the …

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