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Otieno FAO;, Maingi SM;, Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. "Sedimentation problems of Masinga reservoir.".; 1993. Abstract

This paper examines the land use patterns in the upper Tana river basin, Kenya, and the resultant erosion that is responsible for the continued loss of storage capacity of the Masinga reservoir. The main Tana branch of the Masinga reservoir contributes about 85% of the total sediment inflow to the reservoir. The high production rates of sediment are linked to the rivers that feed this branch passing through intensively cultivated slopes of the Aberdares and Mount Kenya. Lack of adequate ground cover and the steep slopes often being cultivated without soil conservation measures result in increased surface runoff and soil loss. The need for effective soil conservation in the catchment area is stressed to prevent the expected lifespan of the reservoir form being reduced dramatically.

Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo GO, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Makobe M, Ochora J, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and Abundance of wild host plants of Lepidopteran stem borers in two different agroecological zones of Kenya." Annales de la Société entemologique de France. 2006;42 (3-4):371-380. Abstract

A survey was carried out between 2004 and 2005 in two ecologically different locations, Kakamega and Muhaka to assess diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers as compared to maize plots during the cropping and non-cropping seasons. Kakamega in Western Kenya is characterized by a Guineo-Congolian rain forest mosaic and Muhaka at the Kenyan coast by a Zanzibar Inhambane mosaic with secondary grassy and woody vegetation. In Kakamega, wild host plants and maize covered 2 and 43% of the surveyed area. No variation in diversity and relative abundance of wild host plants was observed between both the cropping and non-cropping seasons. In Muhaka, the diversity and relative abundance of wild host plant species differed between seasons, with the Shannon Weaver Index (H) of 1.67 and 0.95 for cropping and non-cropping seasons, respectively. Similarly in this location, wild host plant cover varied between cropping (23%) and non-cropping (17.9%). During both seasons, this was higher than the maize cover, with 10.7% and 0% for the cropping and non-cropping seasons, respectively. For both localities, the implication of the differences found in the abundance and diversity between the cropping and non-cropping seasons is discussed.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Orem J, Otieno MW, Banura C, Katongole-Mbidde E, Johnson JL, Ayers L, Ghannoum M, Fu P, Feigal EG, Black J, Whalen C, Lederman M, Remick SC.Capacity building for the clinical investigation of AIDS malignancy in East Africa.". In: Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program, Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. MBA; 2005. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno DJ;, Omiti J;, Nyanamba T;, McCullough E. "Application of Chow test to improve analysis of farmer participation in markets in Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

High population growth rates and emergence of urban settlements provide opportunities as well as challenges to economic development in many countries. While the supply of labour and markets are potential positive outcomes of these processes, the underlying pressure on scarce resources is often intense. In low-income agriculture-dependent countries such as Kenya, inadequate food supply and lack of other basic social amenities characterize a large share of rural and urban population. The productive capacity and commercial orientation of agriculture and foodrelated sectors need to be improved in order to reduce famine, malnutrition and poverty. This would entail enhancing farmers’ access and participation in both input and out markets. Horticulture (especially vegetables) is one of the most important sectors in Kenya, where smallholder farmers account for nearly 70% of the output (McCulloch and Ota, 2002). About 23% of Kenya’s export revenue is derived from horticultural exports (CBS, 2006; Minot and Ngigi, 2003). Cultivation of vegetable crops (mainly cabbages, tomatoes, kales – sukuma wiki, onions and a variety of indigenous vegetables such as amaranthus) forms a crucial source of livelihood for many households in rural and peri-urban areas of Kenya (Omiti et al., 2004). Promoting investments in agricultural commercialization, more so in developing marketing channels are critical for poverty reduction (Geda et al., 2001). The potential benefits of higher product prices and lower input prices due to commercialization are effectively transmitted to poor households when markets function fairly (IFAD, 2001). In Kenya, recent research show evidence that prioritizing infrastructure development for vegetable production and marketing are necessary for improvement of most livelihoods (Omiti et al., 2006). Recent transformations in agri-food systems (particularly the rise of supermarkets and technological advances in developing countries’ agriculture during the last decade) offer opportunities for smallholder farmers (McCullough et al., 2008). However, these prospects might 2 be countered by population pressure, on-going global economic downturn and the adverse effects of climate change, if alternative policies and strategies are not urgently instituted to reverse the decline in real purchasing power of many households (Food Ethics Council, 2008). In order to support the process of sustained economic growth, there is need for a more refined and targeted analysis of pertinent issues that constrain farm-to-market distribution of food. The analytical role of agricultural economists must therefore expand to comprehensively capture site-specific dynamics of the agri-food systems. Previous studies on market participation (for example, Alene et al., 2008; Chianu et al., 2008; Makhura et al., 2002) have been based on single or multiple sites. However, the decision to pool data or perform separate analysis is often subjective. In these studies, authors provide elaborate discussions to differentiate sites in terms of geographic features, climatic conditions and socioeconomic profiles. Although the findings from such studies might offer useful insights on necessary policies, they lack rigorous objective criteria to support the choice between pooled versus disaggregated analyses. It is important to anchor market analysis on solid statistical criteria in order to give more credence to the resulting site-specific or nation-wide strategies. This would enable implementation of policy interventions that reliably address salient challenges which may vary across sub-regions within a country. As a standard practice, data from multiple sites should be tested to confirm similarities or differences, and to guide the process of data organization (pooling or separation) for analysis. This study contributes to knowledge on farm-level analysis of market participation through application of the Chow’s seminal test (Chow, 1960) to examine differences between data from two sites (rural and urban). A truncated regression model is applied in the analysis. The specific objectives of the study are: i. To assess difference in the level of market participation between rural and peri-urban farmers; ii. To estimate factors that influence the share of vegetable marketed by farmers.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Cancer prevention and early detection. The African journal of hospital medicine (Medicom) 2001:16, 6, 85-89.". In: (Medicom) 2001:16, 6, 85-89. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO MROBUDHOELIAS. "Studies on the physiological effects of viruses on sweet potato yield in Kenya. Annals of Applied Biology.". In: Proceedings of the Second Horticulture Seminar on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tropics, August 6th . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Otieno MM, P B. "The interplay of organizational dynamics on corporate governance in the face of performance contracting in Kenya; A case of Kenya Ports Authority." international journal of research in computer application & management. 2013.
Otieno SP, Ndede LA, Musonye M. "The Paradox of Pain in Tosh Gitonga’s Nairobi Half Life." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences,. 2017;Vol. 1(Issue 4):51-63.
Otieno SP, Muchiri P. Children Rise Up. Otieno SP, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
Otieno SPV. Mtoto Wa Afrika. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
Otieno NE, Gichuki N, Farwig N, Kiboi S. "The role of farm structure on bird assemblages around a Kenyan tropical rainforest." African Journal of Ecology. 2011;49:410-417.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "The Quantum Theory of Three Dimensional Rigid Rotator.". In: Nuovo Cimento 21B, 162,. University of Nairobi Press; 1974. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Sang F.C., Lule G.N., Ogutu E.O. Evaluation of culture media and antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter Pylori. EAMJ 68: 865, 1991.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):603-8. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991. Abstract
Departmnent of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline in patients presenting with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and sixty-seven patients aged 15 to 85 years, presenting with dyspepsia and referred for upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy were recruited into the study. RESULTS: Between October 2003 and April 2004, 138 male and 129 female patients aged 15-85 years, with a mean age of 45.4 years were studied. Gastritis was the most common endoscopic finding, occurring in 55%, followed by normal-looking mucosa in 27% and peptic ulcer disease in 16% of the patients. The rapid urease test was positive in 184 patients (69%). The culture yield was 62% of these CLO (Campylobacter like organisms) positive biopsies. The MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration) was 256 mg/l for metronidazole, 1.5 mg/l for clarithromycin, 1.5 mg/l for tetracycline and 0.75 mg/l for amoxicillin. The MIC values for amoxicillin were significantly higher in the female patients (p = 0.02) but showed no significant variation for age. The MIC values for metronidazole, tetracycline and clarithromycin showed no significant difference for age or gender. MIC values for tetracycline were significantly higher for patients with duodenitis and duodenal ulcer p = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively. CONCLUSION: All isolated H. pylori organisms were resistant to metronidazole. The susceptibility of the H. pylori isolates was 93.6% for clarithromycin, 95.4% for amoxicillin and 98.1% for tetracycline. The MIC90 for amoxicillin and clarithromycin were found to be close to the upper limit of the susceptibility range. There was a rising MIC90 for tetracycline and metronidazole compared to that found in a previous study in 1991.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda W.O., Abdallah F.K., Obondo A., Musau F. Quality Of Life: Aspects To Look For In Male Cancer Patients At A Referral Hospital In Kenya . EAMJ 2004; 81: 341-347.". In: EAMJ 2004; 81: 341-347. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno SPV. We are the Children. Wanjiku A, Githinji K, eds. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Cancer prevention and early detection. The African journal of hospital medicine (Medicom) 2001:16, 6, 85-89.". In: (Medicom) 2001:16, 6, 85-89. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno CF, Kaseje D, Ochieng' BM, Githae MN. "Reliability of community health worker collected data for planning and policy in a peri-urban area of Kisumu, Kenya.". 2012. Abstractreliability_of_community_health_worker_collected_data.pdf

A general introduction of this article is as follows: Reliable and timely health information is an essential foundation of public health action and health systems strengthening, both nationally and internationally (Aqil et al. in Health Policy Plan 24(3): 217-228, 2009; Bradshaw et al. in initial burden of disease estimates for South Africa, 2000. South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, 2003). The need for sound information is especially urgent in the case of emergent diseases and other acute health threats, where rapid awareness, investigation and response can save lives and prevent broader national outbreaks and even global pandemics (Aqil et al. in Health Policy Plan 24(3): 217-228, 2009). The government of Kenya, through the ministry of public health and sanitation has rolled out the community health strategy as a way of improving health care at the household level. This involves community health workers collecting health status data at the household level, which is then used for dialogue at all the levels to inform decisions and actions towards improvement in health status. A lot of health interventions have involved the community health workers in reaching out to the community, hence successfully implementing these health interventions. Large scale involvement of community health workers in government initiatives and most especially to collect health data for use in the health systems has been minimal due to the assumption that the data may not be useful to the government, because its quality is uncertain. It was therefore necessary that the validity and reliability of the data collected by community health workers be determined, and whether this kind of data can be used for planning and policy formulation for the communities from which it is collected. This would go a long way to settle speculation on whether the data collected by these workers is valid and reliable for use in determining the health status, its causes and distribution, of a community. Our general objective of this article is to investigate the validity and reliability of Community Based Information, and we deal with research question "What is the reliability of data collected at the Community level by Community health workers?". The methods which we use to find an reliable answer to this question is "Ten percent of all households visited by CHWs for data collection were recollected by a technically trained team. Test/retest method was applied to the data to establish reliability. The Kappa score, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values were also used to measure reliability". Finally our findings are as follows: Latrine availability and Antenatal care presented good correspondence between the two sets of data. This was also true for exclusive breast feeding indicator. Measles immunization coverage showed less consistency than the rest of the child health indicators. At last we conclude and recommend that CHWs can accurately and reliably collect household data which can be used for health decisions and actions especially in resource poor settings where other approaches to population based data are too expensive.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Principles of Applied Blood Transfusion Manual.". In: BOOK. MBA; 1990. Abstract
Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "W.O. Mwanda, J. Orem, S. C. Remick, R. Rochford, C. Whalen, M. L. Wilson. Clinical characteristics of Burkitt's lymphoma from three regions in Kenya . EAMJ, 2005; 82 (9): S135-S143.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9 Suppl):S135-43. MBA; 2005. Abstract

Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Kenyatta National Hospital and the University of Nairobi College of Health Sciences, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) from three regions in Kenya at different altitudes with a view towards understanding the contribution of local environmental factors. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital and seven provincial hospitals in Kenya. METHOD: Histologically proven cases of Burkitt's lymphoma in patients less than 16 years of age were clinically examined and investigated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For every case the following parameters were documented: chief complaint(s); physical examination, specifically pallor, jaundice, oedema, lymphadenopathy, presence of masses, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Reports of evaluation of chest radiograph, abdominal ultrasound/scan, bone marrow aspiration, cerebral spinal fluid cytology, liver and kidney function tests, urinalysis, stool occult blood and full blood count results. Stage of disease was assigned A, B, C or D. Cases of BL from three provinces of Kenya with diverse geographical features were analysed: Central, Coast, and Western. RESULTS: This study documented 471 BL cases distributed as follows: Central 61 (males 39 and 22 females), M:F ratio 1.8:1; Coast 169 (111 males and 58 females), M:F ratio 1.9:1; and Western 241 (140 males and 101 females), M:F ratio 1.4:1. The major presenting complaints were: abdominal swelling–Central 36%, Coast 4% and Western 26%; swelling on the face–Central 31%, Coast 81% and Western 64%; and proptosis–Central 3%, Coast 1% and Western 9%. The mean duration of these complaints in weeks were Central 6.9, Coast 6.08, and Western 5.05. The initial physical finding was a tumour mass in 39%, 72% and 54% of cases for Central, Coast and Western respectively. Tumour stage at diagnosis was: stage A–Central 21%, Coast 43% and Western 34%; stage B–Central 10%, Coast 5% and Western 10%; stage C–Central 41%, Coast 34% and Western 30%; and stage D–Central 28%, Coast 17% and Western 26%. For the age and sex matched cases the results show that commonly involved sites were: abdomen–Central 35%, Coast 9% and Western 14%; jaw (mandible)–Central 24%, Coast 22% and Western 31%; maxilla–Central 6%, Coast 24% and Western 11%; and lymph nodes–Central 10%, Coast 4% and Western 8%. The disease stage was A–Central 33%, Coast 44% and Western 36%; stage B–Central 11%, Coast 10% and Western 27%; stage C–Central 39%, Coast 34% and Western 27%; and stage D–Central 21%, Coast 13% and Western 37%. CONCLUSION: This study shows that clinical features of childhood BL vary with geographical region. The variations are documented in proportion of jaw, maxilla, abdominal and lymph nodal sites involvement. The differences observed are potentially due to the local environmental factors within these provinces. BL cases from Western province had features, intermediate between endemic and sporadic. Coastal province BL cases were similar to endemic BL, while BL cases from Central province resembled more or less sporadic BL subtypes. Strategies to explain and investigate the local environmental factors associated with the observed differences may certainly contribute towards improved understanding and clinical management of BL.

Otieno AAT. "Reproductive Health In Kenya: An Examination of Safe Motherhood Initiative In Light of Millennium Development Goals.". In: Reproductive, maternal and Child Health in Africa: Current Developments and Future Direction. Dakar, Senegal: Union of African Population Studies TRN no 6. ; 2006.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Lupus anticoagulants: pathophysiology, clinical and laboratory Associations: A review EAMJ 2003; 80:564-568.". In: A review EAMJ 2003; 80:564-568. MBA; 2003. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The quality of life of cancer patients is likely to be influenced by psychological reactions of the cancer patients yet there are no documented issues related to quality of life in cancer patients in Kenyan hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate issues which affect the quality of life in male cancer patients. DESIGN: Prospective cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Cancer patients above 12 years of age were interviewed during the course of their stay in the hospital, specifically to gather information on; semi structured questions and a modified Beck's 24 item depression inventory with a view to solicit for their reaction on issues which pertains to quality of life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age group, level of education, tribe, geographical place (province) of birth, chief complains, main concerns, views on doctors, contact with psychiatrist and psychologist, the anatomic site of cancer, treatment given and responses on modified Beck's depression inventory. RESULTS: Forty two patients were studied, their age range 13-72 years, mean 43.2 and peak 13-26 years. Forty seven per cent of cases had no formal education. The cancers were gastrointestinal tract 33%, blood and lymphoid tissue (26%), bone and muscle (11.9%), skin (9.4%) and genitourinary tract (4.8%). Treatment given was chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Ninety three per cent were unable to cope. Chief complaints were pain, inability to work, feeling miserable and concerns were families, health and work retardation. Modified Beck's depression score was 20%, with major issues being; work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, and anorexia. Most affected were, age group 27-35 years (and least 13-26 years), uneducated, living in Nairobi (city), having carcinomas, treatment with combined surgery and radiotherapy. Low education level and residence in Nairobi coped poorly. Radiation therapy group appeared to cope better than other modalities. CONCLUSION: The issues affecting the quality of life of male cancer patients stated were pain, inability to work, poor coping with cancer and psychological reactions of work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, fatigability and depression. Gambling, suicidal ideas and social withdrawal were minimal. Other concerns were families, health and work.

OTIENO MROBUDHOELIAS. "Supporting Research: Role of Biometricians.". In: Presented at the eighth Biannual SUSAN BIOMETRICS CONFERENCE, University of Natal at Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Otieno SP, Ozor GN, Wabernde K. "Social Drama: Umulumgbe Men Funeral Ritual Performance." International Journal of Language and Literature. 2017;vol.5(Issue 2):pp.197-210.
Otieno, R.O, Kariuki, D.N., Wanjohi. "Loss of Pyrethrins Content during Drying of Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium Flowers in Direct Sunlight." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2021;6(2):75-84.
Otieno SP, Chege M. Scorned. (Mrs) JM, ed. Talent Empire; 2019.
Otieno SP. Messenger. Wanjiru KW, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2013.
OTIENO DRJOWI. "The perceived Effects of Televised Violence on Children: Survey of Adults perceptual Opinion.". In: Unpablished Ph.d Dissertation. The Kenya Medical Association; 1979. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
Otieno SP, Muchiri P. Mfalme Wa Afrika. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2007.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Saturation Effects of Collision Broadened Rotational Lines.". In: J. Chem. Phy. 65, 945,. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu EO, Kang'ethe SK, Nyabola L, Nyong'o A.Endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Kenyan patients with dyspepsia.East Afr Med J. 1998 Feb;75(2):85-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Feb;75(2):85-9. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998. Abstract
One hundred and twenty consecutive patients above 12 years of age with dyspepsia were studied from June 1993 to September 1994. They underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to find the mucosal lesions which were associated with their dyspeptic symptoms. At endoscopy gastric mucosal biopsies were taken in order to identify Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) using three different techniques: culture, histology and the rapid urease test. Normal looking mucosa was the commonest single endoscopic finding, accounting for 34.2%, followed by gastritis 31.7% and duodenal ulcer 29.2%. However, when duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers were put together, then peptic ulcer was the most prevalent finding accounting for 38.4%. Peptic ulcer was the most prevalent pathological finding in both young (less than 50 years) and older patients (50 years and above). Duodenal ulcer was more prevalent than gastric ulcer in the younger age group with a ratio of 5.8:1, however, the ratio in the older age group was 1:1. Gastric cancer was only found in patients aged 50 years and above, accounting for 17.4% of dyspeptic symptoms in this age group. Females were found to have more normal endoscopic findings than males (59.6%, versus 17.8% respectively). The difference being statistically significant (p < 0.001). All our cases of peptic ulcer disease had evidence of H. pylori infection while dyspeptic patients with normal endoscopic mucosal findings had H. pylori in 80.5% of cases. The difference in prevalence of H. pylori in the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Surprisingly, evidence of H. pylori in gastric cancer cases was very low in this study, being found in only 25% of patients.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "R. Rochford, G. Feuer, J. Orem, C. Banura, E. Katongole-Mbidde, W. O. Mwanda, A. Moorman, W. J. Harrington, S. C. Remick. Strategies to overcome myelotoxic therapy for the treatment of Burkitt's and AIDS-related Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. EAMJ, 2005; 82 (9):.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9 Suppl):S155-60. MBA; 2005. Abstract

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA. BACKGROUND: Strategies to circumvent or lessen the myelotoxicity associated with combination chemotherapy may improve the overall outcome of the management of patients particularly in resource poor settings. OBJECTIVES: To develop effective non-myelotoxic therapies for Burkitt's Lymphoma (BL) and AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. DATA SOURCES: Publications, original and review articles, conference abstracts searched mainly on Pubmed indexed for medline. DATA EXTRACTION: A systematic review of the clinical problem of combination chemotherapy. Identification of clinical strategies that circumvent or lessen the myelotoxicity of combination cytotoxic chemotherapy. Length of survival, lack of clinically significant (> grade 3) myelosuppression and weight loss were used as markers of myelotoxicity. DATA SYNTHESIS: Review of published experience with some of these strategies including dose-modification of multi-agent chemotherapy; rationale for targeted therapies, and the preclinical development of a mouse model exploring the role of metronomic scheduling substantiate pragmatism and feasibility of these approaches. CONCLUSION: Myelotoxic death rates using multi-agent induction chemotherapy approach 25% for endemic Burkitt's lymphoma and range between 20% to 60% for AIDS-related malignancy. This is mostly explained by the paucity of supportive care compounded by wasting and inanition attributable to advanced cancer and HIV infection making patients more susceptible to myelosuppressive side effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Investigations and alternative approaches that lessen or circumvent myelotoxicity of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy for the management of Burkitt's lymphoma and AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the resource-constrained setting are warranted. Pertinent pre-clinical and clinical data are emerging to support the need for abrograting the myelosuppressive effects of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. This can be achieved by developing targeted anti-viral and other strategies, such as the use of bryostatin 1 and vincristine, and by developing a preclinical mouse model to frame the clinical rationale for a pilot trial of metronomic therapy for the treatment of Burkitt's and AIDS-related lymphoma. Implementation of these investigational approaches must be encouraged as viable anti-cancer therapeutic strategies particularly in the resource-constrained settings.

Otieno AO, Karuku GN, Raude JM, Koech OK. "Effectiveness of the Horizontal, Vertical and Hybrid Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Systems in Polishing Municipal Wastewater." Environmental Management and Sustainable Development. 2017;6(2):158-173.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 6. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Otieno MW, Banura C, Katongole-Mbidde E, Johnson JL, Ghannoum M, Dowlati A, Renne R, Arts E, Whalen C, Lederman MM, Remick SC. Therapeutic challenges of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the United States and East Africa.J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 May .". In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2002: 94, 718-32. MBA; 2002. Abstract

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) remains the second most common malignant complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As we enter the third decade of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, it is apparent that the evolution of antiretroviral therapy and the emergence of combination antiviral strategies have greatly affected the natural history of HIV infection and its neoplastic complications. For example, there may be a trend for declining incidence of AIDS-related lymphoma in the United States for the first time. However, in regions of the world where the burden of HIV infection is greatest, such as in East Africa, AIDS-related lymphoma is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment of lymphoma has evolved coincident with improvements in antiretroviral therapy. Infusional chemotherapy regimens may offer advantages over other regimens and schedules, but comparative trials have not been done. Clinical trial data are available on which to develop therapeutic strategies to treat this disease in East Africa where pragmatic approaches are needed. Both the differences in manifestations of HIV infection and the inherent difficulties in administering cytotoxic chemotherapy in this part of the world must be taken into consideration in planning therapeutic strategies. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV infection and lymphoma will likely yield improved therapeutic interventions as well.

Otieno AC, Quainoo EW, Mwongela S. "Metal Cations for the Determination of Fluorescent Phosphoinositides by Capillary Electrophoresis." Journal of Separation Science . 2008;31:3894-3901.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Haematological changes in human immunodeficiency virus infection Part II. East African Medical Journal 1997, 11: 737-739.". In: East African Medical Journal 1997, 11: 737-739. MBA; 1997. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Otieno MW, Fu P, Collea R, Whalen C and Remick SC. Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection in a tertiary referral center in Kenya . Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2005; 99 (1): 81-91.". In: Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2005; 99 (1): 81-91. MBA; 2005. Abstract

D. M. Ndetei, D. M. Kathuku, O. W. Mwanda. Research proposal: Psychological aspects of the paediatric cancer patients in Kenyatta National Hospital . 2005

Otieno NE, Muchane M, Karimi S. "Effect of logging on the Abbott's Starling (Pholia femoralis) population in Kikuyu escarpment forest, Kenya." Ostrich-Journal of African Ornithology. 2007;78:299-304. Abstract
n/a
Otieno, R.O, ODINDO, M., KAAYA GP, BANDA HK. "Virus particle infection in laboratory-reared Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae).". In: In "Sterile Insect Technique for Tsetse Control and Eradication. VIENNA: IAEA, VIENNA, STI/PUB/830; 1990.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W , Rochford Rosemary, Jenetter Rainey, Mark L Wilson. Challenges (in the epidemiological and clinical aspects) of Burkitt's lymphoma in Kenya : linking evidence and experience. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S111-116.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S104-110. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO MROBUDHOELIAS. "Modeling the distribution of mosquito/larvae repellant plant species in Kenya for conservation purpose.". In: Presented at the ninth Biannual SUSAN BIOMETRICS CONFERENCE, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Otieno Z, Okello JJ, Nyikal R, Mwang'ombe AW, Clavel D. "The role of varietal traits in the adoption of improved dryland crop varieties: The case of pigeon pea in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

This study uses a multivariate probit model and the Poisson regression to examine the role of varietal attributes in farmers’ adoption of improved pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) varieties in Taita District, Kenya. It is based on data collected from 200 households stratified by adoption of improved pigeon pea varieties between April and May 2009. The study finds correlation in the decisions made by farmers to adopt different varieties, implying that using simple probit analysis could yield biased and inefficient results. The results further indicate that the major pigeon pea varietal traits driving rapid adoption are drought tolerance, pest tolerance, yield, ease of cooking, taste and price. Early maturity, a major focus of recent research, has no effect on farmers’ adoption decisions. These findings imply that developers of improved crop varieties should pay attention to consumption and market characteristics in addition to production traits to increase technology uptake and satisfy farmers’ multiple needs.

Otieno SP, Akuno EA, Diang’a R. Enhancing Creativity for Youth Empowerment and Community Development Conference Proceedings. Technical University of Kenya; 2019.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Practical Guide to Coagulation Tests.". In: BOOK. MBA; 1990. Abstract

Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.

Otieno SP. Children of the Sky . Kabura J, ed. Talent Empire; 2021.
Otieno SP. Ripples of Guilt. Trafford: Trafford; 2004.
OTIENO DRJOWI. "Teaching in Communication.". In: Seminar paper presented at staff Development seminars at the Kenya Institute for Monetary Studies, Nairobi and organized by the University of Nairobi. The Kenya Medical Association; Submitted. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
OTIENO MROLWALTHOMAS. "- Olwa et al (2006a) considers a multidimensional timing phase shift as a vector within a transmitted time frame. The timing shift vector is modelled as a random walk. A combined discrete polyphase matched filter and iterative turbo receiver outputs are u.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference November 2004, Nairobi. Journal of Applied Biosciences; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
Otieno SP, Ng'ang'a E. Mami Baba/Fafa. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "On the Conventional Approaches to the BBGKY hierarchy.". In: Proc. Colloquia on Mathematical Physics,. University of Nairobi Press; 1977. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Maende JA, Ogutu EO, Nyong'o A, Aluoch JR.Upper gastrointestinal mucosal lesions in dyspeptic patients with homozygous sickle cell disease in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1998 Mar;75(3):148-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Mar;75(3):148-50. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998. Abstract
A case controlled study comprising 51 patients with homozygous sickle cell (HbSS) disease who complained of dyspepsia and 41 age and sex matched non-HbSS control dyspeptic patients was carried out, to look at upper gastrointestinal mucosal lesions associated with dyspepsia. Upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) endoscopy was performed with gastric control biopsy taken for histology. Thirty two (62.3%) of the HbSS or sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients had upper gastrointestinal pathology at endoscopy as compared to 17 (41.5%) of controls. The difference was significant at p = 0.042. Bile reflux (47%) was the predominant abnormal morphological finding in SCA patients while duodenal ulcer was the most common morphological finding in dyspeptic controls. The prevalence of duodenal ulcer in controls (22%) though higher than in SCA patients (9.8%), was not statistically significant p = 0.18. Gastric ulcer was not found in SCA patients. Duodenal ulcer was commoner in males than females in both cases and controls with a ratio of 4:1 and 3.5:1 respectively. Only four (7.8%) SCA patients and one (2.4%) of controls had normal mucosa at histology, the rest had evidence of histological gastritis. We could not draw any correlation between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) use and UGIT findings. Since the proportion of SCA cases with UGIT abnormalities was significantly high, we recommend that dyspeptic SCA patients undergo UGIT investigations including endoscopy to maximise their clinical care.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "W.O. Mwanda, C. Whalen, S. C. Remick. Burkitt's lymphoma and emerging therapeutic strategies for EBV and AIDS-associated lymphoproliferative diseases in East Africa . EAMJ, 2005; 82 (9): S133-S134.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9 Suppl):S133-4. MBA; 2005. Abstract
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 16619688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 3. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Statistical thermodynamics for a System of Two-Dimensional Rigid Rotator.". In: AJST vol. 6. University of Nairobi Press; 2005. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu EO.The pattern of acute pancreatitis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH): retrospective study. East Afr Med J. 1988 Feb;65(2):86-91. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Dec;66(12):830-3. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1988. Abstract
The mean fasting insulin level in 30 apparently normal Kenyan Africans was determined by Radio-Immuno Assay (RIA) technique based on coat A-count. The mean value was found as 16.33 microIu/ml with a standard deviation (s.d) of 10.51 microIu/ml. The mean at 95% confidence interval (CI) for the population studied was 16.33 +/- 1.92. The findings are similar to what have been reported among the caucasians. This paper also reports on a case of insulinoma in a young female patient at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Orem J, Otieno MW, Remick SC. AIDS-associated cancer in developing nations. Current Opinion in Oncology 6:468-476; 2004.". In: MEDICOM, 2004; 19, 1: 13-18. MBA; 2004. Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the emergence of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, it is apparent that the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma, in particular, and lymphoma in patients with AIDS is declining, especially in regions of the world where these regimens are routinely available. The burden of HIV infection and AIDS is greatest in the developing world, and no doubt neoplastic complications are increasingly encountered. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent developments of this aspect of the AIDS epidemic in the developing world. RECENT FINDINGS: It was readily apparent that the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma sharply increased after the onset of the AIDS epidemic in developing countries. By the end of the second decade of the epidemic, non-Hodgkin lymphoma is increasing in incidence and the natural history of Burkitt lymphoma is evolving in the backdrop of HIV infection as well. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in many developing countries, yet the true impact of HIV infection on the development of this neoplasm is not fully understood. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva appears to be a unique AIDS-associated neoplasm that is encountered in sub-Saharan Africa as well. Finally, although the epidemiologic and clinicopathologic features for many AIDS-associated neoplasms are well characterized in developing regions of the world, there is a paucity of data on the therapeutic approach to these tumors in this setting. SUMMARY: It is apparent that as the AIDS pandemic proceeds, the burden of neoplastic diseases is increasing in developing nations. Current therapeutic approaches are not well documented. Pragmatic prevention and therapeutic interventions suitable for the resource-constrained setting are clearly needed.
Otieno NA. Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two different agro-ecological zones of Kenya. International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE). Nairobi Kenya; 2005.
Otieno ATA. ". Fertility Response to Infant Mortality in Kenya. Evidence from 1993 Demographic and Health Survey.". In: Population and Development in Kenya: Essays in Honour of S H Ominde. Nairobi, Kenya. Pp 43-55: Population Studies and Research Institute; 2000.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W., Abinya N.O. Relapse of Hodgkin's lymphoma after 10 years of complete remission. Case report. East African Medical Journal 1998, 75:3, 165-167.". In: East African Medical Journal 1999;76,11;610-614. MBA; 1998. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda WO, Christopher W, Scot CR, Lederman M, Orem J, Banura C. Anatomical sites predilections of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection: A Report on 54 cases. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S90-96.". In: A Report on 54 cases. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S90-96. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO MROBUDHOELIAS. "GenStat 8th Edition for everyday use. ICRAF Nairobi, Kenya. 114 pp.". In: School of Journalism. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Otieno M, Muriithi MK. "Resource allocation to health sector at the county level and implications for equity: A case study of Baringo County." Prime Journal of Social Science (PJSS) . 2016;5(7).
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Lupus Anticoagulant Syndrome. Case report. East African Medical Journal 1998;75:10;619-620.". In: East African Medical Journal 1998;75:10;619-620. MBA; 1998. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno SP. File A222. Kimondo W, ed. Talent Empire; 2020.
Otieno SO. Mitigation of liability for negligence in design and construction: case study of collapsed buildings in Nairobi. .; 2006. Abstract

This study is about mitigating liability for negligence in the Kenyan design and construction industry. Mitigation of liability as used in this study refers to reducing the damages that arise as a result of negligent practices of participants during construction. The problem which has been studied is that of collapsing buildings as it has been noted that building failures is a common phenomena in Kenya. The study investigates the various causes of failures in the construction industry with a view to recommending possible ways of reducing these occurrences or avoidinq them at all costs. The study has covered the role played by participants in the construction industry, who are; the clients, architects, contractors, quantity surveyors, engineers, the governing authorities, and the ministry of public works. Their role in contributing to a failure-free construction industry has been highlighted. An in-depth study has ~een carried on three cases of collapsed buildings, which have been taken as the case study for this research. Purposive sampling technique has been used to identify the case studies of this research. Reports which have been written by government commissions on collapse of buildings have also been looked at with a view of establishing the recommendations pegged towards reducing building failures in Kenya. Based on the findings of this research, the research concludes that the case studies sampled for this study. had very evident causes of failures linked to clients' poor administration of contracts and partly professional negligence. The study recommends education and training to clients so as to create awareness of the benefits of always including professionals who are registered in their projects. Its also recommends active participation of the government and professional bodies in the supervision of both-public arid p'ivate projects, to avoid coming up of low standard buildings.

Otieno CF, Otieno CF, Omonge EO, AMAYO AA, Njagi E. "Type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical and aetiologic types, theraphy and quality of glycaemic control of ambulatory patients.". 2008. Abstract

Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease with multiple causes revolving around beta cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and enhanced hepatic glucose output. Clinical judgement based on obesity status, age of onset and the clinical perception of residual beta cell insulin secretory function (hence insulin-requiring or not), has been used to determine therapeutic choices for each patient. Further laboratory testing of the clinically defined type 2 diabetes unmasks the various aetiologic types within the single clinical group. Objective: To determine the aetiological types of the clinically defined type 2 diabetic patients, their chosen therapies at recruitment and the quality of glycaemic control achieved. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Diabetes out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Results: A total of 124 patients with clinical type 2 diabetes were included, 49.2% were males. The mean duration of diabetes in males was 26.09 (20.95) months and that of females was 28.68 (20.54) months. The aetiological grouping revealed the following proportions: Type 1A-3.2%, Type lB-12.1%, LADA-5.7%, and "true" type 2 diabetes 79.0%. All the patients with Type IA were apparently, and rightly so, on "insulin-only" treatment even though they did not achieve optimal glycaemic control with HbAlc % = 9.06. However the study patients who were type IB and LADA were distributed all over the treatment groups where most of them did not achieve optimal glycaemic control, range of HhAc of 8.46 -10.6%. The patients with "true" type 2 were also distributed all over the treatment groups where only subjects on 'diet only' treatment had good HbAlc of 6.72% but those in other treatment groups did not achieve optimal glycaemic control of HbA1c, 8.07 - 9.32%. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease where clinical judgement alone does not adequately tell the various aetiological types apart without additional laboratory testing of C-peptide levels and GAD antibody status. This may partly explain the inappropriate treatment choices for the various aetiological types with consequent sub-optimal glycaemic control of those patients.

OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "An attempt to separate Long and Short Range forces by Gaussian Method.". In: J. Math. Phys. 20, 878. University of Nairobi Press; 1979. Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
Otieno SB, Were F, EW K, Waza K. "GENDER RELATED EFFECTS OF YEAST SELENIUM ON WEIGHT FOR AGE Z SCORE OF ASYMPTOMATIC HIV TYPE 1 POSITIVE CHILDREN AT NYAMASARIA IN KISUMU KENYA." International Journal of Current Advanced. 2015;4(7):194-199. Abstractgender_related_effects_of_yeast_selenium_on_weight_for_age_z_score_of.pdf

Background: Selenoprotein Iodothyronine 5’Deiodonases activates pro-T3 to 3,3’- 5T3(Tri-iodothyronine) which is involved in growth through a gene mediated protein metabolism. Oestradiol (E2) enhances activity of selenoproteins in adult pre-menopausal women taking selenium supliments, however the effect of selenium supplementation on weight change of different gender of asymptomatic HIV positive pre-puberty children is still unknown.
Methods: In this study of 25 Females and 25 Males randomly chosen asymptomatic HIV positive children 3 – 16 years old, 25 of the children were given, a fixed dose of 50μg yeast selenium while a matched control of 25 were put on placebo. Weight of children were taken at 3 months intervals up to 6 months, using electronic personal scale (model 10010), the resultant data was analyzed by Epi Info version 6,and SPSS version 16.
Results: No significant difference in mean weight of children was observed at baseline between the controls and children on test . Children on selenium had weight increase of 2.5Kg at six months .The weight for age Z score increased above -2SDs cut off point at six months amongst the children on selenium, in all age categories, 3-5 years 1.20 ± 2.45, 6-8years 0.19 ± 0.880, 9-15 years 0.97 ± 1.22, while there was a decrease in all the age categories in matched controls to below -2SDs at six months , 3-5 years -2.218 ± 1.46, 6-8 years -2.95. ± 3.10, 9-15 -2.30 ± 1.240. There was a significant WAZ difference between controls and selenium group at six months {F (5,12) = =5.758, P=0.006}. Prevalence of underweight in control was 48% compared to the test group at 9% at six months. Female children on selenium initially had a decrease and then sharp increase in WAZ (Tick Phenomenon), compared to the males who had a steady increase in WAZ.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that intake of yeast Selenium led to significant improvement in weight for age Z score at six months and further that there is gender related differences in weight change between HIV positive asymptomatic female and male children taking selenium as a supplement

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Otieno MW, Fu P, Collea R, Whalen C and Remick SC. Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection in a tertiary referral center in Kenya . Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2005; 99 (1): 81-91.". In: Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2005; 99 (1): 81-91. MBA; 2005. Abstract
D. M. Ndetei, D. M. Kathuku, O. W. Mwanda. Research proposal: Psychological aspects of the paediatric cancer patients in Kenyatta National Hospital . 2005
OTIENO MROWINONICHOLAS. Making Africa’s Power Sector Sustainable. United Nation Economic Commision for Africa (UNECA); 2005. AbstractWebsite

A paper prepared for the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA),

Otieno SPV, Ngei J. Tell Us The Truth. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2009.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "On the Effect of an External Magnetic Field on Dynamical Properties of the OCP.". In: In Three Dimension, Phys. Rev. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu E.O., Wankya B.M., Shah M.V., Ndinya Achola J.O. The prevalence of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis at Kenyatta National Hospital. E. Afr. Med. J. 65: 547, 1988.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Dec;66(12):830-3. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1988. Abstract
The mean fasting insulin level in 30 apparently normal Kenyan Africans was determined by Radio-Immuno Assay (RIA) technique based on coat A-count. The mean value was found as 16.33 microIu/ml with a standard deviation (s.d) of 10.51 microIu/ml. The mean at 95% confidence interval (CI) for the population studied was 16.33 +/- 1.92. The findings are similar to what have been reported among the caucasians. This paper also reports on a case of insulinoma in a young female patient at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Aywak A.A., Mwanda W.O., Adamali N.E. The Radiological Features of Burkitt's Lymphoma. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S104-110.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S104-110. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno S, et al. "The role of agri-business incentive on under-five child immunization in Trans-Nzoia County." East African Journal of Public Health. 2015;12(12):1054-1059.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two agro-ecological zones of Kenya." International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management. 2008;4:1-12.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Blood transfusion. Sustainable Donor's system is the key to the service. A. J. H. M. (MEDICOM) 2000, 15, 2:31-32.". In: A. J. H. M. (MEDICOM) 2000, 15, 2:31-32. MBA; 2000. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno NA, Culhane J, Germaine K, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling DN. "Screening of large collections of plant associated bacteria for effective plant growth promotion and colonisation.". In: Positive Plant Microbial Interactions: Their role in maintaining sustainable and natural ecosystems. Forest Pines Hotel, nr Brigg, orth Lincolnshire, UK; 2013. Abstract

The use of potent and effective live microbial biofertilisers in agricultural has significant
potential to reduce the costs of crop production and in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions
and water pollution associated with excessive fertiliser use. Many plant associated
bacteria possess plant growth promotion traits. However, when used as plant inoculants
these bacteria often do not result in statistically significant plant growth promotion. This
paper describes the screening process used to identify a number of endophytic strains
with multiple plant growth promotion traits and effective plant colonisation ability in
Brassica napus crops.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Burkitt's Lymphoma; The Initial defining Characteristics. EAMJ, 2004;81:S63-67.". In: EAMJ, 2004;81:S63-67. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Blood transfusion. Sustainable Donor's system is the key to the service. A. J. H. M. (MEDICOM) 2000, 15, 2:31-32.". In: A. J. H. M. (MEDICOM) 2000, 15, 2:31-32. MBA; 2000. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno D. Bacterial colonization profile in endo-tracheally intubated patients in the intensive-care unit,Kenyatta National Hospital, and the rationale for antibiotic therapy.; 1994. Abstract

A prospective study on the bacterial colonization profile
of the respiratory tract was carried out on fifty-six (56)
patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital, Intensive-
Care unit, and intubated for at least two days. between
January 1992 and March 1993.
During this period, a total number of four hundred and
fifty-eight (458) patients were admitted to the Intensive-
Care Unit. Out of these 25.7% (118) fell within the study
criteria, but only 47.4% of the eligible patients were
actually studied. •
Twenty-nine (29) were male and twenty-seven (27) were
female. The male to female ratio was 1.07:1. The patients'
ages ranged from eight (8) months to eighty (80) years, with
a peak in the 11-20year and another in the 31-40 year age
groups.
There were eight (8) different species of organisms
isolated during the study, most of which were gram-negative
bacilli. The most frequently isolated organism was proteus
29.1% (30) and the least common was enterococcus 3.9% (4).
Out of the fifty-six (56) patients, the colonization
rate was 30.4% (17). trache9-bronch~t~s 33.9% (19), and
pneumonia 35.7% (20). The severity of infection was found to
depend on the severitj .of illness. Of the eleven (11)
patients without organ fail~re, none developed pneumonia,
while 27% (3) had colonization and 73% (8) had tracheo-
bronchitis. There was a total of thirteen (11) uatients with
organ failure invoJving two or more systems; 69.2~ of t~ese
(9) had pneumonia, 30.7~ (4) had tracheo-bronchitis ann none
had colonization.
The duration of intubation varied from ~ to 9~ days in
this study. There was no clear relationship he tween the
duration of intubation and the severity of respiratory
infection. Duration of intubation of less than thirty davs
was associated wit~ 25~ (4) cases of colonization. 100% (19)
of tracheo-bronchitis and 90~ (lA) of uneumonia. Intuhation
for thirty days or more was associated with 75~ (13) cases
of colonization. 10% (2) of pneumonia and no case of
tracheo-bronchitis.
Ceftazidime (Fortum) was found to he the most effective
of the antihiotics tested against the isolated organisms;
100% effective in five (5) out of the eight (8) species
isolated.
Patients with either colonization or tracheo-bronchitis
were found to have a favourable outcome without antibiotics.
Of the 36 patients with either colonization or tracheobronchitis,
83% (30) made good recovery on conservative
management: regular 'chest phvsiotherapy and tracheo-bronchial
suctioning. One developed septicaemia and died despite
antibiotics. The other five died from multiple complications.
Twenty (20) patients diagnosed to have pneumonia were
put on specific antibiotic therapy. Only 16.6% (6) recovered.

Otieno SO. An investigation into the practice corporate social responsibility in the construction industry in Kenya: a case of contractors, Nairobi .; 2012. Abstract

The construction industry in Kenya is very important since it contributes greatly to the growth of the economy. Despite its very significant contribution to the economy, one finds that its operations diversely affect the society and environment in which most of its works are carried out in. Due to this reason, construction companies are required to go beyond the basic requirements of meeting projects' basic objectives by considering socio- economic, as well as sustainable environment issues. One of the ways in which this can be achieved is through the practice of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in a firm's operations. It is on this premise that the study was carried out with the main aim of investigating the practice of CSR by Kenyan construction companies. The study sought to establish the prevalence of CSR practice in the Kenyan construction industry, together with the various impacts encountered as a result of embracing the practice by various contractors. Other objectives of the study included formulation of a practical CSR model which could be adopted by contractors in Kenya for future use and also to recommend a way forward. A survey approach was adopted for the study and data was collected from the chosen sample group of 'Class A' construction firms. Data was analysed using statistical software's and procedures, and inferences made from the data outputs. Responses from the survey request were used to inform the study findings, conclusions and recommendations. The results of the survey indicate that most of the construction firms are aware of the concept of CSR and that those who had embraced the practice had encountered various positive impacts highlighted the study. This was despite some of the challenges they had faced in implementation of the concept. The study highlighted pertinent concepts on how construction firms can improve their outputs and work relationships by embracing the practice of CSR. The study recommends that CSR practice .should be adopted by all practicing contracting firms in Kenya for purposes of enjoying the inherent benefits that comes with its practice. This can be done through the formulation of relevant and practical legal and institutional frameworks that will ensure mandatory practice, as it has been done in other developed countries. The study further recommends a simple CSR model which can be adopted by the various construction firms for purposes of improving their businesses.

OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "On the Coordinate, Energy and Angular Momentum Preparation of the Density Matrix.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Series B Vol. 7 No. 1 P73. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
OTIENO MROWUOCHESOLOMON. "Political Parties and Civil Society in Governance and Development: A Synthesis,(Co-author).". In: ISBN 9966-803-02-5. Peace Tree Network (PTN); 2002.
Otieno CA, Wairimu S, Madadi VO, Kimani E, Jama HH, Ayah R. "TO DETERMINE THE USE OF LOCAL RAW MATERIALS IN MANUFACTURE OF MEDICAL DEVICES: CASE STUDY OF ZEOLITE FOR OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR .". In: 1st Annual Conference on Science for Development: Supporting Manufacturing, Affordable Housing, Universal Healthcare and Food Security . Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Nyamgondho. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2013.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Quantum theory of pressure broadening of rotational spectrum by three-dimensional rigid rotator, Ph.D. thesis.". In: University Microfilms . University of Nairobi Press; 1972. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Lule GN, Okoth F, Ogutu EO, Mwai SJ.HBV markers (HBsAg, HBSAb, HBCAb in 160 medical students at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1989 May;66(5):315-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):10-4. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1989. Abstract
In an exercise to study the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the Engerix B vaccine, 160 medical students were screened for Hepatitis B Markers (HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb) with a view to vaccinating those that were negative. 18% were HBsAg + ve, 33% were HBsAb + ve and 38% were positive for the HBcAb. These figures were extremely high and obviated the need to vaccinate the students as they begin their clinical years.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. The Clinical Characteristics of Burkitt's Lymphoma seen in Kenyan Patients. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S78-89.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S78-89. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno CA. "Analysis of the human Alu Ya-lineage .". In: 6th Annual Biological Sciences Symposium. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana; 2004.
Otieno PK, Ochanda JO, Okoth S. "Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis from coastal intertidal brackish sediments and from farmlands in Machakos District Kenya. ." Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2012;1(7):16-20.
Otieno DJ;, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Marenya PP. "Shaping the Future of African Agriculture for Development: The Role of Social Scientists."; 2004. Abstract

Food security remains a key challenge to the development efforts of most poor nations. This study investigated the significance of gender (denoted by number of male, female and children in a household) and social amenities in the food security equation. Frequency of food-related illnesses in a household was used as proxy for food security situation, while the entitlement/food utilization side of the equation was represented by the number of male and female children in the household, main source of domestic water, distance to nearest health center, means of transport accessible, household sanitation and level of awareness on basic food preparation and handling methods. Both descriptive and econometric models were used for analysis of primary data from a random sample of 100 farm-households in Yala division, Siaya district of Kenya. This study was conducted in February 2004. Results of this study indicated that majority (74%) of the rural households were experiencing poor food utilization, and were thus generally food insecure. The study also revealed that gender and social amenities were significant in the food security equation. Specifically, there was high correlation between food-related illnesses and use of untapped water, more male children than females in a household, long distance to health centers, lack of quick means of transport, unsafe food disposal and poor food storage habits. In order to improve the food utilization and thereby security for the rural farm-households, the study recommends improvement in the provision of social amenities for both male and female household members equitably

Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo GO, Moyal P, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two agro-ecological zones of Kenya." The International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management. 2008;4(2):92-103. Abstract

A survey was carried out between 2005 and 2006 in two ecologically different localities, Suam and Mtito Andei, to assess diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers during the cropping and non-cropping seasons. Suam in western Kenya is situated in the moist high tropics and is characterised by an Afromontane vegetation mosaic, while Mtito Andei is located in the dry mid-altitudes characterised by a Somalia Masai vegetation mosaic. In Suam, wild host plants and maize covered 11 and 50%, respectively, of the surveyed area. In Mtito Andei, 27% of the surveyed area was under maize during the cropping season, while wild host plant species covered 13% and 8% during the cropping and non-cropping seasons, respectively. There was no significant variation in the relative abundance and diversity of the wild grasses between the two seasons in either location. The abundance of host plants of B. fusca and C. partellus is low in natural habitats surrounding cereal crops. The abundance of C. partellus was low in its wild host plants and B. fusca was absent. Therefore, the role of wild vegetation surrounding cultivated areas in the carry-over of these pests during the non-cropping season is limited

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W., Otieno C. F., Abdalla F. K., Transfusion Haemosiderosis Inspite Of Regular Use Of Desferrioxamine - Case Report. EAMJ 2004; 81:326-328.". In: Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program, Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno PS, Ogutu CA, Mburu J, Nyikal RA. "Effect of Global-GAP policy on smallholder French beans farmers’ climate change adaptation strategies in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2017;12(8):577-587.
Otieno CF, Otedo AEO, Othero D, Otiende MY, Okoth P, Omonge EO, Oyoo GO. "CD4+ Cell Response to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ARTS) in Routine Clinical Care over One Year Period in a Cohort of HAART Naïve, HIV Positive Kenyan Patients." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):15-24.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda W. O. Prevention and early detection of paediatric cancers. The African journal of Hospital Medicine (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102.". In: (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno MM, Keinan HM. "Effects of Human-Wildlife Conflict on Food Security: A case of Kwale County, Kenya." international journal of research in computer application & management. 2013.
Otieno SP, Ndede, L.A., Musonye M. "From the Snow of Kilimanjaro to Nairobi Half Life: Over 94 Years of Film in Kenya." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;Vol. 1(Issue 5):51-63.
Otieno SP, Ng'ang'a E. The First Drop. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
Otieno W, Muiru WM, Mutua GK, Kimenju JW, Langat JK. "Response of free-living nematodes to treatments targeting plant parasitic nematodes in carnation.". 2008. Abstract

This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of ecologically sound approaches for nematode management on non-target organisms, free-living nematodes. The materials tested were sugarcane bagasse, molasses, tea and flower composts, neem (Achook), a biological agent (Paecilomyces lilacinus) and fenamiphos (Nemacur). The treatments were administered before planting carnation var. White Natila in flower beds that were naturally infested with nematodes. Application of bagasse, molasses, tea and flower composts resulted in increased abundance of free-living nematodes compared to the control where nothing was applied. Bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and predators comprised 73, 14 and 13%, respectively of the free-living nematodes recovered. Members of the genus Rhabditis were the most abundant (10%) among the bacteriovores while Mononchus (10%) and Aphelenchoides (14%) dominated among the predators and fungivorous trophic groups, respectively. The highest numbers of free-living nematodes were recorded at 90 Days after Planting (DAP) in plots treated with bagasse and molasses but the numbers declined at 180 DAP. A steady increase in numbers of free-living nematodes was observed in plots treated with tea and flower composts up to 180 DAP. Significant reductions in abundance of free-living nematodes were recorded in plots treated with fenamiphos and neem. This study has established that application of organic substrates serve as a stimulus to processes leading to build-up of free-living nematodes. The organic substrates can strongly be recommended for use in sustainable carnation production systems.

OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Construction of the Quantum Lagrangian Density in the Nonsymmetric Gravity Theory and Evaluation of Conserved Currents.". In: Journal Mathematical Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
Otieno CF, Mwendwa FW, Vaghela V, OGOLA EN, Amayo EO. "Elijah N. Ogola Elijah N. Ogola Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal Vol.. 2005;82(12):S173-S179. AbstractWebsite

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts.

Objective: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study.

Setting: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications.

Results: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45(9.4) years and that of males was 55.83(9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85(6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98(5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol >4.2mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C >2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides >1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment.

Conclusion: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total - and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.

OTIENO MROWUOCHESOLOMON. The Church in the Struggle for Democracy in Kenya. MvuleAfrica Publishers, Nairobi; 2010.Website
Otieno SPV. Mutuku. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2013.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Order .". In: Pres. International Conference in Theoretical Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 1973. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu EO, McLigeyo SO. Adult polycystic liver disease.East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):352-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):352-8. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991. Abstract
Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Burkitt's Lymphoma in Kenya : views from the 20th Century, Introduction. EAMJ, 2004; 81:S61-62.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81:S61-62. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda W. O. Prevention and early detection of paediatric cancers. The African journal of Hospital Medicine (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102.". In: (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno AC, Mwongela SM. "Capillary Electrophoresis Based Methods for the Determination of Lipids A Review." Analytica Chimica Acta . 2008;624:163-174.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Kasili's Synopsis of the Management of Paediatric Cancers in Kenya.". In: BOOK. MBA; 1990. Abstract
Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "J. Orem, P. Fu, A. Ness, W.O. Mwanda, S. C. Remick. Oral combination chemotherapy in the treatment of AIDS-associated Hodgkin's disease. EAMJ, 2005; 82 (9): S144-S150.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9 Suppl):S144-9. MBA; 2005. Abstract

{ Uganda Cancer Institute, Mulago Hospital and the Makerere University School of Medicine, Kampala, Uganda. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of an oral combination chemotherapy regimen administered to patients with AIDS-associated Hodgkin's disease. DESIGN: Prospective, pilot phase II clinical trial. SETTING: Consecutive patient recruitment occurred at two medical centers in the United States: Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York, where patients were recruited prior to December 31, 1996 (pre-HAART era); and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, where patients were recruited after January 1, 1997 (HAART era). INTERVENTION: Oral chemotherapy consisted of lomustine (100 mg/m2 day I for cycle one and odd cycles thereafter); etoposide (200 mg/m2 days 1 through 3); and cyclophosphamide and procarbazine (each 100 mg/m2 days 22 through 31). Cycles were repeated every six weeks. Colony-stimulating factor support (G-CSF in all instances) was allowed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical demographic variables, peripheral blood counts, serum chemistries, CD4 lymphocyte count, histopathological subtype of Hodgkin's disease were identified for all patients, who were staged according to Ann Arbor criteria. DATA ANALYSIS: Common Toxicity Criteria were utilized to assess safety; response was assessed using ECOG criteria; and survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier methods and difference of survival between pre-HAART and HARART era was compared using log-rank test. RESULTS: Eleven patients (six in pre-HAART era), all but one male, with a median age of 36 years, excellent performance status and advanced International Prognostic Score were treated. Myelosuppression was the major side effect and there were minimal other grade 3 or greater toxicity all of which were promptly reversible. An overall objective response rate of 82% (with 18% complete responses) and median survival duration of 24 months (range 2.5 +/- 68) were observed. Survival was markedly improved in patients treated in the HAART era (median not reached versus 7.25 months

Otieno M. "The influence of family on talent identification for players in rugby clubs in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(9).
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Otieno MW, Banura C, Katongole-Mbidde E, Johnson JL, Ghannoum M, Dowlati A, Renne R, Arts E, Whalen C, Lederman MM, Remick SC. Therapeutic challenges of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the United States and East Africa.J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 May .". In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2002: 94, 718-32. MBA; 2002. Abstract

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) remains the second most common malignant complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As we enter the third decade of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, it is apparent that the evolution of antiretroviral therapy and the emergence of combination antiviral strategies have greatly affected the natural history of HIV infection and its neoplastic complications. For example, there may be a trend for declining incidence of AIDS-related lymphoma in the United States for the first time. However, in regions of the world where the burden of HIV infection is greatest, such as in East Africa, AIDS-related lymphoma is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment of lymphoma has evolved coincident with improvements in antiretroviral therapy. Infusional chemotherapy regimens may offer advantages over other regimens and schedules, but comparative trials have not been done. Clinical trial data are available on which to develop therapeutic strategies to treat this disease in East Africa where pragmatic approaches are needed. Both the differences in manifestations of HIV infection and the inherent difficulties in administering cytotoxic chemotherapy in this part of the world must be taken into consideration in planning therapeutic strategies. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV infection and lymphoma will likely yield improved therapeutic interventions as well.

OTIENO MROBUDHOELIAS. "Statistical Assessment of Health and Sustainability Indicators of an Agro-ecosystem.". In: Presented at the eighth Biannual SUSAN BIOMETRICS CONFERENCE, University of Natal at Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Karugia JT, Drucker A;, Rege E. "Risk Management in Smallholder Cattle Farming: A Hypothetical Insurance Approach in Western Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

Smallholder cattle farming is an important livelihood strategy in most developing countries like Kenya. However, tropical diseases in Africa often wipe out these valuable assets. This paper focuses on mitigation of cattle disease risks through a hypothetical insurance scheme. The study is based on data from a survey conducted on a purposive sample of 300 smallholder cattle farmers in Kakamega and Siaya districts of Western Kenya. Descriptive measures and a regression model were used in the analysis. Results of the study showed that most farmers (91.3%) were willing to participate in the cattle insurance scheme. Also, the farmers observed that the scheme would enable them to increase their herd sizes and change their breed composition. The farmer’s mean Willingness To Pay (WTP) for the scheme would be determined by their gender, income, cultural norms, cattle breed and economic value/price of the animal kept. This paper recommends establishment of a formal cattle insurance scheme; and economic empowerment of both male and female farmers to encourage adoption of the scheme, as well as educating the farmers on how to integrate the scheme within their cultural norms to ensure it’s sustainability.

Otieno SP. "Fifty Years of Impotent Theatre in Schools and Colleges Drama Festival: A (con)textual examination of a Troubled Conscience in Theatre." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;vol. 1(Issue 4):85-95.
Otieno SPV. Mimi ni Mkenya. Githinji K, Ng'ang'a E, eds. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "On the Solution of Fokker .". In: Nuovo Cimento 35B, 1,. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Mourad F.H., O.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):277-9. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1992. Abstract

Sixty patients with Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) of 100-110mmHg matched for age, sex and Bp levels were randomly assigned to propranolol 80mg daily or Hydroflumethiazide (HFM) 50mg daily. HFM causes a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP within 4 weeks compared both with baseline and propranolol (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.3 vs 158.1 +/- 10.9mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 102.4 +/- 5.1mmHg, P < 0.05), (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.2 vs 152 +/- 11.0mmHg P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg, P < 0.05), respectively. Propranolol produced no significant difference from the baseline at 4 weeks (SBP 152.0 +/- H.0 vs 154.1 +/- 11.5mmHg NS; DBP 101.1 +/- 6.1 vs 102.2 +/- 5.6mmHg, NS). Reduction in BP by HFM was maintained after 8 and 12 weeks with further reduction but which did not achieve statistical significance. Increased dose of propranolol (160mg daily) after 4 weeks caused significant reduction in BP by 8 week (SBP 146.8 +/- 11.8 vs 152.0 +/- 11.0mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 95.9 +/- 4.4 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg P < 0.05), which was maintained upto 12 weeks. The values however remained higher than in the HFM group. More patients in the HFM group achieved target BP (< 140/90), SBP 53.8% vs 29.6% P < 0.05, DBP 69.2% vs 14.8% P < 0.01. Incidence of side effects was similar and will be discussed. Thiazides are superior to B'blockers as initial monotherapy in black hypertensives.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Orem J, Otieno MW, Banura C, Katongole-Mbidde E, Johnson JL, Ayers L, Ghannoum M, Fu P, Feigal EG, Black J, Whalen C, Lederman M, Remick SC.Capacity building for the clinical investigation of AIDS malignancy in East Africa.". In: Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program, Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. MBA; 2005. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno SPV, Muchiri P. Tujichunge. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2006.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O W, Magoha G A O, Afulo O K. Autologous transfusion in surgical patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. EAMJ, 2001; 78:11;563-568.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Nov;78(11):564-7. MBA; 2001. Abstract
Department of Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To identify autotransfusion strategies and their basis in elective surgery patients. DESIGN: A cross sectional prospective study. SETTING: General surgery and orthopaedic wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Adult patients of both sexes planned for elective surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Forevery patient, the following were enquired about and documented: age in years, sex, ethnicity, religion, occupation and educational standard. Blood values of haemoglobin, platelet counts, total and differential white cell counts, urea, electrolytes and liver function tests were assayed. Others were the number of units of blood donated before the operation, the type of surgery performed, time taken from diagnosis to performing the operation and whether the blood was transfused preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of sixty three cases constituting five per cent of all surgical patients admitted during the period of study were evaluated. Of these 53 (84%) were males and ten (16%) females. The age range was 15 to 65 years with a peak at 45-49 years. There were more Christians (90%) than Muslims (10%). In all, 32 (51.6%) had primary school education, 23 (36.5%) secondary school education, seven (11.3%) no formal education and one (1.6%) had attained college level. Employment pattern showed 50% were civil servants, 30% were self employed and 20% were unemployed. The duration of disease ranged from 1-24 weeks with two peaks at two weeks and six weeks. Orthopaedic cases constituted 78.7% and general surgery 21.3%. Preoperative haemoglobin ranged from 13.5-14.2 g/dl. Transfusions were given intraoperatively to 41 (66.1%) and to 12 (33.9%) postoperatively. Mean duration of hospitalisation was 13 days (range 5 to 21 days). 98.4% deposited only one unit while 1.6% deposited four units of blood. Only one patient required additional transfusion from homologous donors. CONCLUSION: The strategies and basis for autotransfusion have been demonstrated among a majority of adult patients requiring orthopaedic procedures. Major determinants are shown to be baseline blood count profiles and time to operation.
Otieno AAT. "Birth Spacing in Kenya: Application of Accelerated Failure Time Regression Models with Surviving Fraction." African Population Studies. 2001;16(2):21-39. AbstractWebsite

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Otieno C.F, Kiyima J.K MAMPKAA. "Prognostic factors in patients hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. ." East African Medical Journal . 2010;87(2):67-73.
Otieno CF, Huho AN OEOAAANE. ".Type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical and aetiologic types, therapy and quality of glycaemic control of ambulatory patients.East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):24-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):24-9. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2008. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease with multiple causes revolving around beta cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and enhanced hepatic glucose output. Clinical judgement based on obesity status, age of onset and the clinical perception of residual beta cell insulin secretory function (hence insulin-requiring or not), has been used to determine therapeutic choices for each patient. Further laboratory testing of the clinically defined type 2 diabetes unmasks the various aetiologic types within the single clinical group. OBJECTIVE: To determine the aetiological types of the clinically defined type 2 diabetic patients, their chosen therapies at recruitment and the quality of glycaemic control achieved. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Diabetes out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: A total of 124 patients with clinical type 2 diabetes were included, 49.2% were males. The mean duration of diabetes in males was 26.09 (20.95) months and that of females was 28.68 (20.54) months. The aetiological grouping revealed the following proportions: Type 1A-3.2%, Type 1B-12.1%, LADA-5.7%, and "true" type 2 diabetes 79.0%. All the patients with Type 1A were apparently, and rightly so, on "insulin-only" treatment even though they did not achieve optimal glycaemic control with HbA1c % = 9.06. However the study patients who were type 1B and LADA were distributed all over the treatment groups where most of them did not achieve optimal glycaemic control, range of HbA1c of 8.46 -10.6%. The patients with "true" type 2 were also distributed all over the treatment groups where only subjects on 'diet only' treatment had good HbA1c of 6.72% but those in other treatment groups did not achieve optimal glycaemic control of HbA1c, 8.07 - 9.32%. CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease where clinical judgement alone does not adequately tell the various aetiological types apart without additional laboratory testing of C-peptide levels and GAD antibody status. This may partly explain the inappropriate treatment choices for the various aetiological types with consequent sub-optimal glycaemic control of those patients.

and Otieno Nicholas, Culhane John CSMCBDRDGKDDJN. Bacterial Endophytes for Improving sustainability of Bioenergy . Hasselt University, Belgium September 11th to 14th, 2012.; 2012.bacterial_endophytes_for_improving_sustainability_of_bioenergy.pdf
Otieno- Omutoko L, Gunga SO, Inyega H, OGUTU JOSEPH. "Strengthening Research Capacity and Research Management in Health and Social Science Research in Kenya.". In: Research, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA). Nairobi. Nairobi: CUEA; 2013. Abstract

Researchers carry out various types of studies determined by purpose although the general aim of research is to generate knowledge that is relevant to a wider population beyond what is studied formally or informally. For research to be beneficial it should meet the criteria of relevance, rigour and reliability or dependability for informing policy and other important decisions. The significance of research is policy makers and practitioners require evidence. This underscores the need to enable researchers to produce evidence which necessitates provision of capacity, skills and resources. Researchers have an important role in development. They ensure that curricula and learning outcomes are based on up-to-date evidence and they impart skills to enable collection, appraisal and synthesis of evidence that should underlie development of policy and practice. Capacity needs to be strengthened to engage in meaningful research that will lead to advancement of human knowledge which is necessary for development. Research capacity has changed meaning over time from focus on the individual to collective strengthening of research teams and institutions. The purpose of this study is to explore strategies for research capacity building. The objectives of the study will be to: (i) establish the levels of research capacity building (ii) examine phases of knowledge creation and knowledge translation cycle and (iii) assess relational dimensions of capacity building. Mixed mode approach will be employed and data will be collected through field study, documentary analysis and comprehensive literature review. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis will be carried out. Conclusions, recommendations and implications for institutional research capacity building will be made.

Otieno- Omutoko Lillian PD, Omutoko JD, Omutoko IC. "Application of Technology in Realization of Literacy and Reading Skills in Primary Schools in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Education for All (EFA) aims at provision of quality basic education for children, youth and adults to bring benefits to every individual. Realization of EFA goals can be accelerated through provision of literacy for all. There is exponential growth in the use of technology in everyday life. ICT technologies have become common in school settings, workplaces and at home. ICT can be used to improve critical cognitive skills and general literacy. Literacy pursuits should include technology based skills to enable operation in technology based settings. It is necessary to understand and conceptualize how ICT can enhance literacy and how it contributes to development of human capital. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of ICT in increasing access to literacy and improving the quality of literacy education. This paper intends to: (1) Explore how ICT technologies can be used to enhance learning and broaden access to literary education (2) Demonstrate the use of digital technologies in strengthening literacy and reading skills (3) Explain how ICT barriers to achievement of literacy can be reduced to enhance literacy. Document desk review and in depth content analysis will be used to collect information and develop innovative affordable software applications for literacy. Findings from this study will be used to develop a pilot ICT literacy program.

Otieno-Omutoko L. Training and Curriculum Development. Nairobi, Kenya: CODL; 2011.
Otieno-Omutoko L, Rugut I. "The Role of African Universities in Promotion of Gender Equality and Empowering Women pp. 95-107.". In: In The Role of African Universities in the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals. Kenyatta University; 2006.
Otieno-Omutoko L, Mburunga S, Pokhariyal G, Ndiritu N. "Influence of Community Equity Financing On Sustainability of Community Water Projects, In Kieni Constituency, Nyeri County, Kenya." African Journal of Project Planning and Management. Submitted.
Otieno-Omutoko L. "Re-thinking the Management of Higher Education Institutions: Transformational Leadership. Management Digest." Journal of the KIM School of Management Kenya Institute of Management. 2012;1:214-221.
Otieno-Omutoko L, Mwenda M. "Gender Mainstreaming Strategies in Upgrading of Rural Projects in Karatina, Nyeri County, Kenya." African Journal of Project Planning and Management. 2015;1(1):29-50.
Otieno-Omutoko L. Gender Issues in Development. Nairobi, Kenya: CODL; 2011.
Otieno-Omutoko L. Masculinity as a Gender Dimension in the Education of Boys, Discourse of Masculinities in Schools. Germany. : VDM Verlag Dr. Müller GmbH & Co. KGDudweiler Landstr; 2011.
Otieno-Omutoko L, Mwenda MN. "Ethical Concerns Influencing Project Completion in Building Construction Industry in Kenya." African Journal of Project Planning and Management. 2014.
Otieno-Omutoko L, Mwaura P. "Gender Policy as a Management Strategy in Education.". In: Governance and Transformations of Universities in Africa: A. Global Perspective International higher education. Information Age Pub; 2014.
Otieno-Omutoko L, Ndunge K, Macharia P. "Towards Quality Assurance in Higher Education – Management Digest." Journal of Management University of Africa, Management University of Africa. Nairobi. 2012;4:110-118.
Otieno-Omutoko L. "Making Right Decisions: Ethical Issues for Social Science Researchers. Environment, Power and Development in Africa.". In: Research, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA), Nairobi. Nairobi: CUEA; 2013.
Otieno.d.m. Ergogenic Aids in Sports.; 1995.
Otipa MJ;, Kimenju JW;, Mutitu EW;, Karanja NK. "Potential rotation crops and cropping cycles for root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematode control in tomato."; 2003. Abstract

Tomato is attacked by several plant parasitic nematodes but root-knot nematodes are the most devastating and cause considerable losses in Kenya. Studies were undertaken under greenhouse and field conditions to determine the suppressiveness of a wide range of plant species to root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematodes. Potted plants were inoculated with 6000 eggs and /or juveniles while the field experiments were in nematode infested fields. Among the plants tested, Tagetes patula, Gossypium hirsutum, Desmodium uncinatum, Chloris gayana, Zea mays, Alstroemeria sp., Capsicum annuum, Crotalaria juncea, Arachis hypogaea, Sorghum bicolor, Tithonia diversifolia and Pennisetum purpureum were rated as poor hosts with galling and egg mass indices ranging from 0 to 3. High galling and egg mass indices ranging from 7-9 were recorded on Lablab purpureus, Coriandum, sativum, Statice sp., Brassica oleracea var. gloria, Helianthus annuus, Vigna subterranea while Muguna pruriens, Lactuca sativa, Allium ampeloprasum, Sesamum indicum, Allium cepa, Onnis sp., Brassica Oleracea Var. chinensis, Asparagus sp., Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Ornithogolum arabicum. Tuberose sp. and Chrysanthemum indicum, were rated moderately resistant with galling and egg mass indices ranging from 3 to 6. Damage by nematodes was significantly (P=0.05) reduced in tomato planted after sweetcorn or in sweetcorn with Tagetes patula, Crotalaria juncea, Sorghum bicolor and Asparagus sp. in the field. This study shows that despite the fact that Meloidogyne spp. have wide host ranges, there is a wide range of economically important plants from which suitable candidates can be selected for use as rotation or interplants in their management.

Otipa MJ;, Kimenju JW;, Mutitu EW;, Karanja NK. "Potential rotation crops and cropping cycles for root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematode control in tomato."; 2003. Abstract

Tomato is attacked by several plant parasitic nematodes but root-knot nematodes are the most devastating and cause considerable losses in Kenya. Studies were undertaken under greenhouse and field conditions to determine the suppressiveness of a wide range of plant species to root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematodes. Potted plants were inoculated with 6000 eggs and /or juveniles while the field experiments were in nematode infested fields. Among the plants tested, Tagetes patula, Gossypium hirsutum, Desmodium uncinatum, Chloris gayana, Zea mays, Alstroemeria sp., Capsicum annuum, Crotalaria juncea, Arachis hypogaea, Sorghum bicolor, Tithonia diversifolia and Pennisetum purpureum were rated as poor hosts with galling and egg mass indices ranging from 0 to 3. High galling and egg mass indices ranging from 7-9 were recorded on Lablab purpureus, Coriandum, sativum, Statice sp., Brassica oleracea var. gloria, Helianthus annuus, Vigna subterranea while Muguna pruriens, Lactuca sativa, Allium ampeloprasum, Sesamum indicum, Allium cepa, Onnis sp., Brassica Oleracea Var. chinensis, Asparagus sp., Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Ornithogolum arabicum. Tuberose sp. and Chrysanthemum indicum, were rated moderately resistant with galling and egg mass indices ranging from 3 to 6. Damage by nematodes was significantly (P=0.05) reduced in tomato planted after sweetcorn or in sweetcorn with Tagetes patula, Crotalaria juncea, Sorghum bicolor and Asparagus sp. in the field. This study shows that despite the fact that Meloidogyne spp. have wide host ranges, there is a wide range of economically important plants from which suitable candidates can be selected for use as rotation or interplants in their management.

Otipa MJ;, Kimenju JW;, Mutitu EW;, Karanja NK. "Potential rotation crops and cropping cycles for root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematode control in tomato."; 2003. Abstract

Tomato is attacked by several plant parasitic nematodes but root-knot nematodes are the most devastating and cause considerable losses in Kenya. Studies were undertaken under greenhouse and field conditions to determine the suppressiveness of a wide range of plant species to root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematodes. Potted plants were inoculated with 6000 eggs and /or juveniles while the field experiments were in nematode infested fields. Among the plants tested, Tagetes patula, Gossypium hirsutum, Desmodium uncinatum, Chloris gayana, Zea mays, Alstroemeria sp., Capsicum annuum, Crotalaria juncea, Arachis hypogaea, Sorghum bicolor, Tithonia diversifolia and Pennisetum purpureum were rated as poor hosts with galling and egg mass indices ranging from 0 to 3. High galling and egg mass indices ranging from 7-9 were recorded on Lablab purpureus, Coriandum, sativum, Statice sp., Brassica oleracea var. gloria, Helianthus annuus, Vigna subterranea while Muguna pruriens, Lactuca sativa, Allium ampeloprasum, Sesamum indicum, Allium cepa, Onnis sp., Brassica Oleracea Var. chinensis, Asparagus sp., Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Ornithogolum arabicum. Tuberose sp. and Chrysanthemum indicum, were rated moderately resistant with galling and egg mass indices ranging from 3 to 6. Damage by nematodes was significantly (P=0.05) reduced in tomato planted after sweetcorn or in sweetcorn with Tagetes patula, Crotalaria juncea, Sorghum bicolor and Asparagus sp. in the field. This study shows that despite the fact that Meloidogyne spp. have wide host ranges, there is a wide range of economically important plants from which suitable candidates can be selected for use as rotation or interplants in their management.

Otsuka K, Place F, Holden ST, Nyangena W. "Efficiency and Equity Impacts of Land Markets in Kenya.". In: The Emergence of Land Markets in Africa.; 2008.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Knowledge, attitude, and practices on usage, disposal, and effect of plastic bags on sheep and goats." Tropical animal health and production. 2018;50(5):997-1003.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on haematological and biochemical parameters of sheep and goats." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;53:5-16. Abstract
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Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Clinical manifestations of sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Science. 2017;57:35-45.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbuthia PG, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2017;65(3):439-447.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on haematological and biochemical parameters of sheep and goats." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;53:5-16.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Knowledge, attitude and practices of usage and effects of disposal of plastic bags on sheep and goats." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 2018;50(5):997-1003.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM. "Gross and Histo-Pathologic Findings in Goats with Plastic bags in the Rumen.". 2017.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Gross and histopathologic findings in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen.". In: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. Vol. 5.; 2017:.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Knowledge, attitude, and practices on usage, disposal, and effect of plastic bags on sheep and goats." Tropical animal health and production. 2018;50:997-1003. Abstract
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Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Gross and histopathologic findings in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine . 2017;5:152-158.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Clinical manifestations in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Science. 2017;57:35-45.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia, P.G., W O. "): Clinical manifestations in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2016;51.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, P M, W O. "Prevalence of indigestible rumen foreign bodies in sheep and goats at Dagoretti and Kiserian abattoirs, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2015;4:75-80. Abstract
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Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia P G, W O. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:435-443.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E MPGOW. "A retrospective study on the prevalence of plastic materials in the rumen of sheep and goats in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2014;62:197-205. Abstract
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Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E MPGOW. "A retrospective study on the prevalence of plastic materials in the rumen of sheep and goats in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2014;62(3):197-205.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia P G, W O. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:435-443. Abstract
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Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, P M, W O. "Prevalence of indigestible rumen foreign bodies in sheep and goats at Dagoretti and Kiserian abattoirs, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2015;4(2):75-80.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia, P.G., W O. "): Clinical manifestations in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2016;51. Abstract
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Ottieno J, Muhua G. "On Bayesian Estimation in Group-Screening Design without Errors in Decision." International Journa I of Computational and Theoretical Statistics. 2016; Vol 3(1):39-48.
Ottieno JAM, Patel MS. "Two stage woth unequal a-prior probabilities." Communications in Statistics-Theory and Methods. 1984;13(6):761-779 . AbstractFull text link

This paper aims at working out economic groupscreening plans to sort out defective items from a population which consists of tems with unequal a-priori probabilities of being defective. It is shown that in the case of group-screening from a population with unequal a-priori probabilities of factors being defective, the number of obseruations needed on the average is considerably smaller than that required in the case of a population with factors having the same a-priori probability of being defective. Tables at the end give some group-screening plans as illustrations.
Keywords: Group-factors, Group-Screening Plans

Otto JL, Baliga P, Sanchez JL, Johns MC, Gray GC, Grieco J, Lescano AG, Mothershead JL, Wagar EJ, Blazes DL, Achila R, Baker W, Blair P, Brown M, Bulimo W, Byarugaba D, Coldren R, Cooper M, Ducatez M, Espinosa B, Ewings P, Guerrero A, Hawksworth T, Jackson C, Klena JD, Kraus S, Macintosh V, Mansour M, Maupin G, Maza J, Montgomery J, Ndip L, Pavlin J, Quintana M, Richard W, Rosenau D, Saeed T, Sinclair L, Smith I, Smith J, Styles T, Talaat M, Tobias S, Vettori J, Villinski J, Wabwire-Mangen F. "Training initiatives within the AFHSC-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System: support for IHR (2005)." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S5. AbstractWebsite

Training is a key component of building capacity for public health surveillance and response, but has often been difficult to quantify. During fiscal 2009, the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) supported 18 partner organizations in conducting 123 training initiatives in 40 countries for 3,130 U.S. military, civilian and host-country personnel. The training assisted with supporting compliance with International Health Regulations, IHR (2005). Training activities in pandemic preparedness, outbreak investigation and response, emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and pathogen diagnostic techniques were expanded significantly. By engaging local health and other government officials and civilian institutions, the U.S. military's role as a key stakeholder in global public health has been strengthened and has contributed to EID-related surveillance, research and capacity-building initiatives specified elsewhere in this issue. Public health and emerging infections surveillance training accomplished by AFHSC-GEIS and its Department of Defense (DoD) partners during fiscal 2009 will be tabulated and described.

Otuoma J, Kinyamario J, Ekaya W, Kshatriya M, Nyabenge M. Effects of human–livestock–wildlife interactions on habitat in an eastern Kenya rangeland.; 2009.
Otysula, R. M., and Nderitu, J. H., Buruchara RA. "Growing of climbing beans(Maharagwe Tambarizi) in Kenya. .". In: African Highland Initiative-CIAT, KARI, RRC-Kakamega,. Kakamega; 1997.
Otysula RM;, and Nderitu JM, Buruchara RA. " Interaction between bean Stem Maggot and Bean Root Rot and soil fertility.". In: Crop Protection Conference, . Nairobi,; 1998.

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