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Othieno-Abinya NA, Nyong'o AO, Gikonyo DK, Wanyoike MN, Ogutu EO, Kanyi SM. "Concurrent renal cell adenocarcinoma and colonic.". 1999.Website
Othieno-Abinya N, Mwanda OW. "Relapse of Hodgkin's disease after 10 years of complete remission: Case report.". 1998. Abstract

A 17 year old male patient with nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's disease had a relapse of lymphocyte depleted type ten years after entering complete remission with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This is the first documented case in our experience of relapse after very long disease free interval. A review of the literature of late relapses in Hodgkin's disease is also presented. Relapses have been recorded from three years to twenty years, although few very late forms are registered. Long term follow up will be necessary to document the role of the different therapeutic regimen.

Othieno-Abinya NA, Nyabola LO, Kiarie GW, Ndege R, Maina JM. "Chronic myeloid leukaemia at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2002;79(11):593-597. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the clinical and haematological factors associated with treatment and outcome of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) at Kenyatta National Hospital.
DESIGN:

Retrospective survey of patients treated for chronic myeloid leukaemia.
SETTING:

Kenyatta National hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between April 1990 and August 2000.
SUBJECTS:

Patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia.
RESULTS:

One hundred and four patients, 55 males and 49 females, age range 10-72 years with a median age of 35 years. Treatment with busulphan getting less popular in favour of hydroxyurea. Median follow-up 20 months with none of the clinical and haematological parameters impacting significantly on duration of follow-up.
CONCLUSION:

CML occurs at a younger age-group in Kenya, and none of the clinical or haematological parameters appears to impact on follow-up duration.

Othieno-Abinya NA, Kiarie OW, Mlombe Y, Wanzala P. "Neutrophil dynamics and death in postchernotherapy septic neutropenia. .". 2009.
OTHOO, Dulo, Olago, D. O., Ayah. "Effects of Shallow Water Table on the Construction of Pit Latrines and Shallow Wells in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City." Sanitation Value Chain, J-STAGE an electronic journal platform for science and technology. 2020;5(1).
Othoo C, Dulo S, Olago D. "Flood-risk vulnerabilities of sanitation facilities in urban informal settlements: Lessons from Kisumu City, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(4).
Othoo CO, Dulo SO, Olago DO, Ayah R. "Proximity Density Assessment and Characterization of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City: Implications for Public Health Planning." Journal of UOEH. 2020;42(3):237-249. AbstractProximity Density Assessment and Characterization of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City: Implications for Public Health Planningjstage.jst.go

Access to water and sanitation remain a challenge in many developing countries, especially in pro-poor
urban informal settlements where socioeconomic livelihoods are generally low. The aim of this study was to characterise the water and sanitation facilities in the informal settlements of Kisumu City and to evaluate their effect on
community hygiene and health. The study focussed on the five urban informal settlements of Nyalenda A, Nyalenda
B, Manyatta A, Manyatta B and Obunga, and the three Peri-urban informal settlements of Kogony, Usoma and
Otonglo. Using descriptive techniques, the researcher surveyed 114 water sources and all sanitation facilities within
0-15m and 15-30m radii of the water sources. The findings revealed dominance of shallow wells and traditional pit
latrines as the primary water sources and sanitation facilities, respectively. Out of the water sources studied, 87.7%
(100) were shallow wells (mean depth 1.5 m), 9.6% (11) springs and 2.6% (3) boreholes. Most of these shallow
wells (83%) were within the urban informal settlements where uses range from washing and cleaning, cooking, and
even drinking (13.5%), despite the majority being unprotected. The analysis of the density of sanitation facilities
near the water points showed that 32.3% existed within a 15m radius of the nearest water sources, in violation of
the recommended safe distance of 30m. With an increased density of toilets near critical water sources and other
sanitary practices, public health is highly compromised.

Keywords : density, health, informal settlements, water-source, Sanitation technology.

Otiang E, Thumbi SM, Campbell ZA, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Palmer GH. "Impact of routine Newcastle disease vaccination on chicken flock size in smallholder farms in western Kenya." PLoS. 2021;16(3).
Otiang'a-owiti GE, Oduor-Okelo D, Onyango DW, Werner G. "Morphological characterization of the seminiferous cycle in the goat (Capra hircus): a histological and ultrastructural study.". 2000. Abstract

The cycle of spermatogenesis/seminiferous cycle was investigated in the goat testis using both light and electron microscopy techniques. Using the various cell associations and the accompanying changes in spermatid shape and location, the cycle was divided into eight (8) successive stages. The cycle began with the accomplishment of spermiation (stage 1) and ended with apical migration and close attachment of late maturation phase spermatids at the Sertoli cell apex accompanied by adluminal retention of residual bodies with dense staining inclusions (stage 8). The early stages of the cycle (stages 1-4) were therefore characterized by the presence of only one generation of spermatids, the second one appearing only after the division of secondary spermatocytes in stage 4. Consequently, stages 5-8 had two generations of spermatids; Golgi or cap phase as well as maturation phase spermatids. Although stages 5 to 7 appeared as distinct entities, stages 6 and 7 were rather short-lived and considered as continuations of stage 5. Therefore, the 8 stages of the cycle in the goat were further condensed into 6 main divisions. The duration of each stage was estimated by the frequency of occurrence in sections. Among these, stage 1 had the highest frequency (34%) followed by stages 5-7 (27%). Stages 8 and 4 had the shortest frequency (up to 9%) while stages 2 and 3 had 13% and 12% respectively. These results indicate that, like most domestic species, goats have a cycle of 8 stages with 6 main divisions, the longest being stage 1.

Otianga-Owiti'G.E, Onyango DW, Ouma JO, Njogu A, Mungania SK. "A review on methods employed in studying embryogenesis.". 2000. Abstract

In an endeavour to comprehend the mechanisms of vertebrate embryonic development including how the embryo attains its form and structures, biologist have over the years devised a number of methods. In all the techniques employed, the choice of the method is largely determined by the question to be answered amongst other factors. This review looks at the various methods that have been developed, ranging from the use of simple lenses through histological sectioning and direct manipulation to the use of biochemical probes and extracts

Otieno SP, Ng'ang'a E. Mami Baba/Fafa. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "On the Coordinate, Energy and Angular Momentum Preparation of the Density Matrix.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Series B Vol. 7 No. 1 P73. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
OTIENO MROWUOCHESOLOMON. "Political Parties and Civil Society in Governance and Development: A Synthesis,(Co-author).". In: ISBN 9966-803-02-5. Peace Tree Network (PTN); 2002.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 3. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Quantum theory of pressure broadening of rotational spectrum by three-dimensional rigid rotator, Ph.D. thesis.". In: University Microfilms . University of Nairobi Press; 1972. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Lule GN, Okoth F, Ogutu EO, Mwai SJ.HBV markers (HBsAg, HBSAb, HBCAb in 160 medical students at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1989 May;66(5):315-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):10-4. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1989. Abstract
In an exercise to study the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the Engerix B vaccine, 160 medical students were screened for Hepatitis B Markers (HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb) with a view to vaccinating those that were negative. 18% were HBsAg + ve, 33% were HBsAb + ve and 38% were positive for the HBcAb. These figures were extremely high and obviated the need to vaccinate the students as they begin their clinical years.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. The Clinical Characteristics of Burkitt's Lymphoma seen in Kenyan Patients. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S78-89.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S78-89. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno NA. Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two different agro-ecological zones of Kenya. International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE). Nairobi Kenya; 2005.
Otieno ATA. ". Fertility Response to Infant Mortality in Kenya. Evidence from 1993 Demographic and Health Survey.". In: Population and Development in Kenya: Essays in Honour of S H Ominde. Nairobi, Kenya. Pp 43-55: Population Studies and Research Institute; 2000.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Blood transfusion. Sustainable Donor's system is the key to the service. A. J. H. M. (MEDICOM) 2000, 15, 2:31-32.". In: A. J. H. M. (MEDICOM) 2000, 15, 2:31-32. MBA; 2000. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Otieno MW, Fu P, Collea R, Whalen C and Remick SC. Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection in a tertiary referral center in Kenya . Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2005; 99 (1): 81-91.". In: Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2005; 99 (1): 81-91. MBA; 2005. Abstract

D. M. Ndetei, D. M. Kathuku, O. W. Mwanda. Research proposal: Psychological aspects of the paediatric cancer patients in Kenyatta National Hospital . 2005

Otieno NE, Muchane M, Karimi S. "Effect of logging on the Abbott's Starling (Pholia femoralis) population in Kikuyu escarpment forest, Kenya." Ostrich-Journal of African Ornithology. 2007;78:299-304. Abstract
n/a
Otieno, R.O, ODINDO, M., KAAYA GP, BANDA HK. "Virus particle infection in laboratory-reared Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae).". In: In "Sterile Insect Technique for Tsetse Control and Eradication. VIENNA: IAEA, VIENNA, STI/PUB/830; 1990.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W , Rochford Rosemary, Jenetter Rainey, Mark L Wilson. Challenges (in the epidemiological and clinical aspects) of Burkitt's lymphoma in Kenya : linking evidence and experience. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S111-116.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S104-110. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno Z, Okello JJ, Nyikal R, Mwang'ombe AW, Clavel D. "The role of varietal traits in the adoption of improved dryland crop varieties: The case of pigeon pea in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

This study uses a multivariate probit model and the Poisson regression to examine the role of varietal attributes in farmers’ adoption of improved pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) varieties in Taita District, Kenya. It is based on data collected from 200 households stratified by adoption of improved pigeon pea varieties between April and May 2009. The study finds correlation in the decisions made by farmers to adopt different varieties, implying that using simple probit analysis could yield biased and inefficient results. The results further indicate that the major pigeon pea varietal traits driving rapid adoption are drought tolerance, pest tolerance, yield, ease of cooking, taste and price. Early maturity, a major focus of recent research, has no effect on farmers’ adoption decisions. These findings imply that developers of improved crop varieties should pay attention to consumption and market characteristics in addition to production traits to increase technology uptake and satisfy farmers’ multiple needs.

Otieno SP, Akuno EA, Diang’a R. Enhancing Creativity for Youth Empowerment and Community Development Conference Proceedings. Technical University of Kenya; 2019.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Practical Guide to Coagulation Tests.". In: BOOK. MBA; 1990. Abstract

Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.

Otieno SP. Children of the Sky . Kabura J, ed. Talent Empire; 2021.
Otieno SP. Ripples of Guilt. Trafford: Trafford; 2004.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Construction of the Quantum Lagrangian Density in the Nonsymmetric Gravity Theory and Evaluation of Conserved Currents.". In: Journal Mathematical Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
Otieno SO. Mitigation of liability for negligence in design and construction: case study of collapsed buildings in Nairobi. .; 2006. Abstract

This study is about mitigating liability for negligence in the Kenyan design and construction industry. Mitigation of liability as used in this study refers to reducing the damages that arise as a result of negligent practices of participants during construction. The problem which has been studied is that of collapsing buildings as it has been noted that building failures is a common phenomena in Kenya. The study investigates the various causes of failures in the construction industry with a view to recommending possible ways of reducing these occurrences or avoidinq them at all costs. The study has covered the role played by participants in the construction industry, who are; the clients, architects, contractors, quantity surveyors, engineers, the governing authorities, and the ministry of public works. Their role in contributing to a failure-free construction industry has been highlighted. An in-depth study has ~een carried on three cases of collapsed buildings, which have been taken as the case study for this research. Purposive sampling technique has been used to identify the case studies of this research. Reports which have been written by government commissions on collapse of buildings have also been looked at with a view of establishing the recommendations pegged towards reducing building failures in Kenya. Based on the findings of this research, the research concludes that the case studies sampled for this study. had very evident causes of failures linked to clients' poor administration of contracts and partly professional negligence. The study recommends education and training to clients so as to create awareness of the benefits of always including professionals who are registered in their projects. Its also recommends active participation of the government and professional bodies in the supervision of both-public arid p'ivate projects, to avoid coming up of low standard buildings.

OTIENO MROWUOCHESOLOMON. The Church in the Struggle for Democracy in Kenya. MvuleAfrica Publishers, Nairobi; 2010.Website
Otieno CF, Otieno CF, Omonge EO, AMAYO AA, Njagi E. "Type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical and aetiologic types, theraphy and quality of glycaemic control of ambulatory patients.". 2008. Abstract

Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease with multiple causes revolving around beta cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and enhanced hepatic glucose output. Clinical judgement based on obesity status, age of onset and the clinical perception of residual beta cell insulin secretory function (hence insulin-requiring or not), has been used to determine therapeutic choices for each patient. Further laboratory testing of the clinically defined type 2 diabetes unmasks the various aetiologic types within the single clinical group. Objective: To determine the aetiological types of the clinically defined type 2 diabetic patients, their chosen therapies at recruitment and the quality of glycaemic control achieved. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Diabetes out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Results: A total of 124 patients with clinical type 2 diabetes were included, 49.2% were males. The mean duration of diabetes in males was 26.09 (20.95) months and that of females was 28.68 (20.54) months. The aetiological grouping revealed the following proportions: Type 1A-3.2%, Type lB-12.1%, LADA-5.7%, and "true" type 2 diabetes 79.0%. All the patients with Type IA were apparently, and rightly so, on "insulin-only" treatment even though they did not achieve optimal glycaemic control with HbAlc % = 9.06. However the study patients who were type IB and LADA were distributed all over the treatment groups where most of them did not achieve optimal glycaemic control, range of HhAc of 8.46 -10.6%. The patients with "true" type 2 were also distributed all over the treatment groups where only subjects on 'diet only' treatment had good HbAlc of 6.72% but those in other treatment groups did not achieve optimal glycaemic control of HbA1c, 8.07 - 9.32%. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease where clinical judgement alone does not adequately tell the various aetiological types apart without additional laboratory testing of C-peptide levels and GAD antibody status. This may partly explain the inappropriate treatment choices for the various aetiological types with consequent sub-optimal glycaemic control of those patients.

Otieno SB, Were F, EW K, Waza K. "GENDER RELATED EFFECTS OF YEAST SELENIUM ON WEIGHT FOR AGE Z SCORE OF ASYMPTOMATIC HIV TYPE 1 POSITIVE CHILDREN AT NYAMASARIA IN KISUMU KENYA." International Journal of Current Advanced. 2015;4(7):194-199. Abstractgender_related_effects_of_yeast_selenium_on_weight_for_age_z_score_of.pdf

Background: Selenoprotein Iodothyronine 5’Deiodonases activates pro-T3 to 3,3’- 5T3(Tri-iodothyronine) which is involved in growth through a gene mediated protein metabolism. Oestradiol (E2) enhances activity of selenoproteins in adult pre-menopausal women taking selenium supliments, however the effect of selenium supplementation on weight change of different gender of asymptomatic HIV positive pre-puberty children is still unknown.
Methods: In this study of 25 Females and 25 Males randomly chosen asymptomatic HIV positive children 3 – 16 years old, 25 of the children were given, a fixed dose of 50μg yeast selenium while a matched control of 25 were put on placebo. Weight of children were taken at 3 months intervals up to 6 months, using electronic personal scale (model 10010), the resultant data was analyzed by Epi Info version 6,and SPSS version 16.
Results: No significant difference in mean weight of children was observed at baseline between the controls and children on test . Children on selenium had weight increase of 2.5Kg at six months .The weight for age Z score increased above -2SDs cut off point at six months amongst the children on selenium, in all age categories, 3-5 years 1.20 ± 2.45, 6-8years 0.19 ± 0.880, 9-15 years 0.97 ± 1.22, while there was a decrease in all the age categories in matched controls to below -2SDs at six months , 3-5 years -2.218 ± 1.46, 6-8 years -2.95. ± 3.10, 9-15 -2.30 ± 1.240. There was a significant WAZ difference between controls and selenium group at six months {F (5,12) = =5.758, P=0.006}. Prevalence of underweight in control was 48% compared to the test group at 9% at six months. Female children on selenium initially had a decrease and then sharp increase in WAZ (Tick Phenomenon), compared to the males who had a steady increase in WAZ.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that intake of yeast Selenium led to significant improvement in weight for age Z score at six months and further that there is gender related differences in weight change between HIV positive asymptomatic female and male children taking selenium as a supplement

OTIENO MROWINONICHOLAS. Making Africa’s Power Sector Sustainable. United Nation Economic Commision for Africa (UNECA); 2005. AbstractWebsite

A paper prepared for the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA),

Otieno SPV, Ngei J. Tell Us The Truth. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2009.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Order .". In: Pres. International Conference in Theoretical Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 1973. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu EO, McLigeyo SO. Adult polycystic liver disease.East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):352-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):352-8. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991. Abstract
Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Burkitt's Lymphoma in Kenya : views from the 20th Century, Introduction. EAMJ, 2004; 81:S61-62.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81:S61-62. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno S, et al. "The role of agri-business incentive on under-five child immunization in Trans-Nzoia County." East African Journal of Public Health. 2015;12(12):1054-1059.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two agro-ecological zones of Kenya." International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management. 2008;4:1-12.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda W. O. Prevention and early detection of paediatric cancers. The African journal of Hospital Medicine (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102.". In: (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda WO, Christopher W, Scot CR, Lederman M, Orem J, Banura C. Anatomical sites predilections of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection: A Report on 54 cases. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S90-96.". In: A Report on 54 cases. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S90-96. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno M, Muriithi MK. "Resource allocation to health sector at the county level and implications for equity: A case study of Baringo County." Prime Journal of Social Science (PJSS) . 2016;5(7).
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Lupus Anticoagulant Syndrome. Case report. East African Medical Journal 1998;75:10;619-620.". In: East African Medical Journal 1998;75:10;619-620. MBA; 1998. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno SP. File A222. Kimondo W, ed. Talent Empire; 2020.
Otieno CA, Wairimu S, Madadi VO, Kimani E, Jama HH, Ayah R. "TO DETERMINE THE USE OF LOCAL RAW MATERIALS IN MANUFACTURE OF MEDICAL DEVICES: CASE STUDY OF ZEOLITE FOR OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR .". In: 1st Annual Conference on Science for Development: Supporting Manufacturing, Affordable Housing, Universal Healthcare and Food Security . Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Nyamgondho. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2013.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "On the Solution of Fokker .". In: Nuovo Cimento 35B, 1,. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Mourad F.H., O.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):277-9. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1992. Abstract

Sixty patients with Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) of 100-110mmHg matched for age, sex and Bp levels were randomly assigned to propranolol 80mg daily or Hydroflumethiazide (HFM) 50mg daily. HFM causes a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP within 4 weeks compared both with baseline and propranolol (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.3 vs 158.1 +/- 10.9mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 102.4 +/- 5.1mmHg, P < 0.05), (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.2 vs 152 +/- 11.0mmHg P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg, P < 0.05), respectively. Propranolol produced no significant difference from the baseline at 4 weeks (SBP 152.0 +/- H.0 vs 154.1 +/- 11.5mmHg NS; DBP 101.1 +/- 6.1 vs 102.2 +/- 5.6mmHg, NS). Reduction in BP by HFM was maintained after 8 and 12 weeks with further reduction but which did not achieve statistical significance. Increased dose of propranolol (160mg daily) after 4 weeks caused significant reduction in BP by 8 week (SBP 146.8 +/- 11.8 vs 152.0 +/- 11.0mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 95.9 +/- 4.4 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg P < 0.05), which was maintained upto 12 weeks. The values however remained higher than in the HFM group. More patients in the HFM group achieved target BP (< 140/90), SBP 53.8% vs 29.6% P < 0.05, DBP 69.2% vs 14.8% P < 0.01. Incidence of side effects was similar and will be discussed. Thiazides are superior to B'blockers as initial monotherapy in black hypertensives.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Orem J, Otieno MW, Banura C, Katongole-Mbidde E, Johnson JL, Ayers L, Ghannoum M, Fu P, Feigal EG, Black J, Whalen C, Lederman M, Remick SC.Capacity building for the clinical investigation of AIDS malignancy in East Africa.". In: Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program, Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. MBA; 2005. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O W, Magoha G A O, Afulo O K. Autologous transfusion in surgical patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. EAMJ, 2001; 78:11;563-568.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Nov;78(11):564-7. MBA; 2001. Abstract
Department of Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To identify autotransfusion strategies and their basis in elective surgery patients. DESIGN: A cross sectional prospective study. SETTING: General surgery and orthopaedic wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Adult patients of both sexes planned for elective surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Forevery patient, the following were enquired about and documented: age in years, sex, ethnicity, religion, occupation and educational standard. Blood values of haemoglobin, platelet counts, total and differential white cell counts, urea, electrolytes and liver function tests were assayed. Others were the number of units of blood donated before the operation, the type of surgery performed, time taken from diagnosis to performing the operation and whether the blood was transfused preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of sixty three cases constituting five per cent of all surgical patients admitted during the period of study were evaluated. Of these 53 (84%) were males and ten (16%) females. The age range was 15 to 65 years with a peak at 45-49 years. There were more Christians (90%) than Muslims (10%). In all, 32 (51.6%) had primary school education, 23 (36.5%) secondary school education, seven (11.3%) no formal education and one (1.6%) had attained college level. Employment pattern showed 50% were civil servants, 30% were self employed and 20% were unemployed. The duration of disease ranged from 1-24 weeks with two peaks at two weeks and six weeks. Orthopaedic cases constituted 78.7% and general surgery 21.3%. Preoperative haemoglobin ranged from 13.5-14.2 g/dl. Transfusions were given intraoperatively to 41 (66.1%) and to 12 (33.9%) postoperatively. Mean duration of hospitalisation was 13 days (range 5 to 21 days). 98.4% deposited only one unit while 1.6% deposited four units of blood. Only one patient required additional transfusion from homologous donors. CONCLUSION: The strategies and basis for autotransfusion have been demonstrated among a majority of adult patients requiring orthopaedic procedures. Major determinants are shown to be baseline blood count profiles and time to operation.
Otieno AAT. "Birth Spacing in Kenya: Application of Accelerated Failure Time Regression Models with Surviving Fraction." African Population Studies. 2001;16(2):21-39. AbstractWebsite

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Kasili's Synopsis of the Management of Paediatric Cancers in Kenya.". In: BOOK. MBA; 1990. Abstract
Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.
Otieno NA, Culhane J, Germaine K, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling DN. "Screening of large collections of plant associated bacteria for effective plant growth promotion and colonisation.". In: Positive Plant Microbial Interactions: Their role in maintaining sustainable and natural ecosystems. Forest Pines Hotel, nr Brigg, orth Lincolnshire, UK; 2013. Abstract

The use of potent and effective live microbial biofertilisers in agricultural has significant
potential to reduce the costs of crop production and in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions
and water pollution associated with excessive fertiliser use. Many plant associated
bacteria possess plant growth promotion traits. However, when used as plant inoculants
these bacteria often do not result in statistically significant plant growth promotion. This
paper describes the screening process used to identify a number of endophytic strains
with multiple plant growth promotion traits and effective plant colonisation ability in
Brassica napus crops.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Burkitt's Lymphoma; The Initial defining Characteristics. EAMJ, 2004;81:S63-67.". In: EAMJ, 2004;81:S63-67. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO MROBUDHOELIAS. "Statistical Assessment of Health and Sustainability Indicators of an Agro-ecosystem.". In: Presented at the eighth Biannual SUSAN BIOMETRICS CONFERENCE, University of Natal at Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Blood transfusion. Sustainable Donor's system is the key to the service. A. J. H. M. (MEDICOM) 2000, 15, 2:31-32.". In: A. J. H. M. (MEDICOM) 2000, 15, 2:31-32. MBA; 2000. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno D. Bacterial colonization profile in endo-tracheally intubated patients in the intensive-care unit,Kenyatta National Hospital, and the rationale for antibiotic therapy.; 1994. Abstract

A prospective study on the bacterial colonization profile
of the respiratory tract was carried out on fifty-six (56)
patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital, Intensive-
Care unit, and intubated for at least two days. between
January 1992 and March 1993.
During this period, a total number of four hundred and
fifty-eight (458) patients were admitted to the Intensive-
Care Unit. Out of these 25.7% (118) fell within the study
criteria, but only 47.4% of the eligible patients were
actually studied. •
Twenty-nine (29) were male and twenty-seven (27) were
female. The male to female ratio was 1.07:1. The patients'
ages ranged from eight (8) months to eighty (80) years, with
a peak in the 11-20year and another in the 31-40 year age
groups.
There were eight (8) different species of organisms
isolated during the study, most of which were gram-negative
bacilli. The most frequently isolated organism was proteus
29.1% (30) and the least common was enterococcus 3.9% (4).
Out of the fifty-six (56) patients, the colonization
rate was 30.4% (17). trache9-bronch~t~s 33.9% (19), and
pneumonia 35.7% (20). The severity of infection was found to
depend on the severitj .of illness. Of the eleven (11)
patients without organ fail~re, none developed pneumonia,
while 27% (3) had colonization and 73% (8) had tracheo-
bronchitis. There was a total of thirteen (11) uatients with
organ failure invoJving two or more systems; 69.2~ of t~ese
(9) had pneumonia, 30.7~ (4) had tracheo-bronchitis ann none
had colonization.
The duration of intubation varied from ~ to 9~ days in
this study. There was no clear relationship he tween the
duration of intubation and the severity of respiratory
infection. Duration of intubation of less than thirty davs
was associated wit~ 25~ (4) cases of colonization. 100% (19)
of tracheo-bronchitis and 90~ (lA) of uneumonia. Intuhation
for thirty days or more was associated with 75~ (13) cases
of colonization. 10% (2) of pneumonia and no case of
tracheo-bronchitis.
Ceftazidime (Fortum) was found to he the most effective
of the antihiotics tested against the isolated organisms;
100% effective in five (5) out of the eight (8) species
isolated.
Patients with either colonization or tracheo-bronchitis
were found to have a favourable outcome without antibiotics.
Of the 36 patients with either colonization or tracheobronchitis,
83% (30) made good recovery on conservative
management: regular 'chest phvsiotherapy and tracheo-bronchial
suctioning. One developed septicaemia and died despite
antibiotics. The other five died from multiple complications.
Twenty (20) patients diagnosed to have pneumonia were
put on specific antibiotic therapy. Only 16.6% (6) recovered.

Otieno SO. An investigation into the practice corporate social responsibility in the construction industry in Kenya: a case of contractors, Nairobi .; 2012. Abstract

The construction industry in Kenya is very important since it contributes greatly to the growth of the economy. Despite its very significant contribution to the economy, one finds that its operations diversely affect the society and environment in which most of its works are carried out in. Due to this reason, construction companies are required to go beyond the basic requirements of meeting projects' basic objectives by considering socio- economic, as well as sustainable environment issues. One of the ways in which this can be achieved is through the practice of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in a firm's operations. It is on this premise that the study was carried out with the main aim of investigating the practice of CSR by Kenyan construction companies. The study sought to establish the prevalence of CSR practice in the Kenyan construction industry, together with the various impacts encountered as a result of embracing the practice by various contractors. Other objectives of the study included formulation of a practical CSR model which could be adopted by contractors in Kenya for future use and also to recommend a way forward. A survey approach was adopted for the study and data was collected from the chosen sample group of 'Class A' construction firms. Data was analysed using statistical software's and procedures, and inferences made from the data outputs. Responses from the survey request were used to inform the study findings, conclusions and recommendations. The results of the survey indicate that most of the construction firms are aware of the concept of CSR and that those who had embraced the practice had encountered various positive impacts highlighted the study. This was despite some of the challenges they had faced in implementation of the concept. The study highlighted pertinent concepts on how construction firms can improve their outputs and work relationships by embracing the practice of CSR. The study recommends that CSR practice .should be adopted by all practicing contracting firms in Kenya for purposes of enjoying the inherent benefits that comes with its practice. This can be done through the formulation of relevant and practical legal and institutional frameworks that will ensure mandatory practice, as it has been done in other developed countries. The study further recommends a simple CSR model which can be adopted by the various construction firms for purposes of improving their businesses.

OTIENO MROLWALTHOMAS. "- Olwal et al. (2006b) investigates a Cramer-Rao bound on the unbiased timing phase estimation proposed in Olwal et al. (2006a). the Cramer-Rao bound on variance performance yields improved bit error rate performance in GSM receivers. The non data aided a.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference November 2004, Nairobi. Journal of Applied Biosciences; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
Otieno CF, Mwendwa FW, Vaghela V, OGOLA EN, Amayo EO. "Elijah N. Ogola Elijah N. Ogola Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal Vol.. 2005;82(12):S173-S179. AbstractWebsite

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts.

Objective: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study.

Setting: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications.

Results: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45(9.4) years and that of males was 55.83(9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85(6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98(5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol >4.2mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C >2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides >1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment.

Conclusion: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total - and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.

Otieno SPV. Mutuku. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2013.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Statistical Thermodynamics of a Two Spin System.". In: Pres. International Symposium on Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Theory,. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu E.O., Kanja C., Kimanzi, Kangethe S.K., Nyongo A. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Kenyans with dyspepsia. EAMJ 75: 16, 1998.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Jan;75(1):16-8. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998. Abstract
Department of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Dyspepsia and intestinal worm infestation are both common clinical conditions in a developing country like Kenya and thus this study was designed to look at the correlation between the two in a referral gastroenterology clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. One hundred and twenty five patients with dyspepsia had their stool, duodenal aspirate and duodenal biopsy analysed for evidence of intestinal parasites. Seven (5.6%) were found to have various types of intestinal parasites with giardia lamblia comprising 42.8% of worms isolated. 71.4% of patients with dyspepsia and worm infestation had their symptoms improved after deworming, but the low prevalence of intestinal parasite in dyspeptic patients makes routine deworming not cost effective. Stool examination had the best yield for intestinal parasites.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "W.O. Mwanda, J. Orem, S. C. Remick, R. Rochford, C. Whalen, M. L. Wilson. Clinical characteristics of Burkitt's lymphoma from three regions in Kenya . EAMJ, 2005; 82 (9): S135-S143.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9 Suppl):S135-43. MBA; 2005. Abstract

Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Kenyatta National Hospital and the University of Nairobi College of Health Sciences, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) from three regions in Kenya at different altitudes with a view towards understanding the contribution of local environmental factors. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital and seven provincial hospitals in Kenya. METHOD: Histologically proven cases of Burkitt's lymphoma in patients less than 16 years of age were clinically examined and investigated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For every case the following parameters were documented: chief complaint(s); physical examination, specifically pallor, jaundice, oedema, lymphadenopathy, presence of masses, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Reports of evaluation of chest radiograph, abdominal ultrasound/scan, bone marrow aspiration, cerebral spinal fluid cytology, liver and kidney function tests, urinalysis, stool occult blood and full blood count results. Stage of disease was assigned A, B, C or D. Cases of BL from three provinces of Kenya with diverse geographical features were analysed: Central, Coast, and Western. RESULTS: This study documented 471 BL cases distributed as follows: Central 61 (males 39 and 22 females), M:F ratio 1.8:1; Coast 169 (111 males and 58 females), M:F ratio 1.9:1; and Western 241 (140 males and 101 females), M:F ratio 1.4:1. The major presenting complaints were: abdominal swelling–Central 36%, Coast 4% and Western 26%; swelling on the face–Central 31%, Coast 81% and Western 64%; and proptosis–Central 3%, Coast 1% and Western 9%. The mean duration of these complaints in weeks were Central 6.9, Coast 6.08, and Western 5.05. The initial physical finding was a tumour mass in 39%, 72% and 54% of cases for Central, Coast and Western respectively. Tumour stage at diagnosis was: stage A–Central 21%, Coast 43% and Western 34%; stage B–Central 10%, Coast 5% and Western 10%; stage C–Central 41%, Coast 34% and Western 30%; and stage D–Central 28%, Coast 17% and Western 26%. For the age and sex matched cases the results show that commonly involved sites were: abdomen–Central 35%, Coast 9% and Western 14%; jaw (mandible)–Central 24%, Coast 22% and Western 31%; maxilla–Central 6%, Coast 24% and Western 11%; and lymph nodes–Central 10%, Coast 4% and Western 8%. The disease stage was A–Central 33%, Coast 44% and Western 36%; stage B–Central 11%, Coast 10% and Western 27%; stage C–Central 39%, Coast 34% and Western 27%; and stage D–Central 21%, Coast 13% and Western 37%. CONCLUSION: This study shows that clinical features of childhood BL vary with geographical region. The variations are documented in proportion of jaw, maxilla, abdominal and lymph nodal sites involvement. The differences observed are potentially due to the local environmental factors within these provinces. BL cases from Western province had features, intermediate between endemic and sporadic. Coastal province BL cases were similar to endemic BL, while BL cases from Central province resembled more or less sporadic BL subtypes. Strategies to explain and investigate the local environmental factors associated with the observed differences may certainly contribute towards improved understanding and clinical management of BL.

OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu E.O. Aetiology of Pancreatic Pseudocyst at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 13:24, 1987.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Dec;66(12):830-3. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1989. Abstract

The mean fasting insulin level in 30 apparently normal Kenyan Africans was determined by Radio-Immuno Assay (RIA) technique based on coat A-count. The mean value was found as 16.33 microIu/ml with a standard deviation (s.d) of 10.51 microIu/ml. The mean at 95% confidence interval (CI) for the population studied was 16.33 +/- 1.92. The findings are similar to what have been reported among the caucasians. This paper also reports on a case of insulinoma in a young female patient at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Lupus anticoagulants: pathophysiology, clinical and laboratory Associations: A review EAMJ 2003; 80:564-568.". In: A review EAMJ 2003; 80:564-568. MBA; 2003. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The quality of life of cancer patients is likely to be influenced by psychological reactions of the cancer patients yet there are no documented issues related to quality of life in cancer patients in Kenyan hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate issues which affect the quality of life in male cancer patients. DESIGN: Prospective cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Cancer patients above 12 years of age were interviewed during the course of their stay in the hospital, specifically to gather information on; semi structured questions and a modified Beck's 24 item depression inventory with a view to solicit for their reaction on issues which pertains to quality of life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age group, level of education, tribe, geographical place (province) of birth, chief complains, main concerns, views on doctors, contact with psychiatrist and psychologist, the anatomic site of cancer, treatment given and responses on modified Beck's depression inventory. RESULTS: Forty two patients were studied, their age range 13-72 years, mean 43.2 and peak 13-26 years. Forty seven per cent of cases had no formal education. The cancers were gastrointestinal tract 33%, blood and lymphoid tissue (26%), bone and muscle (11.9%), skin (9.4%) and genitourinary tract (4.8%). Treatment given was chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Ninety three per cent were unable to cope. Chief complaints were pain, inability to work, feeling miserable and concerns were families, health and work retardation. Modified Beck's depression score was 20%, with major issues being; work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, and anorexia. Most affected were, age group 27-35 years (and least 13-26 years), uneducated, living in Nairobi (city), having carcinomas, treatment with combined surgery and radiotherapy. Low education level and residence in Nairobi coped poorly. Radiation therapy group appeared to cope better than other modalities. CONCLUSION: The issues affecting the quality of life of male cancer patients stated were pain, inability to work, poor coping with cancer and psychological reactions of work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, fatigability and depression. Gambling, suicidal ideas and social withdrawal were minimal. Other concerns were families, health and work.

Otieno CA. "Analysis of the human Alu Ya-lineage .". In: 6th Annual Biological Sciences Symposium. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana; 2004.
Otieno PK, Ochanda JO, Okoth S. "Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis from coastal intertidal brackish sediments and from farmlands in Machakos District Kenya. ." Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2012;1(7):16-20.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W., Wanjohi E.W., Cheserem E N., Kassabach Merrit Syndrome in an adult female African, Case report, East African Medical Journal 67, 214, 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal 67, 214, 1990. MBA; 1990. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno DJ;, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Marenya PP. "Shaping the Future of African Agriculture for Development: The Role of Social Scientists."; 2004. Abstract

Food security remains a key challenge to the development efforts of most poor nations. This study investigated the significance of gender (denoted by number of male, female and children in a household) and social amenities in the food security equation. Frequency of food-related illnesses in a household was used as proxy for food security situation, while the entitlement/food utilization side of the equation was represented by the number of male and female children in the household, main source of domestic water, distance to nearest health center, means of transport accessible, household sanitation and level of awareness on basic food preparation and handling methods. Both descriptive and econometric models were used for analysis of primary data from a random sample of 100 farm-households in Yala division, Siaya district of Kenya. This study was conducted in February 2004. Results of this study indicated that majority (74%) of the rural households were experiencing poor food utilization, and were thus generally food insecure. The study also revealed that gender and social amenities were significant in the food security equation. Specifically, there was high correlation between food-related illnesses and use of untapped water, more male children than females in a household, long distance to health centers, lack of quick means of transport, unsafe food disposal and poor food storage habits. In order to improve the food utilization and thereby security for the rural farm-households, the study recommends improvement in the provision of social amenities for both male and female household members equitably

Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo GO, Moyal P, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two agro-ecological zones of Kenya." The International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management. 2008;4(2):92-103. Abstract

A survey was carried out between 2005 and 2006 in two ecologically different localities, Suam and Mtito Andei, to assess diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers during the cropping and non-cropping seasons. Suam in western Kenya is situated in the moist high tropics and is characterised by an Afromontane vegetation mosaic, while Mtito Andei is located in the dry mid-altitudes characterised by a Somalia Masai vegetation mosaic. In Suam, wild host plants and maize covered 11 and 50%, respectively, of the surveyed area. In Mtito Andei, 27% of the surveyed area was under maize during the cropping season, while wild host plant species covered 13% and 8% during the cropping and non-cropping seasons, respectively. There was no significant variation in the relative abundance and diversity of the wild grasses between the two seasons in either location. The abundance of host plants of B. fusca and C. partellus is low in natural habitats surrounding cereal crops. The abundance of C. partellus was low in its wild host plants and B. fusca was absent. Therefore, the role of wild vegetation surrounding cultivated areas in the carry-over of these pests during the non-cropping season is limited

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W., Otieno C. F., Abdalla F. K., Transfusion Haemosiderosis Inspite Of Regular Use Of Desferrioxamine - Case Report. EAMJ 2004; 81:326-328.". In: Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program, Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno PS, Ogutu CA, Mburu J, Nyikal RA. "Effect of Global-GAP policy on smallholder French beans farmers’ climate change adaptation strategies in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2017;12(8):577-587.
OTIENO MROBUDHOELIAS. "Statistical Applications in Eco-Geographic Studies .". In: Presented at the CURRENT TRENDS AND RECENT ADVANCES IN APPLIED BIOMETRY CONFERENCE, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya, August 30 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Otieno CF, Otedo AEO, Othero D, Otiende MY, Okoth P, Omonge EO, Oyoo GO. "CD4+ Cell Response to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ARTS) in Routine Clinical Care over One Year Period in a Cohort of HAART Naïve, HIV Positive Kenyan Patients." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):15-24.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda W. O. Prevention and early detection of paediatric cancers. The African journal of Hospital Medicine (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102.". In: (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno MM, Keinan HM. "Effects of Human-Wildlife Conflict on Food Security: A case of Kwale County, Kenya." international journal of research in computer application & management. 2013.
Otieno SP, Ndede, L.A., Musonye M. "From the Snow of Kilimanjaro to Nairobi Half Life: Over 94 Years of Film in Kenya." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;Vol. 1(Issue 5):51-63.
Otieno SP, Ng'ang'a E. The First Drop. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
OTIENO DRJOWI. "Management of Instructional Resource in Teacher Colleges.". In: A paper presented in Ministry of Education Workshop for Principals of Teacher Colleges on Teacher Education Management. The Kenya Medical Association; Submitted. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
Otieno W, Muiru WM, Mutua GK, Kimenju JW, Langat JK. "Response of free-living nematodes to treatments targeting plant parasitic nematodes in carnation.". 2008. Abstract

This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of ecologically sound approaches for nematode management on non-target organisms, free-living nematodes. The materials tested were sugarcane bagasse, molasses, tea and flower composts, neem (Achook), a biological agent (Paecilomyces lilacinus) and fenamiphos (Nemacur). The treatments were administered before planting carnation var. White Natila in flower beds that were naturally infested with nematodes. Application of bagasse, molasses, tea and flower composts resulted in increased abundance of free-living nematodes compared to the control where nothing was applied. Bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and predators comprised 73, 14 and 13%, respectively of the free-living nematodes recovered. Members of the genus Rhabditis were the most abundant (10%) among the bacteriovores while Mononchus (10%) and Aphelenchoides (14%) dominated among the predators and fungivorous trophic groups, respectively. The highest numbers of free-living nematodes were recorded at 90 Days after Planting (DAP) in plots treated with bagasse and molasses but the numbers declined at 180 DAP. A steady increase in numbers of free-living nematodes was observed in plots treated with tea and flower composts up to 180 DAP. Significant reductions in abundance of free-living nematodes were recorded in plots treated with fenamiphos and neem. This study has established that application of organic substrates serve as a stimulus to processes leading to build-up of free-living nematodes. The organic substrates can strongly be recommended for use in sustainable carnation production systems.

Otieno SPV. Mimi ni Mkenya. Githinji K, Ng'ang'a E, eds. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Application of Many Body Scattering Theory to Molecular Structure Calculations. 1.". In: Proc. International Symposium on Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Theory,. University of Nairobi Press; 1978. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Atina. J.O..Ogutu E. O The prevalence of Hepatitis A,B & C and HIV seroprevalence among patients with acute icteric hepatitis at the Kenyatta National Hospital East African medical journal april 2004 issue.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Apr;81(4):183-7. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2004. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis A, B, C and HIV seropositivity among patients with acute icteric hepatitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty four patients aged above six months with a history of jaundice not exceeding six months were recruited. There were 47 males and 17 females with an age range of eight months to 67 years and a median age of 25 years. METHODS: History was obtained physical examination done and blood taken for determination of bilirubin, ALT, AST and ALP levels. Sera that had disproportionately greater transaminase than ALP elevation were assayed for IgM anti-HAV, IgM anti-HBc, HbsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV antibodies. RESULTS: Evidence of hepatitis A, B, and C was round in 41.7%, 26.2%, and 7.1% of the patients respectively, 13.1% of the patients were HBsAg carriers while 30.1% of all patients were HIV positive. Thirty two patients did not have evidence of hepatitis A, B, or C infection and this group was significantly associated with HIV infection (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Hepatitis A was the commonest overall type of acute icteric hepatitis seen at the KNH, and among patients aged 15 years and below. Hepatitis B was the leading identified cause of acute hepatitis among those aged over 15 years. Hepatitis C accounted for 7.1% of acute icteric hepatitis 30.1% of all patients and 50% of those admitted with acute hepatitis were also HIV positive.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Aflatoxicosis: Health Implications. Editorial. EAMJ, 2005; 273-274.". In: EAMJ, 2005; 273-274. MBA; 2005. Abstract
D. M. Ndetei, D. M. Kathuku, O. W. Mwanda. Research proposal: Psychological aspects of the paediatric cancer patients in Kenyatta National Hospital . 2005
Otieno SPV, Muchiri P. Tujichunge. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2006.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Traditional Quantum Mechanics vs. Local Hidden vs, Local Hidden Variables.". In: Nuovo Cimento. 8. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Lule GN, Ogutu EO, Okoth F, Were JB, Wambugu M.Sclerotherapy in the treatment of bleeding oesophageal varices: preliminary report. East Afr Med J. 1988 Jun;65(6):416-20. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Dec;66(12):830-3. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1988. Abstract
The mean fasting insulin level in 30 apparently normal Kenyan Africans was determined by Radio-Immuno Assay (RIA) technique based on coat A-count. The mean value was found as 16.33 microIu/ml with a standard deviation (s.d) of 10.51 microIu/ml. The mean at 95% confidence interval (CI) for the population studied was 16.33 +/- 1.92. The findings are similar to what have been reported among the caucasians. This paper also reports on a case of insulinoma in a young female patient at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W , Rochford Rosemary, Jenetter Rainey, Mark L Wilson. Challenges (in the epidemiological and clinical aspects) of Burkitt's lymphoma in Kenya : linking evidence and experience. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S111-116.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S104-110. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno AC, Mwongela SM. "Capillary Electrophoresis Based Methods for the Determination of Lipids A Review." Analytica Chimica Acta . 2008;624:163-174.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Lupus Anticoagulant Syndrome. Case report. East African Medical Journal 1998;75:10;619-620.". In: East African Medical Journal 1998;75:10;619-620. MBA; 1998. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "J. Orem, P. Fu, A. Ness, W.O. Mwanda, S. C. Remick. Oral combination chemotherapy in the treatment of AIDS-associated Hodgkin's disease. EAMJ, 2005; 82 (9): S144-S150.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9 Suppl):S144-9. MBA; 2005. Abstract

{ Uganda Cancer Institute, Mulago Hospital and the Makerere University School of Medicine, Kampala, Uganda. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of an oral combination chemotherapy regimen administered to patients with AIDS-associated Hodgkin's disease. DESIGN: Prospective, pilot phase II clinical trial. SETTING: Consecutive patient recruitment occurred at two medical centers in the United States: Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York, where patients were recruited prior to December 31, 1996 (pre-HAART era); and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, where patients were recruited after January 1, 1997 (HAART era). INTERVENTION: Oral chemotherapy consisted of lomustine (100 mg/m2 day I for cycle one and odd cycles thereafter); etoposide (200 mg/m2 days 1 through 3); and cyclophosphamide and procarbazine (each 100 mg/m2 days 22 through 31). Cycles were repeated every six weeks. Colony-stimulating factor support (G-CSF in all instances) was allowed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical demographic variables, peripheral blood counts, serum chemistries, CD4 lymphocyte count, histopathological subtype of Hodgkin's disease were identified for all patients, who were staged according to Ann Arbor criteria. DATA ANALYSIS: Common Toxicity Criteria were utilized to assess safety; response was assessed using ECOG criteria; and survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier methods and difference of survival between pre-HAART and HARART era was compared using log-rank test. RESULTS: Eleven patients (six in pre-HAART era), all but one male, with a median age of 36 years, excellent performance status and advanced International Prognostic Score were treated. Myelosuppression was the major side effect and there were minimal other grade 3 or greater toxicity all of which were promptly reversible. An overall objective response rate of 82% (with 18% complete responses) and median survival duration of 24 months (range 2.5 +/- 68) were observed. Survival was markedly improved in patients treated in the HAART era (median not reached versus 7.25 months

Otieno M. "The influence of family on talent identification for players in rugby clubs in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(9).
OTIENO MROBUDHOELIAS. "Model based approach for assessing the rooting ability of Irvingia gabonensis.". In: Presented at the ninth Biannual SUSAN BIOMETRICS CONFERENCE, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Otieno MW, Banura C, Katongole-Mbidde E, Johnson JL, Ghannoum M, Dowlati A, Renne R, Arts E, Whalen C, Lederman MM, Remick SC. Therapeutic challenges of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the United States and East Africa.J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 May .". In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2002: 94, 718-32. MBA; 2002. Abstract

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) remains the second most common malignant complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As we enter the third decade of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, it is apparent that the evolution of antiretroviral therapy and the emergence of combination antiviral strategies have greatly affected the natural history of HIV infection and its neoplastic complications. For example, there may be a trend for declining incidence of AIDS-related lymphoma in the United States for the first time. However, in regions of the world where the burden of HIV infection is greatest, such as in East Africa, AIDS-related lymphoma is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment of lymphoma has evolved coincident with improvements in antiretroviral therapy. Infusional chemotherapy regimens may offer advantages over other regimens and schedules, but comparative trials have not been done. Clinical trial data are available on which to develop therapeutic strategies to treat this disease in East Africa where pragmatic approaches are needed. Both the differences in manifestations of HIV infection and the inherent difficulties in administering cytotoxic chemotherapy in this part of the world must be taken into consideration in planning therapeutic strategies. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV infection and lymphoma will likely yield improved therapeutic interventions as well.

Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Karugia JT, Drucker A;, Rege E. "Risk Management in Smallholder Cattle Farming: A Hypothetical Insurance Approach in Western Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

Smallholder cattle farming is an important livelihood strategy in most developing countries like Kenya. However, tropical diseases in Africa often wipe out these valuable assets. This paper focuses on mitigation of cattle disease risks through a hypothetical insurance scheme. The study is based on data from a survey conducted on a purposive sample of 300 smallholder cattle farmers in Kakamega and Siaya districts of Western Kenya. Descriptive measures and a regression model were used in the analysis. Results of the study showed that most farmers (91.3%) were willing to participate in the cattle insurance scheme. Also, the farmers observed that the scheme would enable them to increase their herd sizes and change their breed composition. The farmer’s mean Willingness To Pay (WTP) for the scheme would be determined by their gender, income, cultural norms, cattle breed and economic value/price of the animal kept. This paper recommends establishment of a formal cattle insurance scheme; and economic empowerment of both male and female farmers to encourage adoption of the scheme, as well as educating the farmers on how to integrate the scheme within their cultural norms to ensure it’s sustainability.

Otieno SP. "Fifty Years of Impotent Theatre in Schools and Colleges Drama Festival: A (con)textual examination of a Troubled Conscience in Theatre." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;vol. 1(Issue 4):85-95.
Otieno SP, Muleka J. Mbekho. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Molecular Structure Calculations Based on Many Body Scattering Theory II.". In: Proc.International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 1985. Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Orem J, Otieno MW, Remick SC.Challenges and opportunities for treatment and research of AIDS-related malignancies in Africa.Curr Opin Oncol. 2006 Sep;18(5):479-86. Review.PMID: 16894296 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: Curr Opin Oncol. 2006 Sep;18(5):479-86. MBA; 2006. Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Following our review of AIDS-associated cancer in developing nations in 2004, we sought to update recent publications and review data on the challenges and opportunities for the treatment and research of AIDS malignancies in Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: It is apparent that the burden of AIDS-related malignancies and other virus-associated tumors is significant and increasing in Africa. Several recent studies report findings on conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma and there is a report that Hodgkin's disease, a non-AIDS-defining neoplasm, is increasing in incidence. International collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries are feasible and invaluable for clinical strategies to address this aspect of the pandemic. A departure point is the ongoing work of the East Africa - Case Western Reserve University Collaboration in AIDS malignancies. SUMMARY: The burden of neoplastic complications of HIV infection and endemic virus-associated tumors are assuming increasing significance in Africa. There is a need to develop nonmyelotoxic therapies and approaches that are hypothesis-driven and pathogenesis-based. The scarcity and shortages in this region demand that our scientific and therapeutic strategies are both suitable and pragmatic for testing in this setting. It is also imperative that African investigators lead us in this important endeavor.

Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 4. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Transport Phenomenon in Strong Magnetic and Electric Field. Pres.". In: The winter College on the Theory of Imperfect Crystalline Solids,. University of Nairobi Press; 1970. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu EO.The pattern of pancreatic carcinoma at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1989 Feb;66(2):105-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):10-4. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1989. Abstract
A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda WO, Christopher W, Scot CR, Lederman M, Orem J, Banura C. Anatomical sites predilections of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection: A Report on 54 cases. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S90-96.". In: A Report on 54 cases. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S90-96. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno ATA, Muganzi Z. "Maternal Mortality Situation in Kenya.". In: Population, Health and Development in Africa: Anthropological Perspectives. Nairobi, Kenya. PP 83-88: Population Studies and Research Institute; 2000.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Cancer in Children younger than sixteen years in Kenya . East African Medical Journal 1999;76:1;3-9.". In: East African Medical Journal 1999;76:1;3-9. MBA; 1999. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "O.W. Mwanda, C. F. Otieno, E. Omonge. Acute Aflataoxicosis: Case Report. EAMJ, 2005; 82:320-324.". In: EAMJ, 2005; 82:320-324. MBA; 2005. Abstract

D. M. Ndetei, D. M. Kathuku, O. W. Mwanda. Research proposal: Psychological aspects of the paediatric cancer patients in Kenyatta National Hospital . 2005

Otieno AA. "Analysis of Family Building Patterns in Kenya when Fertility has stalled." African Population studies . 2008;23(2):141-154.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Dr. Obondo A., Dr. Mwanda O. W. Aspects Of Psychological Issues Of Adult Cancer Patients, Review Article. MEDICOM, 2004; 19, 1: 13-18.". In: MEDICOM, 2004; 19, 1: 13-18. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno, R.O. "The Clouds.". In: Many in One and Other Stories. Nairobi: Nsemia Inc. Publishers; 2019.
Otieno SP. The Return . (Mrs) ANM, ed.; 2019.
Otieno SP. Amani. Otieno SP, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2008.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "A composite Space-Time Curvature Model.". In: Modern Physics Letters Vol. 13 (1998) 677-683. University of Nairobi Press; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 1. Muriuki D, Ng'ang'a E, eds.; 2011.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "On the Classical Partition Function by Gaussian Method.". In: Pres. International Conference in Theoretical Physics,. University of Nairobi Press; 1973. Abstract
n/a
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu EO, Lule GN, Okoth F, Musewe AO.Gastric carcinoma in the Kenyan African population.East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):334-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):334-9. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991. Abstract

Fifty three consecutive patients with histological evidence of gastric carcinoma were studied between June 1987 and June 1989 at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). The male to female ration was 3.4:1 and the peak age of occurrence was in the 7th decade with 62.3% of gastric carcinoma being at the gastric antrum. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was found in 68.2% of patients while well differentiated adenocarcinoma in 4.5% of cases. Intestinal metaplasia was a rare finding. If Lauren's classification of gastric carcinoma is considered then diffuse type of gastric cancer is by far the commoner type in our environment.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Burkitt's Lymphoma; The Initial defining Characteristics. EAMJ, 2004;81:S63-67.". In: EAMJ, 2004;81:S63-67. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda W. O. Geographical, demographical and some clinical characteristics of Burkitt's Lymphoma in Kenya . Doctor of Medicine (M.D) thesis of the University of Nairobi , 2001.". In: (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno I, Omwenga E, Waema T. "The e-Government Paradox: Is it Real and How can it be Resolved?". In: IST Africa 2016. Durban, South Africa; 2016.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Makobe M, Ochora J, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two different agro-ecological zones of Kenya." Annales de la Société entomologique de France. 2006;42(3-4):371-380.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Orem J, Otieno MW, Remick SC.Challenges and opportunities for treatment and research of AIDS-related malignancies in Africa.Curr Opin Oncol. 2006 Sep;18(5):479-86. Review.PMID: 16894296 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: Curr Opin Oncol. 2006 Sep;18(5):479-86. MBA; 2006. Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Following our review of AIDS-associated cancer in developing nations in 2004, we sought to update recent publications and review data on the challenges and opportunities for the treatment and research of AIDS malignancies in Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: It is apparent that the burden of AIDS-related malignancies and other virus-associated tumors is significant and increasing in Africa. Several recent studies report findings on conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma and there is a report that Hodgkin's disease, a non-AIDS-defining neoplasm, is increasing in incidence. International collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries are feasible and invaluable for clinical strategies to address this aspect of the pandemic. A departure point is the ongoing work of the East Africa - Case Western Reserve University Collaboration in AIDS malignancies. SUMMARY: The burden of neoplastic complications of HIV infection and endemic virus-associated tumors are assuming increasing significance in Africa. There is a need to develop nonmyelotoxic therapies and approaches that are hypothesis-driven and pathogenesis-based. The scarcity and shortages in this region demand that our scientific and therapeutic strategies are both suitable and pragmatic for testing in this setting. It is also imperative that African investigators lead us in this important endeavor.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "W. O. Mwanda. Aspects of Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Patients with Central Nervous System (CNS) Burkitt's Lymphoma (BL) in Kenya . EAMJ, 2004; 81: S97-103.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S97-103. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno, David J, Hubbard L, Ruto E. "Technical efficiency and technology gaps in beef cattle production systems in Kenya:A stochastic metafrontier analysis.". 2011. Abstract

In this study the stochastic metafrontier method is used to investigate technical efficiency and technology gaps across three main beef cattle production systems in Kenya. Results show that there is significant inefficiency in nomadic and agro-pastoral systems. Further, in contrast with ranches,these two systems were found to have lower technology gap ratios. The average pooled technical efficiency was estimated to be 0.69, which suggests that there is considerable scope to improve beef production in Kenya.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Haematological changes in human immunodeficiency virus infection Part I. East African Medical Journal 1997, 74:11, 732-736." East African Medical Journal 1997, 74:11, 732-736. 1997. Abstracthaematological_changes_in_human_immunodeficiency_virus_infection._part_1_review_article.pdfWebsite

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno SP, S. W. Masks. (Mrs) ANM, ed. Talent Empire; 2020.
Otieno SP, Onyango B. "Folkloric Cues and Taste Bias in African Vegetable Foods." Journal of Eastern African Studies. 2008;Vol. 2 (No. 1):60-73.
Otieno DJ, Akinyi B, Rege JEO. Empowering Early Career Professionals for Effective Leadership of Agricultural Institutions: Experiences from a Leadership Mentoring Project in Eastern and Southern Africa. Nairobi: Institute for People, Innovations and Change in Organizations – Eastern Africa (PICO-EA); 2018.
Otieno SPV. Rainmaker. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2013.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Quantum Statistical Response Function,.". In: Nuovo Cimento 21B, 178. University of Nairobi Press; 1974. Abstract
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OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Lule G.N., Sang F., Ogutu E.O. Helicobacter Pylori in peptic ulcer disease. E. Afr. Med. J. 68: 324, 1991.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):324-7. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, University of Nairobi. Sixty six patients with dyspeptic symptoms underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsies for Helicobacter pylori culture. The number of H. pylori isolated increased with age reaching a peak at 51 to 60 years of age. Antral gastritis closely followed by duodenitis accounted for the highest number of H. pylori isolated, (87.5% and 85.7% respectively). In patients with duodenal ulceration only, 57% had H. pylori isolated from their antral biopsies, a result that was just slightly higher than that where no endoscopic diagnosis was made (50%).
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W., Otieno C. F., Abdalla F. K., Transfusion Haemosiderosis Inspite Of Regular Use Of Desferrioxamine - Case Report. EAMJ 2004; 81:326-328.". In: Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program, Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno I, Omwenga EI. "E-Waste Management in Kenya: Challenges and Opportunities." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2015;6(12):661-666. Abstractjournal_vol6no12_3_ewastemanagement_io_eio.pdfJournal website

The production and use of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) continues to grow in both developing and developed countries therefore increasing the amount of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) at its End-of-Life (EoL). This is exacerbated by the rapid growth and development in the Information and Communications Technology industry. The growth in WEEE has brought a number of challenges including introducing effective management practices that are environmentally sound to reduce its negative impact on human health and the environment as a result of pollution. Management of WEEE in most developing countries including Kenya is done through the informal sector and this poses a great challenge. There are a number of International conventions that have been formulated to deal with the issue of WEEE due to its hazardous nature. The main aim of this research was to establish the current trends, opportunity and challenges in the management of e-waste in Kenya and make recommendations on measures to be taken to effectively manage or mitigate the effects of WEEE proliferation in Kenya. The ICT industry in Kenya is growing at a very fast rate leading to drastic increase in WEEE. The greatest challenges facing Kenya in the management of WEEE include: low citizen awareness, lack of proper policy and legislative framework including public procurement and disposal laws, inadequate infrastructure for WEEE management; high cost of brand new EEE, absence of frameworks for End-of-Life (EoL) product take-back and implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR).
Keywords: E-waste, WEEE, challenges, opportunities, Kenya

Otieno DJ. "Market and Non-market Factors Influencing Farmers’ Adoption of Improved Beef Cattle in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

This study assessed various market and non-market factors that might have a considerable bearing on farmers’ adoption of improved beef cattle breeds in dry areas of Kenya. A binomial (binary) logit model was applied to analyse survey data from a multistage area sample of beef cattle farmers. Results showed that about 53% of farmers in the arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya have adopted improved beef cattle. The main factors that were found to have significant influence on farmers’ probability of adoption of improved beef cattle are peri-urban location, sale of cattle to abattoirs rather than in open air markets, and practise of agro-pastoral or ranch production systems. On the contrary, practice of nomadic production system, possession of experience in cattle production and larger farms did not have a favourable influence on adoption of improved cattle breeds. These findings offer important insights to development policy on provision of requisite services and institutional support in order to enhance the adoption of improved cattle breeds for better livelihoods in the typically resource-constrained arid and semi-arid areas.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W ., Scot Remick, Christopher Whalen. Adults Burkitt's Lymphoma in patients with and without Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection in Kenya . Int. J. Cancer: 2001;92, 687-691.". In: Int. J. Cancer: 2001;92, 687-691. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two agro-ecological zones of Kenya." International journal of Biodiversity Science and Management. 2008;4:1-12.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Practical Guide to Coagulation Tests.". In: BOOK. MBA; 1990. Abstract
Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.
Otieno NA, Culhain J, Germaine K, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling D. Development of endophytic bacterial inoculants possessing plant growth promotion traits for practical application in bio-energy plant species. 29 July-2 August,Kyoto, Japan: International Society for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions; 2012. Abstract

Internal plant tissue colonisation has made endophytic bacteria valuable for agriculture as a tool to improve crop performance particularly for those bacteria having traits such as plant growth promotion (PGP). This project involved screening and identifying endophytic bacterial strains, sourced from the bacterial collection available at the Institute of Technology Carlow, with the potential to enhance growth rate in bio-energy plant crop species. In the initial stage under greenhouse condition, a total of 140 strains in master mix (MM) groups of 10 strains, were inoculated into Rye Grass. The inoculated Rye Grass seeds were sown in pots and arranged in complete randomised design and their growth was monitored for a period of 3 months. The plant fresh weights (FW) and dry weights (DW) were used as growth parameters. Three MMs (comprising 30 strains) showed PGP potential in Rye Grass, significantly increased the mean FW and DW of Rye Grass plants compared to the negative controls. The 30 selected strains were further characterised for PGP traits under in vitro study. Results showed three strains inhibited Pythium spp. growth in dual culture assay, whereas the culture filtrates to quantify gluconic acid production necessary for inorganic phosphate solubilisation, had six strains recording more than 20mg/ml of gluconic acid production. Ten strains showed Indole acetic acid (IAA) production in the range (10-18 µg/ml) while three strains showed 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity. This study indicates that the selected bacterial endophytes have the potential for PGP and development in plant crops.

Otieno, M. D. NOAJV & W. "Influence of peers on talent identification for players in rugby clubs in Kenya. ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10):52-62.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda OW, Rosemary Rochford, Ann M Moormann, Adam Macneil, Christopher Whalen, Mark L Wilson. Burkitt's Lymphoma in Kenya : Geographical, Age, Gender and Ethnic distribution. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S68-77.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S68-77. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno I, Omwenga E. "E-Waste Management in Kenya: Challenges and Opportunities." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2015;Vol. 6(No. 12 December 2015):661-666.otieno_-_e-waste_management.pdf
Otieno I. Truth Maintenance Systems. Manderick PB, ed. Brussels: Vrije Universiteit Brussels; 2001.abstract.pdf
OTIENO MROBUDHOELIAS. "Companion Cropping As Management of Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thrpidae) in French Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) in Wesonga et al. (2002).". In: Proceedings of the Second Horticulture Seminar on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tropics, August 6th . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Cancer in Children younger than sixteen years in Kenya . East African Medical Journal 1999;76:1;3-9.". In: East African Medical Journal 1999;76:1;3-9. MBA; 1999. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Otieno SP, Oyoo M, Owuor B, Shilabukha K. "Folkloric Cues and Taste Bias in African Vegetable Foods." Journal of Eastern African Studies. 2008;vol. 2(no. 1):60-73.
OTIENO MROLWALTHOMAS. "- Olwal et al, (2005) proposes a synchronous digital receiver that implements a timing phase shift estimator incorporated after a free running sampling circuit. The timing phase shift estimator is designed by combining a discrete root raised cosine matche.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference November 2004, Nairobi. Journal of Applied Biosciences; 2005. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
Otieno CF, Vaghela V, OGOLA EN, Amayo EO. "Patterns of homocysteine in Kenyans with type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African medical journal. 2005;82(12). AbstractWebsite

Background: Increased total homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The measurement of tHcy in blood is therefore of potential great importance especially in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Objective: To determine the total homocysteine levels in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. Design: Cross-sectional, prospective study.

Setting: Outpatient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Ambulatory patients with Type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular, renal, liver or other chronic disease.

Main outcome measures: Serum levels of tHcy, HbA1c, lipids and socio-demographic characteristics. Results: A total of 115 patients, 48% males, with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The mean (sd) age of the males was 56.85(8.96) years and of the females was 55.68(8.93) years. The mean (sd) total serum homocysteine for males of 12.97(6.06) µmol/l was significantly higher than that of the females of 10.64(4.41) µmol/l. The cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, the body mass index and blood pressure of the study subjects did not show any statistically significant influence on their homocysteine levels. However, increasing age and duration of diabetes showed a significant linear relationship with rising level of total serum homocysteine. Some study participants reported smoking habit but unreliably.

Conclusion: There was a significant proportion of the study patients with high levels of serum homocysteine, although most of them were of low to intermediate risk category. It may be prudent to assay homocysteine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes who are either older or have had diabetes for long duration for potential intervention.

Otieno SPV, Bwire R. Naomi. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2007.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Two relaxation Time Model for Orientational Motion of Molecules in a Gas Reservoir.". In: J. Chem. Phy. 64, 2212. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
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OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Omonge E., Ogutu E.O., Aluoch J.R. Clinical and laboratory predictors of Cholelithiasis in patients with sickle cell anaemia. EAMJ 75: 347, 1998.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Jun;75(6):347-50. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998. Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Cholelithiasis is a common clinical condition in patients with sickle cell disease and there are conflicting reports on laboratory indices useful in predicting those patients who are likely to have gallstones. There is however lack of similar studies from Kenya. We therefore studied the role of clinical (Body Mass Index), haematological (reticulocyte count, haemoglobin level), and biochemical (serum bilirubin: direct and indirect, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum transaminase) indices in predicting sickle cell anaemia patients likely to develop gallstones. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from October 1993 to December 1994 on consecutive male and female patients of all ages with homozygous sickle cell disease (HbSS) confirmed by cellulose acetate paper electrophoresis. A total of 64 patients aged between three and 37 years were recruited into the study. They were classified into two groups: stone formers and non-formers. The difference in the two groups with respect to clinical, haematological and biochemical indices were determined by Chi-square contingency test. Body mass index (BMI), reticulocyte count and alkaline phosphatase were found to have a significant positive association with increased likelihood of gallstone formation at p values of 0.004, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively. The rest of the study indices had no association. The cut-off points were reticulocyte counts above ten per cent and alkaline phosphatase levels above 13 K.A. units. Though sickle cell anaemia patients with BMI > 20 had significant increased likelihood of cholelithiasis, we could not determine its cut-off value.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "J. Orem, P. Fu, A. Ness, W.O. Mwanda, S. C. Remick. Oral combination chemotherapy in the treatment of AIDS-associated Hodgkin's disease. EAMJ, 2005; 82 (9): S144-S150.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9 Suppl):S144-9. MBA; 2005. Abstract

{ Uganda Cancer Institute, Mulago Hospital and the Makerere University School of Medicine, Kampala, Uganda. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of an oral combination chemotherapy regimen administered to patients with AIDS-associated Hodgkin's disease. DESIGN: Prospective, pilot phase II clinical trial. SETTING: Consecutive patient recruitment occurred at two medical centers in the United States: Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York, where patients were recruited prior to December 31, 1996 (pre-HAART era); and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, where patients were recruited after January 1, 1997 (HAART era). INTERVENTION: Oral chemotherapy consisted of lomustine (100 mg/m2 day I for cycle one and odd cycles thereafter); etoposide (200 mg/m2 days 1 through 3); and cyclophosphamide and procarbazine (each 100 mg/m2 days 22 through 31). Cycles were repeated every six weeks. Colony-stimulating factor support (G-CSF in all instances) was allowed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical demographic variables, peripheral blood counts, serum chemistries, CD4 lymphocyte count, histopathological subtype of Hodgkin's disease were identified for all patients, who were staged according to Ann Arbor criteria. DATA ANALYSIS: Common Toxicity Criteria were utilized to assess safety; response was assessed using ECOG criteria; and survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier methods and difference of survival between pre-HAART and HARART era was compared using log-rank test. RESULTS: Eleven patients (six in pre-HAART era), all but one male, with a median age of 36 years, excellent performance status and advanced International Prognostic Score were treated. Myelosuppression was the major side effect and there were minimal other grade 3 or greater toxicity all of which were promptly reversible. An overall objective response rate of 82% (with 18% complete responses) and median survival duration of 24 months (range 2.5 +/- 68) were observed. Survival was markedly improved in patients treated in the HAART era (median not reached versus 7.25 months

Otieno I, Omwenga EI. "Towards the Development of a Citizen-Centric Framework for Evaluating the Impact of E-government: A Case Study of Developing Countries." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(3):147-153. Abstractjournal_vol7no3_4_citizencentricframework_io_eio.pdfJournal website

E-government has emerged as one of the innovative ways of providing information and delivering services to citizens. It is providing governments with new opportunities of bringing services closer to the citizen in cost-effective, efficient and transparent ways. In spite of the implementation of e-government, there is little research that has been conducted in the context of developing countries to benchmark and appraise the impact of e-government on the target groups. Assessment of impact is important to justify public fund expenditure and inform future projects. Most studies on assessment of e-government have been done in developed countries where the context is different from that of developing countries. Therefore, there is need to develop frameworks that are suitable in the context of developing countries.Studies on assessing impact have been done at macro, meso and micro levels. These studies are largely based on supply-side and a few on demand-sides with little focus on outcomes and impact. In this paper, we perform an analysis of various proposed e-government assessment frameworks with the aim of identifying and recommending the adoption of a framework that is suitable in the context of a developing country. We propose the adoption of a hybrid framework that amalgamates the frameworks proposed earlier due to their contextual suitability and citizen-centric approach. This is an exploratory study that lays foundation for further research in the development of an appropriate framework using the proposed approach.
Keywords: E-government, impact, evaluation, developing countries, citizen-centric

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W., Cecily Banura, Edward Katangole Mbidde, John L. Johnson, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Afshin Dowlati, Rolf Renne, Eric Arts, Christopher Whalen, Michael M. Lederman, Scot C. Remick. Therapeutic challenges of AIDS-related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the U.". In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2002: 94, 718-32. MBA; 2002. Abstract

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) remains the second most common malignant complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As we enter the third decade of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, it is apparent that the evolution of antiretroviral therapy and the emergence of combination antiviral strategies have greatly affected the natural history of HIV infection and its neoplastic complications. For example, there may be a trend for declining incidence of AIDS-related lymphoma in the United States for the first time. However, in regions of the world where the burden of HIV infection is greatest, such as in East Africa, AIDS-related lymphoma is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment of lymphoma has evolved coincident with improvements in antiretroviral therapy. Infusional chemotherapy regimens may offer advantages over other regimens and schedules, but comparative trials have not been done. Clinical trial data are available on which to develop therapeutic strategies to treat this disease in East Africa where pragmatic approaches are needed. Both the differences in manifestations of HIV infection and the inherent difficulties in administering cytotoxic chemotherapy in this part of the world must be taken into consideration in planning therapeutic strategies. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV infection and lymphoma will likely yield improved therapeutic interventions as well.

Otieno CA. "Metal Cations for the Determination of Fluorescent Phosphoinositides by Capillary Electrophoresis. .". In: The Pittsburgh Conference of Analytical and Applied Spectroscopy. Chicago, Illinois ; 2009.
Otieno PK, Ochanda JO, Okoth S. "Evaluation of potency of native Bacillus thuringiensis against maize insect pests and aflatoxin producing fungi in Kenya." Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2012;1(7):9-15 .
Otieno PS, Ogutu CA, Mburu J, Nyikal RA. "Effect of Global-GAP Policy on Climate Change Perceptions of Smallholder French Beans Farmers in Central and Eastern Regions, Kenya." Climate . 2017;5(2). AbstractWebsite

The risks posed by climate change to Sub Saharan Africa’s (SSA) smallholder fresh export fruit and vegetables production are amplifying the significance of farmers’ climate change perceptions in enhancing adoption of suitable adaptation strategies. Production of fresh export fruit and vegetables in Kenya has increasingly been done under the Global-GAP standard scheme by smallholder farmers to improve both environmental conservation and market access. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Global-GAP policy on climate change perceptions of smallholder French beans farmers. The analysis was based on data collected from a random sample of 616 households interviewed in the Central and Eastern regions of Kenya. The study used principal component analysis (PCA) to extract farmers’ key prevailing climate change perceptions and logit regression model to examine the effect of Global-GAP policy on climate change perceptions among other socio-economic factors. The PCA analysis extracted three components proxying for ‘droughts’, ‘delay in rainy seasons’, ‘diseases and pests’ and three proxying for ‘hot days’, ‘floods’, and ‘diseases and pests’ as summarizing maximum variance in the perceptions in the Central and Eastern region respectively. The common, study area-wide climate change perception was identified as incidence of diseases and pest. Logit regression analysis found that Global-GAP policy significantly influenced and improved farmers’ probability of perceiving climate change. Other factors found to influence farmers’ probability of having the identified climate change perceptions included regional specificity, access to agricultural extension service, access to credit, plot size, and soil fertility. The policy implication of this study is that the government and service providers should mainstream factors like Global-GAP compliance and regional considerations found to improve probability of perceiving climate change in awareness creation extension strategies, towards enhancing adoption of adaptation measures in the smallholder fruits and vegetables farming sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: Global-GAP certification; climate change perception; principal component analysis; logit regression model; smallholder; French beans farming; Kenya

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Riyat M.S., Kasili E.G., Mwanda W.O. Childhood Aplastic Anaemia in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 67, 264, 1990.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Apr;67(4):264-72. MBA; 1990. Abstract
Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.
Otieno DJ;, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Marenya PP. "Shaping the Future of African Agriculture for Development: The Role of Social Scientists."; 2004. Abstract

Food security remains a key challenge to the development efforts of most poor nations. This study investigated the significance of gender (denoted by number of male, female and children in a household) and social amenities in the food security equation. Frequency of food-related illnesses in a household was used as proxy for food security situation, while the entitlement/food utilization side of the equation was represented by the number of male and female children in the household, main source of domestic water, distance to nearest health center, means of transport accessible, household sanitation and level of awareness on basic food preparation and handling methods. Both descriptive and econometric models were used for analysis of primary data from a random sample of 100 farm-households in Yala division, Siaya district of Kenya. This study was conducted in February 2004. Results of this study indicated that majority (74%) of the rural households were experiencing poor food utilization, and were thus generally food insecure. The study also revealed that gender and social amenities were significant in the food security equation. Specifically, there was high correlation between food-related illnesses and use of untapped water, more male children than females in a household, long distance to health centers, lack of quick means of transport, unsafe food disposal and poor food storage habits. In order to improve the food utilization and thereby security for the rural farm-households, the study recommends improvement in the provision of social amenities for both male and female household members equitably.

Otieno NA. Diversity and Abundance of wild host plants of stem borers in two sites, Kakamega and Muhaka in Kenya.. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2006.
Otieno PS, Nyikal RA, Mugivane FI. "Non-credit services of group-based financial institutions: Implications for smallholder women's honey income in arid and semi arid lands of Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

This paper analyses the effect of non-credit services of joint liability credit institutions on smallholder women beekeepers’ honey income. The non-credit services offered to the beekeepers were mainly enterprise development services (including trainings on marketing, business, production and subsector analysis). The study uses cross-sectional data from a survey of women beekeepers participating in group-based credit programmes. The survey was conducted in September 2005 in Makueni district of Kenya. The findings indicated that the number of enterprise development related trainings attended by women beekeepers that are offered by the group-based financial institutions positively and significantly influence honey income. The results confirmed that non-credit services contribute positively to the enhancement of honey income. These results imply that extension and strengthening of group-based financial institutions’ non-credit services in the marginal areas will enhance development of smallholder agriculture for improved income generation.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda W.O., Abdallah F.K., Obondo A., Musau F. Quality Of Life: Aspects To Look For In Male Cancer Patients At A Referral Hospital In Kenya . EAMJ 2004; 81: 341-347.". In: EAMJ 2004; 81: 341-347. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Otieno D, Nyikal R. "Analysis of Consumer Preferences for Quality and Safety Attributes in Artisanal Fruit Juices in Kenya." Journal of Food Products Marketing. 2016. AbstractWebsite

This study used choice experiment survey data from a random sample of 374 respondents to analyze consumer preferences for quality and safety attributes of artisanal fruit juices in Kenya. Results show that consumers had a positive and significant preference for single fruit juices compared to fruit mixtures, private rather than public inspection of the juices, traceability of fruit origin, and vendor’s health. Additives such as colorants, flavors, and preservatives were not preferred. Consumers were willing to pay premiums of up to 200% for artisanal juices that contain single fruits, lack additives, and are inspected by private agencies. These insights should be incorporated in ensuring that artisanal fruit juice designs comply with food quality and safety requirements. Further, there is a need to license and regulate the artisanal juice preparation and handling and to provide training to the handlers on safety and quality requirements.

OTIENO MROBUDHOELIAS. "Participatory approach for dissemination of control measures of viruses infecting sweet potato in Coastal Kenya. Oral presentation.". In: The 13th Triennial Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops (ISTRC). 9 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Otieno SP, Ndede LA, Musonye M. "Film as an Artefact: Confronting Kenya's History through the Kitchen Toto and Nairobi Half Life." Journal of African Theatre Film and Media Discourse. 2017;vol. 1(Issue 1):61-84.
Otieno SP, Muchiri P. Kayole Twabamba. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2005.
Otieno CF, KAYIMA JK, MBUGUA PK, AMAYO AA, MCLIGEYO SO. "Prognostic factors in patients hospitalised with diabetic ketoacidosis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

In spite of many advances in the management of diabetes in the last 25 years, the mortality associatedwith diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains high, especially in the developing countries. The mortality appears greatest in the first 24-48 hours of their treatment. Most of the previous studies on DKA focused on children and the precipitating factors thereof but not particularly on clinical predictors of outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinico-laboratory predictors of outcomes of patients hospitalised with diabetic ketoacidosis who were undergoing treatment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: The accident and emergency department and medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty one patients hospitalised with diabetic ketoacidosis over a nine month period were evaluated clinically and by laboratory tests. They were managed in the standard way with insulin, intravenous fluids and appropriate supportive care. Main outcome measures: Serial assays of serum electrolytes, glucose and blood pH, HbA1c and clinical outcome of either discharge home or death. RESULTS: Of the 51 patients enrolled, 47 were included in the final analysis. Fourteen (29.8%) patients died,andthe deaths occurred within less than48 hours of hospitalisation and treatment. Of the patients who died, all (100%) had altered level of consciousness at hospitalisation, 71.4% had abnormal renal functions, 64.3% were newly diagnosed and an equal proportion of 64.3% were females. The alteration in the level of consciousness was significantly associated systolic hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis, (p < 0.001). Patients with altered level of consciousness also had poorer renal function. CONCLUSION: Apparently DKA still carries high mortality during treatment in hospital. Altered level of consciousness, which is an obvious and easily discernible clinical sign, was a major predictor of mortality in our study patients. The majority of patients with altered level of consciousness also had systolic hypotension, severe metabolic acidosis and impaired renal function. Even where and when detailed laboratory evaluation is elusive, clinical signs, especially altered level of consciousness and systolic hypotension are very important markers of severity of DKA that may be associated with unfavourable outcomes. Further studies are necessary to establish why DKA still carries high mortality in the patients who are already receiving treatment in hospitals in developing countries

OTIENO DRJOWI. "The effective Utilization of Instructional Resources in University Staff Development.". In: Part Two of the Papers presented in the workshop in Mombasa Kenya august 1991. (University Staff Development, Part two). The Kenya Medical Association; 1991. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
Otieno SPV. Mimi Nina Raha. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2010.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "The Quantum Theory Non-Relativistic Adiabatic Charged Particle Motion.". In: Pres. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Couple Plasma . University of Nairobi Press; 1977. Abstract
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OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu E.O., Okoth F.A., Lule G.N. Colonoscopic Findings in Kenyan African Patients EAMJ Vol 75 pp 540 .". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Sep;75(9):540-3. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998. Abstract

Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the types and prevalence of colonic diseases in Kenyan African patients referred for colonoscopy with lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms. DESIGN: A cross sectional survey conducted over a two year period. SETTING: Major private hospitals in Nairobi. PATIENTS: Two hundred forty seven consecutive patients of both sexes and all ages referred for colonoscopy between January 1996 and December 1997. Only Kenyans of African origin were included. Patients were referred from all over the country though the majority of cases were from Nairobi and its surrounding districts. RESULTS: The major indications for colonoscopy were lower abdominal pain (35.6%), non-bloody diarrhoea (22.3%), constipation (21.4%) and rectal bleeding (19.8%). Nearly 53% of patients colonoscoped had abnormal mucosal findings, with the main abnormalities being: proctocolitis (20.2%), colorectal cancers (12.1%), haemorrhoids (7.3%), colorectal polyps (6.5%) and diverticulosis (5.3%). The main histological diagnosis among patients whose colonic biopsy were done included normal colonic mucosa (29%), non-specific colitis (28.5%), adenocarcinoma (18.2%), benign colonic polyp (9.7%) and ulcerative colitis (7.3%). There was one case of Crohn's colitis and five cases (3%) of infective colitis. CONCLUSION: The study shows that the African colon has a number of pathological lesions contrary to previous reported literature.

Otieno CF, Amayo EO, MCLIGEYO SO, Nyamu PN. "Risk factors and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers at Kenvatta National Hospital, Nairobi."; 2003. Abstract

Diabetic foot ulcers contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. The diabetic patients with foot ulcers require long hospitalisation and carry risk of limb amputation. The risk factors for developing diabetic foot ulcers are manageable. In Kenya there is paucity of data on such risk factors. Objective: To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers and the risk factors in a clinic-based setting . Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus who had active foot ulcers in both outpatient and inpatient units. Main outcome measures: Diabetic foot ulcers glycated haemoglobin, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease and fasting lipid profile. Results: One thousand seven hundred and eighty eight patients with diabetes mellitus were screened and 82(4.6%) were found to have foot ulcers. The males and females with diabetic foot ulcers were compared in age, duration of foot ulcers, blood pressure, glycaemic control, neurological disability score and their proportion. Diabetic foot ulcers occurred mostly in patients who had had diabetes for a long duration. The types of (occurence) ulcers were neuropathic (47.5%), neuroischaemic (30.5%) and ischaemic (18%). The neuropathic ulcers had significantly poorer glycaemic control compared to other types and the longest duration (23.3 weeks). Ischaemic ulcers had significantly higher total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure compared to other ulcer types. Wagner stage 2 ulcers were the commonest (49.4%) but stage 4 ulcers had their highest neuropathic score (7.8/10) and longest duration (23.6weeks). Aerobic infective pathogens were isolated from 73.2% of the ulcers. Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers was 4.6% in this tertiary clinic. The risk factors of diabetic foot ulcers in the study were poor glycaemic control, diastolic hypertension, dyslipidaemia, infection and poor self-care. These findings are similar to studies done in other environments and they are modifiable to achieve prevention, delay in formation or improved healing of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. Therefore, specific attention should be paid to the management of these risk factors in patients with or without diabetes foot ulcers in this clinic.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "O.W. Mwanda, C. F. Otieno, E. Omonge. Acute Aflataoxicosis: Case Report. EAMJ, 2005; 82:320-324.". In: EAMJ, 2005; 82:320-324. MBA; 2005. Abstract
D. M. Ndetei, D. M. Kathuku, O. W. Mwanda. Research proposal: Psychological aspects of the paediatric cancer patients in Kenyatta National Hospital . 2005
Otieno A, Karuku G, Raude J, Koech O. "Accumulation Of Nitrogen And Phosphorous By Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon Zizanioides) In A Model Constructed Wetland Treatment System For Polishing Municipal Wastewater." International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies . 2018;22(4):291-298 .
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Vipawa Amani. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2007.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "A Review of Spectral Line Shapes and Widths in Plasmas.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
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OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu EO, Lore W.The aetiology and presentation of chronic calcific pancreatitis in patients seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1988 Mar;65(3):155-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Dec;66(12):830-3. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1988. Abstract
The mean fasting insulin level in 30 apparently normal Kenyan Africans was determined by Radio-Immuno Assay (RIA) technique based on coat A-count. The mean value was found as 16.33 microIu/ml with a standard deviation (s.d) of 10.51 microIu/ml. The mean at 95% confidence interval (CI) for the population studied was 16.33 +/- 1.92. The findings are similar to what have been reported among the caucasians. This paper also reports on a case of insulinoma in a young female patient at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Dr. Obondo A., Dr. Mwanda O. W. Aspects Of Psychological Issues Of Adult Cancer Patients, Review Article. MEDICOM, 2004; 19, 1: 13-18.". In: MEDICOM, 2004; 19, 1: 13-18. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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