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Osanjo L. "The Emerging Opportunities for Design Development in the new Kenya.". In: Nairobi International Design Conference. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi; 2011.
Osanjo GO, Bulimo WD, Mulaa FJ. "Engineering the functional fitness of transglycosidases and glycosynthases by directed evolution." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011;10:1727-1735. Abstract
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Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage I0, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talibs Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implementation Science. 2016;11(30). Abstractbuilding_capacity_in_implementation_science_research_training_at_the_university_of_nairobi.pdf

Background: Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap
between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health
care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by
training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative,
the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.
Methods: This paper describes how the University of Nairobi leveraged resources from the Medical Education
Partnership to develop an institutional program that provides training and mentoring in implementation science,
builds relationships between researchers and implementers, and identifies local research priorities for
implementation science.
Results: The curriculum content includes core material in implemerjjation science theory, methods, and experiences.
The program adopts a team mentoring and supervision approach, in which fellows are matched with mentors at the
University of Nairobi and partnering institutions University of Washington, Seattle, and University of Maryland,
Baltimore. A survey of program participants showed a high degree satisfaction with most aspects of the program,
including the content, duration, and attachment sites. A key strength of the fellowship program is the partnership
approach, which leverages innovative use of information technology to offer diverse perspectives, and a team model
for mentorship and supervision.
Conclusions: As health care systems and training institutions seek new approaches to increase capacity in
implementation science, the University of Nairobi Implementation Science Fellowship program can be a model
for health educators and administrators who wish to develop their program and curricula.
Keywords: Implementation science, Training, Fellowship program

Osanjo GO, Bulimo WD, Mulaa FJ. "Engineering the functional fitness of transglycosidases and glycosynthases by directed evolution." African Journal of Biotechnology . 2011;10(10):1727-1735.
Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Osanjo L. The Role of Management Training in the Development of Design Enterprises. Cape Town,SA: Design Institute,SABS; 1996.
Osanjo L. "Turning Idea into Enterprise.". In: SSAFW Arts and Culture Fashion Seminar. Johannesburg, SA; 2008.
Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Osanjo L, Amollo L. "Design Policy and Promotion Map." SEE Bulletin. 2010;3 (Issue 3 - May 2010):8.
Osanjo GO, Muthike EW, Tsuma L, Okoth MW, Bulimo WD, Lünsdorf H, Abraham W-R, Dion M, Timmis KN, Golyshin PN, Mulaa FJ. "A salt lake extremophile, Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov., efficiently produces xanthophyll carotenoids." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009;3:426-433. Abstract
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Osanjo L, Ambole LA. "Design with Social Impact for Rural Communities in Africa.". In: Sustainable Energy for All by Design conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.osanjo__ambole_2016.pdf
Osanjo GO, Muthike EW, Tsuma L, others. "A salt lake extremophile, Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov., efficiently produces xanthophyll carotenoids." African Journal of Microbiology Research . 2009;3(8):426-433.
Osanjo G, Aluvaala E, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Mulaa F. "HARNESSING CARBOHYDRATE ACTIVE ENZYMES AS DRUG TARGETS AND TOOLS FOR DEVELOPING GLYCOTHERAPEUTICS.". In: BASIC & CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY. Vol. 115. WILEY-BLACKWELL 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA; 2014:. Abstract
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Osanjo GO, Muthike EW, Tsuma L, Okoth MW, Bulimo WD, Lünsdorf H, A W-R, Dion M, Timmis KN, Golyshin PN, Mulaa FJ. "A salt lake extremophile, Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov., efficiently produces xanthophyll carotenoids." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009;3(8):426-433.osanjo_2009_a_salt_lake_extremophile.pdf
Osanjo L. Product Design Practice within Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Osanjo GO, Bulimo WD, Mulaa FJ. "Engineering the functional fitness of transglycosidases and glycosynthases by directed evolution." Afr J Biotechnol. 2011;10:1727-1735. AbstractWebsite

The artificial implementation of the Darwinian theory of evolution to create new variants of functional proteins, a process referred to as directed evolution, has acquired many applications in biochemical engineering. Directed evolution is a handy tool in the nascent science of glycobiology, where it is used in the conversion of glycosyl hydrolases into transglycosidases or for improving the transglycosylation behaviour of glycosynthases. This review focuses on recent applications of the directed evolution approach to harness the transglycosidase potential of glycosidases and to enhance the functional fitness of glycosynthases.

Osanjo L. "The Challenges of Design Business in Africa.". In: Africa Design Day. Cape Town,SA; 2008.
Osano BO, Kamenwa RW, Wamalwa D, Wangombe JK. "Short term clinical outcome of children with rotavirus infection at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Rotavirus infection is the single most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. Rotavirus gastroenteritis has a high morbidity and mortality in children in Kenya. To determine the short term clinical outcome for children admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis and the correlates of poor outcome. Short longitudinal survey. Kenyatta National Hospital from February to May 2008. Five hundred children were screened using a rapid antigen detection kit and ELISA. Of the 191 children who tested positive for rotavirus in stool; 172 children were recruited into the study. Eighty eight per cent of the patients were discharged within one week, 8.1% stayed for more than seven days while 4.1% died. Children who had co-morbidities such as malnutrition, rickets and pneumonia had worse outcomes. Rotavirus gastroenteritis has a long hospital stay and a high mortality. Children in shock on admission and those with co-morbid conditions should get priority for they have a poor outcome

Osano OB. Short term outcome and cost analysis of children admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis.; 2009. Abstract

Background
Rotavirus infection is the single most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children
under five years of age. Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVG) has a high morbidity and mortality in
children in Kenya. The costs of care and treatment for rotavirus gastroenteritis are high.
Comprehensive data on the outcomes and cost of care of RVG in Kenya are lacking.
Objective
To determine the short term clinical outcomes and compute average cost of care for children
admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) with rotavirus gastroenteritis.
Methodology
A short longitudinal survey at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya from February to
May 2008. A minimum sample size of 165 was sufficient for both primary and secondary
objectives of this study. This samples size was calculated using mortality as the worst
outcome with a mortality rate of 11.6%. Children less than 3 years of age admitted to the
paediatric wards with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus in stool
samples using a rapid antigen detection kit and ELISA. Those found positive for rotavirus
and gave consent were recruited into the study. A full clinical evaluation was done and a predesigned
questionnaire administered. The recruited patients were followed up till discharge
or death. Their outcomes, costs incurred and the bills they paid were entered into the
questionnaire. The average costs were then calculated.
Results
Five hundred of the children admitted to KNH with acute gastroenteritis were screened for
rotavirus. One hundred and ninety one (38.2%) of them tested positive for rotavirus in stool
and 172 children were recruited into the study. Of the 172 children, 87.8% were discharged
within one week, 8.1% stayed for more than 7 days while 4.1% died. The average cost of
care per child admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis was Kshs 6,505.79 to the patient, Kshs.
14,178.21 and Kshs. 16,556.08 to the hospital and economy/society respectively using the
National Hospital Insurance Fund bed charge rates. Children who had co-morbidities had
worse outcomes in comparison to those who did not have any co-morbidity.
Conclusion
Rotavirus gastroenteritis has a significant impact on young children and their families in
terms of long hospital stay, high morbidity and mortality. It incurs considerable resource
utilization in health care settings, substantial costs for national health care and lost work
days to the economy.
Recommendation
A cost benefit analysis for the whole country should be done to guide in policy making for
routine rotavirus vaccination

Osano BO, Were F, Mathews S. "Mortality among 5-17 year old children in Kenya ." PanAfrican Medical Journal. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: global mortality trends have changed over time and are expected to continue changing with a reduction in communicable diseases and an increase of non-communicable disease. Increased survival of children beyond five years may change mortality patterns for these children. There are few studies in Africa that explore the causes of mortality in children over five years. The objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate and clinical profiles of children aged 5-17 years who died in six Kenyan hospitals in 2013.
 
Methods: retrospective review of patients’ medical records to abstract data on diagnosis for those who died in year 2013. Data was analysed to provide descriptive statistics and explored differences in mortality rates between age groups and gender.
 
Results: we retrieved 4,520 patient records. The in-hospital mortality rate was 3.5% (95%CI 3.0-4.1) with variations in deaths between the ages and gender. Among the deaths, 60% suffered from communicable diseases, maternal and nutritional causes; 41.3% suffered from non-communicable diseases. A further 11.9% succumbed to traumatic injuries. The predominant clinical diagnoses among patients who died were HIV/AIDS, respiratory tract infections and malaria.
 
Conclusion: infectious causes had the highest proportion of diagnoses among children aged 5-17 years who died.

Osano BO, Wang'ombe JK, Kamenwa RW, Wamalwa D. "COST ANALYSIS OF CARE FOR CHILDREN ADMITTED TO KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL WITH ROTAVIRUS GASTROENTERITIS." Vaccine. 2011;29:4019-4024.
Osano, S.N., Mwea SK, Gichaga FJ. "Pull-out resistance of 3 different plant species and their application in slope stabilization works." Icastor Journal of Engineering. India.. 2012;5(1).
Osano BO, Kamenwa RW, Wamalwa D, Wang'ombe JK. "SHORT TERM CLINICAL OUTCOME OF CHILDREN WITH ROTAVIRUS INFECTION AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, NAIROBI." East African Medical Journal. 2010;87:242-247.
Osano SN, Mwea SK. "The Effects of Vegetation Roots on Stability of Slopes.". In: 2nd International Civil Engineering Conference on Civil Engineering and Sustainable Development. Mombasa, Kenya; 2008.
Osano O, Arimi SM. "Retail poultry and beef as sources of campylobacter jejuni.". 1999. Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the level of contamination with C. jejuni of raw chicken and beef meats sold in Nairobi and to assess their potential as sources of campylobacter infections to man. Design: Dressed chicken and beef meat samples were randomly sourced from butcheries, markets and supermarkets in various parts of Nairobi over a period of two months. One hundred chicken and 50 beef samples were bacteriologically examined by selective enrichment and culture under microaerophilic environment. Thermophilic campylobacters were identified and characterised using standard physical and biochemical tests. Setting: Veterinary Public Health Laboratories, Kabete, University of Nairobi. Results: Thermophilic campylobacters were isolated from 77 (77%) poultry samples and one (2 %) beef sample. Isolation rate (85.3 %) was higher from chickens <24 hours old since slaughter than those >24 hours old. The beef isolate was 2% C. jejuni. Poultry samples yielded C. jejuni (59%), C. coli (39% and C. laridis (2%). Conclusion: These findings show that poultry meat sold at the counter is a major source of C. jejuni and C. coli, and that it is an important potential source of campylobacter infection. Proper cooking and hygienic handling before consumption is therefore essential.

Osano A, Siboe G, Ochanda J, Kokwaro J. "Biodegradation properties of white rot fungi in Karura forest Kenya." Discovery & Innovation. 2004;16(1):78-84.
Osano SN, Amolo KO, R.O.Ouko. "Data-Driven High Collision Location Identification and Corrective Countermeasures on Roads in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications,. 2020;Volume 10(Issue 10):37-41.
Osano SN, Macharia PG. "Geotextile materials in Kenya for pavement reinforcement function. ." Icastor. 2018;Vol. 11(No. 3):111-118.
Osawa WO, Sahoo FK, Onyari J, Mulaa F. "Experimental Investigation on performance,emission and combustion characteristics of Croton Megalocarpus of Biodiesel Blends in a Direct injection Diesel Engine." International Journal of Science and International Technology. 2015;4(1):26-33. Abstract6488141691776.pdf

The emission, performance and combustion characteristics of croton biodiesel blends were tested in a direct injection (DI) single
cylinder four stroke diesel engine. The physico-chemical properties of the biodiesel blends were all found to be within the standard
ASTM values. The reduction in exhaust smoke emissions for the biodiesel blends ranged from 10% to 41% at maximum engine load
of 10 Kg while a slight increase in NOx emissions was observed with increase in concentration of biodiesel in the blends. Similar
general increase in brake thermal efficiency (BTE), temperature of exhaust emissions and fuel flow rate was observed with increasing
engine load for both petro-diesel and biodiesel blends. The difference between BTE for petro-diesel and biodiesel blends ranged from
2.04 to 5.03%. The brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) decreased with increasing engine load for both petro-diesel and
biodiesel blends. An increase in both engine pressure and heat released was observed with increase in concentration of biodiesel in the
blends. The difference in maximum engine pressure ranged from 1.05 bar at 0 Kg to 3.77 bar at 10 Kg load. The greatest difference in
maximum engine pressure was recorded between petro-diesel and B50 blend. The observed difference in position of peaks for
maximum heat released showed that there was slight delay in ignition of biodiesel blends as compared to petro-diesel. The results
obtained in this study showed that higher blends of up to 50% biodiesel can be effectively used as an alternative to petro-diesel without
compromising the engine performance.
Key words:Croton biodiesel blends, Diesel engine, Emission and performance characteristics.

Osawa F. Management outcome of adult urinary fistulae at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) (1994 -1998).; 2002. Abstract

The study was carried out between January 1994 and December 1998. This was a retrospective
study in which data was retrieved from the patient's files at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) medical records department. The results were analyzed and various indices established. Ninety
patients were considered. Females were more than males with a ratios M:F 1:2 Seventy
percent of the fistulae involved the bladder. Most of the patients (54.44%) were from a low
socioeconomic set up and were referrals from rural centres in Kenya.
The commonest mode of clinical presentation was leakage of urine in 80% of the patients and
diagnosis was mainly clinical (74.44%). Obstetric fistulae were 53.33% and therefore were the
majority. Surgery was the preferred option of treatment. Only 12.2% of the patients were
managed conservatively.
The outcome of treatment was found to be significantly influenced by urmary or faecal
diversion and the duration of urethral cartheterization. However the aetiology of the fistulae
and the interval between injury time and treatment did not influence the outcome.

Osawa W.O, Onyari JM SPKMFJ. "Process optimization for production of biodiesel from croton oil using two-stage process." IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2014;Volume 8(Issue 11 Ver. III (Nov. 2014)):49-54.
Osborne DMP, Monaghan P. "Effects of light and dark upon photoreceptor synapses in the retina of {Xenopus} laevis." Cell and Tissue Research. 1976;173:211-220. AbstractWebsite

Photoreceptor synapses in Xenopus retina were studied after exposure to day/night cycles and continuous light or dark. In the rods, dense-core vesicles appear alongside the synaptic ribbons in animals exposed to light. In dark-adapted rods, electron-dense material is present in the synaptic clefts, but no dense-core vesicles are found associated with the synaptic ribbons. Cone photoreceptors do not show these ultrastructural changes in response to light and dark. Prolonged exposure to light (21 days) causes flattening of the synaptic vesicles associated with the synaptic ribbons in both rods and cones. The results are discussed in the light of what is known about transmitter release from photoreceptors.

Osebe T, Mbaria J, Yole D, Odongo D, Nderitu J, Ochanda H. "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2016;6(1):5-11. AbstractWebsite

Background: Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum
americanum plant species are commonly used in traditional medicine for a
number of ailments. The extracts of these plants have been shown to have antischistosomal
activity suggesting that they could be used for the development of
new chemical entities (NCEs) for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However
there is limited knowledge on their toxicological profile and their use in
traditional medicine may not be a satisfactory safety indication.
Methods: In this study the extracts were first screened for bioactivity using
brine shrimp lethality test for the determination of LC50 followed by rodent
acute toxicity and 28 day subchronic studies.
Results: B. micrantha water extract with a LC50 of 77µg/ml was deemed toxic
while C. ambrosoides methanol and water extracts were moderately toxic with
LC50 of 104.63µg/ml and 696.44µg/ml respectively. O. americanum hexane
and water extracts toxicity varied from moderate to slightly toxic with LC50 of
887.59µg/ml and 2254.60µg/ml respectively. C. ambrosoides and O.
americanum water extracts which were preferentially selected for subsequent
studies were found to have mild to no irritation to rodent eyes and skin.
Moreover, the aminotransferases AST and ALT which were used to detect liver
injury suggested negligible effect.
Conclusions: This therefore confirms that C. ambrosoides and O. americanum
water extracts are safe for clinical use with O. americanum water extract having
a slight edge.
Keywords: Antihelminthic, Schistosomiasis, Toxicity

Osebe T, Mbaria J, Yole D, Odongo DO, Nderitu J, Ochanda H. "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2017;6:5-11.
Osebe T, Odongo D, Bishop R. "Molecular cloning, sequencing and recombinant expression of a putative tick protective antigen from three ixodid ticks." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2012;Vol. 11(84):15072-15081.
Osena G, Amugune NO, Nyaboga EN. "Genetic Stability of Cassava Plants Regenerated Through Organogenesis Using Microsatellite Markers." Journal of Plant Sciences. 2017;5(1):19-28.
Osendo, L.P., Wanjala, G., Okoth UA. "Influence of Teacher Performance Appraisal on Job Performance in Public Primary Schools in Mumias East Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2019;6(5):29-43.abstract1.pdf
Osengo C. Ewaso Ngiro North Integrated Regional Development Plan . Nairobi: United Nations Centre for Regional Development & Ministry of Regional Development Authorities ; 2012.
Osengo C. Integrated Strategic Urban Development Plan of Lodwar.. Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

The Lodwar Integrated Urban Development Plan 2011-2030, highlights the historical background of the town, spatial planning its development and main planning bottlenecks. It further projects the planning area in the context of location, regional functions, sectoral analysis of key planning sectors with a view to bringing out main planning challenges.

The planning report finally looks at the conceptual arguments around the factors that determine the development of patterns within the planning areas signed out as the drainage features, landscape units and the infrastructure features of the road system as well as the proposed Lamu Southern Sudan Ethiopia Transport corridor. After alternative models of spatial development are based on the above structuring the elements from which the best was selected as the preferred without integrated urban development plan 2011-2030.

Osengo C. Kitale Municipal Ward Plans in collaboration with ITGD-EA and Department of Urban and Regional Planning . Nairobi: ITDG and Dept. Urban and Regional Planning; 2005.
Osengo C. Nakuru Strategic Structure Plan.. Nairobi; 1999. Abstract

Nakuru Town is the farming capital of Kenya. It is located in the Rift Valley within the rich agricultural highlands, formerly known as "The white Highlands" locally the town is sandwiched between the scenic Menengai crater to the North and Lake Nakuru national park to the south. There has been a tremendous increase in its population over the past three decades. This has led to an increase in the demand for basic services and infrastructure such as housing, water and sanitation, roads among others. This in turn has put a strain on the available resources and increased challenges to the municipal council to meet the needs of the town's inhabitants.

In view of the foregoing, there was an urgent need to initial planning and management interventions to improve the quality and efficiency of urban life and social economic activities respectively. If on this basis that the strategies structure planning process sponsored by United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) in partnership with Department of Urban and Regional Planning . Physical Planning Department prepared the Nakuru Strategic Structure plan. This will enable the council to respond to the aforementioned planning and management challenges.

Osengo C. Kitale Municipal Ward Plans in collaboration with ITGD-EA and Department of Urban and Regional Planning . Nairobi: ITDG and Dept. Urban and Regional Planning; 2006.
Osengo C. Nakuru Strategic Structure Plan. In collaboration with United Nations Habitat and the Belgian Government.. Belgian: United Nations Habitat and the Belgian Government.; 2001.
Osir EO, Abubakar L, Imbuga MO. "Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly Glossina longipennis.". 1995. Abstract

A blood-meal-induced lectin (agglutinin) with proteolytic activity was isolated from midgut extracts of Glossina longipennis by a two-step procedure involving anion-exchange chromatography. It is a glycoprotein [native molecular weight (M(r) 61,000 +/- 3000 da) composed of two noncovalently-linked subunits designated alpha (M(r), approximately 27,000 da) and beta (M(r), approximately 33,000 da). The trypsin activity and the glycosyl residues were present on the alpha- and beta-subunits, respectively. The native protein was capable of agglutinating both bloodstream-form and procyclic trypanosomes as well as rabbit red blood cells. This activity was strongly inhibited by D-glucosamine and weakly inhibited by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Similarly, soybean trypsin inhibitor abrogated agglutination of bloodstream-form parasites, whereas the procyclics were unaffected. The agglutination activity was sensitive to temperatures above 40 degrees C but was unaffected by chelators of metal ions. Antibodies raised against the protein were used in immunoblotting experiments to show the presence of a similar protein in several members of the Glossina species. However, no cross-reactivity was detected with midgut extracts prepared from sandflies, mosquitoes, or stable flies. It is proposed that this molecule might play an important role in differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms.

Osiro OA, Simila HO, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module III): Direct Restorative Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module III): Direct Restorative Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Osiro OA, Simila HO, Kisumbi BK. " Dental Biomaterials Science (Module IV): Indirect Restorative and Prosthetic Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module IV): Indirect Restorative and Prosthetic Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Osiro OAM. Development of a prototype for a restorative dental cement in Kenya. Kariuki DK, Gathece LW, Brauer DS, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2019.
Osiro OA, Hill RG, Bushby A. "Effects of strontium for calcium substitution on properties of GICs." Journal of Dental Research. 2014;93(Special Issue B):188446.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Properties of clinker and alkaline-activated aluminosilicates for experimental cements.". In: IADR AMER. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2017.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "The Minamata Convention on Mercury and its implications for management of dental caries in low‐and middle‐income countries." International Dental Journal. 2019;69(4):247-251 doi: 10.1111/idj.12461.16163233_osiro_et_al._2019.pdf
Osiro AO, Macigo FG, Kisumbi BK, Dienya TM. "Knowledge and perception of atraumatic restorative treatment among dentists in Nairobi." JKDA. 2011;2(1):145-150.
Osiro OA, Kisumbi BK, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Implications of the Minamata Convention on Mercury on Oral Health in Kenya." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2020;1(1):17-18.
Osiro OA, Macigo FG, Kisumbi BK, Dienya TM. "Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment among Nairobi-based dentists ." Journal of Dental Research. 2006;85(Special Issue C, East and Southern Africa Division).
Osiro OA, Kisumbi BK, Simila HO. "Categories of direct restorative materials and their selection by dentists in Kenya.". In: IADR ESAD. Eldoret Kenya; 2015.
Osiro OO, Kariuki DK, Joyce K G. "Synthesis and Characterization of Ionomer-type Cements from Alkalin-Activated Kaolinite." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids-X. 2022;13(100079):2-10.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Synthesis and characterisation of ionomer-type cements from alkaline activated kaolinite." Non-crystalline solids: X. 2022;doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nocx.2021.100079.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Composition, Particle Size, Setting Time of Clinker and Geopolymer Cements.". In: IADR. London, UK; 2018.
Osiro O.A, Kisumbi SBKOH. "Categories of Direct Restorative materials and their selection by dentists in Kenya.". In: 33rd Kenya Dental Association Annual Scientific Conference & Exhibition. Boma Inn, Eldoret Kenya; 2015.
Osman MAA, Onono JO, Olaka LA, Elhag MM, Abdel-Rahman EM. "Climate Variability and Change Affect Crops Yield under Rainfed Conditions: A Case Study in Gedaref State, Sudan." Agronomy. 2021;11:1680.
OSODO MRSOGONDAGRACE. "Ogonda, G. (1993), Ingetration fo Children with Physical Disabilities, Who Benefits.". In: KISE Bulletin, 5 (2) 27-32. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1993. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
OSODO MRSOGONDAGRACE. "Oganda G. (1995) Creating a Barrier Free Environment for Children with Physical Disabilities.". In: Nairobi: KISE. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
OSODO MRSOGONDAGRACE. "Perusuh, M. and Ogonda, G. (1998). .". In: Special Needs Education in Kenya and Zimbabwe. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1998. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
OSODO MRSOGONDAGRACE. "Reaching out to Children with Special Educational Needs in Kenya, Uganda and Zimbabwe.". In: Ogonda G. O. et al (1999). Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1999. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
OSODO MRSOGONDAGRACE. "Adegnibagbe, S., Perusuh, M. & Ogonda, G. (1997). A Comparative Review of Special Education in Kenya, Nigeria and Zimbabwe with reference to provision and Research.". In: International Journal of Special Education. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1997. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
OSODO MRSOGONDAGRACE. "Peresuh, M., Adenigbagbe, S. & Ogonda, G. O. (1997) Perspectives of Special Need in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Nigeria.". In: African Journal of Special Needs Education, 2(1) 40-47. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1997. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
OSODO MRSOGONDAGRACE. "Ogonda G. (1991): Children with Muscular Dystrophy.". In: Nairobi: KISE. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
OSODO MRSOGONDAGRACE. "Ogoda G. (1993). Physically and Neurologically Impaired Childre.". In: Nairobi: KISE. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1993. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
Osolo NK;, Kinuthia JN;, Gachuiri CK;, Okeyo AM;, Wanyoike MM;, Okomo M. "Species abundance, food preference and nutritive value of goat diets in the semi-arid lands of east-central Kenya."; 1996. Abstract

The key forage species and nutrient composition of forage species preferred by free- ranging East African goats in rangelands of eastern-central Kenya were determined. One hundred and five forage species were identified including 30 tree, 29 shrub, 20 grass and

Osolo NK;, Kinuthia JN;, Gachuiri CK;, Okeyo AM;, Wanyoike MM;, Okomo M. "Species abundance, food preference and nutritive value of goat diets in the semi-arid lands of east-central Kenya."; 1996. Abstract

The key forage species and nutrient composition of forage species preferred by free- ranging East African goats in rangelands of eastern-central Kenya were determined. One hundred and five forage species were identified including 30 tree, 29 shrub, 20 grass and

Osolo NK;, Kinuthia JN;, Gachuiri CK;, Okeyo AM;, Wanyoike MM;, Okomo M. "Species abundance, food preference and nutritive value of goat diets in the semi-arid lands of east-central Kenya."; 1996. Abstract

The key forage species and nutrient composition of forage species preferred by free- ranging East African goats in rangelands of eastern-central Kenya were determined. One hundred and five forage species were identified including 30 tree, 29 shrub, 20 grass and

Osore CK, Mwero JN. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Cement with Ground and Unground Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." International Journal of Scientific Research Publications. 2019;Vol 9(1):349-365.
Osoro EM, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Abong’o DA. "Occurrence and Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Sediments from Nairobi River Basin, Kenya, East Africa." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(1):274-286. Print ISSN: 2395-1990 | Online ISSN : 2394-4099. doi : https://doi.org/10.32628/IJSRSET218148.
Osoro EM, Wandiga S, Madadi V, Abongo D. "Occurrence and Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water from Nairobi River Basin, Kenya, East Africa." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences ISSN: 2313-3317. 2021;6. AbstractAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Description
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers are linked to adverse health effects that includethyroid hormone disruption, neuro-developmental deficit, abnormal pregnancy, and potential carcinogens. This study was aimed at assessing the concentrationsof selected Polybrominated diphenyl ether compounds in water of Nairobi River. Water samples were collected by grab method from nine sites along the river andanalysed for brominated diphenyl ethers using gas chromatography coupled withmass spectrometer. The mean concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethersresidue in water ranged from< 0.0009 to 72.89±6.15 ng/L. The dominantcongeners were 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 5′-hexabromodiphenylether, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 6-penta-bromodiphenyl ether, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 5′-hexabromodiphenylether and 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 6′-hexa-bromodiphenyl. The highest meanconcentration of 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether was 72.89±6.15 ng/L, 2, 2′, 3, 4, 4′-penta-bromodiphenyl ether was 14.08±0.68 ng/L, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 6-pentabromodiphenylether was 43.67±1.47 ng/L, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 5′-hexa-bromodiphenylether was 24.78±2.49 ng/L, and 2, 2′, 3, 4, 4′, 5′, 6-hepta-bromodiphenyl ether was11. 75±0.97 ng/L. Consequently, as these compounds are known to bioaccumulatein fatty tissues, continued use of the river water poses a health risk toanimals and humans due to contamination across the food chain.

Osoro EM, Wandiga S, Madadi V, Abongo D. "Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Pollution in Urban and Rural Settings’ Ambient Air in Kenya: An Insight into Concentration Levels, Compositional Profile and Seasonal Variation." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences ISSN: 2313-3317. 2021;6. AbstractAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Description
Air samples were collected from three urban and one rural sites in Kenya with the aim of establishing pollution levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. Forty-eight air Samples were collected by passive air sampling, Soxhlet extracted and analysed for brominated diphenyl ethers using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The mean concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers residue in air ranged from≤ 0.9 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3. The predominant congener was 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether with mean concentration range of 1.94±0.03 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3 followed by 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5-penta-bromodiphenyl ether with mean concentration range of 1.32±0.06 to 66.83±1.19 pgm− 3. Seasonal variations of the pollutants showed a high level of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in hot dry season in range of 1.94±0.03 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3. Air samples from Dandora and Industrial area both from urban location recorded high concentrations of the analysed polybrominated diphenyl ethers compared with the air samples from the rural location.

Osoro EM, Wandiga SO, Abong’o DA, Madadi VO, Macharia JW. "Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Water and Sediment from Rusinga Island, Lake Victoria, Kenya." IOSR-JAC. 2016;9(9):56-63.
Osoro MK, Rathore IV, MANGALA MJ, Mustapha AO. Radioactivity in surface soils around the proposed sites for Titanium Mining Project in Kenya. Citeseer; 2011. AbstractWebsite

Radioactivity measurements were carried out around Maumba and Nguluku villages, two of the proposed sites for titanium mining in the coastal area of Kenya. Samples of surface soils were analyzed using a HPGe gamma spectrometer. The average activity concentrations for …

Osoti A, Gwako GN, Liyayi B, Qureshi ZP. "Distinguishing Intrauterine Fetal Demise versus Abdominal Pregnancy in Low Resource Settings." East African Medical Journal. 2015;92(1). Abstractdistinguishing_intrauterine_fetal_demise_versus_abdominal_pregnancy_in_low_resource_settings.pdf

Diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy always poses a clinical dilemma. Transvaginal ultrasound is the ideal radiological procedure in locating these pregnancies. However in resource limited setting, abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds can be the only available yet unreliable modalities for distinguishing intrauterine versus abdominal pregnancies. We present a case of a 36 year old para 4+0 gravida 5 who presented with fetal demise at 16 weeks of gestation. Multiple abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds showed intra uterine fetal demise for which she underwent induction. The definitive diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy was established using transcervical Foleys catheter aided abdominal-pelvic ultrasound which showed an empty uterus and a gestational sac, placenta and a 16-week fetus with no cardiac activity in the right adnexa/iliac region.

Osoti A, Gwako GN, Liyayi B, Qureshi ZP. "Distinguishing Intrauterine Fetal Demise Versus Abdominal Pregnancy in Low Resource Settings, A Case Report." East African Medical Journal. 2015;92(1). Abstractfull_article.pdf

Diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy always poses a clinical dilemma. Transvaginal ultrasound is the ideal radiological procedure in locating these pregnancies. However in resource limited setting, abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds can be the only available yet unreliable modalities for distinguishing intrauterine versus abdominal pregnancies. We present a case of a 36 year old para 4+0 gravida 5 who presented with fetal demise at 16 weeks of gestation. Multiple abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds showed intra uterine fetal demise for which she underwent induction. The definitive diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy was established using transcervical Foleys catheter aided abdominal-pelvic ultrasound which showed an empty uterus and a gestational sac, placenta and a 16-week fetus with no cardiac activity in the right adnexa/iliac region.

Osoti A, Kinuthia J, Chung M, Opiyo E, Oboko R, Chepken C, Fueller S, Masuda D, Dunbar M, Masys D. "Improving and Sustaining ICT Skills of Health Researchers in Kenya Through a Three-Tiered Approach of Online Learning, Hands-On Workshops, and Personalized Mentoring." Annals of Global Health. 2017;83. Abstract
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Osoti AO, John-Stewart G, Kiarie J, Richardson B, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Krakowiak D, Farquhar C. "Home visits during pregnancy enhance male partner HIV counselling and testing in Kenya: a randomized clinical trial." AIDS. 2014;28(1):95-103. Abstract

HIV testing male partners of pregnant women may decrease HIV transmission to women and promote uptake of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) interventions. However, it has been difficult to access male partners in antenatal care (ANC) clinics. We hypothesized that home visits to offer HIV testing to partners of women attending ANC would increase partner HIV testing.

Osoti AO, JP V, Oladapo OT, ZP Q, AM G. "Tranexamic acid for treatment of postpartum haemorrhage." Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Reproductive Medicine. 2019;29(5):146-147. AbstractWebsite

Postpartum haemorrhage remains the leading cause of maternal mortality globally. Mortality and severe morbidity due to postpartum haemorrhage is highest in lower-resource settings. Tranexamic acid is an anti-fibrinolytic drug that has been in use in humans for nearly five decades. It is a structural analogue of lysine that binds irreversibly to plasminogen, thereby inhibiting the binding of plasmin to fibrin. This in turn inhibits fibrinolysis, thus stabilizing blood clots. Tranexamic acid has been shown to improve outcomes in trauma-related bleeding. New research has shown that early use of tranexamic acid (within 3 hours of birth), in addition to standard care, safely reduces deaths due to bleeding in women with clinically diagnosed postpartum haemorrhage, regardless of the mode of birth.

Keywords: anti-fibrinolysis,maternal mortality,postpartum haemorrhage,tranexamic acid

Ostashevskiĭ II, Sungurov IA, Volchkov VA. "[Light scattering by cell suspensions in normal conditions and exposed to external factors]." Biofizika. 1975;20(5):853-8. Abstract

The characteristics of light scattering of cell suspensions in norm (pH 7,2, t=20degreesC) and upon external influences (change of pH and increase of tdegree). The turbidity tauapproximatelylambda-n and n=0,2--0,3 for cells in norm. After cell damage n increases. Dependence of n correlates with the increase of some injured cells determined by eozin test. Alterations of light scattering after cell damage were connected with the increase of deposit of intercellular structure in general scattering.

Ostenson RC, Fields BT, Nolan CM. "Polymyxin B and rifampin: new regimen for multiresistant Serratia marcescens infections." Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.. 1977;12(6):655-9. Abstract

Polymyxin B and rifampin were given to 12 patients with multi-drug-resistant nosocomial Serratia marcescens infections. Eight cures were achieved; drug hepatotoxicity occurred once; one fatal suprainfection was encountered; and two patients died during therapy of causes related to severe underlying illnesses. Polymyxin B and rifampin were uniformly synergistic in vitro against the infecting strains and against 40 additional clinical isolates of S. marcescens.

Osuna F, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Muthoni J, Wadegu M, Njiri J, Opot B, Mukunzi S, Majanja J, Wurapa E. "Surveillance of respiratory syncytial virus occurrences in Kenya from 2006-2010." Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:E142. AbstractWebsite
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Osuna F, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Muthoni J, Wadegu M, Njiri J, Opot B, Mukunzi S, Majanja J, Wurapa E. "Surveillance of respiratory syncytial virus occurrences in Kenya from 2006-2010." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;16:e142. AbstractWebsite
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Osuna. F, Achilla. R, Schnabel. D, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Wurapa. E, Bulimo. W. "Co-circulating Respiratory Viral Pathogens during the pH1N1 Outbreak of 2009 In Kenya.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference at the College of Health Sciences University of Nairobi . University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Njiri. J, Mwangi. J, Opot. B, Mitei. K, Nyambura. J, Wurapa. E. "Molecular Evolution of HA1 Gene of the Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 Strain in Kenya During the 2009-2010 Period .". In: XV International Symposium on Respiratory Viral Infections. Rotterdam, Netherlands; 2013. Abstract
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Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Opot. B, Wadegu. M, Opanda. S, Mitei. K, Njiri. J, Nyambura. J, Mwangi. J, Majanja. J, Wurapa. E. "Amino acid changes at the hemagglutinin antigenic site amongst Kenyan Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in 2009-2011.". In: 2nd Medical and Veterinary Virology Research -2 symposium. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya.; 2012. Abstract
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Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Gachara. G, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Obura. B, Schnabel. D, Wurapa. E. "Co-Infections and Co-Circulating Respiratory Viral Pathogens during the H1N1 Outbreak of 2009 in Kenya.". In: Virology Africa 2011 conference. University of Cape Town South Africa.; 2011. Abstract
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Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Njiri. J, Mwangi. J, Opot. B, Mitei. K, Nyambura. J, Achilla. R, Wurapa. E. Surveillance of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Kenya from 2006-2010. . Bangkok Thailand; 2012. Abstract
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Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Mwala. D, Mwangi. J, Wangui. J, Schnabel. D, Wurapa. EK. Survey of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Occurrences in Kenya from 2006-2010.. The Rome Marriott Park Hotel, Rome, Italy; 2011. Abstract
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Osundwa MT, Chindia ML, W GS, Awange DO, Onyango. "Squamous Odontogenic Tumour-like Gingival proliferations Occurring with Dentigerous Cysts and Amelogenesis Imperfecta.". 2004. Abstract

To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate

Osundwa MT, Chindia ML, W GS, Awange DO, Onyango A. "Squamous Odontogenic Tumour-like Gingival proliferations Occurring with Dentigerous Cysts and Amelogenesis Imperfecta.". 2004. Abstract

To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate

Osundwa TM, Chindia ML, W GS, Awange DO. "Amelogenesis imperfecta in Kenya.". 1999.Website
Osundwa MT, Chindia ML, W GS, Awange DO, Onyango A. "Squamous Odontogenic Tumour-like Gingival proliferations Occurring with Dentigerous Cysts and Amelogenesis Imperfecta.". 2004. Abstract

To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate

Otachi BN. The Influence of Entrepreneurial Personality, Human Capital and Entry Barriers on Performance of Entrepreneurs in the Informal Transport Business in Nairobi, Kenya”. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Entrepreneurship is believed to be the driving force behind economic and social development of nations. In today’s capitalistic system, entrepreneurs make an accelerated contribution to the economic growth and development of countries through the creation of small enterprises. In major world economies, these enterprises are associated to their overall economic growth and employment, hence the reason why research on this area is very critical. In carrying out the above study, the researcher was guided by five theories of entrepreneurship; the resourced-based, the social cultural, the psychological approach, the ecological and the institutional theory. Due to the nature and requirement of the study, the researcher was biased towards the use of two of the five theories mentioned above; the resourced-based and the psychological approach theory. The study was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya and the target was the Matatu entrepreneurs, operating the fourteen sitter public vehicles. Since its inception in Nairobi, the Matatu business has grown both in size and volume. This is assumed to indicate good business performance. However, despite the growth, it is only a few entrepreneurs who have succeeded. This is the problem this study attempted to investigate. The overall objective of this study was to determine the factors influencing performance of Matatu business in Nairobi, Kenya. This was a cross-sectional study and stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Based on the routes and regions, a sample of 364 registered Matatu owners was picked and questionnaires given out giving a response rate of 95%. Results from respondents were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics which indicated that performance in Matatu business was a function of but not limited to, personality traits, human capital, government policies, entry barriers and the management of registered Matatu welfare bodies. The findings from the study revealed that vital information touching on this business were missing in government records. One of the major findings of the study was the positive contribution of the registered industry welfare bodies towards the success of the Matatu business. Another major finding from the study touched on the human capital. That though education is important, the same was not a major performance factor in Matatu business.

Otadoh JA, Okoth SA, Ochanda J, Kahindi JP. "Assessment of Trichoderma isolates for virulence efficacy on Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. Phaseoli.". 2011;(13):99-107. Abstract

Trichoderma has been widely studied for their biocontrol ability, but their use as biocontrol agents in agriculture is limited due to the unpredictable efficiency which is affected by biotic and abiotic factors in soil. Isolates of Trichoderma from Embu soils were evaluated for their ability to control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli., in vitro and promote seedling growth in the greenhouse. Bioassays were run using dual cultures and diffusible compound production analysis. The Trichoderma isolates significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogen. The principle mechanisms of niche competition, mycoparasitism, and antibiosis were observed in growth of the pathogen mycelium in the presence of Trichoderma spp., through development of inhibition zones. There was coiling of hyphae around the pathogen mycelium coupled by lysising of cell wall Trichoderma spp., where T. reesei and T. koningii were the most effective isolates. Studies were indicative of the synergistic ability of Trichoderma spp., being an effective biocontrol of bean seedlings against Fusarium wilt while also promoting plant growth.

Otakwa RVM, Simiyu J, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effect of Radiation Intensity and Temperature on DSSC Performance." International Journal of Advanced Renewable Energy Research . 2012;1(2):109-116 . AbstractWebsite

Effects of radiation intensity and temperature on the performance of a dye-sensitized solar module (DSSM) have been investigated in a tropical area in Nairobi, Kenya. Outdoor measurements were performed on cloudless days at normal incidence of the incoming solar beam radiation to the module. A series of current-voltage (I-V) characterizations were carried out at different solar radiation intensities and module temperatures. The module performance parameters: Short circuit current density, (Jsc), Open circuit voltage, (Voc), Fill factor, (FF) and solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency, (η) were extracted from the I-V curves. Better efficiencies were observed at lower than higher radiation intensities. There was also an overall improved performance at elevated temperatures. The results may be useful during fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells meant for use in the tropics.

Otakwa, R.V.M, Simiyu, J., Waita, S.M., Mwabora JM. "Dark J-V Characterization of a Dye-Sensitized Module." International Journal of Professional Practice (IJPP), . 2012;3(1&2):165-168.
Otakwa RVM, Simiyu J, Mwabora JM. The Complementary of Dye-Sensitized and Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaics in Field Application in the Tropics. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

The complementarity of the Dye-Sensitized and Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) Photovoltaic (PV) modules has been investigated under different outdoor air mass (AM), irradiance intensity and temperature conditions. The performance of the Dye-Sensitized module (DSM) was investigated in Nairobi, Kenya and its performance compared with that of a-Si modules investigated in Lagos, Nigeria. The DSM’s good response to short wavelength radiation caused it to perform better at increased AM values than what has been reported of a-Si PV modules. On the other hand, studies on a-Si showed that its performance favors low AM conditions. The DSM was also found to generally perform better than what is reported of a-Si under irradiance and temperature dependence, but a-Si PV modules’ performance was reported to be remarkable at increased irradiance conditions. These results show that the Dye-Sensitized and the a-Si technologies complement each other’s performance when subjected to the outdoor field AM, irradiance and temperature conditions. These findings are useful in PV sizing, especially in the Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in the tropics.

Otakwa RVM, Simiyu J, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. "Dark Current Voltage (I-V) Characteristics of a Commercialized Dye-Sensitized Solar Module Ideal for use in the Tropics." International Journal of Professional Practice. 2012;3(1&2):165-168.
Otakwa, R.V.M, Simiyu, J., Waita, S.M., Mwabora JM. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Radiation Intensity and Temperature on DSSC Performance." International Journal of Advanced Renewable Energy Research (IJARER). 2012;1,2(4):17-25.
Otakwa RM, Simiyu J, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effect of Air Mass on Device Performance." International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 2012;3(3):369-375 . AbstractWebsite

Abstract - The performance of a Dye-Sensitized Solar Module (DSSM) of active area 175.12 cm2 has been investigated at a tropical climate area located 1.28˚S, 35.81˚E. Outdoor current density-voltage (J-V) characterizations were carried out at different AM values. The DSSM’s performance parameters; short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) and solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) were extracted from the J-V characteristics. The DSSM’s Voc reduced linearly by 2.05% from 8.31 V to 8.14 V as AM increased from 1 to 1.09. Jsc reduced linearly by 26.06% from 1.04 x 10-3 Acm-2 to 7.69 x 10-4 Acm-2 as AM increased from 1 to AM 1.09. FF increased linearly by 19.05% from 0.51 to 0.63 as AM increased from 1 at 1.09. η increased by 32.77% from 1.77% to 1.19% as AM increased from 1 to 1.09. The DSSM performed better during afternoon than morning hours. The results may be useful in tuning Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) meant for use in the tropics. The design of Net Zero Energy (NZE) buildings in the tropics can also benefit from these findings.

Otakwa RVM, Simiyu J, Mwabora JM. "Dye-Sensitized and Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic (PV Devices' Outdoor Performance: A Comparative Study." International Journal of Emerging Technological in advanced Engineering . 2013. Abstract

The performance of a dye-sensitized solar module (DSSM) has been investigated under different air mass (AM), irradiance intensity and temperature conditions in Nairobi, Kenya. The good response of the DSSM to short wavelength radiation made it perform well at increased AM values as compared to what is reported of Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) devices. The DSSM performed better compared to what is reported of a-Si PV devices under irradiance and temperature dependence. The results are useful in PV sizing, especially in the area of Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in Kenya and the tropics.

Otakwa, R.V.M, Simiyu, J., Waita SM, Mwabora JM. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Air Mass on Device Performance." International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER). 2012;2(2):369-375.
Otanga H, Mwangi J. "Student teachers' anxiety and satisfaction with teaching practice among university students in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research,. 2015;3(8):1-12.
Otanga H,(Ed.) IMLM. Melodies of the motherland: An anthology of poems from Kenya. Nairobi. Nairobi: Claripress; 2001.
Otange BO, Rop R, Oyugi JO, Birech Z. "Rapid detection of HIV1-p24 antigen in human blood plasma using Raman spectroscopy.". In: Frontiers in Optics. Optical Society of America; 2016:. Abstract
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Otange BO, Birech Z, Okonda J, Rop R. "Conductive silver paste smeared glass substrates for label-free Raman spectroscopic detection of HIV-1 and HIV-1 p24 antigen in blood plasma." Anal Bioanal Chem. 2017;409(12):3253-3259. Abstract

We report on application of conductive silver paste smeared glass slides as Raman spectroscopy sample substrates for label-free detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen in blood plasma. We also show that the same substrates can be applied in Raman spectroscopic screening of blood plasma for presence of HIV. The characteristic Raman spectrum of HIV-1 p24 antigen displayed prominent bands that were assigned to ribonucleic acids (RNA) and proteins that constitute the antigen. This spectrum can be used as reference during Raman spectroscopic screening for HIV in plasma within the first few days after exposure (<7 days). The Raman spectra obtained from HIV+ plasma displayed unique peaks centered at wavenumbers 928, 990, 1270, 1397, and 1446 cm(-1) attributed to the Raman active vibrations in the virion carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Other bands similar to those reported in literature were also seen and assignments made. The attachment of the HIV virions to silver nanoparticles via gp120 glycoprotein knobs was thought to be responsible for the enhanced Raman signals of proteins associated with the virus. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied on the combined spectral data showed that HIV- and HIV+ spectra had differing spectral patterns. This indicated the great power of Raman spectroscopy in HIV detection when plasma samples are deposited onto silver paste smeared glass substrates. The Raman peaks responsible for the segregation of the spectral data in PCA were mainly those assigned to the viral proteins (645, 725, 813, 1270, and 1658 cm(-1)). Excellent results were obtained from Artificial Neural Network (ANN) applied on the HIV+ Raman spectral data around the prominent peak centered at 1270 cm(-1) with R (coefficient of correlation) and R (2) (coefficient of determination) values of 0.9958 and 0.9895, respectively. The method has the potential of being used as quick blood screening for HIV before blood transfusion with the Raman peaks assigned to the virion proteins acting as reference. Graphical Abstract The HIV type 1 virus particle gets attached to the silver nanoparticle contained in the conductive silver paste smear onto a glass slide. This results in strong Raman signals associated with the components of the virion. The signals are collected, dispersed in a spectrometer and displayed on a computer screen. Method can be used as a label-free and rapid HIV screening in blood plasma.

Otange B, Birech Z, Rop R, Julius Oyugi. "Estimation of HIV-1 viral load in plasma of HIV-1-infected people based on the associated Raman spectroscopic peaks." Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2019. Abstract
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Otedo AEO, Otieno CF, Oyoo GO, Omonge EO. "Anti-Retroviral Therapy Related Liver Injury (ARLI): A Series of 11 Cases." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):40-47.
Otedo AEO, Oyoo GO, Otieno JO, Otieno CF, Omonge EO. "Pyomyositis in HIV: A Series of 12 Cases." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):48-52.
Otedo AEO, Otieno JO, Otieno CF, Oyoo GO. "Cholangiopathy in a Cohort of HIV Positive Kenyan Patients." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):25-32.
Otedo AEO, Otieno CF, Jowi J, Oyoo GO, Omonge EO. "Cryptococcus Meningitis in a Cohort of HIV Positive Kenyan Patients: Outcome after Two Weeks of Therapy. East Afr Med J.201." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):33-39.
Otedo, A. E O, Otieno CF, Okal C, Othero D, Oyoo GO, Omonge EO. "Morbidity and CD4+Cell Counts at Initial Presentation of a Cohort of HAARTNaïve, HIV Positive Kenyan Patients: Implications to Initiating HAART." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):3-14.
and Otedo A. E. O., McLigeyo S.O. OKFAJK. "Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in maintenance dialysis in a public hospital in a developing country South African Medical Journal, 93 (3): 380-384; 2003." South African Medical Journal, 93 (3): 380-384; 2003. 2003;93(3):380-384. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis are predisposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for a number of reasons. In a similar way, the prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies among patients on chronic haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis is consistently higher than in healthy populations. There are few published data on these diseases in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in patients on maintenance dialysis. SETTING: Renal Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest public referral and teaching hospital in Kenya. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. STUDY POPULATION: All 100 patients on maintenance dialysis during the 9-month study period were evaluated. METHOD: The following information was obtained from all the patients: socio-demographic data, date of diagnosis of ESRD and commencement of dialysis, and number of blood transfusions. Additionally, a history suggestive of hepatitis in spouses was looked for and physical examination for tattoos and other scars was carried out. Laboratory investigations included urea, electrolytes and serum creatinine, liver enzymes, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), immunoglobulin M anti-hepatitis B core antibody (IgM anti-HBc), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. Student's t-test was used to assess the significance of the data collected. RESULTS: The results were expressed as mean (+/- SD). Fifty-seven males and 43 females were studied. Mean age was 44.3 +/- 14.6 years. Ten patients (10%) had elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (> 40 U/l for both). HBsAg was found in 8 patients (8%), IgM anti-HBc in 2%, and HBeAg in none. Anti-HCV antibody was found in 5%. Six of the HBsAg-positive patients were on haemodialysis, the other 2 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). There was no coexistence of HBV and HCV markers. Longer duration of dialysis and the number of blood transfusions were associated with an increased seroprevalence of HBV and HCV. CONCLUSION: There is a low seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in our dialysis population. This should not lead to complaisance in screening for these potentially lethal complications.

Otele O, Onjala J. "China’s African Economic Policy: An Overview and Assessment.". In: The Conference on China-Africa Cooperation on Human Resources in the Sector of Mineral Resources . Yunnan University, Kunming; 2015.
Otengi SBB, Stigter CJ, Ng'anga JK, Liniger H. "Soil moisture and its consequences under different management in a six year old hedged agroforestry demonstration plot in semi-arid Kenya, for two successive contrasting seasons.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Hedged agroforestry (AF) demonstration plots with maize/bean intercrops were studied at Matanya in Laikipia district, Kenya, between 1991 and 1995 inclusive, to understand crop yield behaviour due to selected soil moisture conservation methods applicable in semi-arid areas. The treatments were: Grevillea robusta trees root pruned, compared to unpruned, both in combination with (1) minimum tillage and mulching with 3t/ha maize stalks harvested from the plots with additional stalks collected from the nearby farms, and (2) the locally applied method of deep tillage practiced by the immigrants from wetter regions, acting as the control. Results showed that: (i) plots with root pruned Grevillea robusta trees that were mulched and minimum tilled had most soil moisture available in the shallower layers, during the wettest and the driest season on which this paper is based; (ii) the variation of soil moisture with distance from the Grevillea robusta trees showed patterns that were quite similar for plots with root pruned trees in the dry and the wet season; (iii) beans had greater seed yields and maize had more (stover) biomass and (only in the wettest season) grain in plots with pruned trees, minimum tilled and mulched, than in other AF plots. In the wettest season this resulted in identical maize yields but lower bean seed yields compared to those in the mulched and sometimes also the local control plots without trees. In the driest season bean yields remained the same but maize biomass yields improved above the control yields for the most successful agroforestry intervention applied; (iv) competition between the six year old Grevillea robusta trees and the crops was indirectly confirmed to be stronger than in earlier experiments in the same plots. This way the agroforestry demonstration plots were very successful in showing the consequences of the ageing agroforestry system, where the soil moisture conservation measures of pruning and mulching kept their effects. Statistical analysis only weakly confirmed the positive effect of root pruning on reducing competition for soil moisture between crops and trees that were very clearly shown to exist by the physical error analysis

Otengi SBB, Stigter CJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Liniger H. "Soil moisture and maize-bean yields under different management in a six years old hedged Agroforestry system in Semi-Arid Laikipia, Kenya, for two contrasting seasons.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Hedged agroforestry (AF) demonstration plots with maize/bean intercrops were studied at Matanya in Laikipia district, Kenya, between 1991 and 1995 inclusive, to understand crop yield behaviour due to selected soil moisture conservation methods applicable in semi-arid areas. The treatments were: Grevillea robusta trees root pruned, compared to unpruned, both in combination with (1) minimum tillage and mulching with 3t/ha maize stalks harvested from the plots with additional stalks collected from the nearby farms, and (2) the locally applied method of deep tillage practiced by the immigrants from wetter regions, acting as the control. Results showed that: (i) plots with root pruned Grevillea robusta trees that were mulched and minimum tilled had most soil moisture available in the shallower layers, during the wettest and the driest season on which this paper is based; (ii) the variation of soil moisture with distance from the Grevillea robusta trees showed patterns that were quite similar for plots with root pruned trees in the dry and the wet season; (iii) beans had greater seed yields and maize had more (stover) biomass and (only in the wettest season) grain in plots with pruned trees, minimum tilled and mulched, than in other AF plots. In the wettest season this resulted in identical maize yields but lower bean seed yields compared to those in the mulched and sometimes also the local control plots without trees. In the driest season bean yields remained the same but maize biomass yields improved above the control yields for the most successful agroforestry intervention applied; (iv) competition between the six year old Grevillea robusta trees and the crops was indirectly confirmed to be stronger than in earlier experiments in the same plots. This way the agroforestry demonstration plots were very successful in showing the consequences of the ageing agroforestry system, where the soil moisture conservation measures of pruning and mulching kept their effects. Statistical analysis only weakly confirmed the positive effect of root pruning on reducing competition for soil moisture between crops and trees that were very clearly shown to exist by the physical error analysis.

with others. `We Are the Government: a Handbook for Civic Education'. . Nairobi, CLARIPRESS.; Submitted.
Othieno CJ, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM. "Substance use in outpatients attending rural and urban health centres in Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among patients attending primary health centres in urban and rural areas of Kenya. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional prevalence survey. SETTING: Urban health centres of Jericho and Kenyatta University (KU) and rural health centres in Muranga district. SUBJECTS: One hundred and fifty adult patients (seventy eight males and seventy two females) were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Semi-structured questionnaires and the DSM IV diagnostic criteria were used to record the socio-demographic data and to determine substance dependence or abuse. RESULTS: The substances commonly used in descending order of frequency were alcohol, tobacco, khat and cannabis. Only alcohol and tobacco were extensively used. Lifetime prevalence rates of alcohol use for the two urban health centres were 54% and 62% compared to 54% for the rural health centres. For tobacco the lifetime prevalence rates were 30% for Jericho, 28% for KU and 38% for Muranga. The differences between the rural and urban samples were not statistically significant. More males than females had used alcohol (average lifetime use 80.8% for males compared to 30.6% for females: p<0.05) and tobacco (average lifetime use 56.4% for males compared to 5.6% for females p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The rates of substance abuse were generally low with the exception of alcohol and tobacco. Socio-cultural factors might be responsible for the differences noted. It is suggested that preventive measures and education should be emphasised at the primary care level

Othieno CJ, Ndetei DM, Obondo AA, Kathuku DM. "Patterns of substance used among Kenya street children.". 2001.
Othieno C, Rono R, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Human Motivation and Emotions."; 2006.
Othieno C, Jenkins R, Okeyo S, Wallcraft J, Jenkins B. "Perspectives and concerns of clients at primary health care facilities involved in evaluation of a national mental health training programme for primary care in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Perspectives and concerns of clients at primary health care facilities involved in evaluation of a national mental health training programme for primary care in Kenya.

Othieno C, Abdelrahman A, editor Ndetei, D.M., Sebit MB, Musisi S, Szabo CP. "Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders."; 2006.
Othieno CJ, Khaemba MN, Misikho R, Mueni F, Mugambi LN, Obondi C, Okwara L. "Perceptions of service providers regarding special needs offenders in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

The Government of Kenya formed a multidisciplinary committee to address the issues of special needs offenders (SNO) in 2009. Because of the widely varying concepts of who could be included in this category, this study was necessary to clearly define and prioritise the interventions. Thus the views of 425 personnel who work with offenders in Kenyan institutions were assessed to determine their perception regarding SNOs and their modes of management. Qualitative methods and the Attitude Towards Prisoners (ATP) Scale were used to gauge the perceptions. The workers identified the following as special needs offenders: the mentally disabled (28.6%), orphans and vulnerable children (21.9%), the physically disabled (14.8%) and child offenders (11.9%). Overall the workers attitude towards offenders was positive but they relied mainly on intuition in identifying the SNOs and used counselling as the main mode of intervention. The study therefore recommends the development of assessment tools, and screening procedures at the intake so as to identify SNOs; establishment of special rehabilitative programmes for the categories of SNOs identified especially the following: intellectual disability and those with mental illness, alcohol and substance users, vulnerable children and those children whose mothers are in prison and the sexual offenders. Other challenges regarding the management of SNOs in Kenya are discussed

Othieno CJ, Okoth RO, Peltzer K, Pengpid S, Malla LO. "Depression among university students in Kenya: Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates." Journal of affective disorders. Submitted;165:120-125. AbstractWebsite

Background Depression is a common cause of morbidity but prevalence levels among
Kenyan university students are poorly understood. A better understanding of depression and
its correlates is essential in planning for appropriate interventions in this population group.
Method A random sample of 923 University of Nairobi students (525 male and 365 female)
were interviewed using a questionnaire to record sociodemographic variables. Depressive
symptoms were measured using Centre for Epidemiological Studies Short Depression ..

Othieno C, Rono R, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Human Learning."; 2006.
Othieno CJ, Kitazi N, Mburu J, Obondo A, Mathai MA, Loewenson R. Community participation in the management of Mental disorders in Kariobangi, Kenya .; 2008.
Othieno CJ, Okoth R, Peltzer K, Pengpid S, Malla LO. "Risky HIV sexual behaviour and depression among University of Nairobi students." Annals of general psychiatry. 2015;14(1):16. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Background: Prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
among the youth are disproportionately high compared to that of other age groups in Kenya.
Poor mental health has been linked to risky HIV behaviour, yet few local studies have
explored these aspects. This study sought to determine associations between HIV risky
sexual behaviour and depression among undergraduate students at the University of
Nairobi. Method: A random sample of 923 (525 males and 365 females) undergraduate ..

Othieno C, Rono R, Sebit MB, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Memory and Forgetting."; 2006.
Othieno C, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Sleep Disorders."; 2006.
Othieno CJ, Kitazi N, Mburu J, Obondo A, Mathai MA, Loewenson. R. "Use of participatory, action and research methods in enhancing awareness of mental disorders in Kariobangi, Kenya: ." International Psychiatry . 2009;6(1).
Othieno C, Abdelrahman A, Sebit MB, Musisi S, editor Ndetei, D.M., Ovuga E. "HIV/AIDS and Mental Health."; 2006.
Othieno J. "Understanding how contextual realities affect African born immigrants and refugees living with HIV in accessing care in the Twin Cities.". 2007. Abstract

The Rapid Assessment, Response, and Evaluation (RARE) portion of the CSAD Project in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota) was designed to identify barriers to care faced by African refugees and immigrants. Data were collected from cultural experts and African people living with HIV (PLWH) who were out of care, who had newly entered care, or who were in and out of care. Findings from RARE can be categorized into five main themes: HIV/AIDS within the African context, experiences of African PLWH, unfamiliarity with HIV and support services that facilitate access to care, cultural and religious dilemmas in seeking or remaining in care, and accessing African PLWH and getting them into care. Most of the issues identified were manifestations of stigma, gender, religion and/or faith, as well as the two main underlying cross-cutting themes of knowledge and fear. The top barriers to care included fatalistic views about HIV, fear of isolation, fear of deportation, lack of knowledge of the care system and HIV-related services, and employment issues

Othieno J. "Twin Cities care system assessment: process, findings, and recommendations.". 2007. Abstract

The Twin Cities Care system lacks services that are most needed in the later stages of HIV disease. Services in highest demand included housing, transportation, and translation; available translations services are generally limited to Somali, Oromo, and Amharic, the languages most widely spoken by the three largest African immigrant and refugee groups in the Twin Cities. The care system is not well-integrated, and most of the work of moving clients within the system is done by case managers and care advocates. The main technical competencies identified by providers as lacking are understanding mental health from the perspective of African-born people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and addressing sexual issues, especially with women. African providers with foreign certifications not recognized in the United States are not able to use their professional skills. African clients are not well-informed about HIV, and African women are more likely than men to seek and stay in care.

Othieno CJ, Khaemba MN, Misikho R, Mueni F, Mugambi LN, Obondi C, Okwara L. "Perceptions of service providers regarding special needs offenders in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

The Government of Kenya formed a multidisciplinary committee to address the issues of special needs offenders (SNO) in 2009. Because of the widely varying concepts of who could be included in this category, this study was necessary to clearly define and prioritise the interventions. Thus the views of 425 personnel who work with offenders in Kenyan institutions were assessed to determine their perception regarding SNOs and their modes of management. Qualitative methods and the Attitude Towards Prisoners (ATP) Scale were used to gauge the perceptions. The workers identified the following as special needs offenders: the mentally disabled (28.6%), orphans and vulnerable children (21.9%), the physically disabled (14.8%) and child offenders (11.9%). Overall the workers attitude towards offenders was positive but they relied mainly on intuition in identifying the SNOs and used counselling as the main mode of intervention. The study therefore recommends the development of assessment tools, and screening procedures at the intake so as to identify SNOs; establishment of special rehabilitative programmes for the categories of SNOs identified especially the following: intellectual disability and those with mental illness, alcohol and substance users, vulnerable children and those children whose mothers are in prison and the sexual offenders. Other challenges regarding the management of SNOs in Kenya are discussed

Othieno O, Joseph MFI, Philip N, Muchemi G. "Integrating Social Network Analysis and correlation in agricultural extension: Case of climate change adaptation communication ." Global Science Research Journals. 2014;Vol. 2 (2), .
Othieno-Abinya NA, Kiarie OW, Mlombe Y, Wanzala P. "Neutrophil dynamics and death in postchernotherapy septic neutropenia. .". 2009.
Othieno-Abinya NA, Riyat MS, Omollo R, Kiarie GW. "Differences in response to imatinib between gastrointestinal stromal tumours involving the liver and tumours that do not: experience from Nairobi." African Journal of Cancer. 2013;5(2):79-83. Abstract

Introduction

More than 60% of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) arise from the stomach and about 20% from the small intestine. About 95% of GISTs express kit receptor tyrosine kinase (CD117), which is used for purposes of diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, kit expression alone is not specific for GIST, nor does it necessarily imply that signalling through the kit kinase is the driving oncogenic event. Poor prognostic features of GIST include involvement of the liver and other bulky sites of disease.
Patients and methods

We carried out a retrospective analysis of patients with CD117-positive leiomyosarcomas arising in the abdomen and treated through the Glivec International Patient Assistance Program (GIPAP) Clinic at the Nairobi Hospital between 7th November 2005 and 22nd November 2011.
Results

In total 54 patients were included. Males were 36 (66.7%) and females 18 (33.3%). The age range was 25–86 years and the median age 50 years. The stomach was involved primarily in 22 of 47 cases evaluable (46.8%). The liver was primarily involved in 3 (6.4%) and liver metastases in 7 (14.9%) cases. None of 8 patients (0%) with evaluable liver involvement regressed or stabilized on treatment for at least 6 months compared with 10 of 14 (71.4%) from the stomach, 7 of 7 (100%) from the small bowel, and 7 of 13 (53.8%) with mesenteric/omental involvement. These differences were statistically significant (P<0.001).
Conclusion

Apparent lack of response by tumours involving the liver could suggest that the kit, or by extrapolation PDGFR-alpha overexpression, may not be the factors activating kit or PDGFR-alpha targets in this subset of patients, or they could be of exon 9 mutation predominantly. Mutational analysis studies may shed more light in this issue.

Othieno-Abinya NA, Kiarie GW, Mlombe Y, Wanzala P. "Neutrophil dynamics and death in postchemotherapy septic neutropenia ." Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2011;27(15):175-179. Abstract

Background: Mortality rates from septic neutropenia vary between studies, ranging from 7% to 30%. We observed the mortality rate for patients hospitalized for postchemotherapy septic neutropenia was 28.6% in one of our studies. Many deaths appeared to have occurred at the time of neutrophil recovery. We attributed this to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome akin to what is seen in HIV/AIDS. Methods: Records of patients who died during hospitalization with septic neutropenia. Results: Twenty one patients, 14 males (67%) and 7 females (33%) were included, age range 14–67 years. Six (28.6%) had World Health Organization (WHO) grade 0 neutropenia at the time of death, none had grade 1, one (4.8%) had grade 2, one (4.8%) grade 3, and 14 (67%) had grade 4. The last absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at death ranged between 0.005 and 6.3 x 109/litre. Ten patients (47.6%) died during neutrophil upswing and 11 (52.4%) during neutrophil decline. Thirteen patients (61.9%) also had grade 4 thrombocytopenia but no death was attributed to bleeding. Five of 18 (27.8%) had WHO grade 3 renal function impairment, and six (33.3%) had grade 2 impairment. The main cause for renal function disturbance was hypotension that was usually sudden and unexplained. There was no correlation between ANC and renal function impairment (p > 0.5). Conclusions: Death from septic neutropenia could not be attributed to neutrophil dynamics and by extension immune reconstitution from this study. Neutropenia grade 4 still stood out as a major predictor of death. Larger prospective studies are required to address this issue.

Othieno-Abinya NA. "Ageing and cancer.". 1997. AbstractWebsite

The process of carcinogenesis is complicated and in most cases requires several steps of cellular transformation resulting from various molecular signals brought about by interactions between carcinogens and the cellular genome. Cancers in which cellular transformation does not require numerous processes tend to occur in younger age groups while cancers of the advancing age tend to be those in which the process of cellular transformation occurs through complex molecular processes that require ample time for induction.

Othieno-Abinya NA, Kiarie GW, Abwao HO, Mlombe YB, Omollo R. "Outcome of poor prognostic phenotype non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma treatment in relation to human immunodeficiency virus serostatus." African Journal of Cancer. 2009;1(4):200-206. Abstract

Background

The risk of developing aggressive phenotype non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas is high among HIV infected individuals and is associated with worse prognosis than among non-HIV infected ones. Effective antiretroviral therapy has more recently been reported to greatly improve outcome among these patients. A retrospective review of treatment outcome for aggressive and highly aggressive phenotype non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients was carried out.

The objective was to compare outcome of treatment for poor prognosis subtypes of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas in relation to HIV-serostatus. The setting was Hurlingham Oncology clinic, a private oncology clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. The main study endpoints were complete remission rate and overall survival.
Results

Thirty-two patients (42.7%) were HIV-positive, 32 (42.7%) were HIV-negative and 11 (14.7%) had HIV serostatus undetermined. Seven (21.9%) of HIV positive patients achieved complete remission compared with 24 (75%) of HIV negative ones. This difference was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Five (15.6%) of HIV-positive patients died during first-line treatment compared with none of the HIV-negative counterparts. The difference again was highly significant (P < 0.0001). The median survival time was 19 months among HIV-negative patients and 6 months among positive cases.
Conclusion

Complete remission rate among HIV-negative patients in this series was the same as reported from well established centres, but the rate among HIV-positive patients was lower than expected. Patients with HIV infection were more likely to die from toxicity during induction and had inferior survival compared with HIV-negative cases.

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