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Orata D, Yusuf AO, Nineza C, Mbui D, Mukabi M. "Surface modified electrodes used in cyclic voltammetric profiling of quinine, as antimalarial drug." Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):81-89.iosr_7_5_2_2014_quinine.pdf
Orata D. Basic Statistical Thermodynamics. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020. AbstractLap Lambert Academic Publishing

Basic Statistical Thermodynamics is a textbook suitable for senior undergraduate students and can be used also by posstgraduate students in Universities. This book is a culmination of over three decades of teaching at the University of Nairobi. The approach in the text is geared towards ensuring that, the student can use the book for self study. This has been achieved by showing in detail a step wise manner the derivation of the concepts and principles of statistical thermodynamics.

Orata D, Njenga H, Mukabi M, Yusuf A. "Sodium Thiosulphate, a Novel Electrocatalyst in the Electro-synthesis of Electronically Conducting Polymer-Polythiophene." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IORS-JAC). 2014;7(5 Ver. III). Abstract

Description
In this paper we report on the electrosynthesis of polythiophene from aqueous media with sulphuric acid as the supporting electrolyte. The redox features of polythiophene on a bare carbon graphite working electrode and on a clay montmorillonite host matrix is also reported. Co-polymerisation of polythiophene and polyaniline from an electrolyte media containing both aniline and thiophene monomers reveal that, the redox centres of the two polymers are independent, hence suggesting the formation of a bilayer, even though no charge rectification is observed. The role of sodium thiosulphate as a novel electrocatalyst which has led to a tremendous improvement in the polythiophene faradaic/redox process is also reported.

Orata DO, Yusuf A, Claire N, Damaris M, Mukabi M. "Surface Modified Electrodes Used in Cyclic Voltammetric Profiling of Quinine an Anti-Malarial Drug." IOSR-Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):54-58.
Orata D. Fundamentals of Electrochemistry. Germany: Lambert Academic Publisher; 2020. AbstractLap Lambert Academic Publishing

Fundamentals of Electrochemistry is a text which discusses all aspects of the electrochemical processes. This includes, discussions ranging from primary definition of terms in electrochemistry to solution of advanced electrochemical equations which is key in explaining the various electrode processes. The textbook is ideal for senior undergraduate and postgraduate students in Universities.

Orata D, Yusuf A, Nineza C, Mbui D, Mukabi M. "Surface modified electrodes used in cyclic voltammetric profiling of quinine, as antimalarial drug”." IOSR Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5, ver II):81-89.scan0001.pdf
Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "The Role of Organizing Vision in Cloud Computing Adoption by Organizations in Kenya." American Journal of Information Systems. 2017;5(1).
Oredo J. "A Future in Information Technology." The Standard, May 9, 2022.
Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "Institutional Pressures and Cloud Computing Adoption.". In: IST-Africa 2019 . Nairobi; 2019.
Oredo J. "New Trends in Sports Marketing." MANAGEMENT October (2016).
Oredo J. "Blockchain as an Emerging Financial Trust Model." MANAGEMENT April (2019).
Oredo J. "Mindfulness and Innovation Quality in Cloud Computing Adoption.". In:  1st Interdisciplinary Conference, Kisii University . Kisii-Kenya; 2014.
Oredo J. "3D Printing: From Manufacturing to Infofacturing." MANAGEMENT November (2019).
Oredo J. "Cloud Computing Adoption and Firm Performance: The Mediating Role of Organizational Mindfulness.". In: Kibabii University 3rd Interdisciplinary International Scientific Conference. Bungoma; 2018.
Oredo J, Njihia J. "Mindfulness and Innovation Quality in Cloud Computing Adoption." International Journal of Business and Management. 2015;10(1).
Oredo J. "We must Regulate Computer Education." The Standard, January 31, 2022.
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: Integrating IT Mindfulness with TAM.". In: IST-Africa 2020. Uganda; 2020.
Oredo J. "The Cloud is the Limit." MANAGEMENT March (2015).
Oredo J. "Make Value from Big Data." MANAGEMENT March (2017).
Oredo J, Njihia J. "Challenges of Cloud Computing in Business: Toward New Organizational Competencies.". In:  African International Business Management (AIBUMA) Conference . Nairobi; 2013.
Oredo J. "The Pivotal Role of ICT in Green Buildings." MANAGEMENT July (2019).
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: The Effect of Individual IT Mindfulness.". In:  African International Business Management (AIBUMA) Conference . Nairobi; 2019.
Oredo J, Njihia J. "Challenges of Cloud Computing in Business: Toward New Organizational Competencies." International Journal of Business and Social Science . 2014;5(3).
Oredo J. "Teachers Need Appropriate ICT Skills." The Standard, November 15, 2022.
Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "Cloud Computing Adoption by Firms in Kenya: The Role of Institutional Forces." African Journal of Information Systems. 2019;11(3).
Oredo J. "Why Online Shout Marketing Flops." MANAGEMENT September (2014).
Oredo JO, Njihia J. "Challenges of Cloud Computing in Business: Towards New Organizational Competencies." International Journal of Business and Social Science . 2014;5:150-160. Abstractchallenges_of_cloud_computing_in_business_towards_new_organizational.pdfWebsite

Cloud computing is a nascent but fast growing innovation that has attracted increasing attention from both
researchers and practitioners as a new Information Technology (IT) paradigm. Cloud computing cannot be
sufficiently understood as a standalone phenomenon in the IT market, but rather as a core ingredient of a larger
transformation of the IT industry that impacts the entire IT ecosystem. Due to the change from enterprise
computing to cloud computing, organizations and individuals need to develop new skills and competencies.
Extant literature in cloud computing has mainly focused on its affordances and challenges with scant attention
given to organizational resources that enable efficient and effective adoption. This paper addresses how
organizations can identify their own local cloud adoption challenges and how to overcome those challenges by
developing new competencies. The paper draws on resource-based theory to propose new organizational
competencies required for seamless migration from enterprise computing to cloud computing. This study was
conducted through an extensive review of academic publications on cloud computing as well as professional
literature such as industry white papers and technical reports.
Keywords: Cloud computing; Resource based theory; Cloud competencies; Service models; Delivery Models;
Cloud brokerage.

Oredo J. "Of Cloud Computing and Digital Transformation." MANAGEMENT February (2017).
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: Integrating IT Mindfulness Trust and Risk.". In:  Americas Conference of Information Systems . USA; 2020.
Oredo J. "Evaluation of Computer Use in Teacher Education.". In:  Kenya Education Staff Institute (KESI) Annual Conference . KICC-Nairobi; 2010.
Oredo J. "The Burgeoning e-Waste Burden." MANAGEMENT June (2019).
Oredo J. "Addressing Challenges of ICT Integration in Kisii County Schools: Towards County Instructional Technology Centre.". In:  1st Kisii County Education Conference . Kisii-Kenya; 2014.
Oremo F, Mulwa, M R, Oguge N. "Sustainable water access and willingness of smallholder irrigators to pay for on‐farm water storage systems in Tsavo sub‐catchment." Environment, Development and Sustainability. 2020;23:1371-1391.
Orengo KO, Maitho T, Mbaria JM, Maingi N, Kitaa JM. "In vitro anthelmintic activity of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Jatropha curcas against Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum." African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2016;10:465-471. Abstract
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Orengo KOA, Maitho TB, Mbaria JM, Maingi NC, Kitaa JMD, others. "In-vivo anthelmintic activity of the ethanol extract of Allium cepa (onion) against mixed gastro intestinal helminth infestations in dogs." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2016;5:171-175. Abstract
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Oreskovic A, Panpradist N, Marangu D, Ngwane WM, Magcaba ZP, Ngcobo S, Ngcobo Z, Horne DJ, Wilson DPK, Shapiro AE, Drain PK, Lutz BR. "Diagnosing Pulmonary Tuberculosis by Using Sequence-Specific Purification of Urine Cell-Free DNA." J Clin Microbiol. 2021;59(8):e0007421. Abstract

Transrenal urine cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a promising tuberculosis (TB) biomarker, but is challenging to detect because of the short length (<100 bp) and low concentration of TB-specific fragments. We aimed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity of TB urine cfDNA by increasing recovery of short fragments during sample preparation. We developed a highly sensitive sequence-specific purification method that uses hybridization probes immobilized on magnetic beads to capture short TB cfDNA (50 bp) with 91.8% average efficiency. Combined with short-target PCR, the assay limit of detection was ≤5 copies of cfDNA in 10 ml urine. In a clinical cohort study in South Africa, our urine cfDNA assay had 83.7% sensitivity (95% CI: 71.0 to 91.5%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 86.2 to 100%) for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB when using sputum Xpert MTB/RIF as the reference standard. The detected cfDNA concentration was 0.14 to 2,804 copies/ml (median 14.6 copies/ml) and was inversely correlated with CD4 count and days to culture positivity. Sensitivity was nonsignificantly higher in HIV-positive (88.2%) compared to HIV-negative patients (73.3%), and was not dependent on CD4 count. Sensitivity remained high in sputum smear-negative (76.0%) and urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-negative (76.5%) patients. With improved sample preparation, urine cfDNA is a viable biomarker for TB diagnosis. Our assay has the highest reported accuracy of any TB urine cfDNA test to date and has the potential to enable rapid non-sputum-based TB diagnosis across key underserved patient populations.

Organisation WH. {WHO} {\textbar} {Visual} impairment and blindness. World Health Organisation; 2012. Abstract
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Organisciak DT, Vaughan DK. "Retinal {Light} {Damage}: {Mechanisms} and {Protection}." Progress in retinal and eye research. 2010;29:113-134. AbstractWebsite

By its action on rhodopsin, light triggers the well-known visual transduction cascade, but can also induce cell damage and death through phototoxic mechanisms – a comprehensive understanding of which is still elusive despite more than 40 years of research. Herein, we integrate recent experimental findings to address several hypotheses of retinal light damage, premised in part on the close anatomical and metabolic relationships between the photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium. We begin by reviewing the salient features of light damage, recently joined by evidence for retinal remodeling which has implications for the prognosis of recovery of function in retinal degenerations. We then consider select factors that influence the progression of the damage process and the extent of visual cell loss. Traditional, genetically-modified, and emerging animal models are discussed, with particular emphasis on cone visual cells. Exogenous and endogenous retinal protective factors are explored, with implications for light damage mechanisms and some suggested avenues for future research. Synergies are known to exist between our long term light environment and photoreceptor cell death in retinal disease. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of light damage in a variety of animal models can provide valuable insights into the effects of light in clinical disorders and may form the basis of future therapies to prevent or delay visual cell loss.

Oria PA, Alexandra Hiscox, Jane Alaii, Margaret Ayugi, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Takken W, Cees Leeuwis. "Tracking the mutual shaping of the technical and social dimensions of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) for malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2014;7(1):523.
ORIARE MRMBEKEPETER. "Framing the Constitutional Referendum of 2005: Did the Media Serve the Public Good. A Chapter in Media and the Common Good.". In: J Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;182(2):459-66. LawAfrica Publishing; 2010. Abstract
The Kenyan media in 2005 framed the Referendum Campaigns to suit specific interests withing certain ethical imperatives to serve the common good as defined by each media house depending on the target audiences they serve. The book recommends that media houses improve their adherence to the faireness doctrine and declare their editorial positions on sensitive national issues among others.
ORIARE MRMBEKEPETER. "The Role of Mass Media During the 2007 Post-Election Violence in Kenya.". In: Media in Peacebulding and Conflict Prevention Conference held in Bonn, Germany during the DW Global Media Forum, 2008. Duetche Welle; 2008. Abstract
The paper discuss the role of mass media during the 2007 post-election violence in Kenya. The paper argues that while few media houses were responsible, the majority were irresponsible. However, it is not what they did during the conflict that matter but what they published before and during the 2007 election campaigns. Most studies by KNCHR, KHRC, CIPEV and IREC indict media for their unprofessional behavior that inflammed ethnic animosity that burst open immediately after the announcement of the disputed election results.
Oriare P. "The Media Business and the Law.". In: NACAA.; 2006.
ORIARE MRMBEKEPETER. "The Media We Want: The Kenya Media Vulnerabilities Study.". In: J Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;182(2):459-66. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung; 2010. Abstract
The Kenyan Media have operating in an predictable and swiftly changing political, social, cultural, economic and technological environment that have heavily influenced its development.
Oriare P. MI-USAID's HIV/AIDS poll.; 2001.
Oriare P. MI's Media Monitoring.; 1997.
Oriare P. The Media ahd the Public Good at Strathmore University Annual Conference. Nairobi: Strathmore University; 2006.
ORIARE MRMBEKEPETER. "Media score Card Report: The Coverage of the Referendum Campaigns 2005.". In: AWC/FES Research Publications. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
ORIARE MRMBEKEPETER. "KENYA MEDIA SECTOR ANALYSIS REPORT NOVEMBER 2008.". In: J Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;182(2):459-66. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung; 2008.
ORIARE MRMBEKEPETER. "Mass Media in Kenya: Systems and Practice.". In: J Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;182(2):459-66. Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2010. Abstract
The book provides a candid and detailed analysis of hte history, development and status of the media sector in Kenya. Using a systems approach, the author focuses on critical and current debates on the status of working conditions of journalists and media training institutions, the state of investigative journalism, media institutional frameworks and media civil society in Kenya. Additionally, it discusses the role of media owners within the larger debate on the contribution of media to good governance and social transformation in the country. It proposes models for supporting media in Kenya.
Oriare P. Kenya Media Survey.; 1997.
ORIARE MRMBEKEPETER. "Law Regulation and Politics in Kenya since 2002.". In: BBC World Service Trust Policy Brief No. 1. BBC World Service Trust; 2008. Abstract
The paper discusses the impact of legal and regulation framework on mass media in Kenya. It argues that weak, irresolute and inadequate legal, regulatory and policy framework inherited from the colonial administration and perpetuated by the Kenyatta, Moi and Kibaki regimes have undermined the role of media in politics.
Oriare P. "Improving Media Coverage of Biotechnology.". In: ISAAA.; 2006.
Oriaso SO. Beyond Horizons for Success: An Autobiography. NAIROBI: Neema; Forthcoming.
Oriaso SO. "Effective Communication to help poor women in Kenya escape the HIV and AIDs trap. ." Africa Journal of Communication. 2013;1, 2(Dec):1-20.
Oribu WS, Agwata DJF, George GE. "Analysis of Environmental Initiatives on Business Performance Sustainability at the Lake Naivasha Ecosystem, Kenya." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2014;Vol.4, No.2. Abstractanalysis_of_environmental_initiatives_on_business_performance_sustainability_at_the_lake_naivasha_ecosystem.pdf

Increasing degradation of the natural environment is one of the main threats to human survival in the long term.
Business enterprises’ environmental commitment has, therefore, become an important variable in most of
today’s competitive business environment. Activities of most enterprises are the main causes of environmental
degradation which in turn impact on their performance. This study therefore looks at the specific business
environmental initiatives and how they impact on their performance. The overall objective of the study was to
establish the impact of environmental initiatives on business performance sustainability around Lake Naivasha.
In order to achieve this objective, the research was guided by various specific objectives which included
examining forms of environmental degradation, examining environmental initiatives put in place to mitigate on
degradation, and examining effects of environmental initiatives of various business operations on social capital.
Both primary and secondary data were collected for the purposes of the study. Primary data was collected
through various instruments including questionnaires administered to individual respondents, focus group
discussions, in depth interviews and observation schedules. Secondary data was obtained from previous study
reports, articles, professional journals, various businesses’ monitoring records, annual sales reports and any other
relevant literature that the researcher came across in the course of the study. The collected data was interpreted
and analysed using discriminant analysis. The Scientific Package for Social Studies (SPSS) was used for the
analysis. The study design was descriptive survey in order to pick behaviours which needed to be mitigated for
purposes of enterprise performance sustainability. Purposive random sampling was used from the target
population which comprised of farming, hospitality and fishing sectors. For purposes of establishing the views of
the stakeholders, the officials of various organisations that have interests on the Lake Naivasha ecosystem were
incorporated into a focus group and their views were sought through group discussions. The key findings of the
study were that; the main forms of environmental degradation are nutrients discharge to the lake, water
abstraction, cutting of trees, overgrazing and green house gases effects. The implication of the findings is that
unless businesses concerned address environmental issues their performance sustainability may not be assured
going forward. The study recommends that an evaluative criteria defining the impacts that are acceptable to the
society be determined, policy bundles that are currently in place be reviewed to achieve diverse societal
objectives, strategic decisions made by organisations operating in the area be assessed in light of the actors
involved and investment in better information monitoring and enforcement of rules and regulations be
undertaken. Lastly, since specific organisational sustainability outcomes seem to consistently fail to meet broad
societal expectation, the articulation of stakeholder interests need to be considered by involving all actors in the
environmental governance process.

Oribu W, King’oriah PG, Agwata DJ, Gongera PGE. "Business Sustainability: A Need To Re-Look Environmental Practices And Initiatives." European Journal of Business and Management. 2014;Vol.6, No.3. Abstractbusiness_sustainability-a_need_to_relook_environmental_practices_and_initiatives.pdf

Due to the increasing degradation of the natural business enterprises’ environmental commitment has become an
important variable in most of today’s competitive business environment. This is because activities of most
enterprises are the main causes of environmental degradation which in turn impact on the sustainability of their
performance. This study looks at the specific business environmental practices and initiatives and how they
impact on their sustainability. The overall objective of the study was to establish the impact of environmental
initiatives on business sustainability around Lake Naivasha. The study design was descriptive survey in order to
pick behaviors which needed to be mitigated for purposes of business sustainability. Purposive random sampling
was used from the target population which comprised of farming, hospitality and fishing sectors. Discriminant
analysis was used to analyze the data and the key findings of the study show that business sustainability depends
mainly on the current environmental practices and initiatives that have been put in place. The study recommends
that business associations be at the frontline in regulating activities by their members in order to achieve
sustainability.

Origa JO, Muriithi EM, Odundo PA, Gatumu JC. "Project Method and Learner Achievement in Physics in Kenyan Secondary Schools." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;1(7).Website
Origa J. LEARNING DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING. Montreal, Canada: Concordia University; 1992. Abstract

This thesis studies some aspects of the learning components of linear programming in two variables. It incorporates a teaching experiment that uses an arithmetic approach to introduce linear programming. A specific strategy of identifying the optimum point is then emphasized to enhance a relational understanding of the corner point theorem. The subjects chosen for the study are four pre-commerce students at Concordia University. This group of students is selected because the subject matter they learn in linear programming comprises the learning components under study.
The subjects’ prerequisite knowledge is gauged by their performance on a pre-test. A semi standardized interview is conducted to follow up the difficulties and errors that emerge during the teaching to explain the underlying causes of the difficulties. The subjects solve one problem independently during the experiment and five others in a pre-test designed to gauge the effect of the strategy on reinforcing the understanding of the corner point theorem. Examination scripts (174) including those of the subjects are analyzed for potential difficulties and errors to provide extra data of the frequency of occurrence of the difficulties and errors. Ten text books chosen at random are also analyzed to find out how they might help alleviate or add to the difficulties

Origa J, Gatumu JC, Miringu E. "Kenya Preschool Curriculum on Environmental Conservation by young Children." International Journal of Early Childhood Education & Care. 2012;1:1-14.
Origa JO, Gatumu JC, Miringu E. "Kenya Preschool Curriculum on Environmental Conservation by young Children." International Journal of Early Childhood Education & Care . 2012;1(1):1-14.
Origa JO, Muthoni DM, Gunga SO, Mutahi IW. "Strategies Influencing Competence in soft skills Development Through Mathematics in Technical Institutions in Kenya." International Journal if Innovative Research & Studies . 2013;2(4).Website
Origa JO, Muchemi, L., Muthoni DM, Mutahi IW, Gunga SO. "The Implications of Collaborative Industrial Attachments for Kenya Vision 2030 Development Programmes." African Journal of Education and Technology Volume . 2013;3(1):57-67.Website
Origa J, Muthoni DM, Okuro GS, Wairimu MI. "Strategies influencing Competence in Soft Skills Development through Mathematics in Technical institutions in Kenya." International Journal if Innovative Research & Studies. 2013;2(4).
Origa JO, Mwanda GM, Digolo PO, Mwanda SO. "Effect of Constructivist and Conventional Methods of Instruction on Learning Biology among Secondary School Students in Kenya. ." The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education . 2014.
Origa J.O., Muriithi Evanson OGPAJC. "Project Method and Learner Achievement in Physics in Kenyan Secondary Schools." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;Vol. 1 No. 7 July 2013.abstract_-international_journal_of_education_and_research_vol._1_no._7_july_2013.docx
ORIKU N O, J. WANJARE, J. OOKO, OLUOCH M F. "Turn of The Calendar Effect On Stock Returns Of Firms Listed At Nairobi Securities Exchange International. Journal of Social Science and Economic Research ." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research. 2017;2(4):ISSN: 2455-8834.
Orina PS, Maina JG, Wangia SM, Karuri EG, Mbuthia PG, Omolo B, Owiti GO, Musa S, Munguti JM. "Situational analysis of Nile tilapia and African catfish hatcheries management: a case study of Kisii and Kirinyaga counties in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;26(5).situational_analysis_of_nile_tilapia_and_african_c1.pdf
Orina. P. S, Maina. J. G WSM, Karuri.E.G, Mbuthia.P.G OB, Owiti. G. O, Musa. S MJM. "Situational analysis of Nile tilapia and African catfish hatcheries management: a case study of Kisii and Kirinyaga counties in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 2014;Volume 26(Article 87).
Orio WM, Mwabu G, Manda DK. "Poverty and Employment in Kenya.". 2004.
Orlando CA, Bowman RL, Loose JH. "Multicentric papillary-cystic neoplasm of the pancreas." Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine. 1991;115:958-960. AbstractWebsite
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Oroda A, Anyango SO, Branthome A, Situma C. "Land use land cover changes in the lake Victoria region .". In: East. African ecology, Conference. Kampala, Uganda ; 2009.
and Orodho PROFNJERUNTHIAJAEH. "Poverty and Human Security in Kenya." Regional Development Dialogue. 2003;24(2):114-119. Abstract

This issue of Regional Development Dialogue (RDD) focuses on the theme: "Reflecting
on 'Human Security Now'" and is divided into two sections, focusing on Asia and Africa.
The African section looks at selected parts ofthe African continent, incorporating elements
of competition for scarce resources and attendant procurement and utilization strategies.
Application of the strategies in question, once institutionalized, often contradicts the
conventionally and culturally palatable social exchange norms, with consequences that
have turned out to be inimical to the peaceful co-existence of members of societies and
communities in different regions in Africa and among different socioeconomic categories,
especially where there are differences in race, ethnicity, religion, culture, and modes of
livelihoods at different levels of social change in different parts and within the cultural and
economic diversities that characterize many African social contexts. Cases of internally
displaced persons (IDPs), refugees, starving and relatively deprived citizens in every sense
of the word, thus abound in different regional settings in Africa. Associated impacts and
consequences of such structural imbalances have mainly been expressed through conflict,
hence the common outcomes of prolonged human insecurity in its various forms, loss of
lives, abject poverty, and other forms of perpetuated human rights abuses. It is in the light
of these observations that this introduction critically introduces the constituent articles in
this section of the journal.
A key editorial note should bear reference to the comments attending each article, i.e.,
critical remarks made by various scholars, regarding the content, relevance, and application
of the issues raised in the Africa section of this RDD. These comment are themselves part
and parcel of the dialogue, and as such, constitute a series of motivating invitations to the
reader, in effect, serving as useful supplements to the subject matter presented in the
referent articles. The comments include those by Ludeki Chweya, on the article "Poverty
and Human Security in Kenya" and also on "Displacement, Minorities, and Human
Security: The African Experience". The article on "Poverty and Human Security in
Kenya" has also received comments from Asfaw Kumssa. Other commentaries are made
by Charles B. K. Nzioka on "Banditry and Conflict in the Kapotur Triangle: An Alternative
Menu for Resolution"; and by Pius Mutuku Mutie on "Food Insecurity in Sierra Leone:
Overcoming the Challenges in Post-Conflict Reconstruction".
The first article, "Displacement, Minorities, and Human Security: The African
Experience" is by Adam Hussein Adam and fits well into the theme of this issue reflecting
the critical thinking of a renowned scholar and reformist thinker and crusader for minority rights, articulating his views with regard to practice and processes that support
antidiscrimination. The position taken represents a richly textured examination of the
origin and nature of displacement within the context of human security in Africa. The
author's major contention is that displacement is an attribute oftwo major related positions,
namely power and vulnerability. It is argued that the need to survive has always triggered
displacement while advancement in technology has facilitated the process. Tracing the
phenomenon of displacement in Africa from the time when Aboriginal people first entered
Eastern Africa about 10,000 years ago through Arabia and Persia up to the present day
globalization era, Hussein observes that major migrations that resulted in displacement
stemmed from people's vulnerability and need to survive. He uses the examples of the
migrations of the Ngoni people northwards, the southwards migration of the Nilotic
communities from present-day Sudan to Eastern Africa and those of the Bantu speaking
people from today's Central Africa to South, East, and Western Africa to illustrate how
these newcomers displaced the Aboriginal communities they found along the way. During
such interactions, some newcomers co-existed in good symbiosis, especially in the case of
pastoralists and the hunters, while others were assimilated altogether. The author also notes
that displacement takes place on two planes: evolutionary and induced processes (using
force). The article focuses on a discussion of the constituent process which has two aspects,
one being intranational and national in character and the other being international. The two
types of displaced produce refugees and lOPs.
Within this context, the article notes that, as with reasons for displacement, the results
of displaced persons are disastrous, with long-term social and psychological implications.
It has been succinctly pointed out that politics influences society, the economy, security,
development, and every other imperative for human survival including the processes that
precede the status of displacement. At this juncture, the challenging question is, if
displacement today is highly politics-driven, who then benefits from the displacement?
Displacement is seen to affect the collective and individual survival of the majority of
people not only by threatening their lives but also the livelihoods of those affected, spilling
over into kinship and the friends of friends networks, and beyond formal and informal
institutional and structural destructiveness.
Displacement is presented as a resource-driven phenomenon, while it is clearly
domination-oriented. As such, and while displacement remains resource-based and uses
technological advancement (guns) to enhance effectiveness and timeliness in results
production, the political forces are to a large extent known to playa much greater role in
the process. To authenticate the impacts of displacement, the author employs diverse
examples to demonstrate the infectious nature ofdisplacement as it affects large populations,
while benefiting only a small number of politicians and power wielders. Sadly, the
prevailing trend is such that political expediency takes precedence over security and
protection of people's lives and property.
The dominant message of the article is that there is need to forestall both sporadic
violence and also the planned acts of violence designed to displace people without options
on how to protect human lives. Part of these acts must be to ensure that ifthe displacement
is planned then the affected people should be fully involved in decision making. Where
displacement is sporadic, it is the duty of the state to prevent its victims from being exposed
to conflict. As a way forward, institutionalization of appropriate means of empowering communities to strengthen their problem-solving capacities, dialogue and adequate consultation,
rapport-creation between people and the state, involvement of the people in conflict
resolution, and enhancement of the facilitation capacity by the state in community conflict
mediation are all recommended.
The presentation makes a compelling argument for the reconstruction of politics and
the development agendas ofhope in order to counter the disillusionment and pessimism that
have been associated with change processes resulting in displacement in recent years. The
article is an excellent discussion on different aspects of displacement in the context of
human security and makes useful reading for all development scholars and practitioners.
The second article, "Banditry and Conflict in the Kapotur Triangle: An Alternative
Menu for Resolution" by Katumanga Musambayi, is a comprehensive narrative of the state
of banditry and conflict in the Karamoja, Pokot, and Turkana (KAPOTUR) triangle, in the
border areas between northeastern Uganda and northwestern Kenya in Eastern Africa. In
effect, the presentation constitutes a far-reaching intellectual discourse, an articulate
analysis of the nature, causes, and consequences of banditry and, at the end, proposes an
alternative menu for conflict resolution. The article argues that conflict in the Kapotur
region is as a result of the dysfunctionality of the state at the international level and the
collapse at the regional level. The contention is that the underlying dysfunctionality of the
state has to do with such factors as the nature and inability of the state to respond to the
challenges of frontier citizenship, regional state collapse, and elite instrumentalization of
violence. It is written against the background of people whose lifestyles have over time
been informed by harsh weather patterns, and the people themselves are neglected and
marginalized with regard to the benefits associated with basic infrastructural development.
As to coping mechanisms, in times when weather patterns affect their livestock, the people
are compelled to resort to social predation on their neighbours, in a bid to replenish their
stocks, as a result of little or no serious attempts being made to integrate the region in the
overall development within the wider Eastern Africa.
The crises dealt with in this article are seen to date back to, and indeed lie squarely
attributed to, the state's failed post-independence strategies towards national development.
The Government of Kenya, like that in most African states, has been unable to demonstrate
its own de facto sovereignty, instead concentrating on de jure sovereignty status. The de
facto status is connected with the state's capacity to function in the domestic realm, while
the de jure sovereignty has more to do with the state's ability to command recognition in
an international setting and within partnerships. This presupposes a capacity to monopolize
violence on its territory to the extent of enhancing its law within clearly demarcated
boundaries and an identified and controllable population. The key underlying shortcoming
shared by both Kenya and Uganda is that the two gained independence at a time when they
had limited institutional and infrastructural resource capacities to effectively control their
mutual border.
Against this background, and unable to exercise sovereignty in the Kapotur region, or
indeed guarantee security, the respective governments of Kenya and Uganda opted to
disproportionately arm and organize some members of these hostile communities into what
would be seen, and later came to be known, as "local defence units". Consequently, lack
of proper leadership and monitoring mechanisms, for example, on the part of the Kenyan
Government, allowed some of the armed groups in these communities to drift into banditry.

ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O, 2001, water turbines, a paper presented to the annual KSAE conference at Grand Regency Hotel.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O, 2004, towards a rainwater model village, a paper presented to the annual water experts conference in Arusha Tanzania,.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "Integrated water, energy and sanitation solution for stand alone settlements.". In: Journal of the Humanities and Social Science Vol. III, No. 1 (2005). Elsevier; 2009. Abstract
Lake Victoria basin has a large rural and rapidly growing peri-urban population that lacks sustainable solutions to safe and adequate water supply, energy and sanitation. Access to safe water and sanitation was 60% and 53%, respectively, by 2006. An Integrated Water, Energy and Sanitation Solution (IWESS) has been muted as a sustainable way of utilising the natural resources through a concept that turns waste into a resource thereby taking advantage of what is currently considered as problem sources and converting them into useful inputs. Tests from the Pilot sites developed show that grey and black water, kitchen and solid human waste can be used as separate inputs into an integrated waste management technological chain system that incorporates a constructed wetlandbiogas-sand filter system to purify water and biodegrade solid waste to provide water for non-potable uses, biomass and biogas for energy and timber supply and manure for soil nutrient enrichment. Keywords: Water; Sanitation; Integrated; Waste; Energy; Biogas
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O, 2002, quantifying biomass for firing thermax boilers in Thika Industrial district, a paper presented to the KSAE annual conference at Milimani hotel, Nairobi.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O AND ODUOR, MAIMO M MALESU (2005,) Impacts of Rain Water Harvesting in Kusa.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O, 1997, methodology for sizing rainwater harvesting reservoirs, a paper presented at the annual SEASAE conference in Arusha Tanzania.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O AND MAJANI A.A. (2003), Engineering principles and practices on irrigation, book manuscript written with financial assistance from DFID.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O, (2006), USING ROOF-STORAGE RAINWATER SYSTEMS AS A COPING STRATEGY ON DROUGHT RELATED DISASTERS.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 2006. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
Oronje SL, Moturi CA. "Implementation Framework for Information Systems Policy for Fraud Control in Credit Unions." American Journal of Computing Research Repository. 2015;3(2):18-26. Abstract

A gap exists in implementing information systems (IS) policy making it difficult to achieve desired impact of securing systems. The resultant problem is fraud which prevails in organizations even though there are documented policies. Four objectives which guided this study included: to establish the level of implementation of IS policy framework, to determine the extent of fraud occurrence on IS, to determine the potential fraud level exposure, and to identify implementation framework for IS policy. The research adopted a descriptive survey design. The targeted population consisted 43 licensed deposit taking Credit Unions within Nairobi Metropolitan Region in Kenya. A total of 140 questionnaires were distributed out of which 125 were returned and validated. Results demonstrated that low level of implementation of policies leads to high fraud rate and higher chances of future occurrence of fraud. The enforcement level of the policies was realized to be directly proportional to the impact level. This indicated that the documented policies within the organizations required an implementation framework. Presence of IS policies in isolation as studied was not sufficient to control fraud in organizations. This study concluded with demonstrating use of the 6x6 Zachman’s framework to implement IS policies.

Orono S, Gitao C, Mpatswenumugambo J, Chepkwony M, Mutisya C, Okoth E, Bronsvoort M, Russell C, Nene V, Cook A. "Field validation of clinical and laboratory diagnosis of wildebeest associated malignant catarrhal fever in cattle." BMC Veterinary research . 2019;(doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1818-8).orono_et_al-2019-bmc_veterinary_research.pdf
Orono, S, Gitao, C.G., others. Investigation of Malignant Catarrhal Fever in cattle comparing PCR and ELISA methods for diagnosis. 6-8 December , International Conference Centre (AICC) in Arusha: TAWIRI; 2017.tawiri_mcf_presentation.pdftawiri_mcf_presentation.pdf
Orono, S, Gitao, C.G., Cook, A. "Investigation of Malignant Catarrhal Fever in cattle comparing PCR and ELISA methods for diagnosis.". In: 5th Medical & Veterinary Virus Research Symposium. KEMRI, Nairobi; 2017.mcf_poster.pptx
Orowe I, Weke P. "Multistate Modelling Vertical Transmission and Determination of R0 Using Transition Intensities." HIKARI Applied Mathematical Sciences. 2015;9(79):3941-3956.
Orowe I, Ottieno J, Onyango N. "Multistate Modelling Vertical Transmission and Determination of R0 Using Transition Intensities." Applied Mathematical Sciences. 2015;9(79):3941-3956. Abstract

In this paper multi-state modelling is used to determine the proba- bility distribution of the different states of vertical transmission of HIV. We start with a healthy-infected-dead three state model which we then modify and extend to a four state healthy-infected-treated-Aids four state model. Using the matrix approach we calculate their respection transition probabilities and compare the two models using the basic re- production number. In both models R0 < 1 suggesting that this mode of transmission will eventually be contained.

Orsi AM, Stefanini MA, Crocci AJ, Simões K, Ribeiro AACM. "Some segmental features on the structure of the aortic wall of the dog." Anatomia, histologia, embryologia. 2004;33:131-134. Abstract

Structural features of segmental parts of the aorta of the dog were studied by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The variability in the wall architecture composition and vascular thickness of the ascending (T2-3 level), thoracic (T7-8 level) and abdominal (L6-7 infrarenal level) segments of the aorta was analysed. Morphological features such as presence of intimal folds, pattern of the medial myoconnective components with segmental variations in the number of elastic lamellae, whose relative number was higher in the thoracic aorta (ascending and descending parts), compared with the abdominal aorta, and a network of connective (stromal) elements formed by elastic and collagen lamellae and fibres in the adventitia were observed. The results were discussed on a histophysiological basis, because small but significant segmental differences had been characterized in the aortic wall structure of the dog.

Orskov ER, Fraser C. "The effects of processing of barley-based supplements on rumen pH, rate of digestion of voluntary intake of dried grass in sheep." Br. J. Nutr.. 1975;34(3):493-500. Abstract

1. In one experiment the effect on rumen pH of feeding with restricted amounts of whole or pelleted barley was studied. With whole barley there was little variation in rumen pH associated with feeding time, but with pelleted barley the pH decreased from about 7-0 before feeding to about 5-3, 2--3 h after feeding. 2. The rate of disappearance of dried grass during incubation in the rumens of sheep receiving either whole or pelleted barley was studied in a second experiment. After 24 h incubation only 423 mg/g incubated had disappeared in the rumen of sheep receiving pelleted barley while 625 mg/g incubated had disappeared when it was incubated in the rumen of sheep receiving whole barley. 3. The voluntary intake of dried grass of lambs was studied in a third experiment when they received supplements of either 25 or 50 g whole or pelleted barley/kg live weight 0-75. At the high level, pelleted barley reduced intake of dried grass by 534 g/kg but whole barley reduced it by only 352 g/kg. The digestibility of acid-detergent fibre was reduced more by pelleted barley than by whole barley but there was a tendency for a small increase in digestibility of the barley due to processing. 4. The implications of these findings on supplementation of roughages with cereals are discussed.

ORUNGO DRONONOJOSHUA. "Challenges of camel production in Samburu district, Kenya.". In: journal of camelid science. isocad; 2010. Abstract
The objective of the study was to identify the challenges to camel production in The major causes of camel loss in the district were identified as predation (50.9%), drought (28.7%) and camel diseases (20.4%). Severe drought was reported to have occurred in the years; 1984 (12.4%), 1995 (9%), 2005 (42.1%), and 2006 (37.6%), and the livestock species most affected by the drought were cattle (98.1%), sheep (63.9%), donkeys (57.5%), goats (50.8%) and camels (31.2%). Water was reported to be inadequate in the district by 54.6% and 62.1% of the respondents respectively for livestock and human use. Herdsmen reported watering their camels from; rivers (24.6%), dry river beds (40%) and spring (7.7%). The livestock grazing area was reported to be getting smaller (45.7%), overgrazed (21.7%), and destroyed (13%), while only 13% believed that the grazing area had increased. Amongst the pastoralist who responded to the question on their source of income, 78.8% had no alternative source of income apart from livestock keeping. Conclusion; More resources should be allocated by the governments for improvement of camel production and the carrying capacity in pastoral production systems needs to be re-evaluated to ensure  optimal productivity.   Keywords; Camel, predation, drought, diseases, production
ORUNGO DRONONOJOSHUA. "Regional Workshop on Sustainable Capacity Building in Veterinary Public Health & Advanced Reproductive Technology - ILRI Addis Campus - July 3 & 4 ,2009.". In: ILRI Addis Campus - July 3 & 4 ,2009. Ohio state univer. and ilri; 2009. Abstract
The objective of the study was to identify the challenges to camel production in The major causes of camel loss in the district were identified as predation (50.9%), drought (28.7%) and camel diseases (20.4%). Severe drought was reported to have occurred in the years; 1984 (12.4%), 1995 (9%), 2005 (42.1%), and 2006 (37.6%), and the livestock species most affected by the drought were cattle (98.1%), sheep (63.9%), donkeys (57.5%), goats (50.8%) and camels (31.2%). Water was reported to be inadequate in the district by 54.6% and 62.1% of the respondents respectively for livestock and human use. Herdsmen reported watering their camels from; rivers (24.6%), dry river beds (40%) and spring (7.7%). The livestock grazing area was reported to be getting smaller (45.7%), overgrazed (21.7%), and destroyed (13%), while only 13% believed that the grazing area had increased. Amongst the pastoralist who responded to the question on their source of income, 78.8% had no alternative source of income apart from livestock keeping. Conclusion; More resources should be allocated by the governments for improvement of camel production and the carrying capacity in pastoral production systems needs to be re-evaluated to ensure  optimal productivity.   Keywords; Camel, predation, drought, diseases, production
ORUNGO DRONONOJOSHUA. "Review of Antibiotic Residues and Pesticide Residues: Research and Investigative work done in Kenya.". In: Conference. KVA-VSF Belgium; 2009. Abstract
The objective of the study was to identify the challenges to camel production in The major causes of camel loss in the district were identified as predation (50.9%), drought (28.7%) and camel diseases (20.4%). Severe drought was reported to have occurred in the years; 1984 (12.4%), 1995 (9%), 2005 (42.1%), and 2006 (37.6%), and the livestock species most affected by the drought were cattle (98.1%), sheep (63.9%), donkeys (57.5%), goats (50.8%) and camels (31.2%). Water was reported to be inadequate in the district by 54.6% and 62.1% of the respondents respectively for livestock and human use. Herdsmen reported watering their camels from; rivers (24.6%), dry river beds (40%) and spring (7.7%). The livestock grazing area was reported to be getting smaller (45.7%), overgrazed (21.7%), and destroyed (13%), while only 13% believed that the grazing area had increased. Amongst the pastoralist who responded to the question on their source of income, 78.8% had no alternative source of income apart from livestock keeping. Conclusion; More resources should be allocated by the governments for improvement of camel production and the carrying capacity in pastoral production systems needs to be re-evaluated to ensure  optimal productivity.   Keywords; Camel, predation, drought, diseases, production
ORUNGO DRONONOJOSHUA. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: African Journal of Microbiology Research. Academic Journals; 2010.
ORUNGO DRONONOJOSHUA. "Isolation of E.coli O157:H7 from milk and cattle feaces from urban dairy farming and non dairy farming neighbour households in Dagoretti division, Nairobi, Kenya: prevalence and risk factors.". In: East African Medical Journal. The Kenya Medical Association; 2007. Abstract
East African Medical Journal Vol. 84 No. 11 (supplement) November 2007 Authors: E.K. Kangethe, J.O. Onono, B. McDermott and M. Arimi   Objective: To estimate the prevalence of E.coli O157:H7 in milk and cattle feacal samples from dairy ad non dairy neighbouring households and to relate this prevalence to risk to human health. Design: Cross sectional study design Setting: Urban and peri urban households of Dagoretti division, Subjects: Dairy farming households and non dairy farming neighbouring households. Results: E.coli O157:H7 was isolated from milk samples at three of 136 non dairy neighbour households (2.2% C.I 0.5%, 6.3%) but was not found in any of the milk samples from the 260 milk samples from dairy households (0%, C.I 0.0%, 1.4%). E.coli O157:H7 was also found in fifteen of 285 pooled household cattle feacal samples (5.2%, C.I 3.1%, 8.7%). One of the feacal isolates was found to have the marker for the production of VT1. Discussion with focus groups revealed that the participants had limited knowledge about E.coli O157:H7.Focus group discussions and household questionnaire revealed practices increasing risk of E.coli infections to humans associated with milking hygiene, drinking water sources and treatment, and manure handling. Conclusions: E.coli O157:H7 exist in urban setting and continuous surveillance is needed in case conditions and practices change favouring an increase in its prevalence and transmission to people.
Orwa OD, Sarah K, Nelson C. Remote 3D Recosntruction System . KCCT Nairobi: COSCIT; 2008.
Orwa OD. Reform in Kenya's Education Sector; Case for Use of ICT. Nairobi, Kenya: NEPAD; 2005.
Orwa HO, Opiyo ET, Odongo WO, Manderick B. "Game Theoretic Multi-Agent Algorithms for the Job Shop Scheduling Problem.". 2014. Abstract
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Orwa OD. User-Centric ICT Adoption Model for Rural Farming Communities in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Orwa OD, Lucy M. "Innovative Design Approach for Technology Adoption for Semi-illiterate Users in Rural Kenya.". In: HCI for Community and International Development. Florence Italy; 2008.
Orwa OD. ICT in Kenya's Economic Recovery. Nairobi: KEPSA and UNDP; 2003.
Orwa OD, Mwololo WT, Okoyo OJ. "Mobile Interfaced Crop Diagnostic Expert System." Internal Journal of Services Economics and Management. 2012;4(1):4-26.
Orwa OD. Multi-User Remote Processing System. China: Shanghai University; 1996.
Orwa OD, JDMoore. "Regional and Cultural Accessibility for the Java Micro Edition Africa.". In: JavaOne. San Francisco, USA; 2008.
Orwa OD, Okoyo OJ. Mobile Interfaced Crop Diagnostic Expert System. 1.0.0 ed. University of Nairoboi; 2011.
Orwa OD. SIDA ICT Survey for the Governance, Law and Order Sector (GJLOS). Nairobi Kenya: Swedish International Development Agency; 2004.
OSAAJI DRMUMIAGEOFREY. "The Role of the University in Realising Vision 2030 in Kenya.". In: Documentary. University of Nairobi SOJ; 2010. Abstract

  A Documentary that highlights the relevance of the various courses offered by the College of Humanities and Social Sciences of the University of Nairobi to Vision 2030, in September 2010.

Osaaji MG. "viii. “Oral Literature and Human Rights: Pedagogical and Curriculum questions” .". In: Children’s Rights in A Globalised World. Ghent - Antwerp: ICCR; 2008.
Osaaji MG, Odari M, Muchiri J. "“From Alterity to Agency: Pathways of Subversion and Resistance in Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s Personal Essays”. ." The Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa (JOLTE). . 2021;11 no. 2(2021):1-16.
Osaaji MG. "“Subverting the patriarchal ideology: A case study of a Samburu Woman oral narrative performer” ." Research in African Literatures. 2009;Volume 40 (Number 1):19-28.
OSAAJI DRMUMIAGEOFREY. "Imagi(ni)ng Bodies as Pleasure: Interrogating Sexual Identity Among University Youth.". In: Mila (N.S.), Vol. 9 (2008), pp. 16 . Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies; 2008. Abstract

This paper examines how young men in Kenya are (de)constructing their body for sexual pleasure. The study is based on male students at the University of Nairobi. It seeks to find out the factors contributing to new trends in body and image projection. It analyses the distinguishing characteristics of these new trends in vogue. Finally, the study seeks to find out whose identity (local or foreign) emerges from these sexuality statements. In this inquiry, the guiding framework is hip-hop.   Results show that sexual identity among Kenyan youth is in a state of flux; the youth are under pressure to

OSAAJI DRMUMIAGEOFREY. "Subversion of Patriarchal Ideology: A Case Study of Magdalene, a Woman Oral Narrative Performer from the Samburu of Kenya.". In: Research In African Literatures, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Spring 2009). Indiana University Press; Submitted. Abstract

This paper is based on narrative performances collected in research by students of the University of Nairobi under the guidance of their lecturers. The fieldwork was conducted in February 2005 among nomadic communities in northern Kenya. The main thrust of the paper is to explore how Magdalene, a woman narrator, subverts the dominant masculine ideology inherent in the structure and orientation of oral narratives. The paper identifies the discrete and subtle ways in which the narrator seeks to undermine the manifest inclination of oral narratives towards male dominance. Considering that oral literature is a crucial tool in shaping the world view of a community (especially children), and bearing in mind that women artists perform many of the oral narratives, the imperceptible but subversive potential of such narration becomes even clearer.

OSAAJI DRMUMIAGEOFREY. "Style In Modern African Literature.". In: Research In African Literatures, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Spring 2009). Vdm Verlag; 2010. Abstract

Author: Mumia Osaaji. ISBN: 3639320840. ISBN-13:9783639320848. Language: English

Osaaji MG. "iii. “Public Interest Litigation on the Right to Adequate Food: Evolving Issues and Emerging Applications” .". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2017.
Osaaji MG, Odari M, Muchiri J. "“The Agile Thinking and Subversion in Chinua Achebe’s The Education of a British-Protected Child”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2020;9(Special Issue):124-143.
Osaaji M, Odari M, Muchiri J. "From Alterity to Agency: Pathways of Subversion and Resistance in Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s Personal Essays." The Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. 2021;12(1):1-16.
Osaaji MG. "“Imagi(ni)ng bodies as pleasures: Interrogating sexual identity among the youth in Kenya”, .". In: MILA: A Special Edition on Youth and Sexuality. Nairobi: IAGAS, University of Nairobi; 2009.
Osaliya. R., O. V. Wasonga., J. G. M. Mwanjalolo., Kironchi G, Adipala E. "Land conversion is changing the landscape in the semi-arid Kapir catchment, northeastern Uganda.". 2019;3(3).
Osamong LA, Gathece LW, Kisumbi BK, Mutave RJ. "Management of dental waste by practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Oral Health. 2005;2. Abstract
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Osanjo L. "Turning Idea into Enterprise.". In: SSAFW Arts and Culture Fashion Seminar. Johannesburg, SA; 2008.
Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Osanjo L, Amollo L. "Design Policy and Promotion Map." SEE Bulletin. 2010;3 (Issue 3 - May 2010):8.
Osanjo GO, Muthike EW, Tsuma L, Okoth MW, Bulimo WD, Lünsdorf H, Abraham W-R, Dion M, Timmis KN, Golyshin PN, Mulaa FJ. "A salt lake extremophile, Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov., efficiently produces xanthophyll carotenoids." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009;3:426-433. Abstract
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Osanjo L, Ambole LA. "Design with Social Impact for Rural Communities in Africa.". In: Sustainable Energy for All by Design conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.osanjo__ambole_2016.pdf
Osanjo GO, Muthike EW, Tsuma L, others. "A salt lake extremophile, Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov., efficiently produces xanthophyll carotenoids." African Journal of Microbiology Research . 2009;3(8):426-433.
Osanjo G, Aluvaala E, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Mulaa F. "HARNESSING CARBOHYDRATE ACTIVE ENZYMES AS DRUG TARGETS AND TOOLS FOR DEVELOPING GLYCOTHERAPEUTICS.". In: BASIC & CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY. Vol. 115. WILEY-BLACKWELL 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA; 2014:. Abstract
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Osanjo GO, Muthike EW, Tsuma L, Okoth MW, Bulimo WD, Lünsdorf H, A W-R, Dion M, Timmis KN, Golyshin PN, Mulaa FJ. "A salt lake extremophile, Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov., efficiently produces xanthophyll carotenoids." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009;3(8):426-433.osanjo_2009_a_salt_lake_extremophile.pdf
Osanjo L. Product Design Practice within Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Osanjo GO, Bulimo WD, Mulaa FJ. "Engineering the functional fitness of transglycosidases and glycosynthases by directed evolution." Afr J Biotechnol. 2011;10:1727-1735. AbstractWebsite

The artificial implementation of the Darwinian theory of evolution to create new variants of functional proteins, a process referred to as directed evolution, has acquired many applications in biochemical engineering. Directed evolution is a handy tool in the nascent science of glycobiology, where it is used in the conversion of glycosyl hydrolases into transglycosidases or for improving the transglycosylation behaviour of glycosynthases. This review focuses on recent applications of the directed evolution approach to harness the transglycosidase potential of glycosidases and to enhance the functional fitness of glycosynthases.

Osanjo L. "The Challenges of Design Business in Africa.". In: Africa Design Day. Cape Town,SA; 2008.

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