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Opere A. THE IMPACT OF NATURAL DISASTERS, DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, ON THE LIVELIHOOD OF THE LAKE VICTORIA BASIN. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. AbstractWebsite

The major forms of disasters include: Droughts, Floods, Terrorism, Landslides, HIV/AIDS and disease epidemics, Transport accidents, Fires/industrial hazards and pollution. There are other extreme outbreaks of diseases, such as cholera, malaria, typhoid and meningitis, which have become threats as a result of HIV/AIDS. The focus of this paper is on the natural disasters, which are rampant within the lake Victoria basin and are related to extreme weather and climate events such as droughts, floods and strong winds, among others. Extreme weather and climate events influence the welfare of the society and entire economy of the country with droughts and floods having the highest adverse effects. The sectors that experience the immediate effects include agriculture, health, and water resources among others.

Opere AO, Njogu AK. "Water in the Upper Awach-Kibuon Catchment in Nyamira County, Kenya." American Journal of Water Resources. 2020;vol. 8, no. 4 (2020)(doi: 10.12691/ajwr-8-4-6.): 200-210.
Opere A.O., Mkhandi WSP. "Homogeneity testing for peak discharge in catchments in the equatorial Nile basins." Journal of Meteorology and Related Sciences. 2009;3(3):13-20.
Opijah FJ, Akenga P, Salim A, Onditi A, Amir Y, Waudo W. Green Energy Potential in East Africa.; 2014. Abstract

Background Analgesics in clinical used have many side effects and are not always effective. Hence need for safer and more effective agents. Hydrazinocurcumin is an azole derivative of the natural product curcumin.

Opijah FJ, Mutemi JN, Ogallo LA. "Seasonal Climate Predictability over Kenya Using the Regional Spectral Model." J. Meteorol. 2017;10(1). AbstractResearchgate

Seasonal climate prediction over Kenya poses a considerable challenge to the modeling community due to the intricate interactions among the atmospheric, oceanic and land surface processes. This paper assesses the performance of the Regional Spectral Model (RSM) in downscaling the European Centre-Hamburg (ECHam) global model outputs from 1970 to 1999 over Kenya with respect to rainfall and temperature prediction using standard verification techniques. The results show that the accuracy of simulating the annual cycle and spatial distribution of convection and precipitation over the country is still poor. The seasonal rainfall predictability over Kenya by the RSM is better during the October-December season (correlation coefficient [r] of 26%; proportion correct [PC] of 60%; Frequency Bias Index [FBI] of 111%) than in the March-May season (r of 8%; PC of 54%; FBI of 83%), but the prediction for temperature is better in the March-May season (r of 25%; PC of 53%; FBI of 124%) than the OND season (r of-11%; PC of 46%; FBI of 100%). The predictability for rainfall during the cool-dry June-August period is still low (r of-4%; PC of 49%; FBI of 52%) but that for temperature has better skill as compared to the March-May and October-December seasons (r of 49%; PC of 70%; FBI of 90%). There is need to improve the development of convective processes that govern tropical precipitating systems in the region through sensitivity analysis of cloud simulation modules in the RSM applied as well as address rare systems that episodically influence the weather over the country and the region.

Opijah FJ. Numerical Simulation of the Impact of Urbanization on the Microclimate over Nairobi Area. Ng'ang'a JK, Mukabana JR, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2000.phd.doc
Opijah FJ, Mukabana JR. "On the influence of urbanization on the water budget in Nairobi city: A numerical study.". 2004. AbstractOn the influence of urbanization on the water budget in Nairobi city: A numerical study

The impact of the growth and development of the City of Nairobi on the water budget is simulated using a high-resolution limited-area numerical model. The water substance fields are modelled with full physics in a control experiment. Five sensitivity experiments are then performed by altering the land-use/cover over the domain of study to assess the influence of the city, forests and terrain undulations on the water substance fields. Results showed that the highest evaporation occurred in areas of the study domain with open grasslands/scattered bush-land's vegetation types and the least at the city centre. Deforestation would lead to a substantial increase in the loss of water effected through evaporation despite a reduction in transpiration. The observed rainfall amount and frequency were highest in the high ground portions to the northwest of the study domain. Numerical analyses showed that the urban heat island had a destabilizing effect on the flow, which enhanced convection that resulted in increased rainfall downwind of the urban area. Further growth and expansion of the city of Nairobi would increase the area and amount of rainfall received. Deforestation would decrease rainfall amounts. Massive reforestation would increase the observed rainfall. There has been a decrease in soil moisture at the current location of the city centre; the decrease is bound to increase with the expansion of the city. The City of Nairobi has resulted in a large decrease in the soil moisture through converting the natural fabric to concrete/asphalt material. Deforestation would result in a marginal decrease in the soil moisture. Further growth and development of Nairobi City would modify the water substance budget appreciably.

Opijah F, et al. "Application of the Ems-Wrf Model in Decadal Rainfall Prediction over the Gha Region." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences . 2014;1-1.f.opijah.pdf
Opinya GN, Pameijer CH, Grön P. "Simple defluoridation procedures for Kenyan borehole water.". 1987. Abstract

Magnesium oxide and bone meal were used as chemical defluoridating agents to reduce excessive amounts of fluoride from artificial water samples which had been prepared to simulate Kenyan water samples with a fluoride concentration ranging from 1 to 9.3 ppm. The water filtrate from bone meal was clear and palatable. The filtrate from magnesium oxide was slightly slimy and cloudy, but palatable. Either of these chemical agents may be used in simple defluoridation procedures in rural and suburban areas using borehole water to reduce the excess fluoride in the water to beneficial non-toxic levels. Both magnesium oxide and bone meal are inexpensive chemicals and readily available in Kenya.

Opinya GN;, Bwibo NO;, Valderhaug J;, Birkeland JM;, Lökken P. "Intake of fluoride and excretion in mothers' milk in a high fluoride (9 ppm) area in Kenya.". 1991.
Opinya GN, Pameijer CH, Gron P. "Analysis of Kenyan drinking water.". 1987.Website
Opinya GN, Imalingat B. "Pediatric recurrent sialectasis: case report.". 1989. Abstract

A 2 1/2-year-old female presented to the Department of Paediatrics with a fever (38.2 degrees C) and bilateral swelling of the parotid salivary glands. A month later, she presented with similar signs and symptoms. Three months later the patient had a third attack and was referred to the Paediatric Dental Department. A clinical examination and sialography showed a normal Stensen's duct. The parenchyma of the right parotid had a combination of punctate lesions (1-2 mm in diameter) and globular lesions (3 mm in diameter). In the left parotid there were punctate lesions approximately 1 mm in diameter. The patient was managed with antipyretics (acetaminophen) and penicillin. This condition should be referred to as sialadenitis pediatrica as it presents as a clinical entity with signs and symptoms of swelling and pyrexia in the absence of sialography and histological findings. It is referred to as sialectasis after histological and sialographic observations detect lesions affecting the parenchyma of the salivary glands.

Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Odongo O, Manderick B. "Distributed Computing, Agents and Trends: An introduction.". In: UNESCO-HP Brain Gain workshop. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Mining in Kenya: Mining annual review 2001:.". In: Mining Journal Ltd. CD-ROM. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2001. Abstract
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OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Placing Livelihood Framework At the Heart of Slum Upgrading (1st National Conference by Kenya Ministry of Science and Technology KICC-Nairobi).". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
Opiyo F, Nyangito M, Oliver WV, Omondi P. "Trend Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability in Arid Environment of Turkana, Kenya." Environmental Research Journal. 2014;8:30-43. Abstract
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Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Searching for Optimal Schedule for Parallel Machines Using an Agent-based Technique.". In: 4th International Operations Research Society of East Africa (ORSEA) Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2008.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "The Dialectics of Sustainable Neighbourhood Development for Nairobi.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2010. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
Opiyo FEO, Wasonga OV, Schilling J, Mureithi SM. "Resource-based conflicts in drought-prone Northwestern Kenya: The drivers and mitigation mechanisms." Wudpecker Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012;1:442-453. Abstract
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Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Agent Systems Scheduler and Open Grid Computing Standards.". In: 2nd Annual International Conference on Sustainable ICT Capacity in Developing Countries SREC06. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2006.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Integration of Actors in Water Governance in Nairobi City: Challenges and Adaptation to Climate Change.". In: IDRC Sponsored-Climate Change Adaptation Workshop in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo,, Brazil. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Geomorphology, Geology and water resources of the Got Ramogi area. In: Prof.T.R. Odhiambo (Editor): GOT RAMOGI SACRED FOREST: P. and Omenge, J.". In: Principles of Forest1994 Conservation and Utilization in Tropical Africa. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1999. Abstract
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Opiyo F, Wasonga O, Nyangito, Moses M, Schilling J, Munang, R. "Drought adaptation and coping strategies among the Turkana pastoralists of northern Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Science,. 2015;6(3):295-309.
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Geochemical evidences for the tectono-magmatic emplacement of the Kenyan greenstone belt rocks from the Maseno area, western Kenya.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.6 No.2 pp56 -63. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1991. Abstract
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OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Geology of the Ishiara area, Embu/Meru districts, Kenya.". In: Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. 117p. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1988. Abstract
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Opiyo ETO, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Nowé A, Okello-Odongo W. "Computing research challenges and opportunities with grid computers.". 2008.Website
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Mining in Kenya: Mining annual review 2000:.". In: Mining in Kenya: Mining annual review 2000:. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2000. Abstract
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OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Impact of fish exports on livelihoods of fishers, traders and processing workers (World Bank Publication).". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of the Archaean Granites from the north of lake Victoria of the greenstone terrain in western Kenya (Abstract).". In: The 29th International Geological Congress, Kyoto, Japan. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1992. Abstract
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Opiyo RO. Accommodating Africa.; 2011.
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "C.A. Hauzenberger, G. Hoinkes, A.H. Bauernhofer, E. Wallbrecher, H. Fritz, J. Loizenbauer, M. Th.". In: PTt-evolution of Pan- African Granulites in SE-Kenya. EUG 2001. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2001. Abstract
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OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Planning for Sustainable Human Settlement: Shelter and Improved Urban Livelihood (Conference Paper-WCAEBE-Birmingham UK).". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Tectono-Magmatic emplacement and Evolution of the Archaean greenstone Associations from western Kenya (Extended Abstract).". In: 16th International Colloquium of African Geology, Ezulwini, Swaziland) pp264-268. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1993. Abstract
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Opiyo F, Oliver Wasonga, Nyangito M, Schilling J, Munang R. "Drought adaptation and coping strategies among the Turkana pastoralists of northern Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Science. 2015;6:295-309. Abstract
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Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. A Load Balancing Heuristic for Agent-based Parallel Machine Scheduling. Naivasha, Kenya; 2009.
Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W, Ayienga E, Manderick B, Now A. "Agent-based Scheduler for Unrelated Parallel Machines using a load balancing heuristic.". 2011. Abstract
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Opiyo R, Muketha S, Omollo W, Mwaniki D. "Responsive Infrastructure and Service Provision Initiatives Framing Smart Environment Attainment in Nairobi.". In: Smart Environment for Smart Cities. Singapore; 2020.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Metropolitan Planning and Climate Change in Nairobi: How much room to manouvre? Paper Presented at the 5th Urban Research Symposium in Marseille, France.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2009. Abstract

Main policy challenge facing developing countries like Kenya, as noted by various scholars and organizations is on how to formulate a regulatory and incentive urban planning and development policy framework which will strengthen the potential of the urban areas to grow and develop substantially. Nairobi metropolitan plan is envisaged to address the problems such as poor housing, crime, traffic jam, infrastructure problems and environmental problems associated with the Nairobi city. The plan is anchored on the country's Vision 2030, which aim at enabling the country to be globally competitive and prosperous with high quality life. This spirit gives urban planners and other professionals an opportunity to transform the metropolis to achieve desirable and stable urban environment with minimum pollution, especially the ones resulting from land use planning decisions.

Most urban development models in African countries such as Kenya have in common a legislation challenge, which has generally ignored the plights of the urban majority such as the informal settlement dwellers and urban informal economy operators. This mistake is also visible in the formulation of the global agendas and developmental models as shown in the focus of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) where targets such as revitalization of informal economy is missing despite being a kingpin in providing work for the urban poor whose income need to be raised in order to meet basic needs.

This paper uses various existing literature and models in an attempt to address some opportunities which can be tapped via metropolis planning. It envision that the Nairobi Metropolitan plan has potential of embracing the spirit of inclusivity and at the same time address issues of land use generated green house gas emissions in Nairobi Metropolis. This will heavily depend on the ability and capacity of the local authorities within the metropolis to develop and enhance resilience for climate change through progressive control measures by using dynamic development control measures.

Key words: Development, Metropolitan, Pollution and Climate Change

Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. Agent Systems Scheduler and Open Grid Computing Standards.; 2006.
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Dynamic Resource Allocation: A comparison of First Price Sealed Bid and Vickrey Auction Mechanisms in Non Pre-emptive, No Failure Situations.". In: 4th Annual International Conference on Sustainable ICT Capacity in Developing Countries SREC08. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2008.
Opiyo, P., Mukabana, W.R., Kiche, I.O., Mathenge, E.M., Killeen, G.F., Fillinger, U. "An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya. ." Malaria Journal. 2007;6:48.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Accommodating the Youth in Africa's Development Agenda: Examination of Reforms in Sports and Entertainment Sector.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. College Des Benardins Paris, France : Kenya Met Soc; 2011. Abstract

Detailed information on the situation of youth in Africa is not available. There is increasing concern that large sections of young people have become marginalized or are excluded from education, healthcare, housing, leadership and even promotion of talent based activities such as arts and sports which has great potential in shaping up their livelihood status and their dignity.

For the poor youth in Africa, doing nothing is not an option at times of acute basic needs such as food, housing and clothing. Capitalistic nature and lack of supportive welfare systems in urban areas is compounding the survival of the youth. Most Government are now recognizing the important role played by youth. Sports and entertainment sector is becoming a beacon of hope for alleviating challenges facing the youth.

The Paper uses ethnographic approach- whose intent is provision of a detailed, in-depth description of youth in everyday life and practice.

Paper Presented in College Des Benardins in Paris, France on 23rd/8/2011. Proceedings of Paris 2011-Homeless World Cup Symposium.

OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Opiyo -Akech, N and J. O. Barongo (1999): Earth Science Education In Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences. Vol.28 No.4 pp795 -803. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1999. Abstract
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Opiyo F, Wasonga OV, Nyangito MM, Mureithi SM, Obando J, Munang R. "Determinants of perceptions of climate change and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in northwestern Kenya." Climate and Development. 2015;8(2):179-189.
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Issues in Grid Computing in the Context of Education.". In: International ICT Workshop on Application of ICT in Enhancing Higher Learning Education. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2004.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Cities and Climate Change: Examination of City Planning Opportunities.". In: Sensitization Speech in Preparation for 2011 World Habitat Day in Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "8. Muhongo S. and N. Opiyo-Akech , 1999 - Geology and mineral resources of east Africa:.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences Vol.29, Issue 2. pp 281-282. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1999. Abstract
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OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Geology and Geochemistry of the late Archaean Greenstone Associations, Maseno area, Kenya.". In: Unpublished Ph.D thesis, Leicester University, U.K., 146p. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1988. Abstract
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Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M. "Effect of Newborn Resuscitation Training on Health Worker Practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya.". 2008;3(2):1-7. Abstract

Background: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya.

Methods/Principal Findings: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group, n = 55). The training was adapted locally from the approach of the UK Resuscitation Council. The primary outcome was the proportion of appropriate initial resuscitation steps with the frequency of inappropriate practices as a secondary outcome. Data were collected on 97 and 115 resuscitation episodes over 7 weeks after early training in the intervention and control groups respectively. Trained providers demonstrated a higher proportion of adequate initial resuscitation steps compared to the control group (trained 66% vs control 27%; risk ratio 2.45, [95% CI 1.75–3.42], p,0.001, adjusted for clustering). In addition, there was a statistically significant reduction in the frequency of inappropriate and potentially harmful practices per resuscitation in the trained group (trained 0.53 vs control 0.92; mean difference 0.40, [95% CI 0.13–0.66], p = 0.004).

Conclusions/Significance: Implementation of a simple, one day newborn resuscitation training can be followed immediately by significant improvement in health workers’ practices. However, evidence of the effects on long term performance or clinical outcomes can only be established by larger cluster randomised trials.

OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Geochemical evidences for the Emplacement of the Archaean greenstone volcanics from the area around Maseno, western Kenya.:.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.6 No.2 pp56 -63. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1992. Abstract
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Opiyo FEO, Ekaya WN, Nyariki DM, Mureithi SM. "Seedbed preparation influence on morphometric characteristics of perennial grasses of a semi-arid rangeland in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Semi-arid rangelands in Kenya are an important source of forage for both domestic and wild animals. However, indigenous perennial grasses notably Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye grass) are disappearing at an alarming rate. Efforts to re-introduce them through restoration programs have often yielded little success. This can partly be attributed to failure of topsoil to capture and store scarce water to meet germination and plant growth requirements. A study was undertaken in the semi-arid environment of eastern Kenya to determine the effects of land treatment on morphometric characteristics of E. superba, C. ciliaris and E. macrostachyus. Seed viability of the grasses was estimated by germination tests. Land treatments involved soil ripping using a tractor and hand-clearing. Thirty-five plants were randomly selected per sub-plot and tagged for sampling. Morphometric characteristics of the grass species were measured weekly. Aboveground biomass was estimated by harvesting standing biomass three months after establishment. Seed viability tests showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the three grass species. This was attributed to intrinsic properties of the grass seeds such as dormancy and tegumental hardness. Seedling survival, foliage cover, plant height, leaf and tiller numbers, and aboveground biomass were significantly higher in ripped plots than hand-cleared plots. It was concluded that soil disturbance influences plant morphometric charact

Opiyo FEO, Ekaya WN, Nyariki DM, Mureithi SM. "Seedbed preparation influence on morphometric characteristics of perennial grasses of a semi-arid rangeland in Kenya. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 5(8): 460." African Journal of Plant Sciences. 2011;5(8):460-468. Abstract2011_opiyo_et_al_ajps-5-8_seedbed_influence_on...pdfWebsite

Semi-arid rangelands in Kenya are an important source of forage for both domestic and wild animals.
However, indigenous perennial grasses notably Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis
superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye grass) are disappearing at an
alarming rate. Efforts to re-introduce them through restoration programs have often yielded little
success. This can partly be attributed to failure of topsoil to capture and store scarce water to meet
germination and plant growth requirements. A study was undertaken in the semi-arid environment of
eastern Kenya to determine the effects of land treatment on morphometric characteristics of E. superba, C. ciliaris and E. macrostachyus. Seed viability of the grasses was estimated by germination tests. Land treatments involved soil ripping using a tractor and hand-clearing. Thirty-five plants were randomly selected per sub-plot and tagged for sampling. Morphometric characteristics of the grass species were measured weekly. Aboveground biomass was estimated by harvesting standing biomass three months after establishment. Seed viability tests showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the three grass species. This was attributed to intrinsic properties of the grass seeds such as dormancy and tegumental hardness. Seedling survival, foliage cover, plant height, leaf and tiller numbers, and aboveground biomass were significantly higher in ripped plots than hand-cleared plots. It was concluded that soil disturbance influences plant morphometric characteristics and plays an important role in the success rate of restoration attempts in semi-arid rangelands.

Key words: Perennial grasses, morphometric characteristics, hand-clearing, reseeding, ripping, semi-arid
rangelands.

OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "ICTs Application in the Informal Sector: The Case of Kariokor Market Cluster in Nairobi, Kenya (Urban Forum Journal Paper).". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Models for the formation of the origin of the Archaean greenstone metasediments from the area north of Maseno.". In: Discovery and Innovation, Vol.4 No2 pp53 -60. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1992. Abstract
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Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M. "Effect of newborn resuscitation training on health worker practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2008;3(2):e1599. Abstract

Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya.

Opiyo ETO, Ayienga E, Manderick B, Okello-Odongo W, Nowe A. "Naive reinforcement learning as a guide for path discovery.". 2011. Abstract
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Opiyo R, Muketha S, Omollo W, Mwaniki D. " Responsive Infrastructure and Service Provision Initiatives Framing Smart Environment Attainment in Nairobi.". In: Smart Environment for Smart Cities. Singapore: Springer; 2019.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Education System and Vision 2030: Critical Analysis of Kenya Education System in Meeting Vision 2030 targets (2nd National Conference by Kenya Ministry of Science and Technology KICC-Nairobi).". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2009. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
Opiyo R, Olale P. Alternatives to Eviction: Scenarios for Access to Land by the Urban Poor in Kiandutu Informal Settlement Thika, Kenya. Nairobi: Centre for Urban Research and Innovations ; 2017.
Opiyo ETO, Ayienga E, Getao K, Okello-Odongo W. "Searching for Optimal Schedule for Parallel Machines Using an Agent-based Technique.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

In this paper the scheduling of n independent jobs on m non-identical machines is considered for a large concrete schedule space for 30 jobs and 6 machines. The schedule space is about 1023 which is large enough to render exhaustive systematic search for the optimal schedule limited. The schedules are generated by agents that represent the jobs as they randomly select the machines on which the jobs should be processed. The schedules that are generated are evaluated using the makespan which is the total time taken for all the jobs to be processed. The optimal schedule, which is also the best schedule, is the one with the minimum or least makespan for any given set of job and machine properties. It is shown that the empirical best schedules that are generated are optimal when the job and machine properties are held to some uniform constant values. It is also shown that even when the job and machine properties are not uniform the empirical best schedules closely approximate the optimal schedules. This makes the agent-based approach to optimal schedule generation viable.

Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Game Theoretic Multi-Agent Systems Scheduler for Parallel Machines with Fixed Parameters.". In: 4th Annual International Conference on Sustainable ICT Capacity in Developing Countries SREC08. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2008.
Opiyo R, Were A, Nabakwe E, Mbogo A, Olenja J, Bukania Z. "Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: How Can They Make Informed Nutritional Decisions?" Office of DVC Research, Innovation and Enterprise, University of Nairobi. 2020:39-40. AbstractWebsite

The Ministry of Health and partners should develop national standard operating procedures and IEC materials in renal nutrition counsellingfor harmonized messages. All patients with chronic kidney disease should get takeaway information leaflets with patient-specific simple nutrition messages to ensure the accuracy of nutrition information; All nutritionists and healthcare workers in renal units should participate in regular continuing nutrition education on most recent evidence-based nutrition information.

OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Participatory Planning in Kenya.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. Centre for Law and Research International (CLARION); 2011. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Opiyo -Akech, N, J. Tarney and Hoshino, M (1999): Petrology and geochemistry of granites from the Archaean terrain north of Lake Victoria, Western Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences. Vol.29 No.2 pp283 -300. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1999. Abstract
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Opiyo F, Oliver V. Wasonga, Nyangito MM, Stephen M. Mureithi, Obando J, Munang R. "Determinants of perceptions of climate change and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in northwestern Kenya." Climate and Development. 2015;8(2):179-189.
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Computing Research Challenges and Opportunities with Grid Computers.". In: 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT Capacity in Developing Countries. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2005.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Bridging the Education-Community Divide: Analysis of Urban Planning Education and approaches in Kenya.". In: 5th Session of the World Urban Forum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Mineral chemistry and thermobarometry of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Belt intrusive rocks of the Matuu-Masinga area, central Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 4A., 58-60. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1999. Abstract
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OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Spath A., Anton P. le Roex and N. Opiyo-Akech, (2000) - The petrology of the Chyulu hills volcanic Province, Southern Kenya:.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 2., 34-92. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2000. Abstract
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OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Opiyo -Akech, N - Tectono -Magmatic emplacement of the Kenyan Granite Greenstones: Geochemical evidence from the Maseno area, western Kenya.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.6 No.2 pp27 -33. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1992. Abstract
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OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Opiyo-Akech, N. - Geochemistry of the Archaean Greenstone Volcanics from the area around Maseno, western Kenya.". In: Nairobi University Geological Magazine. Vol. 1 pp42-47. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1990. Abstract
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Opiyo RO, Nyasulu PS, Olenja J, Zunza M, Nguyen KA, Bukania Z, Nabakwe E, Mbogo A, Were AO. "Factors associated with adherence to dietary prescription among adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis in national referral hospitals in Kenya: a mixed-methods survey." Renal Replacement Therapy Journal. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: Adherence to dietary prescriptions among patients with chronic kidney disease is known to prevent
deterioration of kidney functions and slow down the risk for morbidity and mortality. This study determined factors
associated with adherence to dietary prescription among adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.
Methods: A mixed-methods study, using parallel mixed design, was conducted at the renal clinics and dialysis units at
the national teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya from September 2018 to January 2019. The study followed a
QUAN + qual paradigm, with quantitative survey as the primary method. Adult patients with chronic kidney disease on
hemodialysis without kidney transplant were purposively sampled for the quantitative survey. A sub-sample of
adult patients and their caregivers were purposively sampled for the qualitative survey. Numeric data were collected
using a structured, self-reported questionnaire using Open Data Kit “Collect software” while qualitative data were
collected using in-depth interview guides and voice recording. Analysis on STATA software for quantitative and
NVIV0 12 for qualitative data was conducted. The dependent variable, “adherence to diet prescription” was analyzed as a
binary variable. P values < 0.1 and < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant in univariate and multivariate logistic
regression models respectively. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed.
Results: Only 36.3% of the study population adhered to their dietary prescriptions. Factors that were independently
associated with adherence to diet prescriptions were “flexibility in the diets” (AOR 2.65, 95% CI 1.11–6.30, P
0.028), “difficulties in following diet recommendations” (AOR 0.24, 95% CI 0.13–0.46, P < 001), and “adherence
to limiting fluid intake” (AOR 9.74, 95% CI 4.90–19.38, P < 0.001).
Conclusions: For patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis, diet prescriptions with less restrictions
and requiring minimal extra efforts and resources are more likely to be adhered to than the restrictive ones.
Patients who adhere to their fluid intake restrictions easily follow their diet prescriptions. Prescribed diets should be based
on the individual patient’s usual dietary habits and assessed levels of challenges in using such diets. Additionally, diet
adherence messages should be integrated with fluid limitation messages. Further research on understanding patients’
adherence to fluid restriction is also suggested.

OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Methodology for Image Analysis and Land Cover Classification of Nakuru-Menengai Area (Central Rift Valley, Kenya) .:.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Science and Engineering series Vol.1 No.1 pp18 -27. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2000. Abstract
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Opiyo, R.O; & Migiro P, Mwanthi, M.A., Kinoti MK, Migiro P. "Intestinal Worm Infestation and Nutritional Status Of School Children In Nairobi Province, Kenya. ." African Journal of Community Health and Development. 2008;1(1):52-56.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Role of ICTs in Social Work Service Provision (Social Work Conference Paper-Nairobi).". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Geology, geomorphology and hydrographic pattern of the. In Kenya from Space. A contribution to a CREDU publication.". In: East African Educational Publishers. 116- 119. Nairobi. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1992. Abstract
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Opiyo C, Agwanda A. "The Demographic Dividend: A gift or a curse.". In: Youth Research Compendium . Nairobi: Institute Of Economic Affairs ; 2011.
Opiyo Elisha T. O., Erick Ayienga WO-OKGBM, Now A. "Modeling a Multi-Agent Systems Scheduler for Grid Computing Using the Gaia Methodology.". 2007. Abstract
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Opiyo Elisha T. O., Erick Ayienga WO-OKGBMAN. "A Load Balancing Heuristic for Agent-based Parallel Machine Scheduling.". 2009. Abstract
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and Opiyo FEO MSMNRK. "The influence of water availability on pastoralist’s resource use in Mwingi and Kitui Districts in eastern Kenya." Journal of Human Ecology. 2011;35(1):43-52. AbstractWebsite

Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an
increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009).
This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.

Opiyo-Akech N. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for proposed exploratory well drilling in Block L19: Rift Energy, Kwale County. Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya; 2015.
Opiyo-Akech N. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for 2D seismic survey in Block 9: Africa Oil B.V. ; Isiolo, Wajir and Marsabit Counties. Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya; 2014.
Opiyo-Akech N. "Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed Bahasi Aerodrome in block 9 by Africa Oil Kenya B.V. Marsabit County." Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya. 2013.
Opiyo-Akech N. "Decommissioning Audit for Lokapel Base Camp for Tullow Kenya B.V. Turkana County." Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya. 2013.
Opiyo-Akech N, Olago DO, Dindi EW, Ndege MM, Njue F. "Investigation of the impact of salt and sand harvesting activities on the Timboni well field, Gongoni, Malindi District, Kenya." Environmental Geology. 2000;40(1-2):99-110. Abstractinvestigation_of_the_impact_of_salt_-_e_dindi.pdfWebsite

The area studied is a north–south oriented, V-shaped, clayey lagoonal depression bordered by Pleistocene sands on the west and Recent dune sands on the east. The freshwater aquifer in the area is the main source of potable water for the urban centres of Gongoni and Timboni and the main Mombasa Salt Works processing plant. The aim of the study was to look at the impact of sand harvesting, and possible saline contamination of the aquifer by activities at the nearby salt harvesting plant and by seawater intrusion. The major factor abetting pollution of the freshwater aquifer is the sand harvesting activity, which exposes the aquifer to the atmosphere. Extension of the salt works closer to the aquifer field, combined with high abstraction rates, may also lead to saline water intrusion and contamination of the aquifer.

Opiyo-Akech N. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for proposed exploratory well drilling in Block 11A: CEPSA, Turkana County. Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya; 2015.
Opiyo-Akech N. Environmental Impact Assessment for Berilium mining: ARC; Somaliland. Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya; 2014.
Opiyo-Akech N. "Environmental Impact Assessment for an aerodrome in Block 11B: Adamantine Kenya Ltd; Turkana County." Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya. 2014.
Opiyo-Akech N. "Environmental Monitoring of Seismic Lines in Blocks 10BB and 12A for Tullow Kenya B.V Turkana County." Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya. 2013.
Opiyo-Akech N. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for 2D seismic survey in Block L16: CAMAC Energy.; Kilifi County. Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya; 2014.
Opiyo-Akech N. Social Impact Assessment for 2D seismic survey in Block 9: Africa Oil B.V.; Wajir County. Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya; 2014.
Opiyo-Akech N. "Environmental Impact Assessment for Adamantine Energy, Block 11B Turkana County." Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya. 2013.
Opiyo-Akech N. "Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for proposed exploratory well drilling in Block 9 for Africa Oil B.V. Wajir County." Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya. 2013.
Opole IO, Gichangi PB, Saidi H. "Structure and adrenergic innervations of the carotid rete Mirabelle in the maasai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) ." Nairobi Journal of Medicine . 1991;17:51-58.
Opondo, M; Dolan WKCS; S;. "Gender and Employment .". 2007.Website
OPONDO MARY. "Opondo, M., Dolan, C.S., Wendoh, S., and Kathuri, J.". In: (EAMJ 82: 592-597). University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

Opondo C, Ayieko P, Ntoburi S, Wagai J, Opiyo N, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Allen E, Carpenter J, English M. "Effect of a multi-faceted quality improvement intervention on inappropriate antibiotic use in children with non-bloody diarrhoea admitted to district hospitals in Kenya." BMC Pediatr. 2011;11:109. Abstract

There are few reports of interventions to reduce the common but irrational use of antibiotics for acute non-bloody diarrhoea amongst hospitalised children in low-income settings. We undertook a secondary analysis of data from an intervention comprising training of health workers, facilitation, supervision and face-to-face feedback, to assess whether it reduced inappropriate use of antibiotics in children with non-bloody diarrhoea and no co-morbidities requiring antibiotics, compared to a partial intervention comprising didactic training and written feedback only. This outcome was not a pre-specified end-point of the main trial.

Opondo C, Ntoburi S, Wagai J, Wafula J, Wasunna A, Were F, Wamae A, Migiro S, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "Are hospitals prepared to support newborn survival.". 2009;14(10):1165-1172. Abstractare_hospitals_prepared_to_support_newborn_survival.pdf

objective
To assess the availability of resources that support the provision of basic neonatal care in eight first referral level (district) hospitals in Kenya.
methods
We selected two hospitals each from four of Kenya’s eight provinces with the aim of representing the diversity of this part of the health system in Kenya. We created a checklist of 53 indicator items necessary for providing essential basic care to newborns and assessed their availability at each of the eight hospitals by direct observation, and then compared our observations with the opinions of health workers providing care to newborns on recent availability for some items, using a self administered structured questionnaire.
results
The hospitals surveyed were often unable to maintain a safe hygienic environment for patients and health care workers; staffing was insufficient and sometimes poorly organised to support the provision of care; some key equipment, laboratory tests, drugs and consumables were not available while patient management guidelines were missing in all sites.
conclusion
Hospitals appear relatively poorly prepared to fill their proposed role in ensuring newborn survival. More effective interventions are needed to improve them to meet the special needs of this at-risk group.

Opondo M, Abdi U, Nangiro P. "Assessing gender in resilience programming: Uganda." BRACED Resilience Intel. 2016;2(2). Abstractassets.publishing.service.gov.uk

There are a number of opportunities that the project can harness to increase its gender-related impact and drive resilience in the region, including a committed team with strong technical capabilities, a strong legal and policy framework on gender equality and Mercy Corps’ own experience from the field of gender and resilience in the Sahel and Somalia.

Opondo EM, Oleche OM. "Out-Of-Pocket Health Expenditure among the Elderly in Kenya ." Global Journal of Health Science. 2020;10(11).
Opondo C, Ntoburi S, Wagai J, Wafula J, Wasunna A, Were F, Wamae A, Migiro S, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "Are hospitals prepared to support newborn survival? - An evaluation of eight first-referral level hospitals in Kenya." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2009;14(10):1165-72. Abstract

To assess the availability of resources that support the provision of basic neonatal care in eight first-referral level (district) hospitals in Kenya.

OPONDO MARY. "Opondo, M., and Wendoh, S., (2006).". In: (EAMJ 82: 592-597). University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

Opondo M. "A bottom -up approach to climate change adaptation policy: a case study of a community drought resilience project in Sakai sub-location, Makueni District, Kenya." (eds.) Musyoki, A. and Khayesi, M. Environment and Development: Selected Themes from Eastern and Southern Africa, Bay Publishers: Botswana; 2012. Abstract
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Opondo OE, D.Kaulemu. "C.A. Mumma-Martinon.". In: Catholic Church Leadership in Peace Building in Africa. Paulines Publications Africa; 2014.
Opot. B, Osuna. F, Gachara. G, Wadegu. M, Achilla. R, Majanja. J, Wurapa. E, Bulimo. W. "Analyses of selection pressure on the Hemagglutinin gene of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses circulating in Kenya 2007-2011. .". In: 2nd Medical and Veterinary Virology Research -2 symposium. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi.; 2012. Abstract
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Opot. B, Osuna. F, Wadegu. M, Achilla. R, Wurapa. E, Bulimo. W. "Establishment of DNA sequencing capacity at the Kenyan National Influenza Centre to underpin molecular virology research at USAMRU-K. .". In: 1st International Scientific Conference at the College of Health Sciences University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi, Nairobi Kenya; 2011. Abstract
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Opuko Hellen A., G. MM. "Flexible Work Practices and Job Performance in the Transport and Logistics Industry: The Kenyan perspective." DBA Africa Management Review. 2017;7(2):38-49.
Opwora AS, Laving AM, Nyabola LO OJM. " Who is to blame? Perspectives of caregivers on barriers to accessing healthcare for the under-fives in Butere District, Western Kenya. ." BMC Public Health. 2011 May 3;11:272. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-272. 1.. 2011. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Kenya, like many developing nations, continues to experience high childhood mortality in spite of the many efforts put in place by governments and international bodies to curb it. This study sought to investigate the barriers to accessing healthcare services for children aged less than five years in Butere District, a rural district experiencing high rates of mortality and morbidity despite having relatively better conditions for child survival.
METHODS:
Exit interviews were conducted among caregivers seeking healthcare for their children in mid 2007 in all the 6 public health facilities. Additionally, views from caregivers in the community, health workers and district health managers were sought through focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIs).
RESULTS:
Three hundred and ninety-seven respondents were surveyed in exit interviews while 45 respondents participated in FGDs and KIs. Some practices by caregivers including early onset of child bearing, early supplementation, and utilization of traditional healers were thought to increase the risk of mortality and morbidity, although reported rates of mosquito net utilization and immunization coverage were high. The healthcare system posed barriers to access of healthcare for the under fives, through long waiting time, lack of drugs and poor services, incompetence and perceived poor attitudes of the health workers. FGDs also revealed wide-spread concerns and misconceptions about health care among the caregivers.

CONCLUSION:
Caregivers' actions were thought to influence children's progression to illness or health while the healthcare delivery system posed recurrent barriers to the accessing of healthcare for the under-fives. Actions on both fronts are necessary to reduce childhood mortality.

Orago N. "Interpretation and enforcement of the socio-economic rights entrenched in the new Kenyan Constitution.". In: African Center for International Legal and Policy Research (CILPRA) and International Association of Constitutional Law (IACL). Nairobi Kenya; 2012.
and Oranga, J.O. AKGAMW. A Comparative Analysis of Political Journalism and Humour Journalism: the Case of Philip Ochieng' and Wahome Mutahi. Odhiambo LO, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2001.
Oranga JO. "The Centrality of the Media in Maintenance of Road Safety.". In: the International Association of Road Safety Conference. Fairview, Nairobi; 2011.
Oranga JO. "the Media and Public Education: Enhancing Public Academic Instruction through Broadcasting." the Association for Development of Education in Afica, ADEA, Toolkit Journal. 2010;1(1):20-31.
Oranga JO. "the Role of the Media in National Integration.". In: Editors' Guild Workshop. Laico Regency, Nairobi; 2012.
Oranga JO. Audience Media Preferences in Kenya: the Case of FM Radio. Ochilo, P.O and Kiai W, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2005.
Oranga JO. "The East African Integration: Dynamics of Media Engagement.". In: the East African Communication Association Conference. St. Agustine University, Mwanza, Tanzania; 2012.
Oranga JO. "Conference Paper.". In: Editors' Conference on Media and Elections. Internews Kenya, Nairobi; 2012.
Orao J. "Identity and Nationalism in MG Vassanji’s ‚The In-Between World of Vikram Lall’.". In: Samosa Festival. University of Nairobi; 2017.
Orao J. "Metaphern der Migration: die Figurationen des Reisens in der zeitgenössischen deutschsprachigen Migrationsliteratur.". In: Schwerpunkte der DaF-Studiengänge und Germanistik im östlichen Afrika. Göttingen: Universitätsdrücke Göttingen; 2014.matdaf91_ostafrika_auszuege.pdf
Orata D, Yusuf AO, Nineza C, Mukabi M, D. M. "Surface Modified Electrode Used In the Electro-Analysis of N- Acetyl P-Aminophenol- A Pharmaceutical Drug ." Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):90-99.iosr_7_5_2_2014_acetyl.pdf
Orata D, wabomba J. "Bentonite used as a host matrix in the study of Ester Hydrolysis." IOSR J.Appl.Chem. 2015;8(2015):60-70.
Orata D, Yusuf AO, Nineza C, Mbui D, Mukabi M. "Surface modified electrodes used in cyclic voltammetric profiling of quinine, as antimalarial drug." Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):81-89.iosr_7_5_2_2014_quinine.pdf
Orata D. Basic Statistical Thermodynamics. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020. AbstractLap Lambert Academic Publishing

Basic Statistical Thermodynamics is a textbook suitable for senior undergraduate students and can be used also by posstgraduate students in Universities. This book is a culmination of over three decades of teaching at the University of Nairobi. The approach in the text is geared towards ensuring that, the student can use the book for self study. This has been achieved by showing in detail a step wise manner the derivation of the concepts and principles of statistical thermodynamics.

Orata DO, Yusuf A, Claire N, Damaris M, Mukabi M. "Surface Modified Electrodes Used in Cyclic Voltammetric Profiling of Quinine an Anti-Malarial Drug." IOSR-Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):54-58.
Orata D, Njenga H, Mukabi M, Yusuf A. "Sodium Thiosulphate, a Novel Electrocatalyst in the Electro-synthesis of Electronically Conducting Polymer-Polythiophene." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IORS-JAC). 2014;7(5 Ver. III). Abstract

Description
In this paper we report on the electrosynthesis of polythiophene from aqueous media with sulphuric acid as the supporting electrolyte. The redox features of polythiophene on a bare carbon graphite working electrode and on a clay montmorillonite host matrix is also reported. Co-polymerisation of polythiophene and polyaniline from an electrolyte media containing both aniline and thiophene monomers reveal that, the redox centres of the two polymers are independent, hence suggesting the formation of a bilayer, even though no charge rectification is observed. The role of sodium thiosulphate as a novel electrocatalyst which has led to a tremendous improvement in the polythiophene faradaic/redox process is also reported.

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