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O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "25th May, 2007 .". In: Algeria Embassy.; 2007. Abstract
n/a
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Immunosuppression in renal transplantation: current status and application in developing countries. Afr J Health Sci. 1994 Nov;1(4):142-146.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
Renal transplantation has become the most effective treatment for end stage renal failure. The numbers and survival rates of patients undergoing renal transplantation have increased immensely over the past decade. The use of immunosuppressive drugs has contributed greatly to the success of transplantation. Drugs such as azathioprine, corticosteroids, cyclosporin, FK 506, ATG/ALG and OKT3 are being used in several countries on a daily basis. New drugs and other modalities of immunosuppression are under investigation. This paper reviews these medications with respect to dosing, administration and adverse effects. Drugs being relatively expensive, the use of these drugs in developing counties is discussed.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Mosi, R.O. (1978). An assessment of the efficiency of the Kenya Beef Records.". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 1978. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Gatei DG, Odhiambo PA, Orinda DA, Muruka FJ, Wasunna A. Retrospective study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya. Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7.". In: Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1978. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Geological manpower training in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of lst Annual Conference on the Geology of Kenya. 1984. Wiley Interscience; 1985. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Opiyo Elisha T. O., Erick Ayienga, Katherine Getao, Bernard Manderick, Okello-Odongo, Ann Now.". In: In Proceedings of the 4th International Operations Research Society of East Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 23rd-24th Oct 2008, Nairobi, Kenya. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2008.
O O, M SS, N MJ, A AA, C K. "Compressive Strength and Slump Prediction of Two Blended Agro Waste Materials Concretes." The Open Civil Engneering Journal. 2019;Vol 13:118-128.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1982. Companion of CIE and VMAT methods for the immunodiagnosis of C. fetus infection in cattle.". In: Wld. Congr. Dis. Cattle. Amsterdam, 7 - 10th Sept. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1982. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo NO. Breastfeeding: past, present and future. East Afr Med J. 1995 Mar;72(3):145-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Mar;72(3):145-6. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1995. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. swhaley@mednet.ucla.edu

Previous observational studies in developing countries have suggested that diet quality, particularly increased animal source food (ASF) consumption, is positively associated with child cognitive development. This report presents findings from a study in rural Kenya, designed to test the impact of three different diets on the cognitive development of school children. Twelve schools with a total of 555 Standard 1 children (equivalent to U.S. Grade 1) were randomized to one of four feeding interventions: Meat, Milk, Energy or Control (no feeding). Feeding continued for seven school terms (21 mo), and cognitive tests were administered before the commencement of feeding and during every other term of feeding. Hierarchical linear random effects models and associated methods were used to examine the effects of treatment group on changes in cognitive performance over time. Analyses revealed that children receiving supplemental food with meat significantly outperformed all other children on the Raven's Progressive Matrices. Children supplemented with meat, and children supplemented with energy, outperformed children in the Control group on tests of arithmetic ability. There were no group differences on tests of verbal comprehension. Results suggest that supplementation with animal source food has positive effects on Kenyan children's cognitive performance. However, these effects are not equivalent across all domains of cognitive functioning, nor did different forms of animal source foods produce the same beneficial effects. Implications of these findings for supplementation programs in developing countries are discussed.

PMID: 14672297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2001.Knowledge Base in Quality Asssuarance: A tool in poverty eradication and food insecurity strategy. (Workshop on quality control fisheries industry). Berlin Alumni Network Website. 15.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.The pattern of geriatric admissions in the medical wards at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):37-9.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
In a one year period (March 1990 to March 1991) the pattern of diseases in geriatric patients (over 60 years of age) admitted to the medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) was studied. In all, there were 1296 patients (M:F = 1.7:1) in this age group forming 11.5% of all admissions during the study period. 1008 (77.8%) of the geriatric patients were between 60 and 79 years of age. Most of the admissions (86.4%) were first admissions. The mean number of diseases per geriatric patient was 1.4. Hypertension and Cardiomyopathy were the commonest single diseases recorded, making up 43.9% of all diseases in this patient population. The commonest neurological diagnosis was stroke, which occurred in a setting of hypertension or cardiomyopathy in all the patients in whom it was diagnosed. The mean duration (+/- 2SD) of stay in the hospital in this patient population was 43 (+/- 19) days. Eighty eight (6.8%) of the patients died, the commonest cause of death being heart failure due to cardiomyopathy or hypertensive heart disease. It is concluded that geriatric patients form a sizeable proportion of our medical admissions and that a large proportion suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is thus recommended that further studies be carried out on the pattern of diseases in such patients and optimal management strategies for their ailments be outlined.
O DROPEREALFRED. "UNEP 2008. Beekman H.E., Abu-Zeid K., Afouda A., Hughes S., Kane A., Kulindwa K.A., Odada E.O., Opere Alfred., Oyebande L. and Saayman, I.C. : .". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2008. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Bibliography of Kenya:Geosciences.". In: The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Uppsala. 29p. Wiley Interscience; 1977. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO. Treatment of HIV infections and AIDS: new horizons. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS77-81. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS77-81. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract

Treatment of HIV infections has involved the use of antiviral drugs as well as those drugs that act against opportunistic infections. Immune modulators have also been used. A review of these drugs is reported emphasizing on those which have great promise in the clinical management of HIV infections in the light of our present knowledge on immunopathology of the disease.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Into Africa. The telemedicine links between Canada, Kenya and Uganda. C.M.A.J. Vol. 136, 398-400, 1987. House M., Koegh E., Hillman D., Bwibo N.O., Meme J. S., Wafula E., Macleods, McCollough N.". In: C.M.A.J. Vol. 136, 398-400, 1987. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1987. Abstract

Department of Pediatrics, UCLA School of Medicine.

Sera of 95 mothers and 129 children from Nairobi, Kenya, collected in 1976, and of 466 adults and 193 children of Embu District, Kenya, collected in 1984 and 1985, were analyzed for the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies. Although no HIV-1 seropositivity was demonstrated by western blot analysis in both study groups, 7% of Nairobi mothers and 10% of adult females from Embu District had false positive results by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) compared with less than 1% seroreactivity rates observed in adult males and children. False positive results were not due to simian T lymphotropic virus type III (STLV-IIIAGM)/human T lymphotropic virus type IV (HTLV-IV) seropositivity. Sixty-one percent of the HIV-1 EIA reactive sera could not be explained by cytotoxic activity to lymphocytes bearing the HLA-DR4 or HLA-DQw3 phenotype. We conclude that false positive HIV EIA tests are frequently encountered in East Africa. Seroprevalence rates in rural Africa must be interpreted with caution due to the decreased specificity of HIV EIAs.

PMID: 2840237 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Gatikia J K, W O Ogara, J McDermott, P Kitala. Rabies Surveillance in wildlife Populations at the Wildlife/ Domestic Animal Interface; a case study in Kibwezi, Kenya. In proceedings of Southern and Eastern African Rabies Group (SEARG) Nairobi, Kenya; 4-6 .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno LS, McLigeyo SO, Luta M.Acute renal failure following the use of herbal remedies. East Afr Med J. 1991 Dec;68(12):993-8.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Acute renal failure (ARF) complicated the use of traditional herbal remedies in six adult patients seen at Kenyatta National Hospital in a 2-year period (August 1984 to August 1986). This comprised 10.9% of all the cases of ARF and 24% of the cases of ARF due to medical causes. All the patients were oliguric and the period of oliguria in the four patients who survived ranged between 19-57 days (mean 26.3 days). Five of the patients had evidence of fluid overload. The blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were elevated in all the patients. The serum sodium was normal in all, while the serum potassium was elevated in 2 cases. Identity of the herbal medication was unknown in all the cases. The indication was abdominal pain in 4 cases, infertility and abdominal pain in one and prophylaxis against witchcraft in the other. All the patients were started on haemodialysis, two of them having had periods of peritoneal dialysis for 12 and 16 days. Two patients died. Of the four surviving patients, follow up has been carried out for 8, 6, 5 and 4 months. At four months follow up the creatinine clearance in the 4 surviving patients have been 54, 63, 51 and 43 ml/min.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Rainfall characteristics as an indicator of drought in semi-arid Kitui district of Kenya (revised).". In: Discovery and Innovations, African Academy Science publishers. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2004. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""The Search for an Appropriate Decentralization Design in Kenya: Historical and Comparative Perspectives," in Kindiki, K., and Ambani, O., (eds.), The Anatomy of Bomas: Selected Analyses of the 2004 Draft Constitution of Kenya, Nairobi: Claripress.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2005. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of histamine receptor antagonists in contemporary times. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jul;61(7):578-82. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jul;61(7):578-82. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Sum-Rules for Relativistic Quantum Dielectric Tensor; African Journal of Science and Technology B.". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "THE ROLE OF LAW IN SOCIETY.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O DRACHIATHOMASN. "Spatial Durbin model for poverty mapping and analysis.". In: European Journal of Social Science. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
"
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Ondari C.O., Kibwage I.O., Ndemo F.O. and McLigeyo S.O.: Comparative bioavailability of two brands of chlorpropamide in Kenyans East African Medical Journal 66(10): 663-668, 1989.". In: East African Medical Journal 66(10): 663-668, 1989. University of Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Effects of chlorthalidone, oxprenolol, and their combination in hypertensive blacks: a randomized double-blind crossover study. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989 Mar;13(3):465-70.". In: J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989 Mar;13(3):465-70. E Afr Med J; 1989. Abstract
One hundred twenty black patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of the efficacy and tolerability of slow release oxprenolol versus chlorthalidone singly and in combination. Oxprenolol as monotherapy produced no effect on blood pressure as compared with placebo even after doubling the dose. Chlorthalidone as monotherapy produced a significant decrease in blood pressure (p less than 0.01). Combining oxprenolol with chlorthalidone yielded hypotensive effects in excess of those of either of the components given singly. Oxprenolol produced a significant decrease in plasma renin activity (PRA) whereas chlorthalidone produced a significant increase in PRA. These results indicate that a beta-blocking agent alone is ineffective in lowering blood pressure in hypertensive blacks, even when the dose is high. Oxprenolol may increase the hypotensive effect of chlorthalidone by counteracting the hypokalemic effect of the diuretic and by attenuating the diuretic-induced increase in plasma renin activity.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O. (2000): The need for a flood forecasting system (FFS) in Kenya Proceedings of the Fifth workshop of the Kenya Meteorological Society workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, 4-8 September 2000, Mombasa, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2000. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. ""The Use of Compliance Monitoring in Water Pollution Prosecutions..". In: Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 5/2, (1993), at p. 191. Departmental seminar; 1993. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFORINDADA. "Odonga AM, Wambwa JR, Orinda DA.Acute intermittent porphyria in an East African female.East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1980. Abstract
PMID: 7215256 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Growth and development of abandoned babies in institutional care in Nairobi. Otieno PA, Nduati RW, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):430-5. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics–use of oral anti-diabetic agents. East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):91-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):91-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G. O. Rading and J.T. Berry A Model for Heat-Affected Zone Hardness Profiles in Al-Li-X Alloys Welding Journal 77(9) (1998) p 383-s to 387-s.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1998. Abstract

A model based on reaction kinetics and elemental diffusion is pro­posed to account for the presence of double inflection in the hardness profiles of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) in weld­ments of AI-Li-X alloys tested without postweld heat treatment (PWHT). Such profiles are particularly evident when 1) the base metal is in the peak-aged (T8 or T6) temper condition prior to welding; 2) the welding process is a high-heat input process, i.e., gas tungsten arc (GTA), gas metal arc (GMA) or plasma arc (PA) welding; and 3) a filler alloy deficient in lithium (i.e., AA 2319) is used. In the first part of this paper, the theoretical mechanisms are presented. It is proposed that the double inflection appears due to complete or partial reversion of the semi-coherent, plate-like precipitates (i.e., ө', T1 or S'); coarsening of the platelike precipitates at constant volume fraction; precipitation of d' as a result of natural aging; and diffusion of lithium from the HAZ into the weld pool due to the concentration gradient between the weld pool and the base metal. In the second part (to be published in next month's Welding Journal), experimental validation of the model is provided using weld-ments of the AI-Li-Cu Alloy 2095.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Bureaucracy and the Management of Health Services in Kenya," in H.K. Asmeron, Robert Hoppe and R.B. Jain, (eds.), Public Bureaucracies in Developing Countries (Amsterdam: VU University Press).". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1992. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "Otieno Malo, R. O. Genga Single Particle Motion in the Strongly Coupled One- & Component Plasma in a Uniform Magnetic Field; Fusion Energy and Plasma Physics, Edited by P.H. Sakanaka, pp 341 .". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1987.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Wakhungu J.W. and Bwanga, C.O.; and Kipleel D.B. Strictures on the choice criteria of dairy cattle breeds in smallholder farms in Kenya. Contract Research report to USAID-ARF-KARI, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: A paper presented in the 3rd Commonwealth Veterinary Association Workshop on . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1997.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO.Poisons information and treatment. East Afr Med J. 1983 Dec;60(12):825-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Apr;60(4):201-2. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O DROUTAGEORGE. "Fabricating Nationhood: Sigana (Narrative) as Theatre in Post-colonial Kenya,.". In: Getting Heard: Reclaiming Performance Space in Kenya. Twaweza Communications, Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Relearning Old Lessons: The Case of the Special Rural Development Programme (SRDP)," in African Association of Public Administration and Management (AAPAM) Managing Rural Development in Africa, Addis Ababa.". In: Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. XXVI, No.3. IPPNW; 1979. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT, PETER DRMUGWE. "Macfadyen C, Gamble C, Garner P, Macharia I, Mackenzie I, Mugwe P, Oburra H, Otwombe K, Taylor S, Williamson P.Topical quinolone vs. antiseptic for treating chronic suppurative otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.Clin Otolaryngol. 2005 Apr;30(2):1.". In: Clin Otolaryngol. 2005 Apr;30(2):193-4. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare a topical quinolone antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) with a cheaper topical antiseptic (boric acid) for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 children with chronic suppurative otitis media enrolled from 141 schools following screening of 39 841 schoolchildren in Kenya. Intervention Topical ciprofloxacin (n = 216) or boric acid in alcohol (n = 211); child-to-child treatment twice daily for 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution of discharge (at 2 weeks for primary outcome), healing of the tympanic membrane, and change in hearing threshold from baseline, all at 2 and 4 weeks. RESULTS: At 2 weeks, discharge was resolved in 123 of 207 (59%) children given ciprofloxacin, and in 65 of 204 (32%) given boric acid (relative risk 1.86; 95% CI 1.48-2.35; P < 0.0001). This effect was also significant at 4 weeks, and ciprofloxacin was associated with better hearing at both visits. No difference with respect to tympanic membrane healing was detected. There were significantly fewer adverse events of ear pain, irritation, and bleeding on mopping with ciprofloxacin than boric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin performed better than boric acid and alcohol for treating chronic suppurative otitis media in children in Kenya.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT, PETER DRMUGWE. "Macfadyen C, Gamble C, Garner P, Macharia I, Mackenzie I, Mugwe P, Oburra H, Otwombe K, Taylor S, Williamson P.Topical quinolone vs. antiseptic for treating chronic suppurative otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.Clin Otolaryngol. 2005 Apr;30(2):1.". In: Clin Otolaryngol. 2005 Apr;30(2):193-4. MEDICOM; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Herbert O. Oburra, Tobias Sholz,  Jochen A. Werner,  Isaac M. Macharia,  Peter Masinde,  Joyce Aswani,  Anselmy Opiyo MEDICOM The African Journal of Hospital and Scientific Medicine, (2010) Vol  25: 33 - 36 Abstract Head and neck cancer occupies over 50% of in-patient beds at the Ear, Nose and Throat-Head and Neck Surgery Unit of the Kenyatta National Hospital. Laryngeal cancer is the third most common head and neck cancer after nasopharyngeal and oral cancers. Aim: To determine the demographic features, symptomatology, morbid anatomy, histology and disease stage of laryngeal cancer, and to assess the efficiency of the hospital facility in coping with initial work-up and diagnosis of the patients with laryngeal cancer from 1996 to 2001. Setting: Department of Ear, Nose and Throat/Head and Neck Surgery at The Kenyatta National Hospital Study design: Retrospective review of case notes of 100 patients admitted to the unit between 1996 and 2001. Results: Male to female ratio was 24:1. The peak age at presentation was 50 to 70 years with a mean of 60.6 years. Duration of delay between onset of symptoms and presentation to the unit was 4 to 300 weeks with a mean of 50 weeks. Long history of hoarseness of voices and respiratory stridor were the most frequent symptoms. Preoperative tracheostomy rate was 81%. Vocal cords were involved in 54% of cases, 33% supraglottic, 6% subglottic and 7% indeterminate. Delay in obtaining histological results after biopsy ranged from 1 to 71 days with a mean of 43 days. Ninety five per cent of cases had various grades of squamous cell carcinoma. GI differentiation was found in 36%, G2 in 25% and G3 carcinomas involving the vocal cords tended to be well differentiated.  
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Muraguri P., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K. Proteinuria, other selected urinary abnormalities and Hypertension among teenage secondary school students in Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal, 74(8): 467 - 473; 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal, 74(8): 467 - 473; 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Hypertension: what is new about its management? East Afr Med J. 1981 Jan;58(1):8-11. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Jan;58(1):8-11. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Current state-of-the-art, problems and preliminary results of seismic hazard assessment in sub-Saharan Africa.". In: In: Bormann, P. (Editor). Regional International Training Course Volume (1997) on Seismology and Seismic Hazard Assessment. Scientific Technical Report STR 98/05. Potsdam. 262-271. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Knowledge Management & Institutional Framework: Kenyan Veterinary Services.". In: Journal. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice; Submitted.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Four Isoflavones from the Stem Bark of Erythrina sacleuxii. Phytochemistry, 49, 1, 247-249.". In: Phytochemistry, 55, 457-459.; 1998. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K. O. 1994. Vegetation, pp. 119-128; in: Tiffen, Mortimore, Gichuki (eds). More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Machakos District, Kenya. John Wiley and Sons.". In: in: Tiffen, Mortimore, Gichuki (eds). More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Machakos District, Kenya. John Wiley and Sons. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Emerging concepts about the renin angiotensin system: present and future clinical applications. East Afr Med J. 1996 Sep;73(9):607-10. Review.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(9):607-610, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
This review article looks at the emerging concepts about the renin angiotensin system. The specific aspects it covers include angiotensin II receptors, angiotensin receptor antagonists and alternative enzymatic pathways for the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II other than angiotensin converting enzyme. The review, additionally, looks at the current and future clinical applications of the above concepts.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1984. Euler.". In: Geophysics 49, 1549-1553. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1984. Abstract
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O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A, Mohammed K. Low birthweight babies: socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics of adolescent mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):543-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):543-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare some socio-demographic and obstetric factors between adolescent mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight (birthweight < 2000 gm) babies. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: The Newborn Unit of the Kenyatta National Hospital. RESULTS: Sixty nine adolescent mothers and 73 older mothers were studied. Adolescent mothers were more likely to be unmarried (p = 0.0001) have less formal education (p < 0.0001) be unemployed and be primigravida (76.5% compared to 36% of older mothers). Although the obstetric factors of antenatal clinic attendance, premature rupture of the membranes, pre-eclamptic toxaemia, infections and interventronal delivery tended to be more frequent among the adolescent mothers, non of these differences were significant probably due to the small numbers of patients studied. CONCLUSION: This study does suggest mothers of very low birthweight babies tend to have unfavourable socio-demographic and obstetric factors like being single parents having less formal education, being unemployed and having obstetric risks for poor pregnancy outcome.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Seismology and Related Sciences in Africa.". In: Tectonophysics Special Issue, Vol. 209 Nos. 1-4, Elsevier. 337p.(editors). Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
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O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Bernard O. Okuku, Elisha T. O. Opiyo. An efficient agent-based wireless communication model. In the proceedings of The 3rd International Conference on Internet Technology and Applications (iTAP 2012), August 18-20, 2012 in Wuhan, China. To appear in EEE X.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. AJFAND; 2012.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O., Odiawo, G.O., Tyrrell, D. and Ogaa, J. S. (1995). Ultranography to diagnose testicular lesions in an infertile Angora buck. Irish Vet. Journal 48: 416 - 418.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1995. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Community perceptions of important camel diseases in Lapur Division of Turkana District, Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 37(2005), 187-204.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "13th July, 2007 .". In: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.; 2007. Abstract
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O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Human organ transplantation in Report of the Seminar and Workshop on Medical ethics and Human Rights and Workshop on Medical Ethics and Human Rights, W. Lore (ed), Commonwealth Medical Association, East and Central Africa region. 1994, pp 2.". In: Commonwealth Medical Association, East and Central Africa region. 1994, pp 26-27. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Mosi, R.O. and D.E. Mbogo (1987). Role of animal and institutional resources in dairy cattle improvement: A case study of the National Daily Cattle Breeding Programme for A.I. bulls in Kenya. Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46.". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Autrup H, Bradley KA, Shamsuddin AK, Wakhisi J, Wasunna A. Detection of putative adduct with fluorescence characteristics identical to 2,3-dihydro-2-(7'-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine collected in Murang'a district, Kenya. Carcinogenesis. 19.". In: Carcinogenesis. 1983 Sep;4(9):1193-5. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1983. Abstract

Food samples collected in Murang'a district, Kenya are known to be contaminated with a mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB), and a positive correlation exists between the dietary intake of AFB and the incidence of liver cancer. When urine samples collected in this district were analyzed for the presence of 2,3-dihydro-2-(7'-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-GuaI) by h.p.l.c., 6 of 81 samples had a detectable level of a compound whose fluorescence spectrum was identical to chemically synthesized AFB-GuaI as confirmed by photoncounting fluorescence spectrophotometry. These results are an indication of interaction between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and cellular nucleic acids in vivo and further support the hypothesis that AFB may play an important role in the etiology of human liver cancer.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Proceedings of the 1st Regional Seminar in Earth Sciences,.". In: (Editor) Dakar, Senegal, 1986. ANSTI-UNESCO. 124p. Wiley Interscience; 1987. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo (2009). Innovative applications in Healthcare. University of Nairobi College of Health Sciences, Institute of Tropical & Infectious Diseases, The UNITID Fellowship Programme, HIV Health Informatics Track.". In: Published by The University of Nairobi, Printed by College of Education and External Studies, 2009. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2009.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. Mac-Laren, A.P.C. and Boyd, H. (1983). Development and Application of the Counterium Unoelectrophoresis (CIE) test for the immunodiagnosis of C. fetus infection in cattle Br. Vet. J. 139, 528 - 36.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1983. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Kenyan school children have multiple micronutrient deficiencies, but increased plasma vitamin B-12 is the only detectable micronutrient response to meat or milk supplementation. J Nutr . 2003 Nov; 133 ( 11 Suppl 2 ): 3972S-3980S . PMID: 14672298 [PubMed -.". In: J Nutr . 2003 Nov; 133 ( 11 Suppl 2 ): 3972S-3980S . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Program in International Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Animal source foods (ASF) can provide micronutrients in greater amounts and more bioavailable forms compared to plant source foods, but their intake is low in many poor populations. However, the impact of ASF on micronutrient status of undernourished populations has not been assessed. Supplemental meat (60-85 g/d), milk (200-250 mL/d) or energy (isocaloric with the meat and milk, 240-300 kcal/d) were randomly assigned to 555 undernourished school children aged 5-14 y in a rural malaria-endemic area of Kenya, at one school meal daily for one school year. Blood and stool samples were collected at baseline and after 1 y to assess stool parasites, malaria, hemoglobin, serum or plasma C-reactive protein, ferritin, iron, zinc, copper, vitamin B-12, folate and retinol, and erythrocyte riboflavin. At baseline, there was a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies (iron, zinc, vitamins A and B-12 and riboflavin), yet plasma ferritin was low in few children, and none had low serum copper. At the end of the year of supplementation, plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were significantly increased in children fed the Meat or Milk meal; prevalence of severe plus moderate deficiency fell from 80.7% at baseline to 64.1% in the Meat group and from 71.6 to 45.1% in the Milk group, respectively. No significant improvement was observed in the status of other micronutrients compared to the Energy and Control groups, although malaria and other infections may have obscured effects. Supplementation with small amounts of meat or milk reduced the high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in these children.

PMID: 14672298 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W.O. 2001. Economic Benefits of Environmental Regulations and Standards. In Public Education and Awareness of Regulations and Standards of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Book Review, Public Administration in World Perspective, by O.P. Dwivedi and Keith M. Henderson, eds.". In: African Urban Quarterly, Vol.6 Nos.1 and 2 February and May.; 1991. Abstract
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O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Muscle cramps during prednisolone treatment. Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
In a six month period at the Kenyatta National Hospital, 46 patients (30 males) with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 22 healthy subjects have had a clinical and echocardiographic study of their cardiovascular systems. The patients with CRF were further classified as stable or in end stage renal disease (ESRD), the latter group requiring dialysis. Hypertension and circulatory congestion were the commonest clinical cardiovascular findings in patients with CRF. The patients with ESRD had significantly higher blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine than the ones with stable CRF. Echocardiographically right ventricular size, left atrial size, aortic root diameter, left ventricular internal diameters, left ventricular end diastolic and systolic volumes, stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular posterior wall and interventricular septal thickness, ejection time and mitral and aortic peak flow rates were significantly higher in patients with CRF than in controls. In contrast, the circumferential fibre shortening and the ejection fraction were reduced in patients with CRF. Global left ventricular dysfunction was found in 47.8% of the patients. Using doppler flow studies, valvular incompetence was detected in a number of patients, mitral regurgitation being found in 84%.76% of the patients with CRF had varying degrees of pericardial effusion. The echocardiographic abnormalities and the pericardial effusions responded six weeks of haemodialysis in a variable manner.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "OWINO, J & C. M. PHILIPS (1988): .". In: Kenya J. Sci. (A) Vol., 9, pp 5-10. 1999; 1988. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "Risk of infection with Brucella abortus and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 associated with marketing of unpasteurized milk in Kenya.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Trace elements in fluorites from Kerio Valley, Kenya.". In: Neues Jb. Miner. Mh. H.7. 298-307. Wiley Interscience; 1978. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Tombe M, Bhatt KM, Obel AO.Clinical surprises and challenges of severe malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):117-9. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):401. E Afr Med J; 1993. Abstract

Department of Cariology Endodontology Pedodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Louwesweg 1, 1066 EA Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The use of Chewing sticks (Miswaki) in the third world for control of dental plaque is very popular. Some of the studies that have been conducted on this subject have reported marked decrease in the incidences of dental caries and periodontal diseases in the users of Miswaki, when compared to the users of the conventional toothbrush living under similar conditions. Various mechanisms by which the Miswaki contributes to this phenomenon have been suggested. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in vitro, the anti-microbial action, the potential acid buffer capacity and fluoride content of crude aqueous extracts of eight commonly used chewing sticks from three regions in Kenya. The results obtained in the study, showed that one of the Miswaki had remarkable antibiotic activity against three stains of oral bacteria. Three of the Miswaki had significant acid buffer capacity. None of the eight Miswaki showed any significant fluoride release.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo N O and Ndombi I O Nutrition in Sickness; Chapter VI In: Feeding the Child including recipes Editors: R.K. Oniango, Nimrod O Bwibo, Isiye O Ndombi, Kama O Rogo. Publishers .". In: Publishers . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1988. Abstract

One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index.

PMID: 2591328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, V O Awour, 1997. Effect of climate change on wildlife and tourism. In: impacts of climate change in Kenya (Ogola J.S, M A Abira and V O Awour eds) Pages 73-91.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Otieno, L.S., Kinuthia, D.M.W., Mwongera F.K. and Wairagu, S.G.: Pregnancy in patients with nephrotic syndrome. East African Medical Journal. 68(6): 447-483, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(6): 447-483, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Otieno L.S., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., and Sitati S. Management of lupus nephritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital East African Medical Journal, 67(6): 387-395; 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal, 67(6): 387-395; 1990. East African Medical Journal.71(4): 253-5; 1994.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A. (2005): Hazard Risk assessment in Mount Kenya headwaters: Sustainable Management of Headwater Resources; research from Africa and India, United Nations University, p165-177; Jansky L., Martin J. Haigh and H. Prasad (eds).". In: Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2005. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Serological determination of prevalence of congenital syphilis in two hospitals in Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . No abstract available. PMID: 6764198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
No abstract available.
O PROFORINDADA. "Nyakundi PM, Kinuthia DW, Orinda DA. Clinical aspects and causes of rickets in a Kenyan population. East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):536-42.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):84-7. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
Twenty nine patients with rickets were studied in a one year period. The majority of patients (17/29) were below 2 years of age. Most of them had nutritional rickets resulting from a combination of factors. Premature delivery, nonexposure to sunlight, nutritional marasmus and inappropriate dietary intake. Some had familial hypophosphataemic rickets, others had renal tubular acidosis while the rest had rickets with a familial tendency. Both the previous hospital records and the present study indicate that rickets is a persistent problem in children in the community and should be suspected in children who present with features of failure to thrive, among other conditions.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "CONSTITUTION THE STATE, TERRITORY, CITIZENRY AND NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY IN A CONSTITUTION.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Beef Industry in Kenya: A Review of National and International Perspectives.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1981.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.,Notghi, A., Anderton, J.L., Dick, J.: The use of mnoclonal antibodies in the treatment of acute renal allograft rejection - A Review article and a summary of our experience. East African Medical Journal, 67(9): 667-673, 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal, 67(9): 667-673, 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO, Minowada J, Hutchinson VA, Cummins JM. Low dose oral alpha-interferon therapy for patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Mol Biother. 1990 Jun;2(2):91-5.". In: Mol Biother. 1990 Jun;2(2):91-5. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract
Thirty eight symptomatic and two asymptomatic patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) were treated with a natural human interferon alpha (HuIFN alpha). Patients were given 2 IU/kg HuIFN alpha orally once daily in powdered maltose held in the mouth to promote mucosal absorption. This oral immunomodulating HuIFN alpha therapy resulted in an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes, an increase in weight, and a dramatic alleviation of clinical symptoms related to HIV-1 infection.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O. (2002): Impacts of climate change in water resources planning and management. Proceedings of the 9th Nile 2002 International conference, Kenya College of Communications and Technology (KCCT), Nairobi, 7-9 October 2002.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, March 2002. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2002. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. ""Land Tenure and Water Resources," in In Land We Trust: Environment, Private Property & Constitutional Change, Juma, C & Ojwang J.B. (eds) Initiatives Publishers/ACTS press, (1996), at p. 143, with A.F. Juma & C Torori).". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1996. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Jitta J, Nduati RW Growth monitoring and promotion during early childhood development. In: Primary Health Care: A manual for medical students and other health workers. Ed. Mukelebai K, Bwibo NO, Onyango FE. 2nd edition, UNICEF.". In: Book. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

O PROFORINDADA. "Serum Lysozymes (Muramidase) levels in the normal and various Pathological States in Kenyan African.E. G. Kasili, D.A.O. Orinda, and J. Mudasia E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 58 No. 3, Marhc (1981).". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):163-70. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1981. Abstract
PMID: 7249984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Goitre and fluorosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):363-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):363-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J. M. Kihiu, G. O. Rading and S. M. Mutuli Overstraining of Plain Cross-Bored Cylinders J. Mechanical Engineering Science Vol. 218(2) (2004) p 143-153.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2004. Abstract

A 3D FEM computer program was developed to establish the stress distributions and SCFs in thick walled cylinders with radiused entry flush and non-protruding cross bores under internal pressure. The displacement formulation and eight noded brick isoparametric elements were used. The Frontal solution technique was used due to the limited computing facilities. The variation of SCF with entry radius to main bore radius ratio was established for varying cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio and cross bore to main bore radius ratio. For low values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (≤2.25), the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in lower SCFs. For high values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (>2.25),  the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in higher SCFs. The cylinder with cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 2.25 was found to be a transition geometry. For very small values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio, the SCFs converged to a value of 2.2 for entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. The cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 1.75 to 3 cylinders had a constant SCF value of 2.3 at cross bore to main bore radius ratio of 0.05 and entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. A new categorization of cylinders earlier proposed in the study of plain cross-bored cylinders is further validated.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Provision of Services in Rural Kenya: Who Benefits?" in Ole Therkildsen and Semboja Joseph, (eds.), State, NGOs and Service Provision in East Africa (London: James Currey).". In: African Journal of Political Science Vol. 2 No. 2,pp. 41-69. IPPNW; 1995. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo N.O, Kasili EG, Oduori ML: Childhood Leukaemia in Kenya. In: tumours in Early Life .". In: Edited by L Seven with Pwerugia Quadrennial international Conferences in Cancer Rome. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1977. Abstract

No abstract available.

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga Wave Propagation in Strongly Coupled Classical Plasmas in an External Magnetic Field; International Journal of Theoretical Physics 27, 649 (1988).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Mogoa E.G.M., Omiti J.M., Tsuma V.T., Bwanga C.O; Some constraints and opportunities in the privatization of animal breeding services in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2000.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents in African patients. East Afr Med J. 1983 Aug;60(8):592-6. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Aug;60(8):592-6. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Vere DW. Related Articles, Links Antipyrine and propranolol disposition in malnutrition. East Afr Med J. 1978 Jan;55(1):20-4. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1978 Jan;55(1):20-4. E Afr Med J; 1978. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. "Walter O. Oyugi, Rural Development Administration: A Kenyan Case Study. plus Bibliography.". In: New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. 265 pp. IPPNW; 1981. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFKIBWAGEISAAC, DR. KAMAU FRANCON. "F.N. Kamau, I.O Kibwage, G. Muriuki, A.N. Guantai, J. Hoorgmartens, E. Roers, C. Govaerts, H. Chepkwony and R. Busson. (2002). Estrogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Steroidal Indoxyl.". In: East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 5(3): 44-48. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
An isocratic liquid chromatographic method with UV detection at 215 nm, which is suitable for the analysis of azithromycin (AZT) in bulk samples, is described. AZT is separated from its synthesis intermediates and a degradation product as well as from six unknown impurities on an XTerra RP18 column at 70 degrees C using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-pH 6.5 0.2M K2HPO4-water (35:10:55, v/v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. The XTerra stationary phase contains methyl groups that are incorporated in the bulk structure of the material. This allows for special selectivities. Robustness is evaluated by a full factorial design experiment. The method shows good selectivity, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "The Optimum Density of Poly-Urethane Foam–Design of a Shear Fatigue Tester" Internal Report, Kenya Bureau of Standards (1986).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1986. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O MS. "Curtailing maternal to child transmission of HIV." East African Medical Journal.2002:79 (11);563 . 2002;79(11):563. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Ogada T. Related Articles, Links Hyperprolactinaemic diabetes insipidus-like syndrome. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):156-62. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):156-62. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Controlled source seismic experiments in Kenya.". In: Proc. 1997 IGCP 400 (Continental Rifts) Workshop, Dublin, Eire,pp 38-41. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
n/a
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Implementation of a structured paediatric admission record for district hospitals in Kenya–results of a pilot study. BMC Int Health Hum Rights . 2006 Jul 20; 6 : 9 . PMID: 16857044 [PubMed] Mwakyusa S, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Esamai F, Ogutu B, Muriit.". In: BMC Int Health Hum Rights . 2006 Jul 20; 6 : 9 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2006. Abstract
KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, P,O, Box 43640, Nairobi, Kenya. sekela_mwakyusa@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: The structured admission form is an apparently simple measure to improve data quality. Poor motivation, lack of supervision, lack of resources and other factors are conceivably major barriers to their successful use in a Kenyan public hospital setting. Here we have examined the feasibility and acceptability of a structured paediatric admission record (PAR) for district hospitals as a means of improving documentation of illness. METHODS: The PAR was primarily based on symptoms and signs included in the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) diagnostic algorithms. It was introduced with a three-hour training session, repeated subsequently for those absent, aiming for complete coverage of admitting clinical staff. Data from consecutive records before (n = 163) and from a 60% random sample of dates after intervention (n = 705) were then collected to evaluate record quality. The post-intervention period was further divided into four 2-month blocks by open, feedback meetings for hospital staff on the uptake and completeness of the PAR. RESULTS: The frequency of use of the PAR increased from 50% in the first 2 months to 84% in the final 2 months, although there was significant variation in use among clinicians. The quality of documentation also improved considerably over time. For example documentation of skin turgor in cases of diarrhoea improved from 2% pre-intervention to 83% in the final 2 months of observation. Even in the area of preventive care documentation of immunization status improved from 1% of children before intervention to 21% in the final 2 months. CONCLUSION: The PAR was well accepted by most clinicians and greatly improved documentation of features recommended by IMCI for identifying and classifying severity of common diseases. The PAR could provide a useful platform for implementing standard referral care treatment guidelines. PMID: 16857044 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC1555611
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Musandu, J. O. Staff Development for Improved Performance, Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. James Murimi; 1986. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "A prevalence study of ear problems in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, May 1992.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995 Nov;33(3):197-205.". In: Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995 Nov;33(3):197-205. MEDICOM; 1995. Abstract
Information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and related ear pathologies in children in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. A pilot study for a clinical trial of simple treatments for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, provided information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and ear pathologies. Five-thousand-three-hundred-sixty-eight children from 57 randomly chosen primary schools in Kiambu district were examined. Simple otoscopy was performed by clinical officers with specialty training in ENT, and hering testing was performed by trained nurses, using a hand held field audiometer. Microbiological specimens were obtained from those children with CSOM. Five-point-six percent of the children had a hearing impairment of > 30 dB HL in one or both ears, with 2.2% having bilateral hearing impairment. Two-point-four percent had at least one perforated tympanic membrane, and 1.1% had CSOM. Eight-point-six percent of the children had wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. There is evidence of a relationship between hearing impairment and both CSOM and wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. The most common organisms found were Pseudomonas spp. (34%), Proteus spp. (34%) and Eschericia coli (19%). These results are comparable with other studies in Africa and indicate a considerable burden of ear disease in Kiambu district, Kenya.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Flavones and phenylpropenoids in the surface exudate of Psiadia punctulata.". In: Phytochemistry, 57, 571-574.; 2001. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Long-term performance of electronic identification devices and model traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems of Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete*, W Maritim**, G Muchemi**, N Maingi***, J M Gathuma* and W Ogara* * Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com** Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya*** Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract The readability of two different types of electronic identifiers (EID) were evaluated under pastoral production system in North-Eastern Kenya.  Physical verification and reading was done at day 0, and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months respectively on a total of 1943 beef cattle of which 934 were tagged using ear button tags and 1009 with rumen boluses.  The retention rates were recorded and readability determined using a hand-held reader and subsequently compared using a non parametric survival analysis.   The results showed that, rumen boluses were more effective with retention and readability of 100% after the one-year period.  The retention rate for ear button tags deteriorated after day 120 to 94.6%.  This implied that rumen boluses are safe and tamper-proof and are thus recommended for use in pastoral production systems. When tested within the model Livestock Identification and Traceability System (LITS), the use of RFID identifiers were able to substantially contribute to better record keeping, and proof of credible livestock certification. However, due to cost considerations, undertaking a benefit-cost analysis and provisional analysis of the institutional and organisational infrastructure may be critical for successful implementation. Keywords: livestock identification, radio frequency identification devices, traceability system
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K.O., A. F. Tanaka, and N. E. West. 1988. Autecology and population biology of dyers woad (Isatis tinctoria) . Weed Science 36:186-193.". In: Proceedings of a national workshop of the Pastoral Information Network Programme (PINEP) held at Machakos, Kenya, 14-15 October 1999. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Owino, E.A., McLigeyo S.O., Gathua S.N., Nyongo A.: The prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infectio and its impact on the diagnostic yields in exudative pleural effusions at Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal 73(9):575-578, 1.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(9):575-578, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
The currently available evidence suggest that diuretics and/or low dose dopamine increases renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and natriuresis in experimental animals, and limits ATP utilisation and oxygen needs in nephron segments at high risk of ischaemic injury, actions that could potentially limit renal injury and accelerate recovery in acute renal failure (ARF). These effects have indeed been confirmed in most experimental animals while using mannitol or low dose dopanime. Frusemide, however, for unknown reasons, has been effective in some animal models, but not others. In humans, it can be said that diurectics have a limited value to prevent, reverse or speed recovery from acute renal failure. Most clinical studies have failed to demonstrate convincingly that low dose dopamine either prevents ARF in high risk patients or improves renal function or outcome in patients with established ARF. This confusing scenario is further complicated by the fact that both diuretics and low dose dopamine can result in severe metabolic and cardiovascular complications in critically ill patients.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1987 Geophysical detection of mineral conductors in tropical terrains with target conductors partly embedded in the conductive overburden,.". In: Geophysical Prospecting 35, 568-589. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1987. Abstract
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O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities on protective head turning response in preterm infants. East Afr Med J. 2003 Apr;80(4):204-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Apr;80(4):204-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2003. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Meningitis occurs in up to one third of neonates with septicaemia. Diagnosis is difficult due to its non-specificity of signs and symptoms. While neonatal septicaemia is a common problem at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), there are no recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonatal meningitis at the hospital. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the bacterial aetiology of meningitis in neonates at the Newborn Unit (NBU) of KNH. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lumbar punctures were performed on eighty-four neonates with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. Cases were defined as meningitis if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for bacteria by Gram stain, aerobic bacterial culture or latex particle agglutination assay. RESULTS: The prevalence of meningitis amongst cases of suspected sepsis was 17.9%. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1 mean birth weight 2116.7 grams (1682.2-2551.2) mean gestational age 35.7 weeks (32.6-38.8) and the mean postnatal age was 4.1 days (2.7-5.4) with none of the parameters being significantly different from those without meningitis. Feed intolerance and lethargy were the most common clinical features, present in 73.3% and 60% of patients with meningitis respectively. Neonates with meningitis had a higher mean CSF protein value (2.67 g/L vs 1.97 g/L
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "A re-evaluation of the geology and tectonics of the granitoid plutons around Kakamega town, Western Kenya.". In: In Opiyo-Aketch (Editor):Proccedings of the 5th Conference of the Geology of Kenya. Geological Society of Kenya Publication. 63-68. Wiley Interscience; 1993. Abstract
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O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Munyua, S.J.M., Mutiga, E.R., Agumbah, G.J.O., Ogaa, J.S. And Mwangi, W. M. (1997). Does the improved Bull have a place? Proc. Symp. Anim. Prod. Soc. Kenya, ILRAD, Nairobi (17th - 18th July).". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1997. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat from slaughterhouses in 13 Districts in Kenya.". In: Journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2009.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Jan. 29-30, 2007 .". In: Regional Conference on Capacity Building for the Fast Tracking of the East African Market, Pan Afric Hotel, Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
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O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Human Organ Transplantation - Ethical, Legal, Religious and Cultural Issues and their possible relevance to Human Rights. Medicus 13(7): 196-203, 1994.". In: Medicus 13(7): 196-203, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Okeyo, AM., R.O. Mosi and L.K.I. Lan.". In: Topic. Agric. Trinidad. 75: No 3: 384-389. Elsevier; 1998. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Autrup H, Wakhisi J, Vahakangas K, Wasunna A, Harris CC. Detection of 8,9-dihydro-(7'-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine. Environ Health Perspect. 1985 Oct;62:105-8.". In: Environ Health Perspect. 1985 Oct;62:105-8. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1985. Abstract

A possible role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in the etiology of human liver cancer has been suggested from several epidemiological studies. This has been based upon the association between consumption of AFB-contaminated food and the liver cancer incidence in different parts of the world. To further establish the role of AFB as a major factor, we initiated a pilot study in three different districts of Kenya to determine the number of individuals exposed to significant amounts of AFB as measured by the urinary excretion of 8,9-dihydro-8-(7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-Gua), an adduct formed between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and nucleic acids. This product has previously been detected in urine from rats treated with AFB. Urine collected at the outpatient clinics at the district hospitals were concentrated on C18 Sep-Pak columns and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography under two different chromatographic conditions. The chemical identity of the samples showing a positive response in both chromatographic systems was verified by synchronous scanning fluorescence spectrophotometry. The highest number of individuals with detectable urinary AFB-Gua lived in either Murang'a district or the neighboring Meru and Embu districts. In Murang'a district a rate of 12% was observed in the January-March period, while only 1 of 32 patients (3%) had a detectable exposure in July-August.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Oduor DO, Bwayo JJ, Bhatt SM, Kwasa TO, Maitha GM, Ombette JO. Multiple sexually acquired diseases occurring concurrently in an HIV positive man: case report, diagnosis and management. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):345-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):345-6. uon; 1992. Abstract

A case of an HIV positive man with multiple sexually acquired disease occurring concurrently is described. Risk behaviours that could have predisposed him to HIV infection are discussed. The factors which might have interacted to make the sexually acquired infections severe and difficult to treat are postulated.

PIP: The case of an HIV-seropositive man with gonorrhea, syphilis, genital warts, and chancroid is described. Multiple sexual partners, genital ulcer diseases, and lack of circumcision may have predisposed him to HIV infection. As indicated by his CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.5, his immunological status was not very compromised. Other factors were therefore probably behind these multiple sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This 30-year old man was inadequately treated for a long time for urethral discharge and genital ulcer disease, and ultimately collapsed on the job with a comprised central nervous system. Bacterial infection related to the multiple STDs could certainly have caused this collapse. The time demands of this man's work, the lack of medical facilities to diagnose and treat such conditions, his unprotected sexual behavior with multiple partners, and broader socioeconomic conditions which separate wage- earning males from their families in Africa conspire to produce multiply-afflicted cases such as these.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Nairobi University Geology Magazine.". In: Editors), (NUGSA). 126P. Wiley Interscience; 1990. Abstract
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O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and MacLaren, A.P.C. (1986): Demonstration and activity of Anodal antigens of C.fetus in the CIE system. Irish Bet. J. 40,24 -29.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1986. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Murphy SP, Gewa C, Liang LJ, Grillenberger M, Bwibo NO, Neumann CG.School snacks containing animal source foods improve dietary quality for children in rural Kenya. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3950S-3956S.". In: J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3950S-3956S. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W.O. 2002. Water Quality and Standards. In Public Education and Awareness of Regulations and Standards of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999. Workshop series.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Between Liberation and Oppression: The Politics of Structural Adjustment in Africa, by Thandika Mkandawire and Adebayo Olukushi, eds, Dakar: Codessria.". In: African Book Publishing Record, Vol.xxiv, No.2, 1998, p. 130. (Book review).; 1995. Abstract
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O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mathenge, R.N., McLigeyo S.O., Mutua, A.K. and Otieno, L.S.: The Spectrum of achocardiographic findings in chronic renal failure. East African Medical Journal 70(2): 107-111, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(2): 107-111, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
In a six month period at the Kenyatta National Hospital, 46 patients (30 males) with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 22 healthy subjects have had a clinical and echocardiographic study of their cardiovascular systems. The patients with CRF were further classified as stable or in end stage renal disease (ESRD), the latter group requiring dialysis. Hypertension and circulatory congestion were the commonest clinical cardiovascular findings in patients with CRF. The patients with ESRD had significantly higher blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine than the ones with stable CRF. Echocardiographically right ventricular size, left atrial size, aortic root diameter, left ventricular internal diameters, left ventricular end diastolic and systolic volumes, stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular posterior wall and interventricular septal thickness, ejection time and mitral and aortic peak flow rates were significantly higher in patients with CRF than in controls. In contrast, the circumferential fibre shortening and the ejection fraction were reduced in patients with CRF. Global left ventricular dysfunction was found in 47.8% of the patients. Using doppler flow studies, valvular incompetence was detected in a number of patients, mitral regurgitation being found in 84%.76% of the patients with CRF had varying degrees of pericardial effusion. The echocardiographic abnormalities and the pericardial effusions responded six weeks of haemodialysis in a variable manner.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Petrology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Alkaline Rocks, Jombo Hill Kenya.". In: Acta Universities Upsaliensis Diss. Abstr.493. 14p. Wiley Interscience; 1978. Abstract
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O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Opiyo, Elisha T. O. (1995). Case-based reasoning for expertise relocation in support of rural health workers in developing countries.". In: In Manuela Veloso, Agnar Aamodt (Editors), Case- Based Reasoning Research and Development, First International Conference, ICCBR-95, Sesimbra, Portugal, October 1995, Proceedings. Springer -Verlag. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1995.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1976): Control of infectious agents exclusively transmitted by the venereal route with particular reference to Vibrio fetus. Dissertation for Partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of D.P.V.M., Royal Veterinary and Agricultural .". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1976. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Cognitive abilities of Kenyan children in relation to nutrition, family characteristics, and education. Child Dev . 1989 Dec; 60 ( 6 ): 1463-74 . PMID: 2515042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Sigman M, Neumann C, Jansen AA, Bwibo N.". In: Child Dev . 1989 Dec; 60 ( 6 ): 1463-74 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1989. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, UCLA Medical School 90024.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether nutritional factors, family characteristics, and the duration of schooling were associated with cognitive and attentional capacities in children growing up in rural Kenya. Food intake was measured by direct observation and weighment twice monthly over the course of a year. Families were characterized in terms of socioeconomic status and the literacy of the parents. Children who were better nourished had higher composite scores on a test of verbal comprehension and the Raven's matrices. Better-nourished females were more attentive during classroom observations than malnourished female schoolchildren. Family characteristics and duration of school participation were associated with cognitive abilities for both boys and girls. For the children considered as a group, cognitive scores were best predicted by a combination of factors including duration of schooling, food intake, physical stature, and SES.

PMID: 2515042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Okeyo M A, R O Mosi, G O Ahunya, W O Ogara and M A Okomo, 1998. Morphological and physical characteristics of the small East African Zebu cattle in the Lake Victoria Basin and Costal Lowlands of Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1998. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Ogutu, E.O. and McLigeyo, S.O.: Adult Polycystic liver disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal. 68(3): 204-352-358, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(3): 204-352-358, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Kayima, J.K. and McLigeyo S.O.: The influence of Sodium, Pattassium, Calcium, VItamin D and Parathyroid hormone on the blood pressure in humans - A review Article. East African Medical Journal 70(4): 235-237, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(4): 235-237, 1993. East African Medical Journal.71(4): 253-5; 1994.; 1993. Abstract
Interest in renal disease and practice in East Africa started as far back as the first quarter of this century. Work in this colonial era concentrated on establishing the existence of renal diseases and identifying the nature and incidence of these diseases. This was achieved by case identification and reporting as well as retrospective studies on post mortem and medical notes. The post independence period has not only identified the existence of even more renal diseases but also concentrated on getting a deeper understanding of the aetiology, nature, pattern, regional variations, complications and outcome of these diseases as seen in our environment. Apart from the better understanding of the prevalent renal diseases, emphasis has also been put on the expansion and delivery of renal services. Investigative and treatment facilities have been improved and a lot has been put into the training of the required local team of experts to man these services. This article reviews what has gone on in the last 70 years from the pure case-report and postmortem reports era to the era of locally available modern facilities including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Africa Global Change Synthesis (AGS) book, 2006: Chapter 8: Water resources and global change. Global Change Processes and Impacts in Africa; pp.152-172. Lead Author: A. Opere; Contributing Authors: I. Saayman and F. Githui.". In: Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2006. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFORINDADA. "Musoke RN, Ayisi RK, Orinda DA, Mbiti MJ.Do healthy very-low-birth-weight infants fed on their own mothers' milk require sodium supplementation? Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;501:431-7.". In: Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;501:431-7. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2001. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium and potassium levels were measured weekly in mothers' milk and in serum and urine of 41 supplemented and 25 unsupplemented very-low-birth-weight infants whose mean birth weights were 1390g and 1332g, respectively (mean gestational age, 31 weeks). Sodium intake was 5.95mmol/kg/day for the supplemented group and 2.75mmol/kg/day for controls. None of the infants in either group was hyponatremic during the 6-week period of study. Urinary sodium in the supplemented group was 15.7mmol/L as compared with 7.5mmol/L in controls. Human milk sodium was significantly lower than reported elsewhere. Growth in the supplemented group was greater than in the unsupplemented group. Since no episode of hyponatremia occurred, it was concluded that routine sodium supplementation was unnecessary.

O OET, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Okello-Odongo W, Nowé A. "Game Theoretic Multi-Agent Systems Scheduler for Parallel Machines with Fixed Parameters." International Journal of Computing and ICT Research. 2008;Volume 1(Special Issue).
O PROFORINDADA. "Johansen MV, Simonsen PE, Butterworth AE, Ouma JH, Mbugua GG, Sturrock RF, Orinda DA, Christensen NO. A survey of Schistosoma mansoni induced kidney disease in children in an endemic area of Machakos District, Kenya.Acta Trop. 1994 Oct;58(1):21-8.". In: Acta Trop. 1994 Oct;58(1):21-8. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Charlottenlund. The association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and kidney lesions was investigated in school children selected from three primary schools in Machakos District, Kenya, namely Miu (n = 159), Kitengei (n = 160) and Misuuni (n = 99) schools. The children were examined parasitologically for S. mansoni infection, clinically for enlargement of the liver and spleen, and biochemically for proteinuria and serum and urine creatinine. High prevalences of S. mansoni infection, ranging from 84-96%, were seen in all the schools, but the geometric mean intensity of egg excretion varied, being relatively low in Misuuni (31 eggs/g), medium in Miu (182 eggs/g) and high in Kitengei (413 eggs/g). The prevalence of pathological proteinuria (> or = 200 mg/l) in the schools ranged from 10.1% in Miu to 28.8% in Kitengei. No difference in the levels of proteinuria was noted between age or sex groups. No association between intensity of infection and pathological proteinuria was observed in any of the schools, nor was any correlation between organomegaly and proteinuria observed. However, significant correlations between malaria and organomegaly (p < 0.001) and between malaria and proteinuria (p < 0.05) were observed when pooling data from all schools. These findings suggest that S. mansoni induced nephrotic syndromes are not common in children from this highly endemic area of Kenya.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Odwako DB. Practical therapeutics: the use of carbamazepine in affective disorders. East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Birthweights of infants of teenage mothers in Nairobi. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl . 1985; 319 : 89-94 . PMID: 3868931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl . 1985; 319 : 89-94 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1985. Abstract

Teenage pregnancies lower average birthweight. In the NBS, teenage mothers had significantly lower average birthweight of 2 920 +/- 553 g compared with 3 133 +/- 533 g among women in the general population. A high rate of LBW on the infants of the teenage mothers was the significant factor in lowering the average birthweight. In both NBS and the PMHS the incidence of LBW 18% and 15% respectively as well as the rate of preterm delivery of 24% and 23% respectively were high. In PMHS although the numbers were small, the incidence of LBW was high (13%) in the 14-year-olds and in the 15-year-olds it was 4.8% which was much lower than that for 17- and 18-year-olds. In a large series in Nigeria the incidence of LBW was 27% in mothers aged less than 15 years, 26% in mothers aged 15-19, 20% in those aged 20-24 and least (18%) in the 25-29 year age group. Many unfavourable socioeconomic circumstances and lack of adequate antenatal supervision contribute to these high rates. Some of the teenage mothers-particularly the very young, below 16 years-are physically immature and are still growing children themselves. Their nutrient intake is shared between their own growth needs and those of their foetuses. In the Nigerian study, administration of folic acid and iron together with antimalarials to pregnant mothers resulted in increased maternal height as well as foetal growth, thus stressing the importance of nutritional care for the teenage mothers.

PIP: Teenage pregnancies lower average birth weight. In the Nairobi Birth Survey (NBS), teenage mothers had significantly lower average birth weight of 2920 +or- 553 gm compared with 3133 +or- 533 gm among women in the general population. A high rate of low birth weight (LBW) in those infants born to teenage mothers was the significant factor in lowering that figure. In both the NBS and the Pumwani Maternity Hospital Study (PMHS), the incidence of LBW was 18% and 15%, respectively, and the rate of preterm delivery 24% and 23%, respectively. In the PMHS, although the numbers were small, the incidence of LBW was high (13%) in the 14-year-old group and it was 4.8% in the 15-year-old group; these figures were much lower than those for ages 17 and 18. In a large series in Nigeria, the incidence of LBW was 27% in mothers aged less than 15, 26% in mothers aged 15-19, 20% in those aged 20-24, and least (18%) in those 25-29. Many unfavorable socioeconomic circumstances and lack of adequate antenatal supervision contribute to these high rates. Some teenage mothers–particularly those under age 16–are physically immature and are themselves still growing. Their nutrient intake is shared between their own growth needs and those of their fetuses. In the Nigerian study, administration of folic acid and iron together with antimalarials to pregnant mothers resulted in increased maternal height as well as fetal growth, thus stressing the importance of nutritional care for teenage mothers. author's modified

PMID: 3868931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Otieno L.S., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., and Sitati S. Management of lupus nephritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital East African Medical Journal, 67(6): 387-395; 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal, 67(6): 387-395; 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO. Treatment of HIV infections and AIDS: new horizons. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS77-81. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS77-81. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract
Treatment of HIV infections has involved the use of antiviral drugs as well as those drugs that act against opportunistic infections. Immune modulators have also been used. A review of these drugs is reported emphasizing on those which have great promise in the clinical management of HIV infections in the light of our present knowledge on immunopathology of the disease.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O. (2002): Quality control of rainfall data Proceedings of pre-forum capacity building training workshop for the Great Horn of Africa (GHA), 20th January to 17th February, 2002, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, March 2002. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2002. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "The Poverty of Africa's Position at the Climate Change Convention Negotiations.". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 2001. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFORINDADA. "Focal paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis preceding the development of steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. A. M. Adam, and D.A.O. Orinda, J. Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1986; 49: 957- 959.". In: Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1986; 49: 957- 959. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1986. Abstract
Dept. of Human Pathol., Univ. of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 3180436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Pharmacokinetics in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1982 Nov;59(11):703-4. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Nov;59(11):703-4. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Ethnicity in the Electoral Process: The 1992 General Elections in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Political Science Vol. 2 No. 2,pp. 41-69. IPPNW; 1997. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Tuberculous meningitis–diagnostic problems. East Afr Med J . 1979 Dec; 56 ( 12 ): 646-50 . No abstract available. PMID: 544261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1979 Dec; 56 ( 12 ): 646-50 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1979. Abstract

No abstract available

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High Frequency Expansion of Quantum Plasma Dielectric Tensor; Kenya Journal of Science and Technology A (1 & 2 ), 47, (1988).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno, L.S. and McLigeyo S.O.: Acute Tubular Necrosis due to Acute Plasmodium Faciparum Infestation -review article and a summary of our experience. The African journal of Hospital Medicine (MEDICOM) 9 (5):139-142, 1987.". In: The African journal of Hospital Medicine (MEDICOM) 9 (5):139-142, 1987. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in a referral hospital in a tropical developing country. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1983 Dec;141 Suppl:207-10. No abstract available.". In: Tohoku J Exp Med. 1983 Dec;141 Suppl:207-10. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Mulwa, J. K., Gaciri, S. J., Opiyo-Akech, N and Kianji, G. K., 2005. Geological and structural influence on groundwater distribution and flow in Ngong area,.". In: Kenya. African Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 105-115. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2005. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBELARTHUR, O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO.Practical therapeutics current concepts in management of bronchial asthma. East Afr Med J. 1981 May;58(5):311-7. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Jan;58(1):8-11. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Centre-Periphery Linkages in the Development Process: An Assessment of the Kenyan Experience," in F. Kiros, (ed.), Challenging Rural Poverty: Experiences in Institution-Building and Popular Participation for Rural Development in Eastern Africa (Trenton, .". In: Agricultural Administration (Essex) Vol. 19, No. 3,pp. 123-137. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo NO. Common causes of death in children at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1970 Nov;9(11):691-4.". In: Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1970 Nov;9(11):691-4. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1970. Abstract

No abstract available

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "Advanced Materials Science–Some Aspects Relevant to Design and Failure Prevention" Presented at Seminar on Engineering Management, Nairobi (1986 & 1987).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1987. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics. Anxiolytic drugs. East Afr Med J. 1981 Aug;58(8):551-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Aug;58(8):551-6. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Neonatal nutrition and later outcomes of very low birth weight infants at Kenyatta national hospital Afr Health Sci. 2007 June; 7 (2) : 108.". In: Afr Health Sci. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2007. Abstract

Extensive research in developed countries has established that very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of early nutritional deficiencies. There is, however, little information from poor countries on the long-term effects of these deficiencies in such infants.

Determine the association between neonatal feeding regimens and post-discharge morbidity/ mortality and neurological abnormalities at the age of two years for a cohort of VLBW infants.

One hundred and seventy five VLBW infants were recruited over a consecutive period of one year and followed up to the age of two years corrected for gestation. With neonatal feeding regimes as the exposure variable, post-discharge re-hospitalization, mortality and Saigal and Rosenbaum's functional disability assessment scores were compared as the outcome variables.

O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "A paper highlighting the role of TBAs in the implementation of primary health care.Kenya Nurs J. 1989 Dec;17(2):26-8.PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: Kenya Nurs J. 1989 Dec;17(2):26-8.PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. James Murimi; 1989. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Galina N, Oburra H and Aluoch JR. Sensorineural hearing loss in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal, 73:471 1996. MEDICOM; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Farmer Perceptions on Indigenous Pig Farming in Kakamega District, Western Kenya.". In: Journal. Nordic Journal of African Studies; 2010. Abstract
Florence MUTUA International Livestock Institute (ILRI), University of Nairobi, Kenya, Samuel ARIMI and William OGARA University of Nairobi, Kenya, Cate DEWEY University of Guelph, Canada & Esther SCHELLING International Livestock Institute (ILRI), Swiss Tropical Institute, Switzerland   Objectives for this paper were to study farmer beliefs and perceptions on local pig farming practices; and to explore opportunities for improved located production in selected villages of Western Kenya. The paper seeks to understand why the local pig breed still remains the predominant breed in these areas despite numerous calls to introduce better exotic breeds. Most pigs in Kenya are of exotic breeds, intensively managed on commercial farms. Focus group discussions were used to gather data. Discussions were taped, transcribed and translated from Swahili to English. Farmers use pigs to guard homes at night, pigs also act as a charm to protect families against evil spirits. Women farmers manage the family pigs, men sell the pigs. Farmers identified feeding, marketing, and breeding as the main challenges affecting the sector. The discussions identified a number of opportunities for improved production, and likely strengthened the bond between the farmers, researchers and staff. This created an outlook that can now be used in further public engagement as ongoing research studies on appropriate feed, health and improvement of market access are being analysed. Keywords: Western Kenya, pig farming, focus group discussions, farmer perceptions.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Diress, T. A., K. O. Farah, and D. M. Nyariki. 1999. Influence of settlements on land use and vegetation in the rangelands of northeastern Ethiopia: Application of aerial photographic technique. J. Hum. Ecol. 10: 349-356.". In: In: European Union Dryland series based on a regional workshop on pastoralism in the horn of Africa (this a book chapter). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Prevention and treatment of acute renal failure using diuretics and/or low ("Renal") dose of dopamine: a critical review. Afr J Health Sci. 1997 Jan-Mar;4(1):2-8.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(10):605-606, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
The currently available evidence suggest that diuretics and/or low dose dopamine increases renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and natriuresis in experimental animals, and limits ATP utilisation and oxygen needs in nephron segments at high risk of ischaemic injury, actions that could potentially limit renal injury and accelerate recovery in acute renal failure (ARF). These effects have indeed been confirmed in most experimental animals while using mannitol or low dose dopanime. Frusemide, however, for unknown reasons, has been effective in some animal models, but not others. In humans, it can be said that diurectics have a limited value to prevent, reverse or speed recovery from acute renal failure. Most clinical studies have failed to demonstrate convincingly that low dose dopamine either prevents ARF in high risk patients or improves renal function or outcome in patients with established ARF. This confusing scenario is further complicated by the fact that both diuretics and low dose dopamine can result in severe metabolic and cardiovascular complications in critically ill patients.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Were FN, Lusweti B, Wasunna A , Musoke RN.Isdelivery outside hospital a risk of development of early sepsis?". In: Journal of Obstetrics and gynaecology East and Central Africa Vol 17:1; 19-24, 2004. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The East African rift system in the light of KRISP 90.". In: Tectonophysics, 236, 465- 483. Wiley Interscience; 1994. Abstract
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O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and Kiere, S. M. (2000). Alternative viable sustainable forms of delivery of Artificial Insemination (AI) services room temperature semen (RTS), technical logistical scope for its use.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2000. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Assessment of inpatient paediatric care in first referral level hospitals in 13 districts in Kenya. Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow .". In: Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract

KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya. menglish@wtnairobi.mimcom.net

BACKGROUND: The district hospital is considered essential for delivering basic, cost-effective health care to children in resource poor countries. We aimed to investigate the performance of these facilities in Kenya. METHODS: Government hospitals providing first referral level care were prospectively sampled from 13 Kenyan districts. Workload statistics and data documenting the management and care of admitted children were obtained by specially trained health workers. FINDINGS: Data from 14 hospitals were surveyed with routine statistics showing considerable variation in inpatient paediatric mortality (range 4-15%) and specific case fatality rates (eg, anaemia 3-46%). The value of these routine data is seriously undermined by missing data, apparent avoidance of a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, and absence of standard definitions. Case management practices are often not in line with national or international guidelines. For malaria, signs defining severity such as the level of consciousness and degree of respiratory distress are often not documented (range per hospital 0-100% and 9-77%, respectively), loading doses of quinine are rarely given (3% of cases) and dose errors are not uncommon. Resource constraints such as a lack of nutritional supplements for malnourished children also restrict the provision of basic, effective care. INTERPRETATION: Even crude performance measures suggest there is a great need to improve care and data quality, and to identify and tackle key health system constraints at the first referral level in Kenya. Appropriate intervention might lead to more effective use of health workers' efforts in such hospitals.

PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Factors Influencing Adoption of Dairy Goats in Meru County, Kenya: Prospects And Constraints.". In: Journal. Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association; Submitted.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Were AJ, McLigeyo SO.Cost consideration in renal replacement therapy in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1995 Jan;72(1):69-71.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 91-93, 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Thorpe, W., P. Kang.". In: J. Dairy Sci. 76:2001. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Autrup H, Seremet T, Wakhisi J, Wasunna A. Aflatoxin exposure measured by urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine adduct and hepatitis B virus infection in areas with different liver cancer incidence in Kenya. Cancer Res. 1987 Jul 1;47(13):3430-3.". In: Cancer Res. 1987 Jul 1;47(13):3430-3. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1987. Abstract
Two major etiological agents, hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B1, are considered to be involved in the induction of liver cancer in Africa. In order to elucidate any synergistic effect of these two agents we conducted a study in various parts of Kenya with different liver cancer incidence in order to establish the rate of exposure to aflatoxin and the prevalence of hepatitis infections. Of all tested individuals 12.6% were positive for aflatoxin exposure as indicated by the urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine. Assuming no annual and seasonal variation, a regional variation in the exposure was observed. The highest rate of aflatoxin exposure was found in the Western Highlands and Central Province. The incidence of hepatitis infection nationwide as measured by the presence of the surface antigens was 10.6%, but a wide regional variation was observed. A multiplicative and additive regression analysis to investigate if hepatitis and aflatoxin exposure had a synergetic effect in the induction of liver cancer was negative. However, a moderate degree of correlation between the exposure to aflatoxin and liver cancer was observed when the study was limited to certain ethnic groups. The study gives additional support to the hypothesis that aflatoxin is a human liver carcinogen.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO. The diagnosis and management of migraine. East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):477-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):477-8. uon; 1995. Abstract
Neurological manifestations of HIV/AIDS is reviewed and discussed. It is noted that neurological manifestations are some of the commonest modes of clinical presentation of HIV/AIDS. At autopsy, the prevalence approaches 100%. These manifestations include: involvement of the higher functions, craniopathies, spinal cord disease, peripheral neuropathy and muscle disease. It is therefore stressed that the central nervous system must be particularly assessed in patients with HIV/AIDS and where the clinician is not sure of the neurological diagnosis, a referral to the neurologist is recommended as some of these are treatable
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Large-scale variation in lithospheric structure along and across the Kenya rift.". In: KRISP Working Group Nature vol. 354.223-227. Wiley Interscience; 1991. Abstract
n/a
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo, Eric Ayienga, William Okello-Odongo, Bernard Manderick, Ann Now.". In: In UNESCO-HP . UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2011.
O M, Ayah R, Muriuki R, Nyangaya J. Oxygen Access and Affordability in Health Facilities in Kenya.; 2021.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Mitema, E.S. and Agumbah, G.J.O. (1987). Choosing an intramammary antibiotic. Vet. Med. 87,930 - 932.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1987. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Sigman M, Whaley SE, Neumann CG, Bwibo N, Guthrie D, Weiss RE, Liang LJ, Murphy SP.Diet quality affects the playground activities of Kenyan children. Food Nutr Bull. 2005 Jun;26(2 Suppl 2):S202-12.". In: Food Nutr Bull. 2005 Jun;26(2 Suppl 2):S202-12. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2005. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "A point prevalence study of gastrointestinal parasites in Burchell.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. ""The External Sources of Kenya's Democratization Process",.". In: Journal of Political Science, Vol.25, pp.5-35.; 1997. Abstract
n/a
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otineo, M.R.B., McLigeyo S.O., Rogo, K.O. and Kigondu, C.S.: Menstrual disorders in patinents with chronic renal faliure. East African Medical Journal 70(1): 1-2, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(1): 1-2, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "August 1998: .". In: In proceeding of the 4th International, Iranian Statistical Conference IISC, TEHERAN, Iran. 1999; 1998. Abstract
n/a
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Computer-Based Medical Diagnostic Decision Assistant.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 114-123. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2004. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Geology, hydrology and sedimentation: in Odingo, R.S.(Editor) An African Dam.". In: Ecological Bull. No. 29. 17-37. Wiley Interscience; 1979. Abstract
n/a
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Computer-Based Medical Diagnostic Decision Assistant.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 114-123. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2004.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ogaa, J. S. Agumbah, G.J.O. and Waghela, S. (1978). Isolation and characterization of Campyobacter biotypes in Kenya. Wld. Congr. Bint. Mexico pg 166 - 173.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1978. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Relationships between morbidity and development in mildly to moderately malnourished Kenyan toddlers. Pediatrics . 1991 Nov; 88 ( 5 ): 934-42 . PMID: 1945634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Neumann C, McDonald MA, Sigman M, Bwibo N, Marquardt M.". In: Pediatrics . 1991 Nov; 88 ( 5 ): 934-42 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1991. Abstract

University of California, Los Angeles.

This study explored the extent to which morbidity in 110 mildly to moderately malnourished Kenyan toddlers was associated with developmental outcomes. Morbidity information was collected from the 18th to 30th months. Concurrent assessments of vocalization, play, and performance on the Bayley scales were obtained. At 5 years, a follow-up battery of cognitive tests was administered. Female toddlers who suffered more illness generally performed less well on developmental measures than their healthier female peers. These children vocalized and played less and performed less well on the Bayley Mental scales at 30 months and on the cognitive battery at 5 years. For the boys, development was largely independent of morbidity. Morbidity was related to patterns of care giving for both boys and girls, but it was not associated with socioeconomic status or food intake. However, girls who were ill more often were shorter and lighter. Relations between morbidity and development in the girls remained statistically significant when other variables, which were also related to development (such as care giving, socioeconomic status, parental IQ and literacy, food intake, and anthropometry) were considered. This suggests that morbidity, in these female toddlers, had an effect on development above and beyond other variables typically associated with malnutrition.

PMID: 1945634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2000. Constitutional review. Country report-Kenya: proceeding of the Commonwealth Veterinary Association/Kenya Veterinary Association Joint Regional Conference for Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya; April 20 .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mcligeyo SO.Initial experience with CAPD in patients with HIV infection in a developing country. Perit Dial Int. 1992;12(2):267-8. No abstract available.". In: Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(10): 421-424, 1992. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a well-recognized technique for sampling solid organs. It is used in renal transplantation to clarify the cause of a poorly functioning graft. Differential scoring techniques with respect to peripheral blood cell populations, and immunocytochemistry have been employed in this context. We describe the use of simple morphological criteria alone in renal transplant FNA. We compare these with needle biopsy and clinical parameters and show their value in the detection of active cellular rejection. Their limitations are discussed within the framework of other patterns of transplant pathology.

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