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Onyango DW, Oduor-Okelo D, Makanya AN;, Kisipan ML. "The Functional Morphology and Adaptations of the Epididymis in a Testicndid Mammal, The Rufous Sengi (Elephantulus rufescens).". 2011. Abstract

Sengis are testicondid African mammals that constitute Order Macroscelidae. The epididymal mo rphology in the rufous sengis ( Elephantulus rufescens ) was studied with focus on features and adaptations that make it suitable for sperm maturation and storage in this testicondid mammal. The three topographic regions were distinct with the caput and cau da epididymis placed far apart, connected by a slender corpus. The caput occurred as a longitudinal mass on the dorsolateral border of the testis while the Cauda, pear shaped mass, was laterally placed between the rectum and the pelvic urethra. The epidid ymal epithelium comprised principal and basal cells; the former exhibiting granules and apical blebbing in the caput. The lumen of the cauda was densely packed with spermatozoa that are occasionally wrapped by amorphous dark masses, and its principal cells had numerous vacuoles. This study demonstrates that beside merocrine secretion, principal cells of sengi’s caput also exhibit apocrine secretion as shown by apical blebs. The blebs are shed off plausibly as a means of delivering epididymosomes to the lum en, which in turn transfer epididymis secreted proteins to the spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, with the vacuoles indicatin g its involvement in fluid re absorption and phagocytosis.

ONYANGO DROGEMBO. "Onyango Ogembo William - Problems of Water Development in Kenya, Inside Kenya Today Number - 37 page 10-14 Nairobi Kenya.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Science; 1977. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
Onyango EBO, Khasakhala A, Agwanda AT, KIMANI M, K'Oyugi B. "Effect of mother's migration on under-two mortality in Kenya." African Population Studies. 2011;25(2):543-555.effect_of_mothers_migration_on_under-two_mortality_in_kenya.pdf
Onyango MA, FA O, Nyamu DG, Osanjo GO, Sinei K. "Determinants of antibiotic dose adjustment in patients with chronic kidney disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2014;3(1):19-28. Abstract

Background: Reduced renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) necessitates appropriate dose alterations to avoid drug accumulation.

Objectives: The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic dosing in patients with CKD in the largest referral hospital in eastern Africa. Variables associated with inappropriate dosing were identified.

Methods: The design was a retrospective review of patients’ records. The study population was adult patients, with CKD admitted between January, 2006 and December, 2010. Data was abstracted from patient files. Logistic regression was used to determine variables associated with appropriate antibiotic dosing.

Results: Ceftriaxone and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics. Dose adjustment was required for 379 (59.9%) antibiotic prescriptions. Of these, 105 doses (27.7% [95% CI: 23.2 – 32.2%]) were appropriate and 274 (72.3% [95% CI 67.8 – 76.8%]) were inappropriate. The resultant dosing errors were: 271 (98.9%) and 3 (1.1%) cases of over and under dosing respectively. Key explanatory variables for appropriate dosing were: stage of renal disease (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.159 [95% CI: 0.082, 0.309]); administration; (adjusted OR 1.724 [95% CI:1.185, 2.508]); and treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (adjusted OR 0.101 [95% CI 0.024, 0.420].

Conclusion: Antibiotic doses in patients with CKD were often inappropriate.
Keywords: Antibiotic, dose adjustment, chronic kidney disease

ONYANGO DROCHOLATOMJ. "Aspects of age determination from dental radiographs Forensic Odontology Vol. 21 1991.". In: Forensic Odontology Vol. 21 1991. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

ONYANGO DROGEMBO. "Onyango Ogembo William - Kenya's River Run-off resources, Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series No.5 pages 88-96. The U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Science; 1979. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
Onyango CM, Onwonga RN, Kimenju JW. "Assessment of Spider Plant (Cleome gynandra L.) Germplasm for Agronomic Traits in Vegetable and Seed Production: A Green House Study." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2016;10(1):1-10.
Onyango JF, Awange DO. "Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the mandible.". 1993. Abstract

A case report of a primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in the mandible of a young adult male is presented and relevant literature reviewed. The clinical presentation and course of the case is typical of MFH of the jaw as reported in the literature.

Onyango SO, Abong GO, Okoth MW, Kilalo DC, Mwang’ombe AW. "Effect of Pre-treatment and Processing on Nutritional Composition of Cassava Roots, Millet, and Cowpea Leaves Flours." Nutrition and Sustainable Diets, a section of the journal Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;5(625735):1-8.
Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Imungi, J K; Kooten O, Imungi, J K; Kooten O. "Analysis of the molecular diversity of Kenyan sorghum germplasm using microsatellites."; 2011. Abstract

Vegetable amaranth is a leafy vegetable traditionally grown in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia where it is the most consumed traditional vegetable. It is considered to have high nutritional quality, containing relatively large amounts of vitamins A and C. We have assessed the influence of the maturity of the vegetable and soil nutrition on the visual and nutritional quality of amaranth. We found that leaf ascorbic acid content is strongly influenced by both maturity and soil nutrition, with leaves of seven week old matured plants having the highest content. β-carotene increased with increasing amount of soil nitrogen and with increasing plant age. The loss of both visual and nutritional quality during storage was influenced more by maturity at harvest and the temperature of storage than the soil nutrition.

ONYANGO DROCHOLATOMJ. "Radiological findings in edentulous Kenyan patients East African Medical journal 1993; Vol. 3.". In: East African Medical journal 1993; Vol. 3. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

Onyango EB, Khasakhala A, Agwanda AT, Kimani M, Oyugi BK. "The effect of Migration on Under 2 mortality in Kenya." African Population studies. 2011;25(2):543-555.
Onyango JF, Awange DO, Muthamia JM, Muga BIO. "Salivary Gland Tumours in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Four hundred and seventeen tumours of salivary glands in Kenya were analysed. There is no evidence ofhig~~r incidence of salivary tumours than in non-African countries. The pattern of distribution 'differed from that of western countries, but in conformity with most African series showed a low proportion of tumours of the parotid gland and high proportion of tumours in the submandibular gland and the palate. The involvement of the palate by salivary gland tumour isvery prominent in the African series and particularly more so in the females. Malignant tumours of the palate and parotid glands were frequent but were lower than those reported in other African series. On the other hand malignant salivary gland tumours of the submandibular glands while lower than those of the western countries, were higher than those of other African series.

ONYANGO DROGEMBO. "Onyango Ogembo William - Assessment of Water Resources of Kenya with some aspects of their rational utilization, UNESCO/I.A.H.R., Seminar on Hydraulic Research and River Basin Development in Africa, Nairobi, 1980.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Science; 1980. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
Onyango WH. "Shield Making In Western Kenya.". 1989.
Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Shibairo SI;, Imungi JK. "Effect of organic and in organic fertilisers on yield and quality of amaranth in sub-Saharan Africa."; 2011. Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of manure and mineral fertilization on yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (as protein equivalents), Vitamin C and nitrate accumulation in Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The vegetables were produced in field trials, set up in the University of Nairobi, Kenya, during the long rains period between March and May in 2007 and 2008 using diammonium phosphate (DAP; 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1) and manure; 40 kg N kg ha-1,) and the yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (K-N; a proxy for protein content), vitamin C and nitrate levels were measured. The manure treatment produced little increase in productivity though it increased K-N levels. The DAP treatments produced increases in yield, but these saturated at 40 kg N ha -1. The K-N content of the leaves was high, ranging from 2.5 % to just over 4 %, and, broadly, increased with fertiliser application though the variation between the treatments was lower than that for yields. Nitrate levels, however, also increased with DAP fertilisation, resulting in an increase in the nitrate:K-N at high DAP applications, especially in younger plants. There were no clear correlations between ascorbic acid content and K-N. Nonetheless, the plants grown under different fertilisation regimes can be placed into three broad groups; those characterised with low to moderate K-N contents and low to high ascorbic acid contents, moderate to high K-N and low to high ascorbic acid content, and lastly high K-N and low ascorbic contents. Therefore, the growth environment of amaranth, can have a major impact not only on the productivity of the crop but its nutritional value. In this respect the mineral nutrient supply to the crop is of particular importance.

Onyango AE, Okoth MW, Kunyanga CN. "Water Disinfection Techniques: A review." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment. 2021;7(1):54-78.
Onyango, J.F N; A. "Kaposis sarcoma in a Nairobi hospital.". 2004.
Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Imungi JK;, Kooten O. "Influence of maturity at harvest, N fertiliser and postharvest storage on dry matter, ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents of vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus)." Int. J. Postharvest Technology and Innovation,. 2011;2(2):180-196. AbstractWebsite

Vegetable amaranth is a leafy vegetable traditionally grown in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia where it is the most consumed traditional vegetable. It is considered to have high nutritional quality, containing relatively large amounts of vitamins A and C. We have assessed the influence of the maturity of the vegetable and soil nutrition on the visual and nutritional quality of amaranth. We found that leaf ascorbic acid content is strongly influenced by both maturity and soil nutrition, with leaves of seven week old matured plants having the highest content. β-carotene increased with increasing amount of soil nitrogen and with increasing plant age. The loss of both visual and nutritional quality during storage was influenced more by maturity at harvest and the temperature of storage than the soil nutrition

Onyango FE, Agwanda RO, Wafula EM, Macharia WM, Mirza NM. "Verbal autopsy: a tool for determining cause of death in a community.". 1990. Abstract

Verbal autopsy was used to determine causes of death in 239 children under the age of 5 years. The diagnosis derived from verbal autopsy was corroborated with hospital diagnosis in 39 cases. There was concurrence of diagnosis in 72% of the cases. Using the diagnosis of broncho pneumonia to validate the method, verbal autopsy was found to have a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 85%. Reliability index of agreement was 0.654. Recall period up to 29 months after death was found to be reliable.

Onyango OP, Karuri GP, Njuguna KD, DEMESI MANDEJOHN. Etiology and predisposing factors of diseases of domestic rabbits from selected areas in kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.
Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Shibairo SI;, Imungi JK. "Effect of organic and in organic fertilisers on yield and quality of amaranth in sub-Saharan Africa."; 2011. Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of manure and mineral fertilization on yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (as protein equivalents), Vitamin C and nitrate accumulation in Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The vegetables were produced in field trials, set up in the University of Nairobi, Kenya, during the long rains period between March and May in 2007 and 2008 using diammonium phosphate (DAP; 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1) and manure; 40 kg N kg ha-1,) and the yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (K-N; a proxy for protein content), vitamin C and nitrate levels were measured. The manure treatment produced little increase in productivity though it increased K-N levels. The DAP treatments produced increases in yield, but these saturated at 40 kg N ha -1. The K-N content of the leaves was high, ranging from 2.5 % to just over 4 %, and, broadly, increased with fertiliser application though the variation between the treatments was lower than that for yields. Nitrate levels, however, also increased with DAP fertilisation, resulting in an increase in the nitrate:K-N at high DAP applications, especially in younger plants. There were no clear correlations between ascorbic acid content and K-N. Nonetheless, the plants grown under different fertilisation regimes can be placed into three broad groups; those characterised with low to moderate K-N contents and low to high ascorbic acid contents, moderate to high K-N and low to high ascorbic acid content, and lastly high K-N and low ascorbic contents. Therefore, the growth environment of amaranth, can have a major impact not only on the productivity of the crop but its nutritional value. In this respect the mineral nutrient supply to the crop is of particular importance.

Onyango DW;, Wango EO;, Odongo H;, Mugweru J;, Okindo E. "Effects Of Heptachlor On Rat Plasma LH, Testosterone And Cortisol Levels, And Testicular Structure.".; 1998.
Onyango CM, Onwonga RN, Mbuvi JP, Kironchi G. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012.
Onyango OW. "Lake Basin Shallow Wells.". 1981.Website
Onyango OW. "Development Policy .". 1984.Website
Onyango G, Ondiek JO. "Digitalization and Integration of Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) in Public Organizations in Kenya.". 2021. Abstract

This study mapped the role of ICT, digital platforms, the internet connectivity and skills of the personnel vis-à-vis implementation processes of SDGs in public organizations in Kenya. Findings show cross-cutting institutionalization and internalization deficits as a result of limited mastery of ICT skills and training of the personnel, insufficient ICT platforms, mainly, computers, poor internet connectivity and poor investment in digital platforms by the government institutions. An organizational culture that predisposes institutions to change resistance also constrained integration of SDG goals in public organizations. The article concludes by providing critical policy recommendations for addressing these problems.

Onyango CM, Imungi JK, Shibairo SI. "Influence of organic and mineral fertilization on germination, leaf nitrogen, nitrate accumulation and yield of vegetable amaranth.". In: Journal of Plant Nutrition. Taylor & Francis; 2012.
ONYANGO DW *, Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, Kisipan ML. "The structure, morphometry and vascular perfusion of the testis in the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens)." 054613. 2014;31(3):146-155.
ONYANGO DROGEMBO. "Onyango Ogembo William - Kenya's Water Problems, Water Resources Journal. Number 2 pages 171-176, The U.S.S.R Academy of Sciences Moscow.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Science; 1977. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
Onyango O, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S. "Eye diseases in a high HIV-risk group; the Majengo commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr J Ophthalmol." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2007;13:52-55. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and magnitude of eye disease in a group at high risk for HIV: the Majengo commercial sex worker (CSW) cohort and see how it differs from the general population.
Design: Cross sectional study
Setting: Commercial sex workers (CSW) clinic, Majengo slums, Nairobi in November and December 2003.
Subjects: An open cohort of CSWs on follow-up by the department of Microbiology, University of Nairobi.
Results: There are over 600 CSWs on regular follow-up at the Majengo clinic. 151 aged between 21 years and 56 years were examined. 107 were Kenyan, 40 Tanzanian, 3 Ugandan and 1 Rwandese. 72 were HIV +ve and 79 were HIV –ve. 13.9 % of the HIV+ve CSWs examined were on HAART. The prevalence of general eye disease in the HIV+ve and HIV negative subsets was 86.1% and 69.6% respectively. The prevalence of HIV related eye illnesses in the HIV+ve CSWs was 18.1% with choroidal lesions being the most common. Profound immunodefi ciency characterized by a CD4 count less than 50 was observed in 4 CSWs. While 3 of these CSWs were assymptomatic, one had a retinal hemorrhage and tortuous blood vessels suggestive of HIV retinopathy.
Conclusion: In this C.S.W cohort HIV specifi c cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and genital mucosal antibodies may have caused the lower prevalence of ocular manifestations than that reported in studies in non-high risk groups (30-80%). Some members of this cohort have special immunity to HIV.

Onyango C, Unbehend G, Mewa EA, Mutahi AW, Lindhauer MG, Okoth MW. Strategies for the production of gluten-free bread from sorghum cassava flour blend. Dresden: TUDpress; 2013.trend_and_opportunities.pdf
ONYANGO DROCHOLATOMJ. "Quality Assurance in Dental radiographic Practice Transactions of the British Institute of Physical Medicine Vol. 38 July .". In: Transactions of the British Institute of Physical Medicine Vol. 38 July . MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

Onyango CM, Kunyanga CN, Karanja DN, Wahome RG. " EMPLOYER PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY TRAINING IN KENYA ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research . 2018;6(1):175-185.
ONYANGO DROGEMBO. "Onyango Ogembo William - Problems of Water Development in Kenya, Inside Kenya Today Number 37 page 10 - 14 Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Science; 1977. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
ONYANGO DROCHOLATOMJ. "A survey of dental radiological practices among dentists in Nairobi, Dento Maxillofacial Radiology Vol. 18 May 1992.". In: Dento Maxillofacial Radiology Vol. 18 May 1992. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

ONYANGO DROGEMBO. "Onyango Ogembo William - Assessment of Water Resources of Kenya with some aspects of their rational utilization, UNESCO/A.A.H.R., Seminar on Hydraulic Research and River Basin Development in Africa, Nairobi.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Science; 1980. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
Onyango A. "Kaposis sarcoma in a Nairobi hospital.". Submitted.
ONYANGO DROCHOLATOMJ. "Forensic Dental Maturity Analysis: A review of Literature New African Journal of medicine vol. 1 No. 1 1995.". In: New African Journal of medicine vol. 1 No. 1 1995. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

Onyango CO, Njeru R, Kazungu S, Achilla R, Bulimo W, Welch SR, Cane PA, Gunson RN, Hammitt LL, Scott AJG, Berkley JA, Nokes JD. "Influenza Surveillance Among Children With Pneumonia Admitted to a District Hospital in Coastal Kenya, 2007–2010." Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;206:S61-S67. Abstractj_infect_dis.-2012-onyango-s61-7.pdfWebsite

Background.Influenza data gaps in sub-Saharan Africa include incidence, case fatality, seasonal patterns, and associations with prevalent disorders.Methods.Nasopharyngeal samples from children aged <12 years who were admitted to Kilifi District Hospital during 2007–2010 with severe or very severe pneumonia and resided in the local demographic surveillance system were screened for influenza A, B, and C viruses by molecular methods. Outpatient children provided comparative data.Results.Of 2002 admissions, influenza A virus infection was diagnosed in 3.5% (71), influenza B virus infection, in 0.9% (19); and influenza C virus infection, in 0.8% (11 of 1404 tested). Four patients with influenza died. Among outpatients, 13 of 331 (3.9%) with acute respiratory infection and 1 of 196 without acute respiratory infection were influenza positive. The annual incidence of severe or very severe pneumonia, of influenza (any type), and of influenza A, was 1321, 60, and 43 cases per 100 000 <5 years of age, respectively. Peak occurrence was in quarters 3–4 each year, and approximately 50% of cases involved infants: temporal association with bacteremia was absent. Hypoxia was more frequent among pneumonia cases involving influenza (odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.96). Influenza A virus subtypes were seasonal H3N2 (57%), seasonal H1N1 (12%), and 2009 pandemic H1N1 (7%).Conclusions.The burden of influenza was small during 2007–2010 in this pediatric hospital in Kenya. Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 predominated, and 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 had little impact.

Onyango LSMOU. "Transformation of Formal Urban Housing in Kenya: Rationale and Process." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge.. 2018;Volume-3(August-2018 (8-19). ISSN:2213-135).
Onyango W. "The Design and Production Process of Jua Kali Furniture in Kenya "Art or Chaos.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

The jua kali sector covers the informal manufacturer who operates informally makeshitfs on the outskirts of our major urban areas such as Gikomba and shauri moyo in Nairobi.This paper looks into design and production process of jua kali furniture,Jua kali designers approaches to the trade and tools used are also addressed.The issue of equipments and workshop sketches and photographs showing faults in their products have also been included for scrutiny and evidence of the chaotic situation

Onyango NO. "On the Linear Mixed Effects Regression (lmer) R Function for Nested Animal Breeding Data.". 2009. AbstractOn the Linear Mixed Effects Regression (lmer) R Function for Nested Animal Breeding Data

This work highlights aspects of the R lmer function for a case where the dataset is nested, highly unbalanced, involves mixed effects and repeated measurements. The lmer function is part of the lme4 package of the statistical software R. The dataset used in the study is simulated from a survey of cow milk off takes from a group of Herds in Uganda, Africa. The purpose of the survey was to identify quality breeds of African Indigenous cattle for purposes of genetic breeding following the difficulties involved in implantation of foreign breeds of cattle in Africa. The work highlights the use of mixed model analysis in the context of animal breed selection. The exposition is accessible to readers with an intermediate background in statistics. Some previous exposure to R is helpful as well as some familiarity with mixed models.

Onyango G. "Whistleblowing behaviours and anti-corruption approaches in public administration in Kenya.". 2020. Abstract

This article demonstrates that whistleblowing often receives little attention in public administration due to ambivalence regarding administrative roles held by public administrators, the fluid scalar chain and horizontal linkages, and competitive and intricate public, organisational and private interests. Drawing on comparative analysis to elucidate the broader scope of anti-corruption reforms and whistleblowing in public administration, the article explores the influence of the administrative culture on the relationship between whistleblowing behaviours and implementation of anti-corruption reforms in public administration in Kenya. It illustrates how bureaucratic oversight mechanisms such as internal auditing procedures and ethical guidelines tend to underperform where administrative environments largely feature autocratic bureaucratic authority, parochial management styles and centralised decision-making processes. Despite the functional specialty of public institutions, these cultural composites potentially elicit administrative behaviours that generally make whistleblowing anti-organisational, anti-social and an outright illegality in public administration. The absence of whistleblowing legislation or weak whistleblowing laws exacerbate these conditions. Whistleblowing becomes even more complex at the local-state level as social networks and working groups tend to be strengthened by the collectivist associational culture in public administration. Consequently, non-performance of anti-corruption reforms were found to stem from the collective chastisement of whistleblowing practices in public organisations in Kenya. Furthermore, institutional deficits typical in local-state administration seemingly made it riskier for potential whistleblowers to come forth, mainly attendant to loose and inconsistent legislation on corruption. Therefore, to enhance whistleblowing, there is a need to insulate potential whistleblowers from legal retaliation, including cultural retaliations that come in forms of emotional and professional ‘attacks’.

Onyango MA, Okalebo FA, Nyamu DG, Osanjo GO, Sinei KS. "Determinants of Appropriate Antibiotic Dosing in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in a Kenyan Referral Hospital." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2014;3(1):19-28.
Onyango OW. "Webuye hydro - project .". 1982.Website
Onyango CM, Imungi JK, Onwonga RN. "Effect of Nitrogen Source, Crop Maturity Stage and Storage Conditions on Phenolics and Oxalate Contents in Vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus).". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2012.
Onyango OW. "Kenya's Water Problems.". 1977.Website
and Onyango C.M., Kunyanga Catherine N. WKMIRGDN. "Employer Perceptions and Attitudes towards Agricultural University Training in Kenya." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2018;6:175-185.
Onyango JI Obila, Kaul R, Mureithi MW, Anzala O, Oyugi JO. "Impact of Depo-provera on female genital tract immunology."; 2013.
ONYANGO M A, OLUOCH M F. "Workforce Diversity and Performance of Kisumu Law Courts, Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2019;10(12):doi:10.30845/ijbss.v10n12p3.
Onyango N. O., Achia T. RJ. "Case Study 2: Identification of Elite Ankole Cattle in a Herd Monitoring Study in Uganda.". In: Biometrics and Research Methods Teaching Resource Version 1. Nairobi: ILRI; 2007.
Onyango N.O., Mueller J. MSK. Optimal Vaccination Strategies in an SIR epidemic model with time scales. Rennes, France; 2014.
Onyango Nelson O. MJ. "Determination of optimal vaccination strategies using an orbital stability threshold from periodically driven systems." Journal of Mathematical Biology. 2014;68(3):763-784.
Onyango" "EB, Khasakhala" "A, Agwanda" "AT, Kimani" "M, Koyugi" "B. "The effect of Migration on under 2 mortality in Kenya." African Population Studies. 2011;25(2):543-555.
Onyango-Ouma W, Gerba. CP. "Away-from-home drinking water consumption practices and the microbiological quality of water consumed in rural western Kenya." Journal of Water and Health. 2011; 9(4):628-636. AbstractWebsite

Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).

ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Misconceptions about anthropology as a discipline and ethics of student care in Kenya. Mila (N. S.) 6: 87-89.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Population Council; 2005. Abstract
Understanding the HIV/STI risks and prevention needs of men who have sex with men in Nairobi, Kenya. Horizons Final Technical Report. Washington D.C., Population Council.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Planning for PPM-DOTS implementation in urban slums in Kenya: Knowledge, attitude and practices of private health care providers in Kibera slum, Nairobi. Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 9 (4): 403-408.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Tuberculosis Foundation; 2005. Abstract
Planning for PPM-DOTS implementation in urban slums in Kenya: Knowledge, attitude and practices of private health care providers in Kibera slum, Nairobi. Tuberclosis and Lung Disease 9 (4): 403-408.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Acceptability and Sustainability of the WHO Focused Antenatal Care Package in Kenya. Frontiers Final Report. Washington DC. Population Council.". In: In M. Babiker, D. Mills and M. Ntarangwi (eds). African Anthropologies: History, Critique and Practice (Africa in the New Millennium Series). Zed Books. Population Council; 2006. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "QUOTE-TB Measuring the quality of TB services: the patient.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Tuberculosis Coalition for Technical Assistance.; 2007. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "A Study of risk factors for intestinal helminthic infections using epidemiological and athropological approaches. Biosocial Science 33: 569-584.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Population Council; 2001. Abstract
A Study of risk factors for intestinal helminthic infections using epidemiological and athropoligical approaches. Biosocial Science 33: 569-584.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Accountable priority setting for trust in health systems - the need for research into a new approach for strengthening sustainable health action in developing countries. Health Research Policy and Systems 2009, 7:23.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Kwani Trust; 2009. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Onyango-Ouma, W. 2003. Children as partners in health communication in a Kenyan community. Anthropology in Action 10 (1): 25-33.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Population Council; 2003. Abstract
Anthropology at home: Perspectives and ethical dilemmas. Mila (N.S.) 5: 90-97.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Action-oriented and participatory health education in primary schools. In C. E. Aldinger and C. V. Whitman (eds), pp. 85-95. Case Studies in Global School Health Promotion: From Research to Practice. New York: Springer.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Science; 2009. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Changing concepts of health and illness among children of primary school age in western Kenya. Health Edication Research 19 (3): 326-339.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Population Council; 2004. Abstract
Changing concepts of health and illness among children of primary school age in western Kenya. Health Edication Research 19 (3): 326-339.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "The potential of school children as health change agents in rural western Kenya. Social Science & Medicine 61: 1711-1722.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Tuberculosis Foundation; 2005. Abstract
The potential of school children as health change agents in rural western Kenya. Social Science & Medicine 61: 1711-1722.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Quality Information in Field Research. UNICEF/UNDP/ World Bank/WHO (TDR). TDR/IRM/PCT/05. 1.". In: In M. Babiker, D. Mills and M. Ntarangwi (eds). African Anthropologies: History, Critique and Practice (Africa in the New Millennium Series). Zed Books. WHO; 2006. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "The potential for the Sustainability of Malaria in Pregnancy Initiatives in East and Southern Africa: The Bungoma District Malaria Initiative, Kenya. FRONTIERS Final Report, Washington DC, Population Council.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Population Council; 2007. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Changing Household Composition and Food Security among the Elderly Caretakers in Rural Western Kenya. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 24:259-272.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Kwani Trust; 2009. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "The Health Workers for change impact study in Kenya. Health Policy & Planning 16 (1): 33-39.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Population Council; 2001. Abstract
The Health Workers for change impact study in Kenya. Health Policy & Planning 16 (1): 33-39.
Onyango-Ouma W, Birungi H, Geibel S. "Engaging men who have sex with men in operations research in Kenya." Culture, Health & Sexuality. 2009;11(8):827-839. AbstractWebsite

Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).

ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Client Perceptions of Health Workers and impact on health services offered at Kombewa Demonstration Health Centre. Healthline 8 (3): 39-43.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Population Council; 2004. Abstract
Client Perceptions of Health Workers and impact on health services offered at Kombewa Demonstration Health Centre. Healthline 8 (3): 39-43.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Understanding the HIV/STI risks and prevention needs of men who have sex with men in Nairobi, Kenya. Horizons Final Technical Report. Washington D.C., Population Council.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Population Council; 2005. Abstract
Understanding the HIV/STI risks and prevention needs of men who have sex with men in Nairobi, Kenya. Horizons Final Technical Report. Washington D.C., Population Council.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "School Knowledge and its relevance to everyday life in rural western Kenya. Nordic Journal of African studies 15 (3): 393-40.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. WHO; 2006. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Practising anthropology at home: Challenges and Ethical dilemmas. In M. Babiker, D. Mills and M. Ntarangwi (eds), pp. 250-266. African Anthropologies: History, Critique and Practice (Africa in the New Millennium Series). London: Zed Books.". In: In M. Babiker, D. Mills and M. Ntarangwi (eds). African Anthropologies: History, Critique and Practice (Africa in the New Millennium Series). Zed Books. Zed Books; 2006. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
Onyango-Ouma W. "Bigger Decision Maker than Government-African Academic: How should we comprehend African Cities?" Space . 2009;495 :113. AbstractWebsite

Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).

ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Evaluation of Health Workers for Change in seven Settings: a useful management and health system development tool. Health Policy & Planning 16(1): 24-32.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Population Council; 2001. Abstract
Evaluation of Health Workers for Change in seven Settings: a useful management and health system development tool. Health Policy & Planning 16(1): 24-32.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "The making of the Kenya sexual offenses act, 2006: Behind the scenes. Nairobi: Kwani Trust.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Kwani Trust; 2009. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Anthropology at home: Perspectives and ethical dilemmas. Mila (N.S.) 5: 90-97.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Population Council; 2003. Abstract
Anthropology at home: Perspectives and ethical dilemmas. Mila (N.S.) 5: 90-97.
Onyari JM, Addis Teshome, Suresh K. Raina, Kabaru JM, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina. "Mechanical and thermal degradation properties of silk from African wild silkmoths.". 2013. AbstractFull text link

Variations among silk of four African wild silkmoths, Argema mimosae, Anaphe panda, Gonometa postica, and Epiphora bauhiniae, was studied regarding their mechanical properties and thermal degradation behaviors. Cocoon shells and individual degummed fibers were examined using tensile testing, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). A. mimosae and G. postica cocoon shells had marginally higher initial moduli and strains at maximum stress. The stress–strain curves of Bobmyx mori and A. panda degummed fibers lacked clear yielding points. G. postica fibers had the highest breaking energy (76.4 J/cm3) and breaking strain (41.3%). The ultimate tensile strength was the highest for B. mori (427 MPa). Fiber pull-out and detachment was predominant in fracture surfaces of both the cocoon shells and the fibers. Wild cocoon shells and degummed fibers had higher temperature for dehydration loss than B. mori. A. mimosae fibers (11.9%) and G. postica cocoon shells (13.3 %) had the highest weight loss due to dehydration. E. bauhinae cocoon shells and B. mori fibers had the highest total weight losses of 97.2 and 93.4%, respectively. The African silks exhibited variations in their mechanical and thermal degradation properties related to their physical and chemical structure and composition. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013

Onyari JM. "A review of the biology of tilapia species in Lake Victoria with special reference to its feeding and breeding habits.". 1983. AbstractFull text link

A review of the biology of tilapia species in Lake Victoria with special reference to its feeding and breeding habits

Onyari JM, Huang SJ. "Synthesis and Properties of Novel Polyvinyl alcohol-Lactic acid Gels." Journal of Applied Polymer Science . 2009;113:2053-2061.
Onyari JM. "The concentrations of Mn.". 1985.Website
Onyari JM. "The need for aquatic pollution studies in Kenyan inland waters.". 1986. AbstractThe need for aquatic pollution studies in Kenyan inland waters

The need for baseline data on pollution studies to the aquatic biota of Kenyan Inland waters is of profound importance. Aware of the possible contamination of the rivers and Lakes with heavy metals, pesticides and other pollutants used around them for the control of tropical diseases and treatment of agricultural crops, a monitoring programme is necessary.

and Onyari JM WSONJO. "Lead contamination in street soils of Nairobi city and Mombasa island,." , Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., . 1991;46:782-789.
Onyatta JO, Huang PM. The influence of potassium chloride on cadmium release from selected tropical soils.. Montpelier, France: World Congress ofSoil Science; 1998.abstract_kcl.pdf
Onyatta JO, Huang PM. "Distribution of applied cadmium to different size fractions of soils after inocubation." Bio- Fertility Soils. 2006;42:432-436.
Onyatta JO, Chepkwony CK, Ongoma PO. "The Impact of Urban Activities on Heavy Metal Distribution and Bioavailability Index in Selected Tropical Urban Soils.". In: Molecular Environmental Soil Science at the Interfaces in the Earth's Critical Zone. GMbH : Springer-Verlag; 2009.abstract.pdf
Onyatta JO. Kinetics and Equilibria of Cadmium in Selected kenyan Soils. Huang PM, ed. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan; 1997.abstract_thesis.pdf
Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO, Guto PM, Ooko JO. "The need for galvanizing and the corrosion environments in Kenya.". In: International Zinc Association and Afriken International Ltd Workshop. Norfok Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017.
Onyatta JO, Huang PM. Phosphate-induced cadmium release from selected soils. . Bangkok, Thailand: World Congress ofSoil Science; 2002.
Onyatta JO, Huang PM. Cadmium status in selected Kenyan soils. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: The American Society of Agronomy, the Crop Science Society and the Soil Scince Society of America; 1995.
Onyatta JD, Huang PM. "Soil Abiotic and Biotic Interactions and Impact on the Ecosystem and Hutnan Welfare.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Phosphate fertilizers are applied to correct phosphorus deficiency in acidic tropical soils of variable charge, which account for a large proportion of the world's arable land. They are commonly applied in bands or mixed with seeds. Within the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer zone, the concentration of phosphate is high and can cause dissolution of soil minerals. Hence a study was conducted to investigate the degree to which phosphate may effect release of cadmium (Cd) from soil,rate of release, and formation of phosphate reaction products. Since phosphate fertilizers contain a wide range of Cd concentrations, perturbation of phosphate reaction product formation by Cd was also investigated. The surface soils used in this study were selected from tropical soils in Kenya varying widely in physicochemical properties. The study shows that 1M NH4HzP04 solution induced the release of Cd from natural soils and the soils treated with Idaho monoammonium phosphate (MAP)-fertilizer.The enhanced release of Cd by the phosphate was attributed to the combined effect of Cd introduced to the soils and the Cd released from the soils through the attack of protons and the complexation of phosphate. Phosphate-induced Cd release from natural soils and treated soils increased during the short reaction period of0.25 to 1h, then decreased with time,and tended to approach a plateau. Decrease in Cd concentration was apparently due to readsorption of the Cd released on the surface of the soil particles and/ or formation of sparingly soluble reaction products in the solution. The amounts of Cd released by NH4HzP04 increased with increments in concentration of NH4H2P04. XRD analysis showed that NH4-taranakite formed in the soils treated with 1M NH4H2P04 solution. However, taranakite did not form when monoammonium phosphate was spiked with Cd even at 6.4 x 10-3M Cd(CI0 4h, indicating that Cd perturbed taranakite formation. The study indicates that at the fertilizer granule-soil interface wherein concentration of orthophosphate is high, more Cd was mobilized compared to bulk soil. The study further shows that NH 4taranakite can form in acidic tropical soilsbut the formation may be perturbed if the MAP-fertilizer applied contains significantly high Cd as an impurity.

Onyatta JO, Tum PK, Kithure JGN, Oduor FDO. "Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Orange II Dye on Selected Commercial Titanium Dioxide Catalysts." International Journal of Advanced Research. 2016;4(10):1149-1155.
Onyatta JO, Huang PM. Distribution of cadmium introduced to soil in different size fractions after incubation.. Wuhan, China: International Union of Soil Sciences; 2004.
Onyatta JO, Huang PM. The fate of cadmium introduced to soils. Anaheim, California, USA: The American Society of Agronomy, the Crop Science Society and the Soil Scince Society of America; 1997.
Onyatta JO. Urban micro-farming and HIV/AIDS mitigation-Gardens of Hope. Johannesburg/Cape Town S.A: RUAF, The Netherlands and Abalimi Bezakhaya, South Africa; 2005.
Onyatta JO, Huang PM. "Phosphate-induced cadmium release from soils.". In: Soil Abiotic and Biotic Interactions and the Impact of the Ecosystem and Human Welfare. Enfield, NH USA: Science Publishers; 2005.
Onyatta JO, Abong'o DA, Muinde V. "Assessment of heavy metals in selected urban farms in Nairobi County, Kenya.". In: . East and Southern Africa Environment/Analytical chemistry conference in Africa. Mombasa, Kenya; 2016.
Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO, Ooko JO. "Atmospheric Corrosion Studies in Kenya: Past, Present and Future." African Corrosion Journal. 2016;2(1):25-31.
Onyatta JO, Omoto WO. . Potential for urban and peri-urban agriculture to create employment and reduce poverty.. Nairobi: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Urban Harvest-CIP and International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).; 2004.
Onyewotu LOZ, Kinama JM, Nasr Al-amin NK, Oluwasemire KO, Oteng'i SBB, Stigter CJ. "Recent answers to farmland degradation illustrated by case studies from African farming systems.". 2005.
ONYINO PROFSIMWARICHARD. "A.dynamical model for stage-specific HIV incidences with application to sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computation Vol. 146, page. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003.
ONYINO PROFSIMWARICHARD. "On Statistical modelling of Floods and Drought Insurance products in Developing Countries.". In: Advances and Applications Statistics. Vol.6,Issue No.2 ,pg 241-248. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006.
ONYINO PROFSIMWARICHARD. "A model for the CD4 cell counts in an HIV/AIDs patient and its Application in Treatment Interventions.". In: American Journal of Infections Diseases Vol. 1, Issue No. 1, page 61-65. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
ONYINO PROFSIMWARICHARD. "A model For HIV Infection and its Application.". In: Far East Journal of Applied Mathematics Vol. 16, Issue No. 2, pg 151- 160. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
Onyono PN, Kavoi BM, Kiama SG, Makanya AN. "Functional Morphology of the Olfactory Mucosa and Olfactory Bulb in Fossorial Rodents: The East African Root Rat (Tachyoryctes splendens) and the Naked Mole Rat (Heterocephalus glaber)." Tissue Cell. 2017;49(5):612-621. Abstract

Optimal functioning of the olfactory system is critical for survival of fossorial rodents in their subterranean lifestyle. This study examines the structure of the olfactory mucosa and olfactory bulb of two fossorial rodents exhibiting distinct social behaviors, the East African root rat and the naked mole rat. The social naked mole rat displayed simpler ethmoturbinates consisting of dorsomedial and broad discoid/flaplike parts that projected rostrally from the ethmoid bone. In the solitary root rat however, the ethmoturbinates were highly complex and exhibited elaborate branching which greatly increased the olfactory surface area. In addition, when correlated with the whole brain, the volume of the olfactory bulbs was greater in the root rat (4.24×10) than in the naked mole rat (3.92×10). Results of this study suggest that the olfactory system of the root rat is better specialized than that of the naked mole rat indicating a higher level of dependence on this system since it leads a solitary life. The naked mole rat to the contrary may have compensated for its relatively inferior olfactory system by living in groups in a social system. These findings demonstrate that structure of the olfactory system of fossorial mammals is dictated by both behavior and habitat.

ONYUKA A, NALYANYA KM, Rop RK, Birech Z, SASIA A. "Investigating mechanical properties of leather treated with Aloe barbadensis Miller and Carrageenan using existing theoretical models." Polymer Bulletin. 2019;76(12):6123-6136.
Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Nduhiu JG. "Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxicity of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) traditionally used for toothache in Kenya." The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2014; 3(1): 22-28. 2014. Abstractevaluation_of_antimicrobial_activity_and_toxicity_of_vernonia_hymenolepis.pdfevaluation_of_antimicrobial_activity_and_toxicity_of_vernonia_hymenolepis.pdf

Aim: The main aim of the study was to ascertain the antimicrobial properties and safety of Vernonia hymenolepis leaves to validate its use in treatment of toothache. Materials and Methods: The Leaves were collected from Trans Nzoia County, shade dried, ground and both organic and water extraction done. Minimum inhibitory concentration against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans was done. Cytotoxicity was done using Brine Shrimp lethality test and lethal concentration (LC50) determined using Finney computer program. The Oral Acute Toxicity Testing (ATC method) was performed as per Organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) guideline. Result and Discussion: The results showed that the aqueous extract had an inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus and had no significant effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans at concentration of 400 mg/ml. The organic extract had inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus at a dose of 100 mg/ml and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli both at a dose of 400 mg/ ml, Bacillus cereus at a dose of 200 mg/ml and Candida albicans at 50 mg/ml. This study has shown that the plant extracts has a moderate Cytotoxicity with the LC50 (μg /ml) of 491.8 (μg /ml) and 481.7 (μg /ml) for water and organic extract respectively. Acute oral toxicity ATC method showed that the plant extracts in both preparations were not toxic even at a high dose of 2000 mg/kg. Conclusion: It’s concluded that Vernonia hymenolepis possesses antimicrobial activity and is not toxic.
Keywords: Vernonia hymenolepis, Antimicrobial activity, Cytotoxicity, In-vitro.

Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Githinji CG, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya for toothache." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2013;2(6):41-45.the_journal_of_phytopharamacology-onzago_paper.pdf
Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, D.W Gakuya, C.G. Githiji, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya for toothache." The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2013; 2(6): 41-45. 2014. Abstractanalgesic_activity_of_aqueous_extract_of_vernonia_hymenolepis.pdf

The main aim of the study was to ascertain the analgesic properties of Vernonia hymenolepis leaves to validate its use for the treatment of toothache. The plant is widely used as a traditional herb by communities in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya for treatment of various infections including toothache. However its efficacy has not been established. Leaves of the plant were collected from Trans Nzoia County, Kenya and identified at University of Nairobi Herbarium. An aqueous extraction of leaves was prepared. Formalin test was carried out using 30 male albino wister mice to determine antinociceptive effect and the painful response at 0 – 10 min (Early) and 15 – 60 min (late phase). Acetylsalicylate at dose of 100 mg/Kg was used as a positive control. The dose significantly (p<0.05) reduced the time spent in pain behavior in both phases hence indicating that the plant posses antinociceptive activity. It’s concluded that Vernonia hymenolepis possesses analgesic property.

Keywords: Vernonia hymenolepis, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive.

Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Githinji CG, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich), a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2013; 2(6):41-45.
Ooko JO, J.O. O, A.O. Y, P.M. G. "Use of accelerated tests to estimate corrosion rates of roofing sheets." International Journal of Sciences. 2018;37(3):1-8.publication_juspher_onyatta_yusuf_guto.pdf
Ooko GO, Masenge E, Gitari FK, Oduor FDO, Mavuti KM, Wandiga SO, Kariuki DK. "The Nairobi river basin programme; assessment of the Nairobi rivers.". 2009. AbstractThe Nairobi river basin programme; assessment of the Nairobi rivers

Nairobi Rivers have deteriorated over time due to rapid population growth, urbanization, industrialization coupled with poor urban planning. The water is currently considered unfit for human use thaugh it continues to be used for urban agriculture and drinking at Athi River where Nairobi Rivers drain thus exposing human to a risk of adverse hiealth effects. Water was collected from 14 sites 0101'19 the three rivers and enclysed for physiccl-chemicclpcrcme ter-s, pesticides, PCBs, and coliforms, Benthic mccroinver-rebrctes were also investigated. Most of the investigated parameters were above the recommended levels by NEN\A and 'NHO "for dripking water. Low diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates .. was a good indication o.f. p. oor water quality. This calls for a serious government intervention in order to meet the Millennium Development Goals MDGs

Ooko J, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Atmospheric corrosion studies in Kenya. Past, present and future." African Corrosion Journal. 2016;2(1):25-32.afr_cor_j_corrosion.pdf
Ooko JO, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO, Guto PM. "Use of Accelerated Tests to Estimate Rate of Corrosion of Roofing Sheets." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2018;37(3):1-8.
Oostendorp R, Asseldonk M, Gathiaka J, Mulwa, J.K, Radeny M, Recha J, Wattel C, van Weesenbeeck L. "Inclusive agribusiness under climate change: a brief review of the role of finance." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 2019;4:18-22.
Opanda S, Bulimo W, Gachara G, Ekuttan C, Amukoye E. "Assessing antigenic drift and phylogeny of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in Kenya using HA1 sub-unit of the hemagglutinin gene." PLoS One. 2020;15(2):e0228029. Abstractpone.0228029.pdf

Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus emerged in North America in 2009 and has been established as a seasonal strain in humans. After an antigenic stasis of about six years, new antigenically distinct variants of the virus emerged globally in 2016 necessitating a change in the vaccine formulation for the first time in 2017. Herein, we analyzed thirty-eight HA sequences of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 strains isolated in Kenya during 2015-2018 seasons, to evaluate their antigenic and molecular properties based on the HA1 sub-unit. Our analyses revealed that the A (H1N1) pdm09 strains that circulated in Kenya during this period belonged to genetic clade 6B, subclade 6B.1 and 6B.2. The Kenyan 2015 and 2016 isolates differed from the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 at nine and fourteen antigenic sites in the HA1 respectively. Further, those isolated in 2017 and 2018 correspondingly varied from A/Michigan/45/2015 vaccine strain at three and fifteen antigenic sites. The predicted vaccine efficacy of A/California/07/2009 against Kenyan 2015/2016 was estimated to be 32.4% while A/Michigan/45/2015 showed estimated vaccine efficacies of 39.6% - 41.8% and 32.4% - 42.1% against Kenyan 2017 and 2018 strains, respectively. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) assay using ferret post-infection reference antiserum showed that the titers for the Kenyan 2015/2016 isolates were 2-8-fold lower compared to the vaccine strain. Overall, our results suggest the A (H1N1) pdm09 viruses that circulated in Kenya during 2015/2016 influenza seasons were antigenic variants of the recommended vaccine strains, denoting sub-optimal vaccine efficacy. Additionally, data generated point to a swiftly evolving influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in recent post pandemic era, underscoring the need for sustained surveillance coupled with molecular and antigenic analyses, to inform appropriate and timely influenza vaccine update.

Opanda SM, Wamunyokoli F, Khamadi S, Coldren R, Bulimo WD. "Genetic Diversity of Human Enterovirus 68 Strains Isolated in Kenya Using the Hypervariable 3′- End of VP1 Gene." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(7):e102866-. Abstractjournal.pone_.0102866.pdfWebsite

Reports of increasing worldwide circulation of human enterovirus-68 (EV68) are well documented. Despite health concerns posed by resurgence of these viruses, little is known about EV68 strains circulating in Kenya. In this study, we characterized 13 EV68 strains isolated in Kenya between 2008 and 2011 based on the Hypervariable 3′- end of the VP1 gene. Viral RNA was extracted from the isolates and partial VP1 gene amplified by RT-PCR, followed by nucleotide sequencing. Alignment of deduced amino acid sequences revealed substitutions in Kenyan EV68 isolates absent in the prototype reference strain (Fermon). The majority of these changes were present in the BC and DE-loop regions, which are associated with viral antigenicity and virulence. The Kenyan strains exhibited high sequence homology with respect to those from other countries. Natural selection analysis based on the VP1 region showed that the Kenyan EV68 isolates were under purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that majority (84.6%) of the Kenyan strains belonged to clade A, while a minority belonged to clades B and C. Overall, our results illustrate that although EV68 strains isolated in Kenya were genetically and antigenically divergent from the prototype strain (Fermon), they were closely related to those circulating in other countries, suggesting worldwide transmissibility. Further, the presence of shared mutations by Kenyan EV68 strains and those isolated in other countries, indicates evolution in the VP1 region may be contributing to increased worldwide detection of the viruses. This is the first study to document circulation of EV68 in Kenya.

Opanda SM, Wamunyokoli F, Khamadi S, Coldren R, Bulimo WD. "Genotyping of enteroviruses isolated in Kenya from pediatric patients using partial {VP}1 region." {SpringerPlus}. 2016;5. AbstractWebsite
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Opanda S, Wamunyokoli F, Khamadi S, Coldren R, Bulimo W. "Genotyping of enteroviruses isolated in Kenya from pediatric patients using partial VP1 region." SpringerPlus. 2016;5:158. Abstractopanda_et_al_2016.pdfWebsite

Enteroviruses (EV) are responsible for a wide range of clinical diseases in humans. Though studied broadly in several regions of the world, the genetic diversity of human enteroviruses (HEV) circulating in the sub-Saharan Africa remains under-documented. In the current study, we molecularly typed 61 HEV strains isolated in Kenya between 2008 and 2011 targeting the 3'-end of the VP1 gene. Viral RNA was extracted from the archived isolates and part of the VP1 gene amplified by RT-PCR, followed by sequence analysis. Twenty-two different EV types were detected. Majority (72.0%) of these belonged to Enterovirus B species followed by Enterovirus D (21.3%) and Enterovirus A (6.5%). The most frequently detected types were Enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68), followed by Coxsackievirus B2 (CV-B2), CV-B1, CV-B4 and CV-B3. Phylogenetic analyses of these viruses revealed that Kenyan CV-B1 isolates were segregated among sequences of global CV-B1 strains. Conversely, the Kenyan CV-B2, CV-B3, CV-B4 and EV-D68 strains generally grouped together with those detected from other countries. Notably, the Kenyan EV-D68 strains largely clustered with sequences of global strains obtained between 2008 and 2010 than those circulating in recent years. Overall, our results indicate that HEV strains belonging to Enterovirus D and Enterovirus B species pre-dominantly circulated and played a significant role in pediatric respiratory infection in Kenya, during the study period. The Kenyan CV-B1 strains were genetically divergent from those circulating in other countries. Phylogenetic clustering of Kenyan EV-D68 strains with sequences of global strains circulating between 2008 and 2010 than those obtained in recent years suggests a high genomic variability associated with the surface protein encoding VP1 gene in these enteroviruses.

Opanda SM, Wamunyokoli F, Khamadi S, Coldren R, Bulimo WD. "Genetic Diversity of Human Enterovirus 68 Strains Isolated in Kenya Using the Hypervariable 3$\prime$- End of {VP}1 Gene." {PLoS} {ONE}. 2014;9:e102866. AbstractWebsite
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Opanda S, Wamunyokoli F, Khamadi S, Rodney C, Bulimo W. Molecular typing of respiratory human enteroviruses isolated in Kenya between 2008 -2011 using the VP1 gene. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: Human enteroviruses (genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae) are common infectious agents grouped into HEV-A, HEV-B, HEV-C and HEV-D species. They comprise >100 serotypes and are responsible for a wide range of human pathologies including upper and lower respiratory tract infections. There’s scanty information about serotype diversity of HEV circulating in Kenya.Objective: To molecularly type human enteroviruses isolated in Kenya between 2008 and 2011 using hypervariable 3’-end of the VP1 gene. Methods: A total of 200 HEV isolates obtained in the country from nasopharyngeal specimens were analyzed. Viral RNA was extracted and partial VP1 gene amplified using RT-PCR followed by sequencing. The resulting VP1 sequences were evaluated by sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis relative to those of prototypes retrieved from GenBank. Results: Overall, 22 different enteroviral serotypes were detected. The majority (72%) of the serotypes were from HEV-B species (72%) followed by HEV-D (21.3%) and HEV-A (6.5%). None of the identified serotypes belonged to HEV-C species. The most frequently detected serotypes we enterovirus-68 (EV68), Coxsackie-virus types –B2, -B1, -B4 and B3. The most prevalent serotypes were enterovirus-68 (EV68), Coxsackievirus types -B2, -B1, -B4 and -B3. Conclusions: Findings from this study demonstrate the existence of high serotype diversity among HEVs that circulated in Kenya between 2008 and 2011. The viruses belonging to HEV-A, HEV-B and HEV-D species played a key role in enteroviral infections in the country during this period. The absence of HEV-C known to frequently recombine with poliovirus vaccine strains indicates a low risk of emergence of vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV) in Kenya. Typing of HEV is important in determining temporal and spatial patterns of the circulating serotypes. This information is necessary for healthcare planning and outbreak investigation studies.

Opande T, Olago D, Dulo SI. "Climate Risks and Responses in Semi-Arid Kenya: Implications for Community-Based Adaptation." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;VI(IX):171-180.
Opande T, Olago D, Dulo SI. "Livelihood Vulnerability Approach to Assessing Climate Impacts on Smallholders in Kisumu, Kenya." International Journal of Innovation Research and Development. 2019;8(7):147-155.
Opanga S, Mwang’ombe NJ, Okalebo F, Kuria KKAM. "Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Neurosurgical Patients in low income countries: a systematic review. .". In: Infectious Disease Symposium. Nairobi; 2015.
Opanga L, Mulaku MN, Opanga SA, Godman B, Kurdi A. "Adverse effects of chemotherapy and their management in Pediatric patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Kenya: A descriptive, situation analysis study." Expert Review of anticancer therapy. 2019;19(5):423-430.
Opanga SA, Mulaku MN, Okalebo FA, Mwang’ombe NJ, Kuria KAM. "Systematic review, meta-analysis and grading of evidence on the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis for neurosurgical site infections." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):1-13.
Opanga Y, Opanga S, Mutisya R, Kaduka L. "Weight changes and associated factors among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy at a referral hospital in Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(3):134-141.
Opanga SA, Mwang’ombe NJ, Okalebo FA, Kuria KAM. ". Impact of neurosurgical site infections on patient expenditure at a national referral hospital in Kenya: a cost of illness study. ." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(2):72-76.
Opanga S, Mwangombe NJ, Okalebo F, Kuria KAM. "Patterns of antimicrobial use in the neurosurgical ward of Kenyatta National Hospital. ." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2016;5(4):241-246.
Opanga SA, Mulaku MN, Okalebo FA, Mwang’ombe NJ, Kuria KAM. " Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and Grading of Evidence on the Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Neurosurgical Site Infections." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2017;Vol. 6(No. 1 , February 2017 ):Pages 1-13.
Opanga SA, Mwang’ombe NJ, Okalebo FA, Oluka M, Kuria K. "Determinants of the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis among neurotrauma patients at a referral hospital in Kenya: Findings and implications." Journal of Infectious Diseases and Preventive Medicine. 2017:1-7.
Opanga MA, Madadi VO, Wandiga SO, Nose HM, Mirikau CW, Umuro M. "Adsorption Studies of Trimethoprim Antibiotic on Powdered and Granular Activated Carbon in Distilled and Natural Water." IJSRSET. 2018;4(11):223-230.
Opdyke ND, Kent DV, Huang K, Patel JP. Preliminary Equatorial Paleomagnetic results from Mt. Kenya Lavas.; 2007.
Opere A. THE IMPACT OF NATURAL DISASTERS, DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, ON THE LIVELIHOOD OF THE LAKE VICTORIA BASIN. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. AbstractWebsite

The major forms of disasters include: Droughts, Floods, Terrorism, Landslides, HIV/AIDS and disease epidemics, Transport accidents, Fires/industrial hazards and pollution. There are other extreme outbreaks of diseases, such as cholera, malaria, typhoid and meningitis, which have become threats as a result of HIV/AIDS. The focus of this paper is on the natural disasters, which are rampant within the lake Victoria basin and are related to extreme weather and climate events such as droughts, floods and strong winds, among others. Extreme weather and climate events influence the welfare of the society and entire economy of the country with droughts and floods having the highest adverse effects. The sectors that experience the immediate effects include agriculture, health, and water resources among others.

Opere AO, Njogu AK. "Water in the Upper Awach-Kibuon Catchment in Nyamira County, Kenya." American Journal of Water Resources. 2020;vol. 8, no. 4 (2020)(doi: 10.12691/ajwr-8-4-6.): 200-210.
Opere A, Olago D, Chidumayo E, Osman-Elasha B. "Climate Change Processes and Impacts." Climate Change and African Forest and Wildlife Resources. 2011:18-33. AbstractAfrican Forest Forum

Climate change is expressed as deviations from a regional climatology determined by analysis of long-term measurements, usually over a period of at least 30 years, or the normally experienced climate conditions and a different, but recurrent, set of climate conditions over a given region of the world (IPCC, 1998). Climate change may also refer to a shift in climate, occurring as a result of human activities (Wigley, 1999). Changing climate is expected to continue in the 21st century in response to the continued increasing trend in global green house gas (GHG) emissions (IPCC, 2007a), stimulating three main responses: technical and livelihood adaptations by affected communities, mitigation actions that sequester GHGs or reduce fossil fuels dependence, and formal international dialogue on the scope and correction of this now rapidly emerging threat to human existence.

Climate change scenarios for Africa include higher temperatures across the continent estimated to be increasing by 0.2°C per decade (Elagiband Mansell, 2000) and more erratic precipitation with slight increase in ecozones of eastern Africa and moist forest ecozones of West Africa and sustainable declines in the productivity in the Sahel and the ecozones of southern, Central and North Africa (Stige et al., 2006). This projection is in part reinforced by changes in rainfall over the last 60 years that has declined by up to 30% (Sivakumar et al ., 2 0 05 ), with the greatest negative impacts felt in Alfred Opere, Daniel Olago, Emmanuel Chidumayo and Balgis Osman-Elasha the Sahel of West Africa (Nicholson et al., 2000; Hulme et al., 2001).

Opere AO, Mutua FM, Ogallo LA. "Stream flow regionalization using discordancy and heterogeneity measure statistics." Journal of African Meteorological Society . 2002;5(2):71-76.
Opere AO. "Investigating available water for irrigation in Tana River Basin." J. Meteorol. Related. Sci.. 2019;10:2:2;ISSN: 2412-378(https://doi.org/10.20987/jmrs.2.03.2019).
Opere A. SMR 207: Fundamentals of Cloud Physics and Atmospheric Pollution. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Opere AO. "Hydrologic analysis for river Nyando using SWAT." Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.. 2011;8:1765-1797.opere_hess-abstract.pdf
Opere A, Oludhe C, Omondi P. Resource Guide on Climate Change Science. Nairobi: Department of Meteorology, University of Nairobi, KE; 2012. AbstractIDRC Digital Library

AfricaAdapt is is an independent bilingual network (French/English) focused exclusively on Africa. The Network’s aim is to facilitate the flow of climate change adaptation knowledge for sustainable livelihoods between researchers, policy makers, civil society organizations and communities who are vulnerable to climate variability and change across the continent. In many cases, the abundance of resources has led to confusion and misinformation surrounding climate change issues. This resource guide provides selected resource materials and links that specifically target non-climate experts.

Opere A, Omwoyo A, Mueni P, Arango M. "Impact of Climate change in Eastern Africa.". In: Hydrology and water resources management in Arid, Semi-arid and Tropical Regions. DOI. 10.4018/978-1-7998-0163-4.ch010.; 2019.
Opere A. "Floods in Kenya.". In: Developments in Earth Surface Processes. Elsevier B.V.; 2013. Abstract

The vulnerability of a water resource system to climate change is a function of a number of physical features and social characteristics. The physical features associated with maximum vulnerability of water resources in a region include the marginal hydrologic and climatic regime; high rates of sedimentation leading to reduction of reservoir storage; topography and land-use practices that promote soil erosion and flash flooding conditions; and deforestation, which allows increased surface run-off, increased soil erosion and more frequent significant flooding. Coupled with these factors, the social characteristics that increase vulnerability of water resources include poverty and low income levels that prevent long-term planning and provision at the household level, lack of water control infrastructures, inadequate maintenance and deterioration of existing infrastructure, lack of human capital skills for system planning and management, lack of appropriate and empowered institutions, absence of appropriate land-use planning and management, and high population densities and other factors that inhibit population mobility. Of all the relevant factors in climate, precipitation is the main cause of disasters in flooding, water pollution, soil erosion, dam breaks and water-related disease outbreaks among others. Floods increase vulnerability of society and thereby perpetuate and increase the incidence of poverty.

Opere AO. "Integrated Water Management to Meet Competing Demands in Agricultural and Other Sectors.". In: Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Springer, Cham. IGI Global; 2020.

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