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O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Kenyan school children have multiple micronutrient deficiencies, but increased plasma vitamin B-12 is the only detectable micronutrient response to meat or milk supplementation. J Nutr . 2003 Nov; 133 ( 11 Suppl 2 ): 3972S-3980S . PMID: 14672298 [PubMed -.". In: J Nutr . 2003 Nov; 133 ( 11 Suppl 2 ): 3972S-3980S . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Program in International Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Animal source foods (ASF) can provide micronutrients in greater amounts and more bioavailable forms compared to plant source foods, but their intake is low in many poor populations. However, the impact of ASF on micronutrient status of undernourished populations has not been assessed. Supplemental meat (60-85 g/d), milk (200-250 mL/d) or energy (isocaloric with the meat and milk, 240-300 kcal/d) were randomly assigned to 555 undernourished school children aged 5-14 y in a rural malaria-endemic area of Kenya, at one school meal daily for one school year. Blood and stool samples were collected at baseline and after 1 y to assess stool parasites, malaria, hemoglobin, serum or plasma C-reactive protein, ferritin, iron, zinc, copper, vitamin B-12, folate and retinol, and erythrocyte riboflavin. At baseline, there was a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies (iron, zinc, vitamins A and B-12 and riboflavin), yet plasma ferritin was low in few children, and none had low serum copper. At the end of the year of supplementation, plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were significantly increased in children fed the Meat or Milk meal; prevalence of severe plus moderate deficiency fell from 80.7% at baseline to 64.1% in the Meat group and from 71.6 to 45.1% in the Milk group, respectively. No significant improvement was observed in the status of other micronutrients compared to the Energy and Control groups, although malaria and other infections may have obscured effects. Supplementation with small amounts of meat or milk reduced the high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in these children.

PMID: 14672298 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Group takes a fresh look at the lithosphere underneath southern Kenya,.". In: KRSIP Working Group EOS Transactions, AGU 76, 81-82. Wiley Interscience; 1995. Abstract
(including Nyambok, I.O.), .
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Book Review, Public Administration in World Perspective, by O.P. Dwivedi and Keith M. Henderson, eds.". In: African Urban Quarterly, Vol.6 Nos.1 and 2 February and May.; 1991. Abstract
n/a
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents in African patients. East Afr Med J. 1983 Aug;60(8):592-6. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Aug;60(8):592-6. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Mbui J, Kungu A, Amayo E, Ogendo SW.Fibrosarcoma of the lung with extrapulmonary manifestations: case report. East Afr Med J. 1995 Jul;72(7):465-7.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 91-93, 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
A 50-year-old female presented with a five months history of recurrent attacks of dizziness, sweatiness, tremors and fainting with loss of consciousness. These were found to be due to hypoglycaemic episodes with blood sugars less than 1 mmol/l and were treated as such. A diagnosis of insulinoma was initially considered, but the patient turned out to have fibrosarcoma of the lung, a rare lung tumour. She also had finger and toe clubbing and features of hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Olukoye, G.A. and R.O. Mosi (2002). Evidence of heterogeneity of variance in milk yield among Holstein-Friesian herds in Kenya.". In: Kenya Veterinarian. 25(2002):12-17. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A, Whitelaw A, Gallimore R, Hawkins PN, Pepys MB. C-reactive protein and bacterial infection in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Mar;149(6):424-7.". In: Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Mar;149(6):424-7. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1990. Abstract
{ Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured by a new solid phase ligand-binding radiometric monoclonal antibody immunoassay in a prospective study of 193 consecutively born preterm infants. In 104 with no clinical or laboratory evidence of infection the median CRP in cord serum was 0.125 mg/l (range 0.011-6.0 mg/l), at 24 h it was 1 mg/l (0.016-7.0) and at 48 h 2 mg/l (0.400-8.0). The present highly sensitive assay has enabled these normal ranges to be defined for the first time, at levels below the threshold of non-labelled immunoassays and of all commercially available CRP assays. The values in cord serum were significantly lower than in normal healthy adults (median 0.8 mg/l, range 0.07-29 mg/l
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO, Jowi JO, Amayo EO.Efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine.East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):479-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):479-82. uon; 1995. Abstract
An open prospective study of the efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine attacks at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, is presented. Thirty two patients were initially recruited and 24 completed the trial giving a drop-out rate of 25%. The age range was 17 to 55 years with a mean of 35 years. Sumatriptan was found to be effective in 22 (92%) out of 24 patients. Side effects occurred in 38% (9/24) patients. These were mild and transient and included nausea, vomiting, numbness of limbs, fever and a feeling of heat in the head. It is concluded that oral sumatriptan is an effective drug in the treatment of acute migraine headaches. It has few side effects and is well tolerated by majority of patients.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Tombe M, Bhatt KM, Obel AO.Clinical surprises and challenges of severe malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):117-9. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):401. E Afr Med J; 1993. Abstract

Department of Cariology Endodontology Pedodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Louwesweg 1, 1066 EA Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The use of Chewing sticks (Miswaki) in the third world for control of dental plaque is very popular. Some of the studies that have been conducted on this subject have reported marked decrease in the incidences of dental caries and periodontal diseases in the users of Miswaki, when compared to the users of the conventional toothbrush living under similar conditions. Various mechanisms by which the Miswaki contributes to this phenomenon have been suggested. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in vitro, the anti-microbial action, the potential acid buffer capacity and fluoride content of crude aqueous extracts of eight commonly used chewing sticks from three regions in Kenya. The results obtained in the study, showed that one of the Miswaki had remarkable antibiotic activity against three stains of oral bacteria. Three of the Miswaki had significant acid buffer capacity. None of the eight Miswaki showed any significant fluoride release.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo N O and Ndombi I O Nutrition in Sickness; Chapter VI In: Feeding the Child including recipes Editors: R.K. Oniango, Nimrod O Bwibo, Isiye O Ndombi, Kama O Rogo. Publishers .". In: Publishers . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1988. Abstract

One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index.

PMID: 2591328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Oldoinyo Lenkiyio Range: Geology, geomorphology and hydrographic pattern of the.". In: In Kenya from Space. A contribution to a CREDU publication. East African Educational Publishers. 116-119. Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
n/a
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Samuel N. Gatiti, M. Muchiri, Elisha T. O. Opiyo, William Okello-Odongo(2011). A Decision Support Systems tool for Forest Biodiversity, Conservation and Climate Change: A Case Study of Grevillea robusta Tree in Kenya.". In: In International Conference on Trocpical Forest Resources, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST), Kenya. June 6-9, 2011. Accepted, yet to be presented. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2011.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Technology Transfer and the Innovative Process in Biomedical Sciences in the Developed World. Discovery and Innovation. Vol. 14 No. .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Ogada T. Related Articles, Links Hyperprolactinaemic diabetes insipidus-like syndrome. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):156-62. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):156-62. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Calculation of creatinine clearance from plasma creatinine. East African Medical Journal 70(1): 3-5, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(1): 3-5, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
Interest in renal disease and practice in East Africa started as far back as the first quarter of this century. Work in this colonial era concentrated on establishing the existence of renal diseases and identifying the nature and incidence of these diseases. This was achieved by case identification and reporting as well as retrospective studies on post mortem and medical notes. The post independence period has not only identified the existence of even more renal diseases but also concentrated on getting a deeper understanding of the aetiology, nature, pattern, regional variations, complications and outcome of these diseases as seen in our environment. Apart from the better understanding of the prevalent renal diseases, emphasis has also been put on the expansion and delivery of renal services. Investigative and treatment facilities have been improved and a lot has been put into the training of the required local team of experts to man these services. This article reviews what has gone on in the last 70 years from the pure case-report and postmortem reports era to the era of locally available modern facilities including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "OWINO J. N. J., MUTHAMA and MARIGI S.2002): .". In: Journal of the African Meteorological Society, Vol 5. 1999; 2002. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of histamine receptor antagonists in contemporary times. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jul;61(7):578-82. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jul;61(7):578-82. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The M.". In: Kenya Journal of Science & Technology, Series A, 2nd Issue. 117-124. Wiley Interscience; 1980. Abstract
n/a
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "Multi-Agent systems scheduler in a dynamic environment.". In: (Ph.D Colloquium) Proceedings of the 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 229-243. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2005.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "A prevalence study of ear problems in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, May 1992.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995 Nov;33(3):197-205.". In: Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995 Nov;33(3):197-205. MEDICOM; 1995. Abstract
Information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and related ear pathologies in children in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. A pilot study for a clinical trial of simple treatments for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, provided information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and ear pathologies. Five-thousand-three-hundred-sixty-eight children from 57 randomly chosen primary schools in Kiambu district were examined. Simple otoscopy was performed by clinical officers with specialty training in ENT, and hering testing was performed by trained nurses, using a hand held field audiometer. Microbiological specimens were obtained from those children with CSOM. Five-point-six percent of the children had a hearing impairment of > 30 dB HL in one or both ears, with 2.2% having bilateral hearing impairment. Two-point-four percent had at least one perforated tympanic membrane, and 1.1% had CSOM. Eight-point-six percent of the children had wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. There is evidence of a relationship between hearing impairment and both CSOM and wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. The most common organisms found were Pseudomonas spp. (34%), Proteus spp. (34%) and Eschericia coli (19%). These results are comparable with other studies in Africa and indicate a considerable burden of ear disease in Kiambu district, Kenya.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2000. Critical aspects of animal production, health sciences and environmental litigation. In: The Veterinary profession in a changing environment. Proceedings of the Commonwealth Veterinary Association/Kenya Veterinary Association joint Region.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Ndetei, C.J. , Opere, A.O. and Mutua F.M. (2007): Flood frequency analysis in Lake Victoria basin based on tail behaviour of distributions. Journal of KMS, vol., pp.44-54. ISSN 1995-9834.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and Kiere, S. M. (2000). Alternative viable sustainable forms of delivery of Artificial Insemination (AI) services room temperature semen (RTS), technical logistical scope for its use.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2000. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Goitre and fluorosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):363-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):363-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J. M. Kihiu, G. O. Rading and S. M. Mutuli Overstraining of Plain Cross-Bored Cylinders J. Mechanical Engineering Science Vol. 218(2) (2004) p 143-153.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2004. Abstract

A 3D FEM computer program was developed to establish the stress distributions and SCFs in thick walled cylinders with radiused entry flush and non-protruding cross bores under internal pressure. The displacement formulation and eight noded brick isoparametric elements were used. The Frontal solution technique was used due to the limited computing facilities. The variation of SCF with entry radius to main bore radius ratio was established for varying cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio and cross bore to main bore radius ratio. For low values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (≤2.25), the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in lower SCFs. For high values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (>2.25),  the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in higher SCFs. The cylinder with cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 2.25 was found to be a transition geometry. For very small values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio, the SCFs converged to a value of 2.2 for entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. The cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 1.75 to 3 cylinders had a constant SCF value of 2.3 at cross bore to main bore radius ratio of 0.05 and entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. A new categorization of cylinders earlier proposed in the study of plain cross-bored cylinders is further validated.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo N.O, Kasili EG, Oduori ML: Childhood Leukaemia in Kenya. In: tumours in Early Life .". In: Edited by L Seven with Pwerugia Quadrennial international Conferences in Cancer Rome. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1977. Abstract

No abstract available.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Some historical and philosophical aspects of Geology.". In: Thought and Practice, Vol. l (2). Wiley Interscience; 1974. Abstract
n/a
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "MMM AFRICA! (KISWAHILI).". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2004.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1996. Kenya Veterinary Association Privatization Scheme (KVAPS). Background current status and futures perspectives. Proceedings of the joint Regional Commonwealth Veterinary Association, Mauritius veterinary association/ Pan- African Veterinar.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1996. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Otieno LS, Kinuthia DM, Mwongera FK, Ongeri SK.Ascites in patients undergoing intermittent haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1991 Oct;68(10):789-94.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
In a two-year-period (August 1984 to August 1986), 77 patients were admitted into the maintenance haemodialysis programme at Kenyatta National Hospital. 24 (31.5%) of these had ascites during haemodialysis. Nine (37.5%) of the patients who had ascites had prior peritoneal dialysis, while 15 (62.5%) had congestive cardiac failure at the time of development of the ascites. In 21 (87.5%), the ascites responded to therapy with diuretics, salt and fluid restriction, antibiotics when indicated and to ultrafiltration during dialysis. In 3 (12.5%) of the patients, the ascites developed in the absence of any predisposing cause. The ascites progressively increased in amount and was associated with marked wasting. These patients were considered to have refractory ascites of haemodialysis.
O DROPEREALFRED. "N. J. Muthama, A. O. Opere and C. Oludhe (2003): Equatorial Total ozone as a predictor of sea surface temperatures useful for East African seasonal rainfall prediction. Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.6.no2, (2003) p1-10.". In: Journal of African Meteorological. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2003. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Political Culture and Liberalization in Kenya, 1986-1999," in Mushi, S., Mukandala, R., and Yahya-Othman, S., (eds.), 2004, Democracy and Social Transformation in East Africa, Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2004. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Mitema, E.S. and Agumbah, G.J.O. (1987). Choosing an intramammary antibiotic. Vet. Med. 87,930 - 932.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1987. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Vere DW. Related Articles, Links Antipyrine and propranolol disposition in malnutrition. East Afr Med J. 1978 Jan;55(1):20-4. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1978 Jan;55(1):20-4. E Afr Med J; 1978. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFORINDADA. "Ayisi RK, Mbiti MJ, Musoke RN, Orinda DA. Sodium supplementation in very low birth weight infants fed on their own mothers milk I: Effects on sodium homeostasis.East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):591-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):591-5. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium supplementation was done on 41 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with 25 other infants of similar weight status as controls. All the infants were fed on their own mothers milk whose sodium and potassium content was determined. Serum and urinary sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were determined in both groups during the study period of six weeks. Determination of weight gain, length gain and head circumference gain showed that these anthropometric parameters are significantly increased by sodium supplementation while sodium and potassium concentrations were not significantly affected. There were no cases of either hypernatraemia or hyponatraemia though renal excretion of sodium was very high in the supplemented group. Conclusions drawn from the study are that very little weight gain could have been due to fluid retention and that though sodium supplementation does not affect sodium profiles in these infants it has significant effect on their growth rate which may be due to its indirect/direct association with bone and protein metabolism.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Decentralisation in Africa: Trends and Prospects for the 21st Century,".". In: Walter B. Stohr, J.S. Edralin and Medyani Mani, (eds.), Decentralisation, Governance, and New Planning for Local Level Development (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group). IPPNW; 2001. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "The Optimum Density of Poly-Urethane Foam–Design of a Shear Fatigue Tester" Internal Report, Kenya Bureau of Standards (1986).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1986. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Sum-Rules for Relativistic Classical Plasmas in a Magnetic Field; International Journal of Theoretical Physics 28 893 (1989). 30. R. O. Genga Wave Propagation in Strongly coupled.". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Computer-Based Medical Diagnostic Decision Assistant.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 114-123. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2004. Abstract
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O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Otieno L.S., Kinuthia D.M.W. Ongeri S.K., Mwongera F.K., Wairagu S.G.: Problems with a Renal Replacement Programme in a Developing Country. Postgraduate Medical Journal 648 (56): 783-786, 1988.". In: Postgraduate Medical Journal 648 (56): 783-786, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ogaa, J. S. Agumbah, G.J.O. and Waghela, S. (1978). Isolation and characterization of Campyobacter biotypes in Kenya. Wld. Congr. Bint. Mexico pg 166 - 173.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1978. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFORINDADA. "Antiviral Activity of Partially Thiolated Plynucleotides. J.A. D.". In: Molecular Pharmacology II, 61-69, (1975). Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1975. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Bureaucracy and Democracy in Africa,".". In: Walter O. Oyugi and A. Gitonga, (eds.), Democratic Theory and Practice in Africa (Nairobi: Heinemann Publishers Ltd., 1987), pp. 99-110. IPPNW; 1987. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Flavones and phenylpropenoids in the surface exudate of Psiadia punctulata.". In: Phytochemistry, 57, 571-574.; 2001. Abstract
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O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., Were A.J.O. Severe malaria in a renal transplant patient Afr. J. Medical Pract. 2(1) 8-9, 1995.". In: Afr. J. Medical Pract. 2(1) 8-9, 1995. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1995. Abstract
Renal transplantation is not readily available in the majority of countries in Africa. It is expensive and difficult to sustain on the meagre funds allocated to health. We report our short experience with fifteen living donor recipients followed in our unit for at least 24 months, range 26 - 48 (mean 35 months) post-transplantation. The donors and recipients were mostly young adults with mean ages of 36.7 years and 32.6 years respectively. The majority of the donors and recipients were males. The donors in most cases were siblings. Within this time, one graft has been lost at one year and the patient restarted on haemodialysis. Three patients died, two within the first year, the third at 23 months after transplantation, all with functioning grafts. The one year graft and patient survival rates were 93% and 86.6% respectively. The second year graft survival rates remained at 93% and the patients survival rate 80%. The nature and frequency of complications seen in these patients is comparable to those in other centres. Of all medical complications, bacterial infections contributed 69.4% of all infections. Cardiovascular complications comprised 31.25% of the complications. Hypertension seen in 85.5% of the patients accounted for 65% of the cardiovascular complications. Acute rejections were common and occurred in seven patients. Transplantation is a viable mode of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in our environment. The practice should be supported to make it more readily available to the many young end stage renal failure (ESRF) patients.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Einarsson S.; Rodriguez-Martinez H.Cryopreservation of boar semen: II. Effect of cooling rate and duration of freezing point plateau in boar semen frozen in mini -, maxi-straws and plastic bags. Acta Vet. Scand. 32, 455-461.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1991.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Popular Participation in Planning at the Local Level," in D. K. Leonard, (ed.), Rural Administration in Kenya (Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau, 1973).". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1973. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Musandu J.O. New Developments in Nursing Education , Kenya Nursing Journal Volume 34 Number 1 June 2006.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Volume 34 Number 1 June 2006. James Murimi; 2006. Abstract

Warenius LU, Faxelid EA, Chishimba PN, Musandu JO, Ong'any AA, Nissen EB.

Division of International Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Linnea.Warenius@ki.se

Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.

PMID: 16713886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Jan. 29-30, 2007 .". In: Regional Conference on Capacity Building for the Fast Tracking of the East African Market, Pan Afric Hotel, Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO. Treatment of HIV infections and AIDS: new horizons. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS77-81. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS77-81. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract
Treatment of HIV infections has involved the use of antiviral drugs as well as those drugs that act against opportunistic infections. Immune modulators have also been used. A review of these drugs is reported emphasizing on those which have great promise in the clinical management of HIV infections in the light of our present knowledge on immunopathology of the disease.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Ngugi N, Mcligeyo S.O., Kayima J.K.:The emergency treatment of hyperkalaemia by altering the transcellular gradient in patients with renal failure - effects of various therapeutic approaches. East African Medical Journal. 74(8):, 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(8):, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Mulwa, J. K., Gaciri, S. J., Opiyo-Akech, N and Kianji, G. K., 2005. Geological and structural influence on groundwater distribution and flow in Ngong area,.". In: Kenya. African Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 105-115. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2005. Abstract
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O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. DRIRIMUGRACE, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "English M, Irimu G, Wamae A, Were F, Wasunna A, Fegan G, Peshu N.Health systems research in a low-income country: easier said than done.Arch Dis Child. 2008 Jun;93(6):540-4.". In: Arch Dis Child. 2008 Jun;93(6):540-4. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
Small hospitals sit at the apex of the pyramid of primary care in the health systems of many low-income countries. If the Millennium Development Goal for child survival is to be achieved, hospital care for referred severely ill children will need to be improved considerably in parallel with primary care in many countries. Yet little is known about how to achieve this. This article describes the evolution and final design of an intervention study that is attempting to improve hospital care for children in Kenyan district hospitals. It illustrates many of the difficulties involved in reconciling epidemiological rigour and feasibility in studies at a health system, rather than an individual, level and the importance of the depth and breadth of analysis when trying to provide a plausible answer to the question: does it work? Although there are increasing calls for more health systems research in low-income countries, the importance of strong, broadly based local partnerships and long-term commitment even to initiate projects is not always appreciated.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Murphy SP, Gewa C, Liang LJ, Grillenberger M, Bwibo NO, Neumann CG.School snacks containing animal source foods improve dietary quality for children in rural Kenya. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3950S-3956S.". In: J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3950S-3956S. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Between Liberation and Oppression: The Politics of Structural Adjustment in Africa, by Thandika Mkandawire and Adebayo Olukushi, eds, Dakar: Codessria.". In: African Book Publishing Record, Vol.xxiv, No.2, 1998, p. 130. (Book review).; 1995. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in a referral hospital in a tropical developing country. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1983 Dec;141 Suppl:207-10. No abstract available.". In: Tohoku J Exp Med. 1983 Dec;141 Suppl:207-10. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN, OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Okeyo, A.M. and R.O. Mosi (1999). Performance of Dutch Friesian Cows under semi-arid conditions in Kenya: Reproductive performance and productive life.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 47:87-95. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1999. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Mulwa, J. K., Gaciri, S. J., Opiyo-Akech, N and Kianji, G. K., 2005. Geological and structural influence on groundwater distribution and flow in Ngong area,.". In: Kenya. African Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 105-115. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2005. Abstract
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O MROUKOKENNEDY. "September 2003: " Family Health programmes in Kenya: an evaluation of the succeses and failures". Published by Maendeleo Ya Wanawake, 2004.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 2004. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Cameron J.S., Sacks S.: Improved survival inlupus nephritis in the modern era (1979-1989) using only oral corcosteroids and azethiprine as maitenance therapy. African Journal of Health Sciences 2(1): 211-219 1995.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 2(1): 211-219 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Badamana, M.S., J.W.Wakhungu and R.O. Mosi, (2004). Enhanced productivity indexing of goats.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 52(1), 31-38. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Herpes zoster myelitis: report of two cases. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80. uon; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients aged 40 and 45 years with HIV infection and paraplegia are presented. The two had sub-acute onset paraplegia with a sensory level, which developed 10 days after herpes zoster dermatomal rash. They both had asymmetrically involvement of the lower limbs. Investigation including imaging of the spinal cord did not reveal any other cause of the neurological deficit. The two responded very well to treatment with acyclovir. Herpes zoster myelitis is a condition likely to rise with the upsurge of HIV infection and there is a need to identify the condition early. We also review the literature on the subject.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Cognitive abilities of Kenyan children in relation to nutrition, family characteristics, and education. Child Dev . 1989 Dec; 60 ( 6 ): 1463-74 . PMID: 2515042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Sigman M, Neumann C, Jansen AA, Bwibo N.". In: Child Dev . 1989 Dec; 60 ( 6 ): 1463-74 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1989. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, UCLA Medical School 90024.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether nutritional factors, family characteristics, and the duration of schooling were associated with cognitive and attentional capacities in children growing up in rural Kenya. Food intake was measured by direct observation and weighment twice monthly over the course of a year. Families were characterized in terms of socioeconomic status and the literacy of the parents. Children who were better nourished had higher composite scores on a test of verbal comprehension and the Raven's matrices. Better-nourished females were more attentive during classroom observations than malnourished female schoolchildren. Family characteristics and duration of school participation were associated with cognitive abilities for both boys and girls. For the children considered as a group, cognitive scores were best predicted by a combination of factors including duration of schooling, food intake, physical stature, and SES.

PMID: 2515042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Naivasha: Geology and natural resources.". In: In Kenya from space. East African Educational Publishers. 60-62. Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
n/a
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Owino J., Eric S. Mitema, William O. Ogara, and Herwig O. Gutzeit. 2004. Heat Shock Affects Attachment and Proliferation of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Primary Hepatocytes. In-Vitro cell. Developmental Biol. Animal.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics. Anxiolytic drugs. East Afr Med J. 1981 Aug;58(8):551-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Aug;58(8):551-6. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Nitric oxide–sources, evolution and potential biological and clinical relevance. East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):73-4. No abstract available.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
Autonomic nervous function was assessed in twenty two patients (16 males and 6 females) with chronic renal failure on conservative management. The presenting symptoms were postural dizziness in 10(45%), impotence in 4(18%) patients and 1 patient each with diplopia, urinary urgency and nocturnal diarrhoea. The following autonomic function tests were performed; valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate response to deep breathing, heart rate response to posture and postural change in blood pressure. Fifteen (68%) patients had abnormal autonomic function tests. Out of these patients, 14(93%) had abnormalities of the parasympathetic system and only one had abnormalities in the sympathetic system. There was a negative correlation between the creatinine levels and the following; valsalva ratio (r = -0.72 p < 0.001), heart rate response to standing (r = -0.56 p < 0.01) and heart rate response to deep breathing (r = -0.45 p < 0.05).
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "A. M. Achola, N. J. Muthama & J. O. Owino(2006): Influence of Weather on the Insurance Industry in Kenya:.". In: African J. of Sci. & Technol. Vol. 7, No.,pp 112-120. 1999; 2006. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Odwako DB. Practical therapeutics: the use of carbamazepine in affective disorders. East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Birthweights of infants of teenage mothers in Nairobi. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl . 1985; 319 : 89-94 . PMID: 3868931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl . 1985; 319 : 89-94 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1985. Abstract

Teenage pregnancies lower average birthweight. In the NBS, teenage mothers had significantly lower average birthweight of 2 920 +/- 553 g compared with 3 133 +/- 533 g among women in the general population. A high rate of LBW on the infants of the teenage mothers was the significant factor in lowering the average birthweight. In both NBS and the PMHS the incidence of LBW 18% and 15% respectively as well as the rate of preterm delivery of 24% and 23% respectively were high. In PMHS although the numbers were small, the incidence of LBW was high (13%) in the 14-year-olds and in the 15-year-olds it was 4.8% which was much lower than that for 17- and 18-year-olds. In a large series in Nigeria the incidence of LBW was 27% in mothers aged less than 15 years, 26% in mothers aged 15-19, 20% in those aged 20-24 and least (18%) in the 25-29 year age group. Many unfavourable socioeconomic circumstances and lack of adequate antenatal supervision contribute to these high rates. Some of the teenage mothers-particularly the very young, below 16 years-are physically immature and are still growing children themselves. Their nutrient intake is shared between their own growth needs and those of their foetuses. In the Nigerian study, administration of folic acid and iron together with antimalarials to pregnant mothers resulted in increased maternal height as well as foetal growth, thus stressing the importance of nutritional care for the teenage mothers.

PIP: Teenage pregnancies lower average birth weight. In the Nairobi Birth Survey (NBS), teenage mothers had significantly lower average birth weight of 2920 +or- 553 gm compared with 3133 +or- 533 gm among women in the general population. A high rate of low birth weight (LBW) in those infants born to teenage mothers was the significant factor in lowering that figure. In both the NBS and the Pumwani Maternity Hospital Study (PMHS), the incidence of LBW was 18% and 15%, respectively, and the rate of preterm delivery 24% and 23%, respectively. In the PMHS, although the numbers were small, the incidence of LBW was high (13%) in the 14-year-old group and it was 4.8% in the 15-year-old group; these figures were much lower than those for ages 17 and 18. In a large series in Nigeria, the incidence of LBW was 27% in mothers aged less than 15, 26% in mothers aged 15-19, 20% in those aged 20-24, and least (18%) in those 25-29. Many unfavorable socioeconomic circumstances and lack of adequate antenatal supervision contribute to these high rates. Some teenage mothers–particularly those under age 16–are physically immature and are themselves still growing. Their nutrient intake is shared between their own growth needs and those of their fetuses. In the Nigerian study, administration of folic acid and iron together with antimalarials to pregnant mothers resulted in increased maternal height as well as fetal growth, thus stressing the importance of nutritional care for teenage mothers. author's modified

PMID: 3868931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Precambrian Geology of the Ishiara area, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences. Vol.2 No.1 pp34-38. Wiley Interscience; 1984. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Opiyo Elisha T. O., Erick Ayienga and Katherine Getao, Bernard Manderick, and Okello-Odongo and Ann Now.". In: In the Proceedings of the first International Conference in Computer Science and Informatics, School of Computing and Informatics, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 5-9 February, 2007. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2007.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Galina N, Oburra H and Aluoch JR. Sensorineural hearing loss in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal, 73:471 1996. MEDICOM; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2001. Chemicals in the livestock industry. Workshop on chemical management. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources 12 .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.: Initial experience with continuous Ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Viru infection in a developing country. Peritoneal dialysis International 12(2): 267-268, 1992.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
In a one year period (March 1990 to March 1991) the pattern of diseases in geriatric patients (over 60 years of age) admitted to the medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) was studied. In all, there were 1296 patients (M:F = 1.7:1) in this age group forming 11.5% of all admissions during the study period. 1008 (77.8%) of the geriatric patients were between 60 and 79 years of age. Most of the admissions (86.4%) were first admissions. The mean number of diseases per geriatric patient was 1.4. Hypertension and Cardiomyopathy were the commonest single diseases recorded, making up 43.9% of all diseases in this patient population. The commonest neurological diagnosis was stroke, which occurred in a setting of hypertension or cardiomyopathy in all the patients in whom it was diagnosed. The mean duration (+/- 2SD) of stay in the hospital in this patient population was 43 (+/- 19) days. Eighty eight (6.8%) of the patients died, the commonest cause of death being heart failure due to cardiomyopathy or hypertensive heart disease. It is concluded that geriatric patients form a sizeable proportion of our medical admissions and that a large proportion suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is thus recommended that further studies be carried out on the pattern of diseases in such patients and optimal management strategies for their ailments be outlined.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Pharmacokinetics in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1982 Nov;59(11):703-4. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Nov;59(11):703-4. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Tuberculous meningitis–diagnostic problems. East Afr Med J . 1979 Dec; 56 ( 12 ): 646-50 . No abstract available. PMID: 544261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1979 Dec; 56 ( 12 ): 646-50 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1979. Abstract

No abstract available

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Geochemistry of the carbonatite complexes in East Africa in (Abstr.).". In: 2nd Symposium on the origin and distribution of elements. IAGC and UNESCO.102. Wiley Interscience; 1977. Abstract
n/a
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1997. Microbiological, and physico-chemical characteristics of Siaga (Siaga tatarica Linneaus) meat during storage. Kenya Veterinarian Volume 24, 1-5.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.: Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection. East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O., Mkhandi S., Willems, P. (2005): Homogeneity testing for peak flow in catchments in the equatorial Nile basins. Proceedings of the International conference of FRIEND/Nile FUST project, Sheraton Sharm Hotel, Sharm El Sheik, Egypt.". In: Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2005. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Coalition Politics and Government in Africa Since Independence," in Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 24, 1, Jan 2006, pp. 53-79.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2006. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ngeranwa, J. J. N., Mutiga, E.R., Agumbah, G.J.O., Gathumbi, P.K. and Munyua, W.K. (1991). The effects of experimental Trypanosoma (trypanozoon) (brucei) Evansi infection on fertility of male goats. Vet. Res. Communic. 15.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1991. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFOBELARTHUR, O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO.Practical therapeutics current concepts in management of bronchial asthma. East Afr Med J. 1981 May;58(5):311-7. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Jan;58(1):8-11. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo NO. Common causes of death in children at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1970 Nov;9(11):691-4.". In: Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1970 Nov;9(11):691-4. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1970. Abstract

No abstract available

O PROFORINDADA, O PROFORINDADA. "Yonga GO, Ogola EN, Orinda DA. Metabolic effects of propranolol and hydroflumethiazide treatment in Kenyans with mild to moderate essential hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. In a prospective single-blind comparative trial, sixty newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertensives were randomly assigned to either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide monotherapy. Baseline fasting serum glucose lipid profiles, serum uric acid and potassium levels, were determined at the beginning of the trial. Repeat levels were determined at completion of twelve weeks of treatment. Propranolol treatment significantly reduced HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) and increased both VLDL and total serum triglycerides (p < 0.01). Hydroflumethiazide significantly increased total and LDL-chole-sterol, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels (p < 0.01); potassium levels were significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Treatment with either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide is associated with significant metabolic side-effects which require regular monitoring and intervention as appropriate.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "Advanced Materials Science–Some Aspects Relevant to Design and Failure Prevention" Presented at Seminar on Engineering Management, Nairobi (1986 & 1987).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1987. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High Frequency Sum Rule of the Quantum Plasma dielectric Tensor; African Journal of Science and Technology B 5 (1), 43.". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1991.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "THE INTERPRETATION OF THE 1929 EGYPT-BRITISH NILE WATERS TREATY AND ITS LEGAL RELEVANCE AND IMPLICATIONS ON THE STABILITY OF THE REGION.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mcligeyo, S.O. and Otieno, L.S.: Complication seen in patients undergoing intermittent haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital in the period 1984 - 1986. East African Medical Journal 658(3): 147-154, 1988.". In: East African Medical Journal 658(3): 147-154, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O. and mutua, F.M. (1996): Transfer-Function model for Upper Athi river catchment of central Kenya. Proceedings of the 3rd workshop of the Kenya Meteorological Society workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, 7-11 October 1.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1996. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O OL, W KL, W MR, S BB. "Diet composition and nutritional contribution of food scavenged by indigenous chickens in Western Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2009;21.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "The Impact of Law on the Management of Wetlands: The Case of Kenya," The People's Role in Wetlands Management, M. Merchand & H.A Udo Haes (eds), Leiden, 1989, at p. 601.". In: Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 5/2, (1993), at p. 191. Departmental seminar; 1989. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "MacLaren, A.P.C. and Agumbah, G.J.O. (1980). Biotypes/serotypes of C. fetus associated with infertility in S.W. Scotland. Proc. Soc. General Microbil. Gt. Brand Ireland. Veterinary Bulletin. 51. Abst. 2928.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1980. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFORINDADA. "Rate of Tumour inhibition by Activated Macrophages in Vitro D.A.O. Orinda, E. A. Med. Journal, Vol 55 No. 4 April 1978.". In: East Afr Med J. 1978 Apr;55(4):177-81. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1978. Abstract
PMID: 679868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Does the "Baby Cloche" heat shield keep low birth-weight infants warm? East Afr Med J . 1992 Jan; 69 ( 1 ): 37-9 . PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Brady JP, Wasunna AO, Bowker MH, Musoke RN.". In: East Afr Med J . 1992 Jan; 69 ( 1 ): 37-9 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi. To determine whether the "Baby Cloche" heat shield improves temperature control in low birth-weight infants we compared serial temperatures in 11 preterm infants nursed with or without the Cloche. Mean birth weights were 1490 and 1510 gm, mean weights at time of study 1680 and 1710 gm and mean postnatal age 20 and 27 days for study and control infants respectively. Serial measurements of rectal, abdominal skin, dorsum of the foot, Cloche wall and room temperature were recorded once or twice daily for 2 to 5 days. Mean rectal temperatures increased with increasing age from 35.3 in the first week of life to 37.0 degrees C by the third week (P less than 0.001). In infants nursed under the Cloche who were over 2 weeks of age mean rectal, abdominal and foot temperatures were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.6 degrees C higher (P less than 0.001); in younger infants there was no significant difference in any of the temperatures. Our findings suggest that the "Baby Cloche" improves temperature control in preterm infants over 1600 gm who are more than 2 weeks of age. PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Civil Bureaucracy in East Africa," in K. Henderson and P. Dwivedi, (eds.), Public Administration in World Perspective (Iowa: University of Iowa Press.". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1990. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga Strongly Coupling Effect on Plasma Dispersion in a Magnetic Field; Ph.D. Thesis 1982, Boston College, U.S.A. (Unpublished).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1982.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Ngugi N., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K. Treatment of hyperkalaemia by altering the transcellur gradient in patients with renal failure: effect of various therapeutic approaches East African Medical Journal, 73(8): 503 -504; 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal, 73(8): 503 -504; 1997. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1997. Abstract
Ten patients with acute and 60 with chronic renal failure (both groups having hyperkalaemia), were managed at Kenyatta National Hospital in the medical wards and Renal Unit between August, 1995 and January, 1996. They were divided into seven different treatment groups, each consisting of ten patients. Treatment A glucose 25g i.v. with insulin 10 units i.v., treatment B 50 mmol of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate infusion, treatment C 0.5mg of salbutamol i.v. in 50mls 5% dextrose, treatment D was a combination of treatments A and B, treatment E was a combination of treatment B and C, treatment F was a combination of treatments A and C while treatment G was a combination of treatments A and B and C. Serum potassium was measured, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours and 8 hours after treatment. Plasma glucose concentration was measured before treatment was given and 1 hour after in all patients. Electrocardiography was done before treatment on all patients and repeated 30 minutes and 1 hour after treatment for the patients with hyperkalaemic changes on the initial recording. All treatment modalities had satisfactory potassium lowering effects. Of the single therapeutic approaches, treatment A and C were equieffective, but better than treatment B (P < 0.001). Amongst the two regimen combinations, treatment D and F were more efficacious than treatment E and all the single therapeutic approaches (P < 0.001). Treatment G was the most efficacious in lowering serum potassium in this study. All treatment modalities had maximum serum potassium lowering effect at 1-2 hours. A fall in plasma glucose concentration was a notable feature of treatments A and D, but significant hypoglycaemia occurred in 20% of patients receiving treatment A and in none on treatment D. The ECG changes of hyperkalaemia did not correlate with serum potassium levels. The normalisation of hyperkalaemic ECG alteration occurred within the first 30 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, combination therapies for hyperkalaemia appear to be more efficacious than single therapeutic approaches. Inclusion of salbutamol seems to protect against insulin induced hypoglycaemia. The maximum potassium lowering effect is observed 1-2 hours of administration of either agents. The potassium reducing effect remains significant compared to baseline values even after 8 hours. If dialysis cannot be instituted early enough it seems reasonable to repeat treatment every 4-6 hours to sustain the effect. Repeated administration of glucose with insulin may not be safe because of the hypoglycaemic effect. Other single and combination therapies can theoretically be repeated regularly until dialysis is initiated although this requires further clinical evaluation.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O. Articial Insemination in Pigs.". In: A paper presented at . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
O DROUTAGEORGE. "African Examples: Inspirations for Achievment and Personal Fulfilment.". In: ACCE Conference on Media and African Development. ACCE: Accra; 1993. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O OT, O. KD, N. MJ. "Evaluating Superplasticizer Compatibility in the Production of High Performance Concrete using Portland Pozzolana Cement CEM II/B-P." SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering. 2020;Vol. 7(6):92-100.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Agricultural Administration in Kenya,".". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1976. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Tombe M, Bhatt KM, Obel AO.Clinical surprises and challenges of severe malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):117-9. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):401. E Afr Med J; 1993. Abstract
Department of Cariology Endodontology Pedodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Louwesweg 1, 1066 EA Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The use of Chewing sticks (Miswaki) in the third world for control of dental plaque is very popular. Some of the studies that have been conducted on this subject have reported marked decrease in the incidences of dental caries and periodontal diseases in the users of Miswaki, when compared to the users of the conventional toothbrush living under similar conditions. Various mechanisms by which the Miswaki contributes to this phenomenon have been suggested. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in vitro, the anti-microbial action, the potential acid buffer capacity and fluoride content of crude aqueous extracts of eight commonly used chewing sticks from three regions in Kenya. The results obtained in the study, showed that one of the Miswaki had remarkable antibiotic activity against three stains of oral bacteria. Three of the Miswaki had significant acid buffer capacity. None of the eight Miswaki showed any significant fluoride release.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Sindani I.S, McLigeyo S.O: Prevention and control of tuberculosis: a review. African Journal of Health Sciences, Vol 4 (1): 15-19, 1997.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences, Vol 4 (1): 15-19, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Sigman M, Whaley SE, Neumann CG, Bwibo N, Guthrie D, Weiss RE, Liang LJ, Murphy SP.Diet quality affects the playground activities of Kenyan children. Food Nutr Bull. 2005 Jun;26(2 Suppl 2):S202-12.". In: Food Nutr Bull. 2005 Jun;26(2 Suppl 2):S202-12. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2005. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Microprobe and X-ray diffraction analyses of the major minerals from the Jombo Hill alkaline rocks in Kenya.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences. Series A. Vol. 10(i): 40-59. Wiley Interscience; 1996. Abstract
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O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. ""The External Sources of Kenya's Democratization Process",.". In: Journal of Political Science, Vol.25, pp.5-35.; 1997. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Long-term performance of electronic identification devices and model traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems of Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete*, W Maritim**, G Muchemi**, N Maingi***, J M Gathuma* and W Ogara* * Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com** Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya*** Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract The readability of two different types of electronic identifiers (EID) were evaluated under pastoral production system in North-Eastern Kenya.  Physical verification and reading was done at day 0, and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months respectively on a total of 1943 beef cattle of which 934 were tagged using ear button tags and 1009 with rumen boluses.  The retention rates were recorded and readability determined using a hand-held reader and subsequently compared using a non parametric survival analysis.   The results showed that, rumen boluses were more effective with retention and readability of 100% after the one-year period.  The retention rate for ear button tags deteriorated after day 120 to 94.6%.  This implied that rumen boluses are safe and tamper-proof and are thus recommended for use in pastoral production systems. When tested within the model Livestock Identification and Traceability System (LITS), the use of RFID identifiers were able to substantially contribute to better record keeping, and proof of credible livestock certification. However, due to cost considerations, undertaking a benefit-cost analysis and provisional analysis of the institutional and organisational infrastructure may be critical for successful implementation. Keywords: livestock identification, radio frequency identification devices, traceability system
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of histamine receptor antagonists in contemporary times. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jul;61(7):578-82. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jul;61(7):578-82. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "West, N. E. and K.O. Farah 1989. Effects of clipping and sheep grazing on dyers woad. Journ. Range Manage. 42: 5-10.". In: In: Proceedings of First symposium of University of Nairobi ASAL thrust and ICRAF held at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, December, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1989.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in a patient with end-stage renal disease following radiotherapy and surgery for transitional cell carcinoma. Nephron. 1996;74(2):495-6. No abstract available.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(9):607-610, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Geoelectric structure below Eburru geothermal field, Rift Valley, Kenya,.". In: Proceedings of the regional seminar on geothermal energy in Eastern and southern Africa, 15-21 June, 1982, Nairobi, Kenya. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1982. Abstract
Barongo, J.O.,1982. Proceedings of the regional seminar on geothermal energy in Eastern and southern Africa, 15-21 June, 1982, Nairobi, Kenya.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. The front line in the African AIDS crisis. Hastings Cent Rep. 2001 Sep-Oct;31(5):12. No abstract available.". In: Hastings Cent Rep. 2001 Sep-Oct;31(5):12. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2001. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare the morbidity and outcome of low birthweight babies (birthweight < 2000 gm) of adolescent (age < 20 years) and older mothers. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: The newborn Unit of the Kenyatta National Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All babies weighing less than 2000 gm at birth whose mothers consented to the study had their gestational age verified using the Dubowitz scoring system. They were then followed up by daily clinical assessment until discharge, death or up to one month in the ward. The babies were divided into two groups according to their mother's age and then compared with respect to episodes of illness, duration of hospital stay, and overall outcome. RESULTS: One hundred and forty two babies were studied. Of these, 64 were born to adolescent mothers. Babies of the adolescent mothers tended to be more premature (p = 0.0174), be lower in weight (p = 0.0078), had more occurrences of respiratory distress and anaemia (probably reflecting their increased prematurity) and had frequent multiple morbidity events They also had longer hospital stay and they were more likely to die (57.7% compared to 42.3% of babies of older mothers). CONCLUSION: Low birthweight babies of the adolescent mothers were found to be more likely to have increased morbidity and adverse outcome compared to similar babies of older mothers.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Relationships between morbidity and development in mildly to moderately malnourished Kenyan toddlers. Pediatrics . 1991 Nov; 88 ( 5 ): 934-42 . PMID: 1945634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Neumann C, McDonald MA, Sigman M, Bwibo N, Marquardt M.". In: Pediatrics . 1991 Nov; 88 ( 5 ): 934-42 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1991. Abstract

University of California, Los Angeles.

This study explored the extent to which morbidity in 110 mildly to moderately malnourished Kenyan toddlers was associated with developmental outcomes. Morbidity information was collected from the 18th to 30th months. Concurrent assessments of vocalization, play, and performance on the Bayley scales were obtained. At 5 years, a follow-up battery of cognitive tests was administered. Female toddlers who suffered more illness generally performed less well on developmental measures than their healthier female peers. These children vocalized and played less and performed less well on the Bayley Mental scales at 30 months and on the cognitive battery at 5 years. For the boys, development was largely independent of morbidity. Morbidity was related to patterns of care giving for both boys and girls, but it was not associated with socioeconomic status or food intake. However, girls who were ill more often were shorter and lighter. Relations between morbidity and development in the girls remained statistically significant when other variables, which were also related to development (such as care giving, socioeconomic status, parental IQ and literacy, food intake, and anthropometry) were considered. This suggests that morbidity, in these female toddlers, had an effect on development above and beyond other variables typically associated with malnutrition.

PMID: 1945634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Geology of Kenya from Landsat mosaic.". In: In Kenya from Space. CREDU, France. East African Educational Publishers, 12-15, Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
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O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo, Distributed computing, agents and trends. In the proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. AJFAND; 2012.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "A comparative study of gastrointestinal parasites between ranched and free ranging Burchell.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics–use of oral anti-diabetic agents. East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):91-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):91-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Gromerular diseases in Kenya-another look at diseases characterised by nephrotic proteinura. Afr J Health Sci. 1994 Nov;1(4):185-190.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
Renal biopsies were evaluated in 422 patients with nephrotic syndrome at the Kenyatta National Hospital between 1982 and 1993. Three hundred and fifty five (84.1%) of the patients were less than 30 years old (range: 7 months to 66 years; mean=SD: 28.4 - 9.2 years). The commonest histological lesions were mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (25.1%), minimal change nephropathy (17.5%) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (15.2%). Poststreptococcal aetiology was implicated in diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis while use of skin lightening cosmetics appeared to play a role in the aetiology of minimal change nephrophathy in females. No aetiological role was apparent for hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, malarial or schistosomal infection. All patients with minimal change nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis were treated with steroids and/or cytotoxics with a variable response.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Mosi, R.O. (1980) Factors affecting accuracy of within-ranch performance testing of Boran bulls in Kenya. M.Sc. (Animal Breeding) thesis. Institute of Animal Genetics, Edinburgh University.". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 1980. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Hall PJ, Levin AG, Entwistle CC, Knight SC, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. B15 heterogeneity in East African Blacks. Tissue Antigens. 1980 Oct;16(4):326-32.". In: Tissue Antigens. 1980 Oct;16(4):326-32. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1980. Abstract

One-hundred-forty-one Blacks (135 unrelated) from Kenya and Tanzania have been tissue-typed (HLA-A, B and C loci) as part of a study of host factors involved in Burkitt's lymphoma and naso-pharyngeal carcinoma. Evidence is presented for the existence in this population of several B15-related antigens which together occur with a relatively high frequency of 30% in unrelated individuals. It is likely that these variants may include the antigens SV and perhaps Bu recently defined with population frequencies of under 1% in Caucasians. In the absence of monospecific typing sera, identification of these variants may be helped by their apparently strong association with C-locus antigens in Blacks. Recognition of these B15 variants has been largely responsible for reducing the proportion of unidentified or "blank" B-locus antigens in this population to only 6%. These findings substantiate and amplify previous reports suspecting the presence of such antigens in Blacks, and should facilitate studies of possible associations of disease with HLA in these populations.

O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO Stroke at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7):482-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7):482-6. uon; 1990. Abstract
Seventy two patients presenting with stroke to Kenyatta National Hospital were studied between January 1986 and January 1987. The majority were from the rural areas. There were about equal numbers between left and right sided hemipareses. The majority of the patients were in their 6th and 7th decades. 22 of the patients were hypertensive. Diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and valvular heart disease were some of the other factors associated with strokes. 46% of the patients died while the remainder had residual neurological deficits.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Body mass index in non-insulin dependent diabetics in Kenya. Trop Geogr Med. 1988 Apr;40(2):93-6.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1988 Apr;40(2):93-6. E Afr Med J; 1988. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Effects of clay minerals on the stabilization of black cotton and lateritic soils.". In: Kenya Journal of Science and Technology, Series A. Vol. 7. 5-23. Wiley Interscience; 1986. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Opiyo Elisha T. O. and Erick Ayienga, Katherine Getao, Bernard Manderick, Okello-Odongo, Ann Now.". In: In the Proceedings of The Fourth International 4th Annual International Conference on Computing and Research- SREC08, Makerere University, Uganda, 3-6 August, 2008. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2008.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra, H. Causes of ear trauma in Kenyan patients.". In: East African Medical Journal 75:323, 1998. MEDICOM; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O 2001. Economic benefits of standards and regulations. In: Report on Public Education and Awareness on Regulations And Standards Of The Environmental Management And Coordination Act, 1999. Pages 15-23.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno MR, McLigeyo SO, Kigondu CS, Rogo KO.Menstrual disorders in patients with chronic renal failure. East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):6-9.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
O DROPEREALFRED. "OPEN AND DISTANT LEARNING MATERIALS WRITTEN & REVIEWED: 1. SMR 103: Quantitative methods & Computer Applications I 2. SMR 309: Hydrometeorology I 3. SMR 307: Thermodynamics & Cloud Physics.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2010. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Opiyo E.T.O. (1995). A case-based problem solving strategy: sembe im ipimo gi nyamin.". In: Kenya's first national information technology (IT) conference and exhibition, 29th November - 2nd December, 1995, KICC, Nairobi. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1995.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Paperna I, W Ogara, M Schein M, 1997. Goussia hyperolisi n. sp.: a coccidian infection in reed frog Hyperolius viridiflavus tadpoles, which expires towards metamorphosis. Dis. Aquat. Org. 31:79-88.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Wachira, M.W., McLigeyo, S.O., Otieno L.S: Nutritional requirements in chronic renal failure and end stage renal disease. East African Medical Journal. 68(7): 567-575, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(7): 567-575, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O PROFORINDADA. "Reference Intervals for some biochemical parameters in the aged Kenyan black population.Mbiti M. J. N., Ojwang P. J. , D.A.O. Orinda E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 71, No. 12, 1994.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):84-7. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
Serum levels for sodium, potassium, calcium, inorganic phosphate, urea nitrogen and creatinine were determined in 1101 male and 181 female patients aged 50 years and above. The determinations were carried out on the SMA II (Technicon Instruments Corp. Tarrytown, NY 10591) with a view to establish the reference intervals for this age group. Quality control of the analytical methods was carried alongside with the determinations. The data collected was used to determine the reference intervals using a simple statistical method. The results indicate that sodium and calcium intervals are low with values of 131-142 mMol/L and 1.94-2.32 mMol/L respectively, in the aged Kenyan population as compared to subjects living in the temperate environment while the interval for inorganic phosphate is comparatively high with a value of 1.2-1.97 mMol/L. Reference values for urea nitrogen, potassium and creatinine were found to be similar to those quoted for caucasians.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O., Masembe, F.N. and Maribei, J.M. (1993). Ovulatory rate, fetal loss and littersize as factors limiting porcine reproductive performance in some Kenyan piggeries. Ind. Vet. J. 70 page 817 - 822.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1993. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Machage WG. Double-blind placebo - controlled trial of glafenine in acute pain. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):226-30. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):226-30. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading, J. Li and J.T. Berry "Fatigue Crack Growth in Cast Al-Cu Alloy A206 With Different Levels of Porosity" 98 th. AFS Casting Congress, Hamilton, Canada (1994).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1994. Abstract

The fatigue crack growth (FCG) characteristics of a cast Al-Cu alloy A206 in the T7 temper condition were studied in laboratory air at a frequency of 30 Hz and an R-ratio of 0.2. Two different (as cast) thicknesses and two different casting conditions (casting with and without a chill) were investigated with the aim of characterizing the effect of porosity on the FCG behavior. The level of porosity in each sample was determined by the point-counting method and varied from 2.4 to 4.0% before hot isostatic pressing (HIP).<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

The study covered both near-threshold and mid-range regimes of FCG. The results indicate that for this limited range of porosity, there exists no systematic relationship between casting conditions (i.e., chilled or non-chilled) or the as-cast thickness and the average level of porosity. However, in the near-threshold regime, the FCG resistance decreased as the level of porosity increased, while in the mid-range of FCG, the FCG rate was fairly independent of the amount of porosity.

Application of HIP led to a reduction in the porosity level from about 4% to less than 0.4%, but this was accompanied by improvement in the FCG resistance only, close to the threshold. The results are rationalized in terms of the effect of porosity on the micro-mechanisms of fatigue crack growth and the initiation of secondary cracks caused by the size, distribution and morphology, of the pores.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Sclerema neonatorum (a study of 16 cases in the special care unit, Mulago Hospital, Kampala). East Afr Med J. 1970 Jan;47(1): Bwibo NO, Anderson BT.". In: East Afr Med J. 1970 Jan;47(1):. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1970. Abstract

No abstract available

O PROFORINDADA. "Related Articles, LinksMbiti MJ, Orinda DA, Ojwang PJ.Reference intervals for some biochemical parameters in the aged Kenyan population.East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):84-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):84-7. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
Serum levels for sodium, potassium, calcium, inorganic phosphate, urea nitrogen and creatinine were determined in 1101 male and 181 female patients aged 50 years and above. The determinations were carried out on the SMA II (Technicon Instruments Corp. Tarrytown, NY 10591) with a view to establish the reference intervals for this age group. Quality control of the analytical methods was carried alongside with the determinations. The data collected was used to determine the reference intervals using a simple statistical method. The results indicate that sodium and calcium intervals are low with values of 131-142 mMol/L and 1.94-2.32 mMol/L respectively, in the aged Kenyan population as compared to subjects living in the temperate environment while the interval for inorganic phosphate is comparatively high with a value of 1.2-1.97 mMol/L. Reference values for urea nitrogen, potassium and creatinine were found to be similar to those quoted for caucasians.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "The Effects of Welding on the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in a Structural Steel" 73rd. Annual Convention, American Welding Society, Chicago, IL. (1992).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1992. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Sum-Rule Expansion for Relativistic Quantum Plasma Dielectric Tensor IV; Radiation Effect; International Journal of Theoretical Physics.". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "THE KENYAN CONSTITUTION AND ITS CHEQUERED HISTORY.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Capture and Sampling of Thompson.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1981.
O PROFORINDADA, A DRRAJABJAMILLA, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rajab JA, Waithaka PM, Orinda DA, Scott CS. Analysis of cost and effectiveness of pre-transfusion screening of donor blood and anti-malarial prophylaxis for recipients. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71. uon press; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of malaria in donor units in a low and a high endemic region in Kenya and evaluate the cost effectiveness of recipient anti-malarial prophylaxis and pre-transfusion screening (using an automated method) as options to prevent post transfusion malaria. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two regional blood banks, Nairobi and its environs (National Blood Transfusion Services, Nairobi) a low malaria endemic region and western region (National Blood Transfusion Services, Kisumu) high malaria endemic region. SUBJECTS: All the donated units were included in the study for analysis, during the duration of study, from the two study sites. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of malaria in donor units in low endemic area (Nairobi) and high endemic area (Kisumu). Cost per case prevented for the two options, Option I Prophylactic administration of anti-malarial (sulfadoxine pyrimethamine SP) drugs to recipients, and Option II pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. RESULTS: A malaria prevalence of 0.67% was found in Nairobi and its environments (low endemic) and 8.63% for Kisumu and its environments (high endemic area). The cost analysis showed a cost per case prevented of Ksh.105 (US$1.4) adult, Ksh.52.5 (US$0. 69) and paediatric for the option of recipient prophylaxis using an SP based drug. The cost escalated to Ksh.592 (US$7.79) adult Ksh.444 (US$5.84) paediatric if the prophylaxis was upgraded to the recommended artemisinin derivative (ACT-artemisinin based combination) and for the option of pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique the cost was Ksh.2.08 (US$0.03). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of malaria in donors showed the expected regional variation in the low and high endemic areas and was comparable to data obtained elsewhere. If malaria positive donor units were to be excluded from the national blood supply, an estimated 5% (compared to 1.3% for human Immunodeficiency virus, 3.6% for hepatitis B virus and 1.3% for hepatitis C virus) would be wasted. The cost per case prevented of transfusion-associated malaria is considerably higher for recipient antimalarial prophylaxis than pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. The cost escalates by five to seven times if the newer artemesinin based combination antimalarial drugs are adopted.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Notghi A, Anderton JL, Dick J.Acute renal allograft rejection: the role of monoclonal antibodies in treatment: experience with orthoclonal anti-T3 cell antibody. East Afr Med J. 1990 Sep;67(9):667-73. Review.". In: Nairobi Medical Journal 16(2): 28-32, 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Stream flow regionalization using discordancy and heterogeneity measure statistics.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2001. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "Encyclopedia of Environmental Law, Sweet & Maxwell, 1993, (Asst. Editor).". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1993. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Mutiga, E.R., Ogaa J.S. and Agumbah, (1981). Dystocia in Kenyan cattle. Mod. Vet. Pract. 80, 111 - 113.". In: Wld. Congr. Dis. Cattle. Amsterdam, 7 - 10th Sept. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1981. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFORINDADA. "Acute Intermittent Porphyria in an East Africa Female.A.M. Odonga, J. R. Wambwa and D.A.O. Orinda,E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 57, No. 10 p 716, (1980).". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1980. Abstract
PMID: 7215256 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Were FN, Lusweti B, Wasunna A , Musoke RN.Isdelivery outside hospital a risk of development of early sepsis?". In: Journal of Obstetrics and gynaecology East and Central Africa Vol 17:1; 19-24, 2004. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2004. Abstract
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O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Uneasy Alliance: Party-State Relations in Kenya,".". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1994. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga Wave Propagation in Quantum Plasmas in a Magnetic field; Fusion Energy and Plasma Physics, Edited by P.H.7 Sakanaka pp. 352 .". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1987.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.: Management of fertility problems in village herds of cattle in Kenya.". In: A paper presented in the 3rd Commonwealth Veterinary Association Workshop on . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1997.
O DROUTAGEORGE. "Performing Power: Ethnic Citizenship, Popular Theatre and the Contest of Nationhood in Modern Kenya.". In: Mid American Alliance for African Studies conference (MAAAS). BookSurge, South Carolina, USA; 2009. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""The African Public Services in the Past and the Coming Decades: Challenges and Prospects,".". In: Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. XXVI, No.3. IPPNW; 1980. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Four flavones from seed pods of Milletia dura.". In: Phytochemistry 41(3) pp 951-955.; 1996. Abstract
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O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Ngugi N., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K. Treatment of hyperkalaemia by altering the transcellur gradient in patients with renal failure: effect of various therapeutic approaches East African Medical Journal, 73(8): 503 -504; 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal, 73(8): 503 -504; 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
Ten patients with acute and 60 with chronic renal failure (both groups having hyperkalaemia), were managed at Kenyatta National Hospital in the medical wards and Renal Unit between August, 1995 and January, 1996. They were divided into seven different treatment groups, each consisting of ten patients. Treatment A glucose 25g i.v. with insulin 10 units i.v., treatment B 50 mmol of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate infusion, treatment C 0.5mg of salbutamol i.v. in 50mls 5% dextrose, treatment D was a combination of treatments A and B, treatment E was a combination of treatment B and C, treatment F was a combination of treatments A and C while treatment G was a combination of treatments A and B and C. Serum potassium was measured, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours and 8 hours after treatment. Plasma glucose concentration was measured before treatment was given and 1 hour after in all patients. Electrocardiography was done before treatment on all patients and repeated 30 minutes and 1 hour after treatment for the patients with hyperkalaemic changes on the initial recording. All treatment modalities had satisfactory potassium lowering effects. Of the single therapeutic approaches, treatment A and C were equieffective, but better than treatment B (P < 0.001). Amongst the two regimen combinations, treatment D and F were more efficacious than treatment E and all the single therapeutic approaches (P < 0.001). Treatment G was the most efficacious in lowering serum potassium in this study. All treatment modalities had maximum serum potassium lowering effect at 1-2 hours. A fall in plasma glucose concentration was a notable feature of treatments A and D, but significant hypoglycaemia occurred in 20% of patients receiving treatment A and in none on treatment D. The ECG changes of hyperkalaemia did not correlate with serum potassium levels. The normalisation of hyperkalaemic ECG alteration occurred within the first 30 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, combination therapies for hyperkalaemia appear to be more efficacious than single therapeutic approaches. Inclusion of salbutamol seems to protect against insulin induced hypoglycaemia. The maximum potassium lowering effect is observed 1-2 hours of administration of either agents. The potassium reducing effect remains significant compared to baseline values even after 8 hours. If dialysis cannot be instituted early enough it seems reasonable to repeat treatment every 4-6 hours to sustain the effect. Repeated administration of glucose with insulin may not be safe because of the hypoglycaemic effect. Other single and combination therapies can theoretically be repeated regularly until dialysis is initiated although this requires further clinical evaluation.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Two year neurological outcomes of Very Low Birth Weight infants. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. Were FN, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2006. Abstract

Department of Nutritional Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous study identified a high prevalence of inadequate vitamin B-12 intakes, this study examined whether plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were associated with dietary sources of the vitamin at baseline and could be increased by supplementation with animal source foods (ASF). The 4 experimental groups in 503 school children were: 1) control (no food provided); 2) githeri (a maize and bean staple with added oil); 3) githeri + meat (githeri + minced beef); or 4) githeri + milk (githeri + milk). Feedings were isocaloric. Dietary data were collected at baseline, and biochemical data at baseline and after 1 and 2 y of feeding. Baseline plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 193.6 +/- 105.3 pmol/L and correlated with % energy from ASF (r = 0.308, P < 0.001). The odds ratio for low plasma vitamin B-12 (<148 pmol/L), which occurred in 40% of children, was 6.28 [95% CI: 3.07-12.82] for the lowest vs. highest ASF intake tertile (P < 0.001). Feeding ASF (meat or milk) greatly reduced the prevalence of low plasma vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001). The high prevalence of low plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations in these children is predicted by a low intake of ASF, and supplemental ASF improves vitamin B-12 status.

PMID: 17311959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Quaternary volcanic events in Africa.". In: In: Bormann, P. (Editor). Regional International Training Course Volume (1997) on Seismology and Seismic Hazard Assessment. Scientific Technical Report STR 98/05. Potsdam. 182-190. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
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O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. ""The Mau Mau: A Theoretical Explanation of the Dynamics of a Social Movement",.". In: Hekima Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. III, No. 1, pages 62-80. 2004.; 2005. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Odwako DB. Practical therapeutics: the use of carbamazepine in affective disorders. East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: EXISTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NAIBUNG.". In: Journal. EcologicalSociety for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K. O. 1994. Vegetation, pp. 119-128;.". In: in: Tiffen, Mortimore, Gichuki (eds). More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Machakos District, Kenya. John Wiley and Sons. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Kayima JK, McLigeyo SO, Were AJ, Luta M.Kidney transplantation: recent medical experiences from the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1996 Sep;73(9):614-8.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(9):607-610, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
Renal transplantation is not readily available in the majority of countries in Africa. It is expensive and difficult to sustain on the meagre funds allocated to health. We report our short experience with fifteen living donor recipients followed in our unit for at least 24 months, range 26 - 48 (mean 35 months) post-transplantation. The donors and recipients were mostly young adults with mean ages of 36.7 years and 32.6 years respectively. The majority of the donors and recipients were males. The donors in most cases were siblings. Within this time, one graft has been lost at one year and the patient restarted on haemodialysis. Three patients died, two within the first year, the third at 23 months after transplantation, all with functioning grafts. The one year graft and patient survival rates were 93% and 86.6% respectively. The second year graft survival rates remained at 93% and the patients survival rate 80%. The nature and frequency of complications seen in these patients is comparable to those in other centres. Of all medical complications, bacterial infections contributed 69.4% of all infections. Cardiovascular complications comprised 31.25% of the complications. Hypertension seen in 85.5% of the patients accounted for 65% of the cardiovascular complications. Acute rejections were common and occurred in seven patients. Transplantation is a viable mode of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in our environment. The practice should be supported to make it more readily available to the many young end stage renal failure (ESRF) patients.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1985. Spectral analysis of the vertical gradient of the total magnetic field anomalies due to two-dimensional dykes,.". In: Kenya Journal of Science and Technology Series A, 6(1), 49-58. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1985. Abstract
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O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. Contribution of vaccinations towards reducing morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. East Afr Med J. 2003 Jan;80(1):1-2. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Jan;80(1):1-2. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2003. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Meningitis occurs in up to one third of neonates with septicaemia. Diagnosis is difficult due to its non-specificity of signs and symptoms. While neonatal septicaemia is a common problem at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), there are no recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonatal meningitis at the hospital. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the bacterial aetiology of meningitis in neonates at the Newborn Unit (NBU) of KNH. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lumbar punctures were performed on eighty-four neonates with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. Cases were defined as meningitis if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for bacteria by Gram stain, aerobic bacterial culture or latex particle agglutination assay. RESULTS: The prevalence of meningitis amongst cases of suspected sepsis was 17.9%. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1 mean birth weight 2116.7 grams (1682.2-2551.2) mean gestational age 35.7 weeks (32.6-38.8) and the mean postnatal age was 4.1 days (2.7-5.4) with none of the parameters being significantly different from those without meningitis. Feed intolerance and lethargy were the most common clinical features, present in 73.3% and 60% of patients with meningitis respectively. Neonates with meningitis had a higher mean CSF protein value (2.67 g/L vs 1.97 g/L
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Medical illness in school-age Kenyans in relation to nutrition, cognition, and playground behaviors. J Dev Behav Pediatr . 1992 Dec; 13 ( 6 ): 392-8 . PMID: 1469106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Neumann C, McDonald MA, Sigman M, Bwibo N.". In: J Dev Behav Pediatr . 1992 Dec; 13 ( 6 ): 392-8. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1992. Abstract

Department of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles 90024-1772.

Because medical illness is associated with malnutrition, it might contribute to the poor outcomes seen in malnourished children. This study explored relations between frequency of mild illness and development in 133 mild-to-moderately malnourished school-age Kenyan children. Morbidity information was collected for one year. Concurrent assessments of cognitive status and playground behaviors were obtained. Nutritional and environmental variables were also assessed. Girls with more reported days of mild illness performed less well on developmental measures than did their healthier female peers. They were less cognitively advanced, and, on the playground, girls with more mild illness were less active, happy, and social. Furthermore, relations between frequency of mild illness and playground behaviors (but not cognitive score) in the girls remained statistically significant when other variables, such as socioeconomic status, parental literacy, food intake, and anthropometry, were considered. For the boys, frequency of mild illness was not related to cognition or play behaviors.

PMID: 1469106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Geosciences and the Environment,.". In: Nairobi University Press. 179P. Wiley Interscience; 1993. Abstract
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O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Peninah J. Limo, Elisha T. O. Opiyo, William Okello-Odongo, Cloud Computing Opensource Iaas Platforms. In the proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. AJFAND; 2012.
O DROGARAWILLIAM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "Risk of infection with Brucella abortus and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 associated with marketing of unpasteurized milk in Kenya.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Goitre and fluorosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):363-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):363-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "McLigeyo S.O., Kungu A., Kayima J.K., Sitati S.M., Were A.j.: Glomerular disease in KEnya - Another look at the disease characterised by Nephrotic Proteinuria. African Journal of Health Sciences 1(4): 185-191, 1994.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 1(4): 185-191, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "J.E.O. Rege and R.O. Mosi (1988). A comparison and Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) procedures of sire evaluation in Kenya.". In: Proc. Anim. Prod. Soc. Kenya 17;63-72. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Jitta, J.N.S., Wafula, E.M., Wasunna, A. The Comatose Child in Paediatric Observation Ward of Kenyatta National Hospital. E Afr Med J 61: 917-924, 1984.". In: E Afr Med J 61: 917-924. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1984. Abstract
PIP: A study of 125 children aged 0-6 months who were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital for acute diarrhea was conducted between 1982-1983 to determine the benefits of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in treatment of diarrheal illness. At admission, specimens of stool, blood and urine were collected and examine for bacterial, parasitic, and viral agents (including malaria), serum electrolytes, urea, white cell counts and hematocrit. Children were started on oral rehydration solution (ORS) unless severly dehydrated, in which case intravenous therapy was initiated. 84% of the children were successfully treated with ORS alone regardless of etiological agent found; 15% required IV therapy initially, then were placed on ORS. Average hospital stay was 56.2 hours. Cost of treatment by ORT is less than 20% the cost of IV therapy. When investigators surveyed other health institutions, they found that ORT was used alone in less than 10% of all children seen with diarrhea. A side benefit of ORT is the utilization of mothers in preparation and administration of solution, reducing the demand on hospital staff. Since 20% of all pediatric admissions at Kenyatta are due to acute diarrheal disease, use of ORT would reduce costs tremendously. Initiation of ORT at home may prevent development of dehydration altogether.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO. The pattern of neurological disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1992 May;69(5):236-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 May;69(5):236-9. uon; 1992. Abstract
A retrospective survey of neurological disease seen at KNH in medical wards and medical outpatients clinics is presented. Neurological diseases constituted 7.5% of all medical conditions seen over that period. Infections especially meningitis were found to be the commonest. The 3 commonest diseases were meningitis (23.1%), epilepsy (16.6%) and cerebrovascular diseases (15.0%). Neurosyphilis, trypanosomiasis, and leprosy only infrequently seen (1-2 cases annually). Multiple sclerosis seen regularly through infrequently since 1981. The trend of the 3 commonest conditions is presented and a downward trend is noted. The mortality patterns for the 3 commonest diseases is also presented.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Efficacy and tolerability of long term oxprenolol and chlorthalidone singly and in combination in hypertensive blacks. Jpn Heart J. 1990 Mar;31(2):183-92.". In: Jpn Heart J. 1990 Mar;31(2):183-92. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract

Sixty two black patients who had confirmed but untreated hypertension participated in a double blind clinical trial of the efficacy and tolerability of slow-release oxprenolol in a daily dose of 160 mg initially and 320 mg subsequently versus chlorthalidone 50 mg daily. Thereafter, a combination of oxprenolol with chlorthalidone in an initial dose of 160 mg and 25 mg and a subsequent dose of 320 mg and 50 mg, respectively, was administered and the effects compared with those of the same drugs given singly. The trial lasted for 3 years, but each participant took active medication for 1 year. Oxprenolol as monotherapy had no effect on the blood pressure, irrespective of the dose. Chlorthalidone as monotherapy produced a significant fall in blood pressure (p less than 0.01). Combining the 2 drugs enhanced their blood pressure lowering effects (p less than 0.001). Oxprenolol as monotherapy and as part of combination therapy was well tolerated by all patients. Chlorthalidone as monotherapy was well tolerated by most patients while a fraction of the patients developed biochemical derangements. These results confirm the findings that a beta-blocker alone may be ineffective in lowering blood pressure in hypertensive blacks. The results also show that the efficacy and tolerability of a beta-blocker and a diuretic are enhanced by their combined administration. Finally, the results show that increasing the dose of a beta-blocker or a diuretic does not produce a further increase in its blood pressure lowering effect.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Resources and capabilities for effective utilization of marine surveying technologies: Kenya's case.". In: Proceedings of United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Acquisition of Marine Surveying Technologies, Addis Ababa. (Translated also into French). 172-176. Wiley Interscience; 1988. Abstract
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O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Gacani W, Bal IS, Babu MA, Oburra HO.Distant metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2001 Dec;78(12):678-81.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Dec;78(12):678-81. MEDICOM; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and site of distant infraclavicular metastases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the stage of the primary tumour at presentation of metastasis and the histological trends. To determine if there is a correlation between the follow-up rate and different metastatic sites. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Ear nose and throat surgical and radiotherapy clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Case notes, radiotherapeutic and laboratory records of patients presenting with NPC between January 1981 and December 1990. RESULTS: The frequency of distant NPC metastases was 14.6% and 92.3% manifested within 24 months of admission. It was most frequent in the males, a younger age group and early T1 disease. Bilaterality of the neck nodes had no relevance on metastatic rate. The bone (66.7%) was the most common distant metastatic destination followed by the liver (23.2%). Liver metastasis was associated with a shorter follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Apart from the late presentation of locoregional disease, the findings are similar to studies elsewhere. The preponderance of early primary disease in patients with distant metastasis need further appraisal as it preliminarily suggests existence of specific biological markers that favour metastases. This can only be done after recruiting more cases.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Observations of gastrointestinal parasites in Burchells Zebra (Equus Burchelli Antiquorum) at Lewa Downs Ranch, Isiolo District, Kenya. Paper presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific conference at Kisumu, April, 1997.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.

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