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N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Protocol for International Co-operative Education in Developing Countries", proceedings, seventh World Conference on Co-op Education, Hong Kong, 26-30 Aug.". In: Proceedings of the KMRI/KETRI annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya 1993. Survey Review; 1991. Abstract
n/a
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Education for Executive Jobs - A Study in Occupational Kenyanization." The report of field research conducted here in Kenya on the kind of Education best suited to a would be business executive and the extent of occupational Kenyanization of the manageri.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, 1978. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 2003. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Morsman, JM., Sludden, J., Ameyaw, M-M., Githang'a, J., Indalo, A.., Ofori-Adjei, D., McLeod, H.L. (2000) Evaluation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in Southwest Asian, Kenyan and Ghanaian populations. Br J Clin Pharm 50:269.". In: Pharmacogenetics. 2001 Apr;11(3):217-21. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the main indications for, and common conditions found in bone marrow examinations (BME) of children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study from September 1, 1993 to September 3 1998. All bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy results were retrieved. The clinical data provided by clinicians were also noted. RESULTS: A total of 97 BME were recorded from patients aged two months to 13 years. The peak ages for BME were six to eight years (24% of patients). The more frequent indications for BME were unexplained anaemia found in 26% request forms, investigation for solid tumours (10%) and lymphoma (10%) and remission assessment after treatment for leukaemia (26%). The main findings were malignancy (27%) with leukaemia being commonest (ALL) 16% of patients and acute myeloblastic leukaemia (5%). Haematinic deficiency was seen in 12.7% of cases with iron deficiency being the commonest. There were some notable differences and similarities in the study as compared to a similar one performed at a local referral hospital. CONCLUSION: The importance of BME as a crucial investigational tool in the management of patients is underscored. Interpretation is more meaningful when the haematologist has adequate clinical data.
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D.N. and Nyakang.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. ""Positioning Your Bank For Survival" - Sokoni January .". In: Journal of the Marketing Society of Kenya (MSK)). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
N PROFNYAGAP. "G.Gitao and P.N. Nyaga (1997): Some biological properties of camelpox virus isolated from camels(Camelus dromedarius) in Kenya. Israel Journal of Vet. Medicine Vol. 52(4):141-148.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1997. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M. Mbiuki, P.N. Nyaga, and G.M. Mugera. Healing of intestinal anastomoses in cattle: An evaluation of end to end approximating techniques.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "OGOLA EN, Muita A.k ADALA h. Chrolroquine related complete heart block blindness. Case report and review of literature. East Africa. Med J.69: 50,1992.". In: East Africa. Med J.69: 50,1992. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract

Sixty patients with Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) of 100-110mmHg matched for age, sex and Bp levels were randomly assigned to propranolol 80mg daily or Hydroflumethiazide (HFM) 50mg daily. HFM causes a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP within 4 weeks compared both with baseline and propranolol (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.3 vs 158.1 +/- 10.9mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 102.4 +/- 5.1mmHg, P < 0.05), (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.2 vs 152 +/- 11.0mmHg P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg, P < 0.05), respectively. Propranolol produced no significant difference from the baseline at 4 weeks (SBP 152.0 +/- H.0 vs 154.1 +/- 11.5mmHg NS; DBP 101.1 +/- 6.1 vs 102.2 +/- 5.6mmHg, NS). Reduction in BP by HFM was maintained after 8 and 12 weeks with further reduction but which did not achieve statistical significance. Increased dose of propranolol (160mg daily) after 4 weeks caused significant reduction in BP by 8 week (SBP 146.8 +/- 11.8 vs 152.0 +/- 11.0mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 95.9 +/- 4.4 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg P < 0.05), which was maintained upto 12 weeks. The values however remained higher than in the HFM group. More patients in the HFM group achieved target BP (< 140/90), SBP 53.8% vs 29.6% P < 0.05, DBP 69.2% vs 14.8% P < 0.01. Incidence of side effects was similar and will be discussed. Thiazides are superior to B'blockers as initial monotherapy in black hypertensives.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "NG.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: An executive summary of the recommendations." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):33-39.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1982). " Goat Trypanosomiasis: Effect of chemotherapy using isometamedium chloride on production in three goat breeds". Kenya Veterinarian 6 (2): 9.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Future of an Indigenous Accounting Profession for Kenya." by S. Adam, H. Grubel, J. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the past, current and necessary future efforts to establish an indigenous accoutning profession in Kenya.". In: Management, Jounal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 26-29).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFKARIUKIDAVID, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Analysis of fluoride in locally available beverages: Comparison of direct, oven diffusion and hexamethyldisiloxane diffusion methods.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, 13: 30 -35, 2004. UoN; 2004. Abstract

Analysis of fluoride in a variety of beverages was carried out using three different methods inconjunction with a fluoride ion selective electrode. The three methods gave comparable results for 26samples of fruit juices. However, 68% of the juices were found to contain fluoride levels higher than theWHO recommended limits (0.6 - 1.0 mgl-1). Soft drinks (sodas) and beers were found to contain values lower than 0.6 mgl-1. The amount of fluoride in tea infusion was found to increase both with increase inboiling time and amount of tea leaves used. Chocolate and coffee infusions were found to contain 4.3 mgl-1and 4.0 mgl-1fluoride, respectively.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N.Nyaga and D.G. McKercher. Pathogenesis of Bovine herpesvirus - (BHV-l) infections: interactions of the virus with peripheral bovine blood component. Com. Immuno. Microbio, Inf. Dis. Vol. 2. 1980: 587-702.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of chloramphenicol.Wesongah JO, Murilla GA, Guantai AN, Elliot C, Fodey T, Cannavan A.J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Feb;30(1):68-73.". In: J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Feb;30(1):68-73. FA Okalebol , L Wiesner, AN Guantai, K Chibale, P Smith; 2007. Abstract

Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic shown to have specific activity against a wide variety of organisms that are causative agents of several disease conditions in domestic animals. Chloramphenicol has been banned for use in food-producing animals for its serious adverse toxic effects in humans. Due to the harmful effects of chloramphenicol residues livestock products should be free of any traces of these residues. Several analytical methods are available for chloramphenicol analysis but sensitive methods are required in order to ensure that no traces of chloramphenicol residues are present in edible animal products. In order to prevent the illegal use of chloramphenicol, regulatory control of its residues in food of animal origin is essential. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chloramphenicol has been locally developed and optimized for the detection of chloramphenicol in sheep serum. In the assay, chloramphenicol in the test samples and that in chloramphenicol-horseradish peroxidase conjugate compete for antibodies raised against the drug in camels and immobilized on a microtitre plate. Tetramethylbenzidine-hydrogen peroxide (TMB/H(2)O(2)) is used as chromogen-substrate system. The assay has a detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL of serum with a high specificity for chloramphenicol. Cross-reactivity with florfenicol, thiamphenicol, penicillin, tetracyclines and sulfamethazine was not observed. The assay was able to detect chloramphenicol concentrations in normal sheep serum for at least 1 week after intramuscular injection with the drug at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The assay can be used as a screening tool for chloramphenicol use in animals.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI, Weda E. and Otieno, R. ( 2001). Use of medicated urea molasses blocks [ MUMB] to control gastro-intestinal nematodosis in calves in a semi-arid environment.". In: The 10th International Conference of the Association for Tropical Veterinary Medicine [ AITVM]. 20th - 23rd August, Copenhagen, Denmark. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Fuel value of Refined vernonia galamensis seed oil".". In: J. Biochemphysics, 6&7, 33. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract
n/a
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J., Application models using Numerical Weather Prediction : Agricultural models.". In: Proceedings of the IMTR/UON/WMO international workshop on Related Numerical Weather Prediction, 6-17 Dec., 1999, Nairobi, Kenya. Eastern and South African Journal; 1999. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E. N. (2003). Coordinator. Visionary Management Workshop in Water Services Sector Reforms in Kenya in Kenya Civil Engineering Lecture Theatre, Civil Engineering Building, University of Nairobi.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Variation of palm oil with physico-chemical properties with temperature.". In: ELAEIS (The International Journal of Oil Palm Research and Development, Malaysia). Re-Submitted. THESES. Survey Review; 2005. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Effects of the active constituents of Catha edulis on the neuromuscular junction.Guantai AN, Mwangi JW, Muriuki G, Kuria KA. Neuropharmacology. 1987 May;26(5):401-5.". In: Neuropharmacology. 1987 May;26(5):401-5. Ivan Addae-Mensah,t Rahab Munenge and Anastasia N. Guantai; 1987. Abstract
(-)-Cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine (DNE) in the dose range 0.2-1.2 mg/ml produced a reduction in contractions of skeletal muscle, evoked by direct and indirect electrical stimulation and antagonised the facilitatory action of physostigmine on the neuromuscular junction; but failed to antagonise a partial blockade induced by d-tubocurarine (dTb) as occurs with norepinephrine or epinephrine. The local anaesthetic actions of (-)-cathinone and DNE were found to be almost equivalent to that of lignocaine. These results indicate that (-)-cathinone and DNE may have a direct blocking action on the neuromuscular junction, which is independent of cholinergic and adrenergic transmission.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "A. OMEGA and P.W.N. KANYARI and others (1997). Suitability of the faecal egg sedimentation (FEST) as a quantitative diagnostic technique for fasciolosis in sheep.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th - 31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Effect of selection pressure for thiabendazole resistance on fitness of Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Parasitology, 100:327-335.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J.: Ozone Fluctuations: The East African situation, .Proceedings of the first National workshop on Meteorological applications and services, Nairobi;.". In: Proceedings of the first National workshop on Meteorological applications and services, Nairobi. Eastern and South African Journal; 1989. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Mwangi, A. and Nyangeri, E.N. Performance Evaluation of Community .". In: Journal of Water SRT-Aqua. Vol. 43, No.5. pp233-237. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Extraction and spectroscopic Study of avocado oil, J. Biochemiphysics, 6&7, 36.". In: Sciences series A., 11 (1), 133. Survey Review; 1998. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Great Debate - Cash or Accruals? This article discusses Business Income measured on Cash Basis Accounting. The Accountant:.". In: Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya.(pages 10-24). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
N MJ, Bukachi PR. "Building Information Modelling Adoption in Structural Design in Kenya – A Case Study of Nairobi." International Journal of Research and Publications. 2019;Vol 9(6):272-285.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "S. M. GITHIGIA, W. K. MUNYUA, P.W. N. KANYARI (1993). " Prevalence of coccidiosis in Kenya.". In: Kenya." Second Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastro-intestinal Helminth Research Project. University of Nairobi, Kabete College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. 24 January18th-22nd. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN, Sang F, Ogutu EO.Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer disease in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):324-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):324-7. test; 1991. Abstract

Sixty six patients with dyspeptic symptoms underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsies for Helicobacter pylori culture. The number of H. pylori isolated increased with age reaching a peak at 51 to 60 years of age. Antral gastritis closely followed by duodenitis accounted for the highest number of H. pylori isolated, (87.5% and 85.7% respectively). In patients with duodenal ulceration only, 57% had H. pylori isolated from their antral biopsies, a result that was just slightly higher than that where no endoscopic diagnosis was made (50%).

N PROFMUSOKERACHEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Obimbo E, Musoke RN, Were F. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers and knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. E. Afr Med J, 1999: 76 (8); 425-429.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):425-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SUBJECTS: Mothers with infants less than three months of age attending well child clinics and health workers (HW) in the clinics, maternity and newborn units of public health, facilities serving an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Of the 307 mothers interviewed, 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene whilst cutting and tying the cord, respectively. Regarding postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% good practice. Fifty-one percent of mothers knew and 54% practised postnatal cord care for the appropriate duration of time. Seventy-nine percent of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. After multivariate analysis, the following variables showed significant independent association with good maternal KAP; increased level of education (OR 2.3, p < 0.001), living in middle class areas rather than slums (OR 1.5, p < 0.03), increased maternal age (OR 1.8, p < 0.001), acquisition of knowledge from a HW rather than from other sources (OR 1.5, p < 0.001), and living in stone/brick houses rather than mud houses (p = 0.01). Fifty per cent of HW had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, and 79% had correct knowledge on duration required for the same. The knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards, but was in keeping with Nursing Council of Kenya teaching. CONCLUSION: Mothers had good knowledge on the need for hygiene when cutting the cord, had poor knowledge and practice in other aspects of cord care, and were afraid of handling the cord. Poor KAP was associated with young, poor mothers of low education, who had acquired their knowledge from sources other than HW. The knowledge of a large proportion of HW was incorrect and outdated. We recommend that health education on cord care be given at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HW on cord care be updated. PIP: Using a cross-sectional survey, this study investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the umbilical cord. The study interviewed a total of 307 mothers with infants less than 3 months old and 64 health workers (HWs) in an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. The results showed that 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene while cutting and tying the cord, respectively. As to postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% had good practice. However, 79% of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the following variables had significant independent association with good maternal KAP: increased level of education, living in middle class areas, increased maternal age, and acquisition of knowledge from HWs rather than from other sources. 50% of HWs had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, but the knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards. Based on the findings, it was recommended that good health and cord care practices be taught at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HWs on cord care be updated.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Mercury levels in Lake Naivasha,".". In: Proceedings of the KMRI/KETRI annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya 1993. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Management of Inflation." This article discusses the effects of inflation in the process of making investment decisions, arranging for the required finances and formualting divided decisions. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.(Pages 16 - 18). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Githang.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S37-9. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2001. Abstract
Department of Haematology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the main indications for, and common conditions found in bone marrow examinations (BME) of children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study from September 1, 1993 to September 3 1998. All bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy results were retrieved. The clinical data provided by clinicians were also noted. RESULTS: A total of 97 BME were recorded from patients aged two months to 13 years. The peak ages for BME were six to eight years (24% of patients). The more frequent indications for BME were unexplained anaemia found in 26% request forms, investigation for solid tumours (10%) and lymphoma (10%) and remission assessment after treatment for leukaemia (26%). The main findings were malignancy (27%) with leukaemia being commonest (ALL) 16% of patients and acute myeloblastic leukaemia (5%). Haematinic deficiency was seen in 12.7% of cases with iron deficiency being the commonest. There were some notable differences and similarities in the study as compared to a similar one performed at a local referral hospital. CONCLUSION: The importance of BME as a crucial investigational tool in the management of patients is underscored. Interpretation is more meaningful when the haematologist has adequate clinical data.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN, Wankya BM. Duodenal ulcer disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1985 Nov;62(11):784-90. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Nov;62(11):784-90. test; 1985. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

N DRKIMANIJOHN. "Characterization of East African Clays.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY, OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Ogutu EO, Amayo EO, Okoth F, Lule GN. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) and anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) in patients with acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS). East Afr Med J. 1990 May;67(.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 May;67(5):355-8. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990. Abstract
Forty one consecutive patients (24 males and 17 females) with AIDS had their blood assayed for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc by Reversed Passive Haemagglutination (RPHA), Passive Haemagglutination (PHA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) techniques respectively. 5 (12.2%) were found positive for HBsAg. 10 (24.4%) for anti-HBs and 31 (75.6%) for anti-HBc. 32 (78%) out of 41 patients with AIDS had serological evidence of exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV). The prevalence of HBsAg found in this study is not different from what has been found in the Kenyan community without AIDS, while that of anti-HBs is much lower than what has been reported in the general community.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "The Hypoglycoemic Effect of an Extract from the Bark of Podocarpus Sp", Submitted,.". In: East Africa Medical Journal. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Entrepreneurship Development Policy in National Development: The Kenya Case." This article traces Kenya's entrepreneurship development policy through its development plans since independence upto Sessional Paper No. 1 of 1986 on Economic Management for R.". In: Eastern Africa Economic Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, (pages 99-105) Kenya Economic Assocation. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRWAMBUGUMILCAH. "The Ten Day Rule and its implementation at the Kenyatta National Hospital Dissertation for the award of the degree of Masters of Medicine University of Nairobi, 1983.". In: Dissertation for the award of the degree of Masters of Medicine University of Nairobi, 1983. University of Nairobi.; 1983. Abstract
A prospective study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and September 1988 to look at some aspects of obstructive jaundice in patients above 12 years of age. Screening for cases was done by use of abdominal ultrasonography. A total of 20 cases (11 females, 9 males) were diagnosed. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas accounted for 55% of cases of the obstruction, followed by gallstones (10%), hepatocellular carcinoma (10%) and gall bladder tumour (10%).
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Downing, T.E., Mungai, D.N. and Muturi, H.R., 1988. Drought climatology and development of the climatic scenarios. Part II (pp. 149-173), In: Parry, M.L., Carter, T.R. and Konijn, N.T. (Eds.) 1988. The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture, Vol. 2:.". In: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht etc. ISBN 90-277-271-8 (Vol.2). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFNYAGAP. "Mbuthia PG, Christensen H, Boye M, Petersen KM, Bisgaard M, Nyaga, PN, Olsen JE. Specific Detection of Pasteurella multocida in Chickens with Fowl Cholera and in pig lung tissues using Fluorescent rRNA in situ hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2001; 39(7.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2001. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga and L.C. Bebora (1988). Zoonotic human chlamydiosis of avian origin:.". In: Presented at the XVA Scientific meeting on Zoonoses, 3rd November, 1988, ILRAD, Kenya. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Yonga GO, Ogola EN, Orinda DA.Metabolic effects of propranolol and hydroflumethiazide treatment in Kenyans with mild to moderate essential hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
In a prospective single-blind comparative trial, sixty newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertensives were randomly assigned to either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide monotherapy. Baseline fasting serum glucose lipid profiles, serum uric acid and potassium levels, were determined at the beginning of the trial. Repeat levels were determined at completion of twelve weeks of treatment. Propranolol treatment significantly reduced HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) and increased both VLDL and total serum triglycerides (p < 0.01). Hydroflumethiazide significantly increased total and LDL-chole-sterol, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels (p < 0.01); potassium levels were significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Treatment with either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide is associated with significant metabolic side-effects which require regular monitoring and intervention as appropriate.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.W.N. KANYARI, P.M. MATHIU, K.K. SRIVASTAVA, S.T. WILSON and A. OYEJIDE. (2004). Post-mortem Observations on Ostrich Chicks in a Commercial Farm in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 52:59-62.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI (1986). " Ultrastructural studies of Eimeria apsheronica in goats". Sixth International.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, J.S. Kaminjolo, J.M. Gathuma, J.K. Omuse, F.M.K. Nderu and J.N. Gicho. Prevalence of antibodies to parainfluenza virus-3 (Pl-3) in various wildlife pecies and cattle sharing the same habitats in Kenya.Journ.Wild. Dis.17(4), 981: 605-608.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFGUANTAIA, N PROFGUANTAIA. "DEVELOPMEMENT OF A HPLC-MS/MS METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF HYDROZINOCURCUMIN IN PLASMA.". In: 12 East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. FA Okalebol , L Wiesner, AN Guantai, K Chibale, P Smith; 2009. Abstract

The natural product curcumin has a wide range of useful biological effects. However its use in humans is limited due to its short half-life, rapid metabolism and poor oral bioavailability. It is metabolized by sequential reduction of carbon-carbon double two carbonyl groups. To overcome these limitations, a hydrazide derivative of curcumin was synthesized to improve its water solubility and reduce its rate of metabolism. The objective of study was, therefore, to develop a method for the analysis of hydrazinocureumin in murinc blood. This method will be eventually used to evaluate the pharmokinetic profile of hydrazinocurcumin in mice. Method: LC/MS/MS was selected as the analytic method because its high sensitivity allowed for sampling of small volumes of blood from mice. The optimal chromatographic and mass spectrometry conditions were determined by trial arid error. The column performance was monitored by measuring retention time, peak symmetry factor. A calibration curve was generated by using standard solutions with concentrations ranging from 0.78 - 10 rig/ml. The method was validated by determining the recovery, limit of detection, accuracy, linearity and intraday precision. The optimal method for extracting hydrazinocurcumin from biological fluids was determined by spiking human blood and plasma and extraction was done by solvent extraction from a spotted filter paper and liquid-liquid extraction. Instrumentation: The samples were assayed using an Agilent LC/MS/MS 3200Q Trap system (1100 series, USA) in the positive ionization mode. HPLC separation was done using an Agilent 1200 system (Agilent Technologies, Japan) interfaced with the MS/MS system. Ionization was done by electron spray ionization with a collision energy was 33eV. Chromatograms were integrated using Analyst version 1.4 software. Weighted linear regression was used to generate calibration curves from standard solutions. Results: The optimal conditions for HPLC separation was a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile: acetonitrile (1:1) with an isocratic flow rate of 0.3m1/minute and run time of 2 minutes. The analytical column was a 50 by 2.0 mm Pheromex C18 column with a particle size of 5 microns. The injection volume was 1 Out The hydrazinocurcumin formed molecular ion at M+H+ m/z 365.2 and two metastable ions at m/z 351 and m/z. 349.2. The transition monitored was m/z 365.2 to 349.2 at unit resolution and a dwelling time of 150 milliseconds. The retention time was 1.11 minutes. The optimal method of extraction was liquid-liquid extraction using 250 ul of ethyl acetate from 10 ul of whole blood in 50 ul of buffer at pH 10. The filter paper method of extraction was found to give erratic results. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 10n/m1 to 0.5 ng/ml of hydrazinocurmin in whole human blood. Conclusion: The precision, accuracy, recovery and applicability were found to be adequate for pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. G. KAGIRA and P. W. N. KANYARI, ( 2001). " The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in small ruminants in a high potential area of Central Kenya". Journal of South African Veterinary Association, 72 (3): 147 - 149.". In: 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N DRKANGETHERACHEL. "Njenga, F.G., Kang.". In: East African Medical Journal. Vol.8.No.4., pp188. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J.: A simple atmospheric systems risk indicator model: Application to fog hazards and exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation.". In: Proceedings of the Fifth Kenya Meteorological workshop on Meteorological research, application and services, Mombasa Kenya, 7-11 October, 2000. Eastern and South African Journal; 2000. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Cheruiyot, P.K., W. Ndiema, C.K.W. and Ngunjiri, G.M.N. (2003). Greenhouse effects on biogas generation. Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "A Retrospective Study of Childhood Poisoning in Kenya.". In: EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES - VOL. 1. CHARLES K. MAITAI*, ISAAC 0. KIBWAGE, ANASTASIA N. GUANTAI, JAMES N. OMBEGA AND FRANCIS A. NDEM0; 1993. Abstract

A literature survey revealed lack of adequate information on poisoning in Kenya, thus providing the impetus for the present work. In this, study, a 3 year retrospective survey of human poisoning in 19 Kenyan District, Provincial hospitals and Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), representing approximately 40% of such public hospitals in the country, was carried out. Cases of poisoning were identified by diagnosis codes entered on hospital records at the time of discharge. A total of 1904 cases of poisoning were recorded and the information analyzed with particular focus on childhood poisoning. Distribution pattern with respect to poisoning agents, age and sex is presented. Children aged 0-5 years account for 29.78% while those aged 6-14 years account for 10.24% of cases of poisoning recorded. In the age group 0-5 years, Kerosine, drugs and organophosphates account for 41.09, 23.81 and 15.17% of poisoning cases respectively. It is concluded that any preventive measures targeted at children must focus on the 3 classes of poisons which together account for approximately 80% of all classes of poisoning in children.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI et. al. ( 1998). Occurrence of the Nematode Parasite Toxocara sp. In the African Buffalo ( Syncerus caffer):.". In: 7th Annual Seminar ENRECA Livestock Helminth 25 Research Project. 27th April to 1st May, Arusha Tanzania. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Observations on changes in resistance to levamisole in Haemonchus contortus after passage in sheep and calves. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 39 (3): 281-287.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Palmieri, S., A.M. Siani, A. Pilozzi, N. J. Muthama: Investigation on meteorological time series in the Mediterranean basin.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Time Series analysis in Astronomy and Meteorology, University of Padova Italy, September 6-10, 1993. Eastern and South African Journal; 1993. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE, AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Water and Sanitation Services in Low Income Areas of Nairobi (in: Low Income Area Water Supply and Sanitation in Selected African Cities. Ed. Sandelin S., Institute of Water and Environmental Engineer.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland, . University Publication No. B 60). African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Variation of Plant DDT uptake with age and soil type ...", J.". In: Environment International, 25 (4), (1999). Survey Review; 1999. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
N PROFMUSOKERACHEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Obimbo E, Musoke RN, Were F. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers and knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. E. Afr Med J, 1999: 76 (8); 425-429.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):425-9. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SUBJECTS: Mothers with infants less than three months of age attending well child clinics and health workers (HW) in the clinics, maternity and newborn units of public health, facilities serving an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Of the 307 mothers interviewed, 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene whilst cutting and tying the cord, respectively. Regarding postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% good practice. Fifty-one percent of mothers knew and 54% practised postnatal cord care for the appropriate duration of time. Seventy-nine percent of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. After multivariate analysis, the following variables showed significant independent association with good maternal KAP; increased level of education (OR 2.3, p < 0.001), living in middle class areas rather than slums (OR 1.5, p < 0.03), increased maternal age (OR 1.8, p < 0.001), acquisition of knowledge from a HW rather than from other sources (OR 1.5, p < 0.001), and living in stone/brick houses rather than mud houses (p = 0.01). Fifty per cent of HW had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, and 79% had correct knowledge on duration required for the same. The knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards, but was in keeping with Nursing Council of Kenya teaching. CONCLUSION: Mothers had good knowledge on the need for hygiene when cutting the cord, had poor knowledge and practice in other aspects of cord care, and were afraid of handling the cord. Poor KAP was associated with young, poor mothers of low education, who had acquired their knowledge from sources other than HW. The knowledge of a large proportion of HW was incorrect and outdated. We recommend that health education on cord care be given at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HW on cord care be updated. PIP: Using a cross-sectional survey, this study investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the umbilical cord. The study interviewed a total of 307 mothers with infants less than 3 months old and 64 health workers (HWs) in an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. The results showed that 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene while cutting and tying the cord, respectively. As to postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% had good practice. However, 79% of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the following variables had significant independent association with good maternal KAP: increased level of education, living in middle class areas, increased maternal age, and acquisition of knowledge from HWs rather than from other sources. 50% of HWs had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, but the knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards. Based on the findings, it was recommended that good health and cord care practices be taught at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HWs on cord care be updated.
N S, O MS. "Neurofibromatosis type I: Report of two contrasting cases." East African Medical Journal. 2002;79(11):614. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA, J. N. CHEGE, J. W. NGOTHO, and J.GICHANGA (1994). " Toxocara vitulorum - Kajiado District, Kenya: Prevalence of infection in calves, larval isolation from colostral milk and experimental infections in rabbits.". In: Third Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastro-intestinal Ruminant Helminth Research Project, Samora Mitchel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. January 24th - 27th, 1994. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Lule GN, Obiero ET, Ogutu EO.Factors that influence the short term outcome of upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1994 Apr;71(4):240-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):44-8. test; 1994. Abstract

Between April 1990 to January 1991, a prospective study of 97 consecutive patients admitted to the medical wards of Kenyatta National Hospital with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage was done. All the patients studied under went upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within 24 hours of presentation and a positive endoscopic diagnosis was possible in 90 (93%) of the patients studied. The leading causes of bleeding were oesophageal varices in 34 (35%) patients, duodenal ulceration in 17 (17.5%) patients, and superficial inflammatory lesions in 17 (17.5%) patients. 17 (17.5%) patients had multiple lesions with superficial inflammation and oesophageal varices as the commonest combination. In 86 (88%) patients, bleeding settled on simple conservative measures which included intravenous fluids, blood transfusion and antacids. Further haemorrhage was observed in 11 (11.3%) patients. Tachycardia (> 100/minute), hypotension (systolic BP < 100mm Hg) and low haemoglobin (< 8 g/dl) at admission were all correlated with a poor outcome. Variceal bleeding had the worst prognosis and the overall mortality rate was 5%.

N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Chlamydia as a cause of late neonatal pneumonia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):476-9. PMID: 12625688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Were FN, Govedi AF, Revathi G, Wambani JS.". In: East African Med J, 79; 7-10:2002. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Neonatal pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. The problem is known to be higher in resource poor third world countries. Organisms (such as chlamydia) not covered by routine laboratory tests and regular antibiotic regimes may frequently contribute towards the causation of late neonatal pneumonia. It is therefore useful to gather epidemiological evidence to guide in the routine diagnosis and treatment of such infections. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of chlamydia associated pneumonia among infants developing the disease between the 7th and 30th days of life (late neonatal pneumonia). DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty two newborns clinically diagnosed as having late neonatal pneumonia. They were all subjected to chest X-rays to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal aspirates for chlamydia antigen detection tests were then performed on all patients. The study was undertaken during the months of September through to November 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of newborns with late neonatal pneumonia that have chlamydia trachomantis as the sole or contributory causative agent. RESULTS: Fifty two newborns of postnatal age between seven and 30 days were recruited. Their sex distribution was about 1:1. Thirty three (63.5%) of these infants were found with chlamydia in their upper airways. Thirty out of 47 available chest X-rays, representing 63.8% had evidence of interstitial pneumonitis. Chlamydia associated pneumonia indicated by the presence of both interstitial pneumonia and colonization of the upper air ways was present in 24 out of 47 patients, 51% of the total cases of late neonatal pneumonia. When X-rays alone were compared with our gold standard for the diagnosis of chlamydia pneumonia (radiology and colonization), we computed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity 73%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value of 80%. Mode of delivery, birth weight and gestation had no association with nasopharyngeal colonization by chlamydia or actual diagnosis of chlamydia pneumonia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chlamydia associated infection among newborns with late neonatal pneumonia at Kenyatta National Hospital is 51%, eight times more than that reported elsewhere. Chest X-rays appear to be a reliable diagnostic tool in this group. The use of antichlamydial drugs in addition to the regular antibiotics whenever a diagnosis of late neonatal pneumonia is made is justifiable.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Joshi MD, Lule GN, Otieno LS. Upper gastrointestinal tract in chronic renal failure as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1988 Aug;65(8):541-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Aug;65(8):541-6. test; 1988. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Yonga GO, Ogola EN, Orinda DA.Metabolic effects of propranolol and hydroflumethiazide treatment in Kenyans with mild to moderate essential hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1993. Abstract
In a prospective single-blind comparative trial, sixty newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertensives were randomly assigned to either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide monotherapy. Baseline fasting serum glucose lipid profiles, serum uric acid and potassium levels, were determined at the beginning of the trial. Repeat levels were determined at completion of twelve weeks of treatment. Propranolol treatment significantly reduced HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) and increased both VLDL and total serum triglycerides (p < 0.01). Hydroflumethiazide significantly increased total and LDL-chole-sterol, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels (p < 0.01); potassium levels were significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Treatment with either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide is associated with significant metabolic side-effects which require regular monitoring and intervention as appropriate.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Core of Professionalism in Accounting". This article assembles and discusses the fundamental tenets of professional ethics for certified public accountants. The Student Accountant (Ibid) (pages 4-7).". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi,. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1996. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRWAMBUGUMILCAH. "Okoth FA, Ogutu EO, Lule GN, Wambugu MN. Some Aspects of Obstructive Jaundice at Kenyatta National Hospital (co author) East Afr Med J. 1989 Sep;66(9):594-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Sep;66(9):594-7. University of Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract
A prospective study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and September 1988 to look at some aspects of obstructive jaundice in patients above 12 years of age. Screening for cases was done by use of abdominal ultrasonography. A total of 20 cases (11 females, 9 males) were diagnosed. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas accounted for 55% of cases of the obstruction, followed by gallstones (10%), hepatocellular carcinoma (10%) and gall bladder tumour (10%).
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Obara, D.A. and Mungai, D.N., 1998. Socio-economic implications of soil conservation in the highland and mountain ecosystems in Murang'a district, Kenya. Section IV (pp. 132-150), In: F.F. Ojany (Ed.), African Mountains and Highlands: Planning for Sustain.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFNYAGAP. "L.W. Njagi, P.G. Mbuthia, L.C. Bebora, P.N. Nyaga, U. Minga and J.E. Olsen. Carrier status for Listreria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in free range farm and market healthy indigenous chickens and ducks. E.A.M.J.( 2004): 81:39-43.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, J.A. Ayoade, T.P.C. Makhambera, P.N.Nyaga and Lily Caroline Bebora (1988). Contagious ecythyma in Boer goat. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric.36: 83-85.". In: KVA meeting Mombasa, 4th September, 1989. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "OGOLA E.N Management of Hypertension in Africa East Africa. J.Med pract.4: 103,1994.". In: East Africa. J.Med pract.4: 103,1994. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
A prospective study to determine the prevalence and profile of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients admitted into the medical wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, was carried out between July 1991 and January 1992. Two hundred and two patients over 60 years of age were admitted into the medical wards over this period. This formed seven per cent of the total medical admissions. Two of these refused to take part in the study. Of the 200 elderly patients evaluated for cardiovascular disease, 146 (73%) were between 60 and 75 years of age with only 26 (13%) being over 85 years. Fifty seven per cent were males. Clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease was present in 79 (39.5%) of the patients evaluated. There was no sex difference in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease as judged from clinical evaluation (37.7% males versus 41.9% females, p > 0.05). Cardiovascular diseases in our medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital are common and especially so with hypertension which plays an important role in the aetiology of congestive heart failure and cerebravascular accidents. Cardiac arrhythmias are also common though not necessarily symptomatic. Rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathies were uncommon in our study population. A community-based survey is needed to determine the true prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly and their contribution to morbidity in this sector of the population.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1988). " Caprine coccidiosis". The Australian Goat World 39:3.". In: Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, September 20th - 22nd, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1988. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N DRMBATIAPAUL. "Nzioka, Charles and Mbatia, Paul. 2002. "Community-Based Research Methodologies" in Bahemuka Judith and Susan Nkinyangi (eds.) Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development (PP 83).". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Conference, September 1990 Kabete Campus. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
N N, SW H. "Influence of Coloring Agents on the Properties of Polymeric Coating Systems.". In: Aqueous Polymeric Coatings for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, 3rd edition. New York: Informa Healthcare; 2008.
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, M.M. Kagiko, and J.M. Gathuma. Milk hygiene in nomadic herds in Kenya evaluated by bacterial isolation, bacterial viability trials in traditionally fermenting milk and drug sensitivity. Bull. Anim. Prod. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol. 30(1), 1982: 19.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N WS, KIPKEMOI TOWETPHILEMON, SG K, KSP A, TI K. "Effects of Opioids in the Formalin Test in the Speke’s Hinged Tortoise (Kinixys spekii)." Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2009;33(4):347-351. AbstractWebsite

Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke’s hinged tortoise (Kinixy’s spekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and naloxone (5 mg/kg) on nociception induced by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 μL) were studied in the Speke’s hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 ± 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg/kg) induced significant decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti‐nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg/kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti‐nociception in tortoises and that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control of nociception in these animals.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "TYLOR, W.D., SRIVASTAVA, K.K., OYEJIDE, A., KANYARI, P.W.N., NGATIA T.A., MBAABU- MATHIU, P. ( 2002). Evaluation of causes of chick mortality in small holder ostrich farms in Alabama. School of Veterinary Medicine Annual Symposium,.". In: Kellog's Conference Centre, Alabama USA March 6th to 9th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Sodium supplementation in very low birth weight infants fed on their own mothers milk I: Effects on sodium homeostasis. East Afr Med J . 1992 Oct; 69 ( 10 ): 591-5 . PMID: 1473517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Ayisi RK, Mbiti MJ, Musoke RN, Orinda DA.". In: East Afr Med J . 1992 Oct; 69 ( 10 ): 591-5 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium supplementation was done on 41 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with 25 other infants of similar weight status as controls. All the infants were fed on their own mothers milk whose sodium and potassium content was determined. Serum and urinary sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were determined in both groups during the study period of six weeks. Determination of weight gain, length gain and head circumference gain showed that these anthropometric parameters are significantly increased by sodium supplementation while sodium and potassium concentrations were not significantly affected. There were no cases of either hypernatraemia or hyponatraemia though renal excretion of sodium was very high in the supplemented group. Conclusions drawn from the study are that very little weight gain could have been due to fluid retention and that though sodium supplementation does not affect sodium profiles in these infants it has significant effect on their growth rate which may be due to its indirect/direct association with bone and protein metabolism. PMID: 1473517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J.: Systematic errors in modelling total ozone over a locality in the tropics: Relationship between Ground based Dobson ozone data and TOMS total ozone over Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) 2001 Symposium, Arcachon - France, 24-27 September 2001. Eastern and South African Journal; 2001. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E. N. (2004). Final Prinwass Project Workshop. Deakin Room, St Anthony.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga. In vitro cell-virus interations associated with bovine herpesvirus - and peripheral bovine blood cellular components. Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of California, Davis, .". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1975. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Maitai C.K., Kibwage I.O., Guantai A.N., Ombega J.O and Ndemo F.A. A retrospective study of childhood poisoning in Kenya 1991-93 E.C.A.J. PSc. 1.7-10. 1998.". In: E.C.A.J. PSc. 1.7-10. 1998. F.A. OKALEBO*, H.A. RABAHI, A.N. GUANTAII, C.K. MALTA', I.0. K1BWAGE, J.W. MWANGI AND W. MASENGO; 1998. Abstract

The in vitro antimalarial activity of the root extract in partly supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria. Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders. Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against the inulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 jig/nil). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity. The leaf, stein and root extracts had no bacterial or fungal inhibitory effects even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The Lll50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 jig/ml, respectively. Key Words: Clematis brachiata, Ranuneulaceae, antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI, OYEJIDE,A.O., ALAK, J.I.B., OYEWOLE, A., ANDERSON, D.L., WILSON, S.T. (1998). "Cryposporidium parvum: Histopathological evidence of transplacental transmission in mice". The Kenya Veterinarian 23:103-105.". In: WAAVP Conference, August 15th - 19th. Copenhagen, Denmark. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Resistance of field isolates of Haemonchus contortus to thiabendazole and fenbendazole in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 41: 133-137.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Siani, A.M., N. J. Muthama, E. Piervitali and S. Palmieri: Solar ultra violet radiation measurements at Rome using Brewer MKIV spectrophotometer no. 67. .". In: Internal publication "Nota interna", Physics department, University of Rome "La Sapienza", January 1994. Eastern and South African Journal; 1994. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Hukka, J J, Katko, T.S. and Nyangeri, E. N (1998) Privatization or Public Utilities reforms? Water Africa .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Potential antitermite compounds from Juniperus Procera Extracts, J. Chemosphere, 41, 1071.". In: Joseph M. Mwaniki and Geoffrey N. Kamau, International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol.11&12(Nos.1&2) 2003. Survey Review; 2000. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Evaluation of the potential of the marine sponges of the Zanzibar Island to yield antimalarial and antimicrobial active compounds.". In: THE EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. S.A.SAID, M.J.MOSHF, R.S.O. NOND(Y, 1; 1981.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1994). " Immunohistological demonstration of antigenecity of various endogenous stages of Eimeria in goats." Veterinary Research Communications, 18: 295 - 299.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Ogutu EO, Okoth FA, Lule GN.Colonoscopic findings in Kenyan African patients. East Afr Med J. 1998 Sep;75(9):540-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):226-31. test; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the types and prevalence of colonic diseases in Kenyan African patients referred for colonoscopy with lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms. DESIGN: A cross sectional survey conducted over a two year period. SETTING: Major private hospitals in Nairobi. PATIENTS: Two hundred forty seven consecutive patients of both sexes and all ages referred for colonoscopy between January 1996 and December 1997. Only Kenyans of African origin were included. Patients were referred from all over the country though the majority of cases were from Nairobi and its surrounding districts. RESULTS: The major indications for colonoscopy were lower abdominal pain (35.6%), non-bloody diarrhoea (22.3%), constipation (21.4%) and rectal bleeding (19.8%). Nearly 53% of patients colonoscoped had abnormal mucosal findings, with the main abnormalities being: proctocolitis (20.2%), colorectal cancers (12.1%), haemorrhoids (7.3%), colorectal polyps (6.5%) and diverticulosis (5.3%). The main histological diagnosis among patients whose colonic biopsy were done included normal colonic mucosa (29%), non-specific colitis (28.5%), adenocarcinoma (18.2%), benign colonic polyp (9.7%) and ulcerative colitis (7.3%). There was one case of Crohn's colitis and five cases (3%) of infective colitis. CONCLUSION: The study shows that the African colon has a number of pathological lesions contrary to previous reported literature.

N MRNYUTHOEDWIN. "Gate Keeping and Agenda Setting in 'A New Democratic Error?.". In: School of Journalism. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Rice Husk Ash and its application as a cement replacement material in Kenya," J. Biochemiphysics, 2, 132.". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
n/a
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Planning and Management Control at the Enterprise Level." This article discusses the function of financial planning and management control in the process of implementing those plans.". In: Management: (Ibid) (pages 24-26). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogola ES.Use of aspirin in preeclampsia.East Afr Med J. 1995 Nov;72(11):689.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Nov;72(11):689. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1995. Abstract
One hundred and twenty consecutive patients above 12 years of age with dyspepsia were studied from June 1993 to September 1994. They underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to find the mucosal lesions which were associated with their dyspeptic symptoms. At endoscopy gastric mucosal biopsies were taken in order to identify Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) using three different techniques: culture, histology and the rapid urease test. Normal looking mucosa was the commonest single endoscopic finding, accounting for 34.2%, followed by gastritis 31.7% and duodenal ulcer 29.2%. However, when duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers were put together, then peptic ulcer was the most prevalent finding accounting for 38.4%. Peptic ulcer was the most prevalent pathological finding in both young (less than 50 years) and older patients (50 years and above). Duodenal ulcer was more prevalent than gastric ulcer in the younger age group with a ratio of 5.8:1, however, the ratio in the older age group was 1:1. Gastric cancer was only found in patients aged 50 years and above, accounting for 17.4% of dyspeptic symptoms in this age group. Females were found to have more normal endoscopic findings than males (59.6%, versus 17.8% respectively). The difference being statistically significant (p < 0.001). All our cases of peptic ulcer disease had evidence of H. pylori infection while dyspeptic patients with normal endoscopic mucosal findings had H. pylori in 80.5% of cases. The difference in prevalence of H. pylori in the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Surprisingly, evidence of H. pylori in gastric cancer cases was very low in this study, being found in only 25% of patients.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Electrocatalytic Reactions in organized assemblies part II" J.". In: Electroanal. Chem., 187, 355. Survey Review; 1985. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Professional Ethics for Certified Public Accountants and Certified Public Secretaries." This article focuses on the tenets of professional ethics for Accountants and Company Administrators as such tenets are delineated academically and effected legally. .". In: The Professional Journal of KASNEB. Issue No. 2,. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1999. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Co-authored a chapter entitled 'Haematologic manifestations of HIV.' The chapter is contained in the handbook 'Clinical care in times of AIDS.' These are guidelines intended for health workers in rural district hospitals and health centres. The handbook, .". In: Book. Douglas McLean Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Gichuki, F.N., Mungai, D.N., Gachene, C.K.K. and Thomas, D.B. (Eds.), 2000. Land and water management: Towards sustainable land use in Kenya. Proceedings of the Fourth National Land and Water Management Workshop: Towards Sustainable Land Use, Nairobi, Ken.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2000. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE, AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Water and Sanitation Services in Low Income Areas of Nairobi (in: Low Income Area Water Supply and Sanitation in Selected African Cities. Ed. Sandelin S., Institute of Water and Environmental Engineer.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland, . University Publication No. B 60). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1994. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

N PROFNYAGAP. "Kimeto,B.A.;Mugera,G.M.; and Nyaga, P. N.(1990). Haemorrhagic pancarditis in cattle infected with Trypanosoma vivax. Vet.Parasitol.34: 295-301.". In: Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Jerusalem, Israel, 4-9th August, 1996. au-ibar; 1990. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Lodenyo H.A, McLigeyo S.O OGOLA E.N.Cardiovascular disease in elderly patients at the Kenyatta national hospital. East Africa. J.741: 647,1997.". In: East Africa. J.741: 647,1997. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
A prospective study to determine the prevalence and profile of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients admitted into the medical wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, was carried out between July 1991 and January 1992. Two hundred and two patients over 60 years of age were admitted into the medical wards over this period. This formed seven per cent of the total medical admissions. Two of these refused to take part in the study. Of the 200 elderly patients evaluated for cardiovascular disease, 146 (73%) were between 60 and 75 years of age with only 26 (13%) being over 85 years. Fifty seven per cent were males. Clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease was present in 79 (39.5%) of the patients evaluated. There was no sex difference in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease as judged from clinical evaluation (37.7% males versus 41.9% females, p > 0.05). Cardiovascular diseases in our medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital are common and especially so with hypertension which plays an important role in the aetiology of congestive heart failure and cerebravascular accidents. Cardiac arrhythmias are also common though not necessarily symptomatic. Rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathies were uncommon in our study population. A community-based survey is needed to determine the true prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly and their contribution to morbidity in this sector of the population.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1989). " Experimental coccidiosis in the goat Capra hircus: Observations on the ultrastructural aspects of Eimeria apsheronica macrogametogenesis". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production. Special Issue.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. September 19th - 21st, 1990. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1989. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, J.M. Gathuma and J.S. Kaminjolo. Parasites found on and in five marabou stock(Leptoptilos crumeniferus) in a sub-urban area of Nairobi. Bull.Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol.31 (1). 1983: 79-82.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1983. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "OGOLA E.N; Arrhythmias in rheumatic Heart Disease as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Medicom, 10:133,1988.". In: Medicom, 10:133,1988. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
The study aimed at evaluating tolerability and efficacy of the combination enalapril 20 mg with hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (co-renitec) as first line therapy in black patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension. Fifty patients completed a twelve weeks of open clinical study preceded by two weeks of washout period. They were evaluated every four weeks and haematological, biochemical urine microscopy and electrocardiographic tests were undertaken before the start and after the completion of study. Pre-treatment values of mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 172.16 mm hg (+/- 20.41) and 104.38 mm hg (+/- 7.339) respectively. The usual daily dosage was one tablet which was increased to two after eight weeks in case the DBP was not normalized, i.e. less than or equal to 95 mm hg. In 44 (88%) patients, the DBP was normalised at the end of the study period; three patients (6%) were resistant to treatment and another three (6%) exhibited labile response to the treatment. Clinical tolerance was considered to be very good with only five episodes of headache, backache and anxiety, probably not related to the test drug. Biological tolerance was excellent: there was no change in the haematologic parameters; there was a decrease of 5% in mean blood urea, of 9% in the mean serum creatinine and of 4% in the mean serum uric acid and a 5% increase in plasma potassium from 3.99 to 4.28 mmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. G. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI ( 2002). " The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in commercial chicken.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Do healthy very-low-birth-weight infants fed on their own mothers' milk require sodium supplementation? Adv Exp Med Biol . 2001; 501 : 431-7 . PMID: 11787713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Musoke RN, Ayisi RK, Orinda DA, Mbiti MJ.". In: Adv Exp Med Biol . 2001; 501 : 431-7 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2001. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium and potassium levels were measured weekly in mothers' milk and in serum and urine of 41 supplemented and 25 unsupplemented very-low-birth-weight infants whose mean birth weights were 1390g and 1332g, respectively (mean gestational age, 31 weeks). Sodium intake was 5.95mmol/kg/day for the supplemented group and 2.75mmol/kg/day for controls. None of the infants in either group was hyponatremic during the 6-week period of study. Urinary sodium in the supplemented group was 15.7mmol/L as compared with 7.5mmol/L in controls. Human milk sodium was significantly lower than reported elsewhere. Growth in the supplemented group was greater than in the unsupplemented group. Since no episode of hyponatremia occurred, it was concluded that routine sodium supplementation was unnecessary. PMID: 11787713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Total Ozone Measurements during cloudy conditions using Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometer at Nairobi.". In: J. Afric.Met.Soc.Vol. 6. No.1., pp 14-22, 2003. Eastern and South African Journal; 2003. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri E, N. (200). History of Water Development in Kenya from 1895 to 2003. Flows from the Past: a trans-disciplinary Conference on the History of Water in Africa. The North West University: Vaal Triangle Campus (Vanderbijlpark, South Africa) in cooper.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, J.P.O. Wamukoya and P.N. Nyaga. A preliminary report on the occurence of a disease in broilers in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. Vol. 25, 1977: 431-434.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1977. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Kamau F,N. I.O.Kibwage, Muriuki G, Guantai A.N., Hoog martens J, Roets E, Govaerts, C; Chepkwony. H. and Busson R.Estrogenic and Anti-inflamatory activity of a steroidal. Idoxyl, The East and Central Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 5 (3) 44-48 Dec.". In: The East and Central Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 5 (3) 44-48 Dec 2002. F. N. KAMAU., 1.0. KIBWAGE, A. N. GUANTAI, G. MURIUKI R. MUNENGE; 2002. Abstract

The anti-inflammatory and antidiarrhoeal activities of 3(1-Hydroxy-16. 17-seco-16- nor-5-androsten-15-(2-indoxyliden)-17-oic acid (I) are reported. After intraperitoneal administration, compound (I) gave an ED50 of 9.5 mg/kg using the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema anti-inflammatory assay method. Indomethacin had an ED50 of 5.8 mg/kg in this assay. Compound (I) and indomethacin caused comparable and dose-dependent varying degrees of delay in diarrhoea and also significantly reduced net colonic water flux into the colon of rats induced by castor oil. Key words: Steroidal Indoxyl, Anti-Inflammatory, Antidiarrhoeal.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.G. MBUTHIA, R.M. WARUIRU, S.M. NJIRO, P.W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, EH. WEDA and J. NGOTHO (1999). "Verminous pneumonia and other microscopic lung lesions in wild animals in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 46: 15.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Low birthweight. East Afr Med J . 1986 Feb; 63 ( 2 ): 89-90 . No abstract available. PMID: 3720609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Musoke RN.". In: East Afr Med J . 1986 Feb; 63 ( 2 ): 89-90 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""New Accounting Practices to Manage Inflation." This article discusses the International Accounting Standards as they relate to the management of Inflation. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 21-27).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Anthelmintics usage in Kenya and its implications. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 42:71-73.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama N. J.: Impacts of ozone depletion, The Weatherman, No.18, pp1.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Green Architecture and Environmentally Sensitive, Sustainable development, Nairobi, 25-26 July 1996. Eastern and South African Journal; 1996. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N. (2001) Resource person. Workshop on Country Strategy Paper on the Water Supply and Sanitation Services. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources. Kenya School of Monetary studies, Ruaraka, Nairobi. 15th .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Adsorption and detection of some phenolic compounds by rice husk ash of Kenyan origin", J. Environ. Monit., 4, 1-8.". In: Joseph M. Mwaniki and Geoffrey N. Kamau, International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol.11&12(Nos.1&2) 2003. Survey Review; 2002. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Maitai C.K Guantai A.N, and Mwangi J.W, Self Medication in management of Minor Health Problems in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 58 (8) 593 1981.". In: East African Medical Journal 58 (8) 593 1981. A.N. GUANTAI and C.K. MAITA; 1981. Abstract

he distribution of cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edit/is plants from 2 different geographical localities has been investigated. There was no difference in the chemical constituents of Catha material from 2 locali-ties. D-norpseudoephedrine was present in all parts of the plant examined except the root but cathinone was only detected in the young shoots and bran-chlets. It is concluded that the psychostinaulant effect following chewing of young Catha shoots is due to both cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine with the cathinone being more important since it is 7-10 times more potent than d-norpseudoephedrine.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA & J. NGOTHO. (1995). "Toxocara vitulorum infections in cattle in Kajiado District, Kenya". Bulletin of Animal Health & Production in Africa, 3:11-5.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1995. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Lule GN, Amayo EO. Irritable bowel syndrome in Kenyans. East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):360-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):360-3. test; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and clinical presentation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in black Kenyans. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Nairobi Hospital, an urban private institution. SUBJECTS: Case files of all patients presenting with abdominal pain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of IBS using modified Manning's Symptomatic criteria in 223 consecutive adult patients presenting with abdominal pain and discomfort who had normal clinical findings and normal general and gastrointestinal investigations. RESULTS: Out of the 3472 patient files screened, there were 281 patients who fitted the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome giving an overall prevalence of 8%. The mean age was 40 years with range of 11 to 75 years with a peak prevalence in the 3rd decade. The male to female ratio of 1.4:1 being statistical significant at a p-value of 0.010. There was no statistical significant difference between the males and females in constipation and diarrhoea at p-value of 0.84 and 0.82 respectively. Fifteen percent of the patients were either on antidepressants or had been seen by a psychiatrist. Nine percent had undergone laparatomy for the abdominal pain. CONCLUSION: The Black African patient is equally as exposed to irritable bowel syndrome as is his counterpart in the western world and has similar morbidity patterns. The syndrome may account for over 10% of patients with abdominal pain presenting to gastroenterologists in Africa. Proper attention to symptomatology may lead to clinching the diagnosis without resorting to many unnecessary and expensive investigations.

N DRANANGWEGILBERT. "Intestinal atresia and stenosis as seen and treated at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):558-64. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1993. Abstract

In this retrospective study carried out covering the period, 1978-1991, 62 neonates were seen, diagnosed and treated for intestinal atresia which included: duodenal atresia and stenosis, small bowel atresia and atresia of large bowel. Locations of obstruction were duodenal in 17 patients, jejunal in 25 patients, jejuno-ileal in 5 and colon in two. Duodenal atresia was noted in 9 infants and duodenal stenosis due to annular pancreas, Ladd's bands with malrotation of bowel in 8. Associated anomalies which were observed were anorectal malformations in 2 and malrotation in 2 infants. Birth weights ranged from 1450 gm to 3000 gm. Prematurity was recorded in 11 infants. Diagnosis of intestinal atresia in our patients was made clinically and radiologically. Intestinal atresia in neonates was differentiated from other causes of obstruction such as Meconium Ileus, Hirschsprung's disease, neonatal volvulus, rectal atresia in anorectal malformations. Treatment of infants with intestinal atresia was surgical. Surgical techniques used depended on pathological findings. In 36 patients, complications such as functional obstructions with vomiting and failure to thrive, malabsorption, aspiration, bronchopneumonia, sepsis were observed. Overall mortality rate in our cases was 25 (41.9%) out of 62 patients.

N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E. N. 1986. Rehabilitation of Hand-dug Wells and Protected Springs, Kisii District, Kenya. M.Sc. Thesis, Tampere University of Technology, Finland 1986 .". In: Journal of Water SRT-Aqua. Vol. 43, No.5. pp233-237. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1986. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Resolution of Ascorbic-Catechol-amine and Indolakaloid mixtures by pulse voltammetry at highly polished glassy carbon", Electroanalysis, 6, 445.". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1994. Abstract
n/a
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting for Stock-Devidends" . This article discusses the theoretical inconsistencies in the Accounting treatment of stock dividends and the commensurate capitalization of Retained Earnings.". In: National Association of Black Accountants, USA Spectrum, Vol. 7, , New York, (pages 8-10). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1990). " Prevalence of coccidia oocysts in sheep and goat faecal samples. A preliminary report based on laboratory records." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 38 (4): 473 - 474.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, April 22nd - 24th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1990. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu EO, Lule GN, Okoth F, Mwai SJ. The clinical pattern of duodenogastric bile reflux in the Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):35-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):35-9. test; 1989. Abstract

Forty consecutive African patients found to have duodenogastric bile reflux at endoscopy were studied. Bile reflux was found more commonly among males than females, giving a male/female ratio of 2.3:1, with a peak age at 41-60 years. ABO blood groups had no significant influence on duodenogastric bile reflux. Flatulence and borborygmi were the most consistent symptoms other than the classical dyspeptic pain pattern. Bilious vomiting was a rare finding. Duodenogastric bile reflux was more commonly associated with endoscopic gastritis (67.5%), gastric ulcer (35%) and oesophagitis (30%) than with duodenal ulcer (22.5%), deformed pyloric ring (5%) or distorted duodenal bulb (2.5%). The dysfunction in the pyloric sphincter in people with duodenogastric bile reflux appears to be more of a physiological defect than structural.

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Is Common Sense Common? The Knowledge perspective." This article is the abstract for the paper presented at the National Conference on Higher Education for Human Development in Kenya, held at Kenyatta University.(pages 3-4).". In: National Conference on Higher Education for Human Development in Kenya. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 2000. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N A, Aly NM, Folayan MO, Mohebbi SZ, P H-H, S B, Y K, DA M, A R, I K, M M, AA S, OB A-B, M R, V P, S C, G G, A P, D M, A A, MA D, M N, P P, J K, Y C, JL C, E J, MM A, MM A, I H, AP V, A I, AM K, ME T. "Knowledge of Dental Academics About the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multi-Country – Online Survey." BMC Medical Education. 2020;2020; 20:399.(2020; 20:399.):2020; 20:399.
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "McLeod HL, Pritchard SC, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Ameyaw MM, Powrie RH, Booth L, Collie-Duguid ES..Ethnic differences in thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: evidence for allele specificity in Caucasian and Kenyan individuals.Pharmacogenetics. 199.". In: Pharmacogenetics. 1999 Dec;9(6):773-6. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1999. Abstract
Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) degrades 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine and 6-thioguanine which are commonly used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, leukaemia and organ transplantation. TPMT activity is polymorphic as a result of gene mutations. Heterozygous individuals have an increased risk of haematological toxicity after thiopurine medication, while homozygous mutant individuals suffer life threatening complications. Previous population studies have identified ethnic variations in both phenotype and genotype, but limited information is available within African populations. This study determined the frequency of common TPMT variant alleles in 101 Kenyan individuals and 199 Caucasians. The frequency of mutant alleles was similar between the Caucasian (10.1%) and Kenyan (10.9%) populations. However, all mutant alleles in the Kenyan population were TPMT*3C compared with 4.8% in Caucasians. In contrast TPMT*3A was the most common mutant allele in the Caucasian individuals. This study confirms ethnic differences in the predominant mutant TPMT allele and the findings will be useful for the development of polymerase chain reaction-based strategies to prevent toxicity with thiopurine medications. PMID: 10634140 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D.N., Stigter, C.J., Coulson, C.L., Ng.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No.3, pp. 291-298. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2001. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting Versus Accountability." This article highlights the need for financial accountability in our economy. It cites the collapsing financial institutions and the costly mismanagement exposed by the likes of "the multi-billion Bura Irrigation Scheme.". In: Journal for the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 4-6). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "Kenya College of Accountancy. Training manual for the course .". In: (Journal of the Marketing Students Association). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M.Njiro, P.N.Nyaga and Kofi-Tsekpo (1993) Immunosuppresive effect of Spirostachys venenifera pax on the response of mice to sheep red blood cells. Bull. Anim. Hlth. and Prod. 42:47-50.". In: Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Jerusalem, Israel, 4-9th August, 1996. au-ibar; 1993. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OMONDI DROYOOGEORGE. "Oyoo G.O OGOLA E.N, Clinical and sociodemographic aspects of congestive heart Failure Patients at Kenyatta National hospital. East Africa Med.J.70: 1999; 76:23-27.". In: East Africa Med.J.70: 1999; 76:23-27. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the underlying aetiology, precipitating factors and certain socio-demographic determinants in patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi in congestive heart failure. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. SUBJECT: All patients aged thirteen years and above of either sex consecutively admitted with clinical diagnosis of congestive heart failure. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a national referral hospital. PATIENT EVALUATION: Detailed history including socio-demographic characteristics and physical examination was done. Patients underwent haematological and biochemistry tests followed by a chest x-ray, ECG and 2D Echo-doppler examination. Blood culture sensitivity was done when clinically indicated. RESULTS: Ninety one patients were studied, 44 males and 47 females. Almost 32% had rheumatic heart disease, 25.2% had cardiomyopathy, 17.6% hypertensive heart disease, 13.2% had pericardial disease while 2.2% had ischaemic heart disease. Three quarters of patients with hypertensive heart disease were above the age of 50 years, while 79% of patients with rheumatic heart disease were below the age of 30 years. Factors associated with patient deterioration leading to admission with congestive heart failure (CHF) included inadequate therapy (27.4%), arrhythmia (20.9%), respiratory infections (17.6%), anaemia (13.2%) and infective endocardiatis. Sixty two per cent of patients investigated were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification class IV, 31.9% in class III and 5.5% in class II. CONCLUSION: Congestive heart failure constitutes 3.3% of all medical admissions at KNH. Rheumatic heart disease is the commonest cause of congestive heart failure in our set-up while inadequate therapy, arrhythmias and respiratory infections are the three major causes of decompensation in our patients with cardiac disease.
N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G. Ndiritu, P.N. Nyaga and G.N. Mugera. Evaluation of Ancylostoma caninum antigens using the isoelectro-focusing techniques (1985). Kenya Vet.(9) :8-10.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Ogola E.N. and Ogutu E.O. Pericardial Disease in Association with Human Immune Deficiency. A report of two cases. Nairobi J. of Medicine 16: 13, 1990.". In: Nairobi J. of Medicine 16: 13, 1990. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
The study aimed at evaluating tolerability and efficacy of the combination enalapril 20 mg with hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (co-renitec) as first line therapy in black patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension. Fifty patients completed a twelve weeks of open clinical study preceded by two weeks of washout period. They were evaluated every four weeks and haematological, biochemical urine microscopy and electrocardiographic tests were undertaken before the start and after the completion of study. Pre-treatment values of mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 172.16 mm hg (+/- 20.41) and 104.38 mm hg (+/- 7.339) respectively. The usual daily dosage was one tablet which was increased to two after eight weeks in case the DBP was not normalized, i.e. less than or equal to 95 mm hg. In 44 (88%) patients, the DBP was normalised at the end of the study period; three patients (6%) were resistant to treatment and another three (6%) exhibited labile response to the treatment. Clinical tolerance was considered to be very good with only five episodes of headache, backache and anxiety, probably not related to the test drug. Biological tolerance was excellent: there was no change in the haematologic parameters; there was a decrease of 5% in mean blood urea, of 9% in the mean serum creatinine and of 4% in the mean serum uric acid and a 5% increase in plasma potassium from 3.99 to 4.28 mmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.M. KAGIRA, R.M. WARUIRU, W.K. MUNYUA. and P.W.N. KANYARI. ( 2003). Resistance to anthelmintics in commercial pig herds in Thika District, Kenya. Israel Journal of 20 Veterinary Medicine 58(1): 31-36.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Leasing: "Four-year period for transitional new accounting practice." This article discusses the official position of the Accounting Profession on capitalization of leases.". In: Management: (Ibid), (pages 28-29).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N MUTHAMAJOHN. "Towards estimating Ultraviolet Radiation using Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometer." J. Afric.Met.Soc.. 2003;6(1):43-49. AbstractWebsite

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri E. N. (2004). Characteristics strength and treat ability of a recycled paper mill wastewater in a UASB reactor. Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. Vol. No. 8, p61-77. ISSN No.1562-6121.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga. The role of animal management in the control of Coccidiosis. Proceedings, Animal Production Society of Kenya. Vol. 12, 1979/80: 47-50.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "SE OF ELISA METHOD TO DETERMINE CHLORAMPHENICOL KINETICS IN RED MASAAI SHEEP AFTER INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION.". In: j. VET PHARMACO. THERAP. O Wesongah*l, GA Murilla, AN Guantai, RE Mdachi I, WM Karanja and TE Maitho; 2007. Abstract

hloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic widely used in human and veterinary medicine due to its low cost and ready availability. However its use has been associated with serious adverse effects, (bone marrow suppression, hemolytic anaemia and aplastic anaemia) that may or may not be dose related. Consequently chloramphenicol is currently banned for use in food producing animals and restricted to non-food producing animals and management of life threatening infections in humans in absence of alternative therapy. Exposure to chloramphenicol can occur after regular consumption of animal foods from treated animals. Therefore the pharmacokinetic of chloramphenicol should be determined using a highly sensitive and specific assay method that can detect residue levels at the lowest concentration possible. Previous methods were limited due to low sensitivity (10 ng/m1-50Ong/mi). Therefore the aim of this study was to determine pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol and potential residue levels in food producing animals using a published highly sensitive detection method; Chloramphenicol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with a detection limit of 0.1 ng/ml. Methods: Eight male red Maasai sheep aged 9 to 12 months and weighing between 21kg to 25 kg, were weaned and allowed to acclimatize for three weeks. Pre-treatment blood samples (10m1) was collected from each animal and then 25mg/kg chloramphenicol sodium succinate administered by deep intramuscular injection. Post treatment blood samples were collected at 5, 10, 15 and 30minutes, I, 2, 4, 6 8, 12, 24 and 32 hour intervals then twice a day (week 1), once daily (week 2) thrice daily (week 3) twice daily (week 4). Phannacokinetic parameters were measured using chloramphenicol ELISA method. Data was analyzed by fitting four, parameter logistics regression curve of calibration standards and sample chloramphenicol concentration calculated from optical densities using ELISA data Eiaquik program (MC. Eisler, 1995). Samples were analyzed in duplicate. Results from these assays were compared with those from published data with respect to elimination half life, species variation, and minimum retention time. Results: Chlorarnphenicol elimination half life (36.4+3.66 h) obtained in the present study was significantly (P<0.05) longer than that of 5.75+1.25 h reported in similar species using colorimetric method. The method was able to detect the drug 7 days post administration. The area under the curve of 124,487.8 ng.h/m1 observed in sheep in the present study was significant higher than that of 31.220+3.25 rig.himl reported in literature in goats using similar treatment route and dose but different assay method. Conclusion: Chloramphenicol pharmacokinetic parameters are significantly influenced by animal species and analytical assay methods used in their determination and care must be taken when reporting the residue levels in food producing animals.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. G. KAGIRA and P. W. N. KANYARI, ( 2000). "The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in dogs: a retrospective study of 351 cases ( 1984 - 1998 )". Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 56: 9 - 11.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Breastfeeding promotion: feeding the low birth weight infant. Int J Gynaecol Obstet . 1990; 31 Suppl 1 : 57-9; discussion 67-8 . PMID: 1972088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Musoke RN.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet . 1990; 31 Suppl 1 : 57-9; discussion 67-8 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1990. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Though there is still some reluctance to use human milk for low birth weight infants, we have shown that it is possible exclusively to feed these infants on milk from their own mothers. The infants have adequate weight gain and are less likely to get infections, especially gastrointestinal and respiratory. It is possible to sustain lactation through manual expression during the period that the mother is not nursing her infant directly on the breast. A cup rather than a bottle can be used to feed these small infants. The mothers are thus encouraged because the infant does not suffer nipple confusion with a bottle and they continue breastfeeding after discharge from the hospital. PMID: 1972088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "The Making of Professional Accountants." Part 1, By J.D. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the legal framework under which the Kenyan accounting profession is orgnaized. It presents data on the current status of the profession and discusses ed.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, July 1980. (pages 37-39).; 1980. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Ormemiddelresistens hos far (Anthelmintic resistance in sheep). Hovedresultater af endansk undersogelse (The results of a survey in Denmark).". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Mutemi, N. J. and N. J. Muthama: A simple atmospheric model for use in agroforestry research.". In: Proceedings of the, E.A. Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 1996. Eastern and South African Journal; 1996. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N. (2002). Principal Researcher. First Prinwass Project Workshop. The Dahrendorf Room, St Anthony.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Spectroscopic Characterization and Distribution of tris(2,2.". In: Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol. 11&12, No.3, 2003. Survey Review; 2003. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Relative distribution of cathinone and D-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edulis (Miraa) growing in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):394-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):394-8. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1982. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, J. C. NG'ANG'A and J. NGOTHO ( 1996). Epidemiology of bovine Toxocara vitulorum in faecal and milk samples in Kenya. 17 Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 44:255 - 256.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Karuru JW, Lule GN, Joshi M, Anzala O. Prevalence of HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection among in-patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 2005 Apr;82(4):170-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Apr;82(4):170-2. test; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection among medical in-patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital, in-patient department SUBJECTS: HIV/AIDS and HIV negative in-patients at KNH medical wards. RESULTS: Among 458 HIV/AIDS medical in-patients, the prevalence of HCV was 3.7% while in the 518 HIV negative patients, it was 4.4%. The prevalence of co-infection with HCV and HIV was 3.7%. The incidence of risk factors in persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: This study found the prevalence of HCV infection among medical in-patients to be similar in HIV positive and HIV negative group of patients. The co-infection rates were low, as were the risk factors for transmission of these infections.

N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N. (1990) Management of Limited Resources. Third Supervisors.". In: Journal of Water SRT-Aqua. Vol. 43, No.5. pp233-237. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Optimization of parameters for study of heavy metals in biological samples, J. Biochemiphysics, 5, 19.". In: J. Biochemphysics, 6&7, 33. Survey Review; 1996. Abstract
n/a
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1991). " Effects of Corticosteroids on natural and experimental caprine coccidial infections". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 39 (3):351 - 353.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, April 22nd - 24th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Okoth FA, Ogutu EO, Lule GN, Wambugu MN. Some aspects of obstructive jaundice at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1989 Sep;66(9):594-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Sep;66(9):594-7. test; 1989. Abstract

A prospective study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and September 1988 to look at some aspects of obstructive jaundice in patients above 12 years of age. Screening for cases was done by use of abdominal ultrasonography. A total of 20 cases (11 females, 9 males) were diagnosed. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas accounted for 55% of cases of the obstruction, followed by gallstones (10%), hepatocellular carcinoma (10%) and gall bladder tumour (10%).

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Microelectrode voltammetry of TCNQ in aprotic solvent at low concentrations of non reducing salts", Electroanal. Chem., 292, 1990, 187.". In: Proceedings of the KMRI/KETRI annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya 1993. Survey Review; 1990. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Accounting and the Political Process II. This article is an abridged version of the paper presented to the 7th seminar of the Accounting Students Association to advance exposition of the conceptual framework covered by the article in issue No. 14.". In: the Student Accountant, Issue No. 16. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 2003. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N NC, M WP, N MJ, Okoth S, P M. "Characterization and pathogenicity of symbiotic bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematode: Steinernema species KALRO." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2 (4):1-13.
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Marsh S, Ameyaw MM, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Ofori-Adjei D, McLeod HL.Novel thymidylate synthase enhancer region alleles in African populations. Hum Mutat. 2000 Dec;16(6):528.". In: Hum Mutat. 2000 Dec;16(6):528. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2000. Abstract
Thymidylate synthase (TS) regulates the production of DNA synthesis precursors and is an important target of cancer chemotherapy. A polymorphic tandem repeat sequence in the enhancer region of the TS promoter was previously described, where the triple repeat gives higher in vitro gene expression than a double repeat. We recently identified ethnic differences in allele frequencies between Caucasian and Asian populations. We now describe assessment of genotype and allele frequencies of the TS polymorphism in 640 African (African American, Ghanaian and Kenyan) and Caucasian (UK, USA) subjects. The double and triple repeat were the predominant alleles in all populations studied. The frequency of the triple repeat allele was similar between Kenyan (49%), Ghanaian (56%), African American (52%), American Caucasian (54%) and British Caucasian (54%) subjects. However, two novel alleles contained 4 and 9 copies of the tandem repeat. These novel alleles were found at a higher allele frequency in African populations (Kenyan 7%, Ghanaian 3%, African American 2%) than Caucasians (UK 1%, USA 0%). The novel alleles identified in this study decrease in frequency with Western migration, while the common alleles are relatively stable. This is a unique example suggesting the influence of multiple selection pressures within individual populations. Hum Mutat 16:528, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D. N., C.K. Ong, B. Kiteme, W. Elkaduwa, R. Sakthivadivel, 2004. Lessons from two long-term hydrological studies in Kenya and Sri Lanka. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 104 (2004) 135.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Accounting Profession in Kenya." ,(pages 38-44). This article describes Gvoernment efforts to orgnaize the Accoutning Profession and guide its future developments through the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. ICPA(K).". In: Journal of the Association of Certified Public Accountants, Nairobi. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1979. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "National Council of Women of Kenya/USAID Brochures on.". In: (An article in National Council of Women of Kenya). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1999. Abstract

Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.

N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G. Gitao, P.N. Nyaga and J. O. Evans (1996): Pathogenicity of Sheep Skin- cell-propagated camel-pox virus in camels (Camelus dromedarius): Indian Journ. of Animal Sciences 66(6): 535-538.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1996. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "J.M. Nyaga and P.N. Nyaga. Epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Kenya. Bull.Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. (1985) 33: 249-251.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Ogola ES, Muita AK, Adala H.Chloroquine related complete heart block with blindness: case report. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jan;69(1):50-2.". In: East Africa. Med J.69: 50,1992. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
A 27-year old African woman with history of regular chloroquine ingestion presented with progressive deterioration of vision, easy fatiguability, dyspnoea, dizziness progressing to syncopal attacks. Ophthalmological assessment revealed features of chloroquine retinopathy, cardiac assessment revealed features of heart failure and a complete heart block with right bundle branch block pattern. The heart block was treated by pacemaker insertion and the heart failure resolved spontaneously following chloroquine discontinuation. She however remains blind.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "NG.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implementation Science. 2018;13(1):81.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA, A. J. WILSON, E. W. ALLONBY (1982) "Trypanotolerance and economics among East African goats compared to their crosses with two exotic Breeds". In Karbe, E. and Freitas, E. K. (Eds); pp. 93 - 99.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""All Expenditures must be properly authorized." Continuing on the theme of planning and management control, this article delineates and discusses some of the most effective financial control mechanisms. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 9-10).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri,E.N. Omosa, I. And Shikoli, B.S.A (2004). Application of water demand management strategies in Kenya Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Under review.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Under review. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKARIUKIDAVID, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH, Kimarua RW. "Comparison of two microdiffusion methods used to measure ionizable fluoride in cow's milk.". In: Analyst, 120, 2245 (1995). UoN; 1995. Abstract

Two microdiffusion methods for measuring ionizable fluoride in cows’ milk have been compared. The comparison includes diffusion time, amount of fluoride in spiked and unspiked milk samples and the effect of aluminium as an interfering ion. This work uses an acid diffusion technique involving hexamethyldisiloxane at room temperature and acid diffusion at 60 °C in the oven for 20 h. A significant difference was found in diffusion time and in the effect of aluminium ions. There was no significant difference in the amount of fluoride found in the milk samples using the two microdiffusion methods.

Keywords: Fluoride; microdiffusion; milk; fluoride-selective electrode; aluminium

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N.Nyaga, C.G. Ndiritu, S.M. Njiro and S.W. Mbugua. Canine pulmonary geotrichosis in Kenya. Kenya Vet. Vol. 4, 1980: 6-9.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Antimalarial activity of some plants traditionally used in treatment of malaria in Kwale district of Kenya.Muthaura CN, Rukunga GM, Chhabra SC, Omar SA, Guantai AN, Gathirwa JW, Tolo FM, Mwitari PG, Keter LK, Kirira PG, Kimani CW, Mungai GM, Njagi EN.J Et.". In: J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jul 25;112(3):545-51. Epub 2007 May 5. FA Okalebol , L Wiesner, AN Guantai, K Chibale, P Smith; 2007. Abstract

Methanolic and water extracts of five medicinal plant species used for treatment of malaria in traditional/cultural health systems of Kwale people in Kenya were tested for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei, respectively and for their cytotoxic effects. The most active extracts (IC(50)<10 microg/ml) screened against chloroquine (CQ) sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) P. falciparum clones, were the water and methanol extracts of Maytenus undata (Thunb.) Blakelock (Celasteraceae), methanol extracts of Flueggea virosa (Willd.) Voigt (Euphorbiaceae), Maytenus putterlickioides (Loes.) Excell and Mendoca (Celastraceae), and Warburgia stuhlmannii Engl. (Canellaceae). These extracts showed various cytotoxic levels on Vero E6 cells with the water extract of M. undata exhibiting least cytotoxicity. At least one of the extracts of the plant species exhibited a high chemo suppression of parasitaemia >70% in a murine model of P. berghei infected mice. These results indicate that there is potential for isolation of a lead compound from the extracts of the five plants. W. stuhlmannii and M. putterlickioides have not been reported before for antiplasmodial activity.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI, et. al. ( 2001). Cryptosporidiosis: Transplacental Transmission in Immunosuppressed mice and Possible Relation to AIDS in Humans.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Commerce and Industry," with Dr. R.O. Arunga, Director, KIRDI. Chapter 7 in Kenya, and Official Handbook, 25th Independence Anniversary.". In: Government Printer, Nairobi,.; 1989. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J., Application models using Numerical Weather Prediction : Pollution models.". In: Proceedings of the IMTR/UON/WMO international workshop on Related Numerical Weather Prediction, 6-17 Dec., 1999, Nairobi, Kenya. Eastern and South African Journal; 1999. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N.(2003). Resource person. Regional Workshop for Coordinators of Reforms in Water and Sanitation Delivery. Water Utility Partnership for Capacity Building- Africa/World Bank Institute/ WSP-Africa. Landmark Hotel, Nairobi Kenya. 16th .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Selective control and rate enhancement of reactions involving catalytic reduction of organohalides and reduced form of myoglobin in microemulsions, Pure Appl.". In: Chem., Vol. 76, No. 4, pp. 815-828, 2004. Survey Review; 2004. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "EFFECTS OF THE ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF CATHA EDULIS ON THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION.". In: Pergarnon Journals Ltd. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1987.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.A. OMEGA , P.W.N. KANYARI and others (1997). Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the detection of circulating Fasciola gigantica antigens in sera of experimentally infected sheep.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Manuthu EM, Joshi MD, Lule GN, Karari E.Prevalence of dyslipidemia and dysglycaemia in HIV infected patients. East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):10-7.". In: test. test; 2008. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically reduced AIDS morbidity and mortality, however long-term metabolic consequences including dysglycaemia and dyslipidemia have raised concern regarding accelerated cardiovascular disease risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine the period prevalence of dyslipidemia and dysglycaemia in HIV-infected patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparative group study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary HIV dedicated out-patient facility. SUBJECTS: Consecutive HIV- positive adult patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dyslipidemia: presence of raised total or LDL cholesterol or low HDL cholesterol, or raised triglycerides. Dysglycaemia: presence of impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus. Results: Between January and April 2006, out of 342 screened patients, 295 were recruited and 58% were females. One hundred and thirty four (45%) were on HAART, 82% of whom were on stavudine, lamivudine and either nevirapine or efavirenz. Overall prevalence of dyslipidemiawas 63.1% and dysglycaemia was 20.7%. High total cholesterol occurred in 39.2% of HAART and 10.0% HAART naive patients (p<0.0001, OR 5.18, CI 3.11-10.86), whereas high LDL cholesterol occurred in 40.8% and in 11.2% respectively (p<0.0001, OR 5.43, CI 2.973-9.917). HDL levels were low in 14.6% and 51.3% among HAART and HAART naive patients, respectively, (p<0.0001, OR 0.16, CI 0.091-0.29) while high triglycerides occurred in 25.6% and 22.5% respectively (p=0.541 OR 1.184 CI 0.688-2.037). Among patients on HAART compared to HAART naive patients, diabetes was found in 1.5% against 1.2% (p=0.85), impaired fasting in 2.2% against 0.6% (p=0.30) and impaired glucose tolerance in 16.4% against 21.1% (p=0.22), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HIV- infected patients demonstrated a high prevalence of dyslipidemia. HAART use was associated with high levels of total, and LDL cholesterol and high triglyceride levels, an established athrogenic lipid profile. However, HAART was not associated with low HDL cholesterol and had no significant effect on dysglycaemia.

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