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N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "No. 7: An Executive Summary of the Agenda Process.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K. and Wood, M. 1985. Selecting suitable reference crop for estimating Nfixation by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using 15N Isotope Dilution Technique. Agric. and For. J. 56 (4).". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1985. Abstract
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N. MUIVAMARGARET. "Poverty and Health: Implications for the Nurse Midwife." Kenya Nursing Journal, December, 2004. 2004;(December, 2004). AbstractWebsite

The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on
tissue culture facilities.
Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene
J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43

N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Salvation and Being Saved, Nairobi: Media Options, 2000.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Mahesh S., N. P. Hanan, R. J. Scholes, J. Ratnam, D. J. Augustine, B. S. Cade, J. Gignoux, S. I. Higgins, Xavier Le Roux, F. Ludwig8, J. Ardo, F. Banyikwa, A. Bronn, G. Bucini, K. K. Caylor, M. B. Coughenour, A. Diouf, W. N. Ekaya, C. J. Feral, E C. Febru.". In: Nature, 438: 846 . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2005. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

N. GA. Technical Manual : Farmer Field School (FFS) Approach - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 4 0. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
N. DRIRAKIW, NJOKI MRSKIRUTHIZIPPORAH. "Capacity Building In The Kenya Dairy Industry.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2008.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Land use and spatial distribution of two gum and incense producing tree species in the Blue-nile valley of Wogidi district, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Ecology, 14:77- 87.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "J.W. Kimenju, N.K. Karanja and I. Macharia, 1999. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with common bean in Kenya and the effect of Meloidogyne infection on bean nodulation. African Crop Science Journal 7 (4), 489-497.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 1999, with Mitullah, Winnie V., 'Inter-Firm Dynamics in the Construction Sector.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Venant Rutunga, Kurt G. Steiner, Nancy K. Karanja, Charles K.K. Gachene and Gre.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui "Governance and its Implications for Gender Inequalities in the Jua Kali economy" IDS working Paper No. 543, Nairobi IDS university of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Marufu, L., Karanja, N.K. and Ryder, M. 1995. Legume inoculant Production and Use in Eastern and Southern Africa. Soil Biol. Biochem., 27 (4/5), 735-738.". In: First Crop Science Conference Proceedings 3, 323-330. ISBN: 1023-70x.; 1995. Abstract
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N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "No. 4: Meru District.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Arshad, M.A., Mureria, N.K., Keya, S.O. 1982. Effect of termite activity on soil microflora. Pedobiologia 24, 161-167.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1982. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K. and Kibunja, C.N., 1989. Research work on Biology Nitrogen Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.". In: A paper presented at the 1st Annual Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Conference 14-16 August 1989, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1989. Abstract
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N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. ""Integral Transformation Through Easter for the Third Millenium" in E. Kamweru (ed.) THE VINEYARD, Nairobi: St. Paul, vol. 7 n. 2, april 2001.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Supply Chain Management Practices at the University of Nairobi, .". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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N. DRIRAKIW. "Supply Chain Management Practices at the University of Nairobi, .". In: Journal of Environmental Geology (38) 3, pp 259-264. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "KY Dawd, NKR Musimba, WN Ekaya and KO Farah.The nutritional value of Zizyphus spina-christi for goat production among the pastoralists of Kalu district, South Wello, Ethiopia.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. MJ. "Evaluation of Stiffnesss of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Dry and Green Bamboo." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(4):676-687.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Research Assistant to Dr. Maury Granger under a Grant from University Scholars Center, JSU. Project title: .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2003.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Venant Rutunga, Nancy K. Karanja, Charles K.K. Gachene and Cheryl Palm, 1999. Biomass production and nutrient accumulation by Tephrosia vogelii (Hemsley) A. Gray and Thithonia diversifolia Hook F. fallows during the six-month growth period at Maseno, West.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 2000, Tapping Opportunities in Jua Kali Enterprise Clusters: The Case of Ziwani and Kigandaini, IDS Working Paper No 525, IDS University of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 2000.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Kinyanjui and Felix Kiruthu " Globalization Experience in East Africa Region: A Search for theory in Cornelissen,s (eds) What is globalization critical regional perspectives.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "R.W. Kahama, D.N. Kariuki, H.N. Kariuki and L.W. Njenga: Flourosis in Children and sources of Fluoride around Lake Elementaita region of Kenya . Fluoride 30 (1) 19-25,1997.". In: Fluoride 30 (1) 19-25,1997. MOH; 1997. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "No. 1:South Nyanza, Machakos, Murang'a and Meru Districts. Report for the Fourth African Population Advisory Committee (APAC) Meeting, Botswana, September, 1992.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Third Millenium African Single Mothers and Mother Widows: Ethno-Religio-Philosophical Touch, Nairobi: Media Options, 2003 (387 pp).". In: Published by the Media Options. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.book_abstract.pdf
N. MAKUMBABA, B. MF, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "In vitro and in vivo tests of Bacillus licheniformis MGrP1 antibiotics culture filtrate as a potential biocontrol agent against bean anthracnose." East African Journal of Pure and Applied Science . 2009;2:1-16.
N. WACHEGEPATRICK. CHRIST OUR ELDER: A Christological Study From the Agĩkũyũ Concept of Elder.. NAIROBI: CUEA (Catholic University Of East Africa); 1986.pn_wachegesma.pdf
N. PROFNGUGIELIZABETH. "Reproductive Health of Female Sex Workers in the Urban Informal Settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Future Medicinal Chemistry. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
Female sex workers (FSWs) have long been recognized as important factors in the sub-Saharan HIV/AIDS epidemic. Because of their large number of sexual partners and high rate of partner change they may act as core groups that keep incidence rates high and as bridge populations, linking high-risk with low-risk sub-populations. What is far less recognized and researched are the roles that African FSWs fulfill as lovers and mothers. In these roles they are epidemiologically important due to mother-child HIV transmission while socially FSWs must provide childcare when they work outside the home. Building upon recently analyzed data for FSWs in the urban informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, this proposal outlines a pilot study employing a social epidemiological perspective to: 1) delineate and analyze FSWs reproductive histories, future fertility plans, and knowledge, access and usage of contraception methods and, 2) explore possible family-based intervention programs to provide child care for FSWs.
N. KG, A. N, N. G. "Preaching and Drinking Wine: A necessity for Transformational Leaders in Effective Schools." International Journal of Education and Research. 2015;3(ISSN 2201-6333):1-10.kimani_27.pdf
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Participatory classification and problem identification in management of rangeland: an example from Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Ang."; 2002. Abstract
n/a
N. DRIRAKIW. "Reviewer for Decision Sciences Institute Conference Papers.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2004.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Botanical and chemical composition of livestock diets on a semi-arid rangeland. Discovery and Innovation, 9: 235-241.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 117-124. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1997.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Nancy K. Karanja and Paul. L. Woomer, 2000. Legume inoculation and overcoming constraints to inoculant use: Activities of the Rhizobium Ecology Network of East and Southern Africa (Abstract).". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 2000. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui with Munguti, Kaendi, 2002 'Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48.". In: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Mwendwa, K.A., N.K. Karanja, F. Zapata and S.W. Maingi 1997/1998. Evaluation of phosphorus uptake from Minjingu Phosphate Rock and Growth of six Agroforestry species on an Acid soils from Western Kenya. Int. J. of Biochem Physics, Vol. 6&7 (1&2), 79-85.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui " From Home to Micro and Small Enterprises: Entrepreneurship and Female Gender Identities".". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki and Teresa N. Kinyari (Editors). National Palliative Care Training Manual. (Manual submitted to the MoH for launch).". In: Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. Ministry of Health; 2011. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N. KC, S. S, S. G, K. IJ. "Physico-chemical methods for preservation of opuntia cactus fruit syrup: Empowerment of Maasai women in Laikipia, Kenya.". In: African Crop Science Society Conference. Cape town, South Africa; 2009.
N. W, H. T, Z. Q. "Prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among women attending antenatal clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr.. 2011;23(2):37-41. Abstract

Background: Cancer of the cervix is among the leading causes of cancer related deaths among women in Kenya. Cervical cytology screening programs have been shown to significantly reduce mortality and morbidity associated with cancer of the cervix. Since 90% of pregnant women attend antenatal clinic at least once, the antenatal period offers an opportunity for cervical cytology screening. The local prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology has not been documented.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among women attending antenatal clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study, carried out among pregnant women on their first antenatal visit between February and August 2008. A papanicolaou smear was taken for each consenting participant. Obstetric and gynaecology profiles of the participants were obtained with a structured questionnaire.

Results: A total of 171 participants were recruited. Only 10.5% had had previous screening for abnormal cervical cytology. One hundred and sixty pap smears were satisfactory for evaluation while five (2.9%) were unsatisfactory. The prevalence of squamous intra-epithelial lesions was 5.8% (3.5% LSIL, 2.3% HSIL). Thirty one percent were inflammatory, 1.2% had trichomonas vaginalis, 7% had bacterial vaginosis (diagnosed by the presence of clue cells) and 10.5% had Candid spp. Forty nine percent of the pap smears were reported normal. HIV positive status and abnormal vaginal discharge were significantly associated with the presence of any pap smear abnormality (p value <0.05).

Conclusion and recommendations: The rate of previous screening for abnormal cervical cytology was low at 10.5%, while the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology was high at 5.8%. Positive HIV sero-status and presence of abnormal vaginal discharge were noted to increase the risk of cervical smear abnormalities. This emphasizes the need for antenatal cervical cytology screening programs especially among HIV seropositive women and women with abnormal vaginal discharge.

N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Okalebo, J.R., Karanja, N.K., Gathua, K.W., Lekasi, J.K. and Woomer, P.L.,1993. The use of manure and fertilizer in sustained maize production in drylands of Kenya.". In: presented at the 1st Crop Science Conference of Eastern and Southern Africa, 14- 18 June 1993, Kampala, Uganda.; 1993. Abstract
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N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Access to Non-formal Education for Rural Families: A Case Study of Family Life Education Programme, IDS, W.P. No. 318, 1977.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1977. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Jesus Christ Our "Muthamaki" (Ideal Elder): An African Christological Study based On the Agikuyu Understanding of Elders, Nairobi Phoenix Publishers, 1992.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Chloris roxburghiana Schult grass genetic variation between ecological sites: the case for in situ reseeding seed multiplication. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N. M, Mwangi I, Mbatiah M. Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili: Dhima Na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbali Mbali.. nairobi: Focus Books. ISBN 9966-01-224-1; 2014.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Book Review for H-Net Africa (H-Africa@h-net.msu.edu) Michigan State University. Title, .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Woodlands and livelihoods of African pastoralists: The Maasai of Kajiado, Kenya. Journal of Social Sciences, 5:235-238.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract
A participatory vegetation inventory and research was conducted in Mashuuru Division, Kajiado District of Kenya, with an overall objective of capturing the indigenous knowledge of the Maasai pastoralist community on vegetation resources. Data collection was done through questionnaires, community workshops and meetings whereby the pastoralist, administration and extension personnel, and prominent leaders were invited. Representative pastoralists were engaged during the actual field data collection to assist in naming of vegetation types and uses of plant species encountered. The pastoralists gave detailed information on the status of vegetation degradation, which they considered as a major threat to their sources of livelihood. The information included indicators of vegetation degradation, the possible approaches, and benefits of reversing the degradation trend. The pastoralists also named and categorized plants into those that provide fodder and food for livestock and humans respectively; medicinal value to livestock and humans; woodfuel; construction, poisonous to livestock and humans; and as environmental quality indicators. Finally, they named five plant species which they considered threatened with extinction due to over-harvesting for medicinal and other uses. The study showed that both indigenous knowledge held by farmers and technical knowledge held by researchers are complimentary and they need each other for more responsive research activities. The data collected from such participatory involvement of pastoralists is demand driven and therefore guides the researchers on the type of research interventions for enhanced natural resource management.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Macharia, I, Kimenju, J.W., Karanja, N.K. and Mutitu, E.W, 2000. Effect of Bacillus spp. on root knot nematode population and galling in beans.". In: Extended abstract in proceedings of the 4th regional Meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry (RF) 10-14th July 2000, Lilongwe, Malawi (pp. 108-109).; 2000. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, Dorothy McCormick, and Mitullah, Winnie. How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Woomer P.L., J.H.P. Kahindi and N.K. Karanja, 1998. Nirogen replenishment in the East African Highlands through Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Legume Inoculation. Agronomie Africaine (Special Issue) No. 1, 387-413.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1992, "Finance And Availability of Capital for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Central Kenya", in Journal of East African Development and Research, Vol. 23. Pp. 63-87.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Kariuki et. al. Treatment and Outcomes in Palliative Care for HIV Patients: Randomised Control Trial in Kenya.". In: 19th International Congress on Palliative Care to be held October 9-12, 2012 in Montr. IAHPC; 2012. Abstract
Introduction: Despite the epidemiological data demonstrating a high need for palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa, systematic appraisal of the outcome evidence found a wealth of experience yet a dearth of evidence. This paradox offers an opportunity for ethical outcome evidence. A number of barriers to access for HIV palliative care have been identified, particularly in the assessment and management of HIV pain and drug availability in Africa for management of palliative care for people with HIV.There evidence from several studies in Europe, Africa and Latin America identifying those on ART to have a physical and psychological symptom burden equal to those not on treatment (even when controlling for CD4 and viral load). Research showed that around half of HIV outpatients would benefit from palliative care irrespective of their treatment status. Longitudinal studies conducted in East Africa have identified the palliative care-related needs among patients accessing outpatient care in the presence of ART. Barriers and lack of evidence have been identified and there is need for appropriateness of palliative care throughout the HIV disease trajectory and alongside ART. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy in terms of patient outcomes of training HIV nurses in palliative care including an assessment tool, for adults taking ART in Kenya, using randomised controlled trial (RCT) designs.Materials and Method: The study consists of two independent Phase III clinical randomised controlled trials, in a comprehensive care centre in Kenya.Patients are randomly allocated to standard HIV care (including ART) or standard HIV care plus palliative care. The palliative care is delivered through the HIV clinic using an integrated model. The APCA African POS questionnaire is used in this study.The design is longitudinal, using repeated measures. Patient-centred outcomes are measured using quantitative questionnaires. This study aims to reject the null hypothesis that receipt of palliative care in addition to standard care does not affect pain compared to those receiving standard care alone.APCA African POS seeks to address: pain, symptoms, anxiety information, spirituality, communication, planning, family information, family ability to care and family anxietyConclusion: With palliative care being introduced in government hospitals in Kenya, the study aims to provide evidence for efficacy of palliative care in HIV management and to achieve greater access to palliative care for those on ART by enabling existing ART clinic staff to assess and provide palliative care rather than use alternative (potentially more costly) approaches that refer all palliative care need out to external providers.
N. WM, D.O. K, P. K, W.E. M, J.D. M. "Surgical management of agenesis of the vulva with atresia ani-et-distal recti in a heifer calf: A case report." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research . 2015;2(3):369-372.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Mwala, A.K. and N.K. Karanja, 1998. Effects of rock phosphate fertilizer, Rhizobium inoculation and VA-mycorrhizae on nodulation and growth of soyabeans (Glycine max L.) grown on Humic Nitosol. (ed. F.D. Dakora) pp 160-161.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Section on Population Education: Social Ethics and Education Syllabus, Kenya Institute of Education 1985.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "N.K. Mureria, 1980. Activities of Nairobi MIRCEN.". In: A paper presented at CAIRO - MIRCEN training course held at Ain-Shams University of Nairobi on 8-22 September, 1980.; 1980. Abstract
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N. KP, C.M. G, H.J. K. "‘Relationship Between School Environment and Use of ICT in Teaching Science Curriculum in Nepad and Cyber e-Schools in Kenya’." Journal of Open, Continuing and Distance Education. 2011;Vol 1(Issue 2):85-110.
N. WACHEGEPATRICK. CRS 560: AFRICAN CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. NAIROBI: CENTRE FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING ; 2012.crs_560.pdf
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "M. Okoti, J. C. Ng.". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N. DRIRAKIW. "GMAT Workshop at Kentucky State University.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Pointers to intervention domains for pastoral development in Eastern Africa. Book Chapter in Media handbook for reporting food security and drought in pastoral areas. Indigenous Information Network, Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Mwendwa, K.A., Eason, W., Karanja, N.K., Zapata, J., Rutunga, V. and Roberts, J. 1999. Effect of phosphorus on growth of four agroforestr tree seedlings and N2-fixation of 16 Leucena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. Nkalubo) pp. 85-84.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1996, "Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises Formation and Development in Central Kenya: Entrepreneurship or Plodding Along?" in McCormick, D. and Pedersen, P.O. (editors.), Small Enterprises: Flexibility and Networking in Africa.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. Antinocieptive activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. in models of central and peripheral pain.". In: Phytopharmacology 2012, 3(1) 122-129. Inforesights publishing; 2012. Abstractkariuki_et_al_2012.pdf

Toddalia asiatica within the context of traditional African medicine is a commonly used medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. It is used by the Masai in both Kenya and Tanzania for management of rheumatism among others. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive activities of T. asiatica in Swiss albino mice in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick and hot plate pain tests. The extract solvent (vehicle), morphine and aspirin were employed as negative and positive controls respectively. The acetic acid -induced writhing test was used as the screening test and as the root bark extract was found to be more potent than the leaf extract, the former was investigated using the hot plate and the tail flick tests. The root bark extract (200 mg / kg) showed highly significant (p < 0.001) antinociceptive activity in the hot plate and the tail flick tests. The 100mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.05) activity in the tail flick test but not significant in the hot plate test. The present study, therefore lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of T. asiatica in the management of painful condition.

N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "S.K. Kimani, B.A. Osborne, C.J. Pilbeam, M. Wood and N.K. Karanja, 1998. Agricultural production in semi-arid regions: Use of legume-based mixed cropping systems in Kenya. (eds. S.M. Mpepereki and F.I. Makonese) pp. 207-209. In Harvessing Biological Nitro.". In: Proceedings of the sixth International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF) 12-17 September, 1994, Harare, Zimbabwe.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, D. and Kimuyu, P., 'Firm Level Institutions in Small Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Ssali, H. and Mureria, N.K. 1982. Interaction between soil pH, Rhizobium phaseoli strains and bean variety. E. Afric. Agric. and For. J, 45 (1).". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1982. Abstract
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N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Living to die, Dying to Live: African Christian Insights, Nairobi: Media Options, 2000 (343 pp.).". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.the_abstract.pdf
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Macharia, P. N. and W. N. Ekaya. 2005. The impact of rangeland condition and trend to the grazing resources of a semi-arid environment in Kenya. Journal of Human Ecology, 17: 143 .". In: Journal of Human Ecology, 17: 143 . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2005. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

N. GA. Technical Manual : Agro Forestry Practices - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 1 9. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Humantarian relief logistics at the Kenya Red Cross, a paper presented at Operations Research Society 50th anniversary in , UK.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2008.
N. KC, Kimani MW. "Women's Indigenous Knowledge in Management of Natural Resources in Africa.". In: Association of Women in Development (AWID) Conference. Washington DC; 1993.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Interactive research cooperation for local participation in East Africa: Planning ahead from past experiences. A position paper presented at a United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification symposium held in Maseru, Lesotho, 27th .". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Khayesi, Meleckidzedeck 2005 Social Capital, Micro and Small Enterprise and Poverty Alleviation. Addis Ababa: OSSREA.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; 2005.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Venant Rutunga, Nancy K. Karanja, Charles K.K. Gachene and Cheryl Palm, 1999. Biomass production and nutrient accumulation by Tephrosia vogelii (Hemsley) A. Gray and Thithonia diversifolia Hook F. fallows during the six-month growth period at Maseno, West.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 1999.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Kapkiyai J.J., Karanja, N.K., Woomer P.L. and Qureshi, J.N. 1998. Soil organic carbon fractions in a long-term experiment and the potential for their use as a diagnostic assay in Highland Farming Systems of Central Kenya Highlands. African Crop Science Jo.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Institutions Affecting Creativity in Jua Kali Enterprise Clusters: The Case of Ziwani and Kigandaini Clusters in Kenya.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRNJENGAHELLEN. "Processing of Oleoresin from Kenyan Pinus Radiata into Rosin and Turpentine.". In: Discov.innov., 7(4) 391-394. Elsevier; 1995.
N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "No. 5: Machakos District.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Angawa, J.A., Karanja, N.K. and Odee, D. 1998. Estimation of the effects of NO3-N on nodulation, dry matter yield and N2 fixed by Calliandra calothyrsus. (ed. F.D. Dakora) pp 6-7.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1989. Abstract
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N. MD, O. OD, E GJ, D.K K. "Investigation of Kenyan Bentonite in adsorption of some heavy metals in aqueous systems using Cyclic Voltammetric Techniques." International Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014;5(9):102-108.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. ""Sin: Root Cause of Unfreedom" in E. Kamweru (ed) THE VINEYARD, Nairobi: St. Paul, Vol.8, no3 June 2001.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Outsourcing & Vision 2030: An Analysis into Kenya.". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2009.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "W. Ngoyawu Mnene, J. Hanson, W.N. Ekaya, J.I. Kinyamario, P. Mweki, G. Lall, J.W. Stuth, R.H. Jamnadass Genetic variation between ecotypic populations of Chloris roxbhurghiana grass detected through RAPD analysis. African Journal of Range and Forage Scien.". In: CTA Knowledge Website. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2005. Abstract
Chloris roxburghiana is an important rangeland grass in Kenya. In some areas it has disappeared due to land degradation resulting from overgrazing and drought. Efforts to re-introduce the grass through re-seeding using seeds from research stations have had little success. One possible reason for low establishment is attributed to transplanting since spatially separated populations may represent genetically distinct ecotypes. To test this hypothesis, germplasm diversity within and among four populations of C. roxburghiana from four ecologically distinct sites was analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 131 polymorphic markers were identified using nine RAPD primers. There was significant variation among populations with genetic diversity (He) ranging from 0.142 to 0.193. Twenty four percent of the variation observed was due to differentiation among the populations, compared to 76 percent accounted for by variation within populations. The UPGMA of the population frequency indicated that the four populations of C. roxburghiana were genetically distinct, probably as a result of variation in soil fertility, geographical isolation and socio-ecological history of the study sites. The implication for optimizing future seed collection is discussed and potential areas for further studies identified.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Outsourcing & Vision 2030: An Analysis into Kenya.". In: Journal of Environmental Geology (38) 3, pp 259-264. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2009.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Mnene, W. N., W. N. Ekaya, J. I. Kinyamario, R. H. Jamnadass, J. Hanson and J. W. Stuth. 2002. Soil type and forage genetic diversity dictate the need for conservative use of native rangelands. A paper presented at the Global Livestock Collaborative Resea.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. DRIRAKIW. "With Dharam Rana, .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2002.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Jane, J. Kapkiyai, Nancy K. Karanja, Javaid N. Qureshi, Paul C. Smithson and Paul L. Woomer, 1999. Soil organic matter and nutrient dynamics in a Kenyan nitisol under longterm fertilizer and organic input management. Soil Biol. and Biochem. 31, 1773-1782.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1999, 'The Search for a Gender Sensitive Development Policy.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Woomer, P.L., Mateete A. Bekunda, Nancy K. Karanja, Thomas Moorehouse and Robert Okalebo, 1998. Agricultural Resource Management by smallholder farmers in East Africa. Nature and Resources, UNESCO Journal on the Environmental and Natural Resources Researc.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and McCormick, Dorothy. and Kimuyu, Peter , 'Textiles and Clothing: Global Players and Local Struggles.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. KT, E. W, A. S, M. M, E.A. B, A.S. M, C. F, E.N. N, C.R. C. "Kinyari T.N.,White E.,Sharma A.,Morris M.,Bukusi E.A.,Farquhar C.,Ngugi E.N.,Cohen C.R. The relationship between sexual partnerships characteristics and condom use among young female sex workers in Nairobi,Kenya 16th ISSTDR Congress,Netherlands 2005 .". In: 16th International Society for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Researchers Congress Amsterdam, the Netherlands 2005. Amsterdam,The Netherlands: WFL Publisher; 2005. Abstract

Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.

N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "N.M. Ngakinya, B.N. Ngotho, H.N. Kariuki , J.T. Kaimenyi and F.L. Ndungu. Periodontal Health status of patients attending Diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital . Indian Journal of Dental Research 8 (4) 105-110, 1997.". In: Indian Journal of Dental Research 8 (4) 105-110, 1997. MOH; 1997. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "No. 2: South Nyanza, Machakos, Murang'a, Machakos and Meru Districts: Policies.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. DRMUTEMIJOSEPH. "J. N. Mutemi, L.A. Ogallo, T. N. Krishnamurti, A. K. Mishra, and T.S.V. Vijaya Kumar, 2006: Multimodel based Superensemble Forecasts for Short and Medium Range NWP over Various Regions of Africa: Meteorol Atmos Phys 95, 87-113.". In: Meteorol Atmos Phys 95, 87-113. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2006. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Inculturation and Salvation Within the African Context in A. Radoli (ed.) AFER, Eldoret: GABA PUBLICATION.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "The nutritional value of Zizyphus spina-christi for goat production among the pastoralists of Kalu district, South Wello, Ethiopia. African Journal of Range and Forage Science,20(3): 265-270.". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Mwendwa, W. Eason, N.Karanja, V. Rutunga, J. Roberts, F. Zapata and D.O. Nyamai. 2002. Estimation of N2- fixation in phosphorus- fertilised Leucaena leucocphala and G. sepium seedlings using S. siamea and E.grandis as reference tree.". In: Proceedings of the 9th AABNF Conference on Challenges and Imperatives for Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Research and Applications in Africa for the 21st Century, 2002 (eds. Nancy K. Karanja and James H.P. Kahindi) pp. 94-104. John Philips Africa L.; 2002. Abstract
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N. DRIRAKIW. "Participated in the BBC Radio Discussion on AIDS in Africa. Suggested that AIDS could be filling a cultural vacuum.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2003.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "P.L. Woomer, N.K. Karanja and J.R. Okalebo, 1999. Opportunities for improving integrated nutrient management by smallhol farmers in the Central Highlands of Kenya. African Crop Science Journal 7 (4), 441-454.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 2001, and Dorothy McCormick and Kimuyu, P., 'Kenya.". In: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48. University of Nairobi.; 2001.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K. and Wood, M. 1988a. Selecting Rhizobium phaseoli strains for use with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya . I. Ineffectiveness and tolerance of acidity and aluminium. Plant and soil, 112, 7-13.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 'Knowledge, Technology and Growth: The case study of Kamukunji Jua Kali Enterprise Cluster, World bank Institute, Washington.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. Hellen Kariuki et. al. (editors). National Palliative Care Guidelines. ( Submitted to MoH for launching). MOH; 2011. AbstractWebsite

The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.

N. WRP. "Natural Besnoitiosis in a Rabbit." Veterinary Parasitology. 1993.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "African Women Liberation: A Man's Perspective, Nairobi: Industrial Printing Works 1992.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992.the_book_abstract.pdf
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Screening herbaceous forage legumes on the basis of soil moisture utilization for integration into natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Reviewed two Papers for the Journal of Business and Management.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON, Kinyamario JI, Karue CN. "Abiotic and herbaceous vegetational characteristics of an arid rangeland in Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 117-124.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract

A two-year study was conducted with an overall objective of characterising the structure and function of an arid rangeland in Kenya. A plot measuring 100 x 100m was used for this study. Data on rainfall and temperature were recorded at the plot site whereas data on evaporation rates and relative humidity were obtained from the meteorological office near the study site. Herbaceous aboveground material was sampled at monthly intervals using a rectangular 0.25m2 quadrat frame. Clipped material was separated by species and classified dead or live by physical examination. A 5cm diameter metal soil corer was used to sample belowground plant material, at monthly intervals. The sampled material was washed with running water over 2mm sieves and classified dead or live using the vital staining technique. All weights and calculations were based on organic weight. Total aboveground standing crop ranged from 84.6g m-2 to 295.4g m-2, with a mean of 162.3 60.6g m-2. Mean monthly aboveground standing crop for 1992 and 1993 was 142.8 53.8 and 178.5 63.3g m-2 respectively. The two values were significantly different (p<0.10). Aboveground biomass yield ranged from 17.7g m-2 to 242.7g m-2, with a mean of 104.3 58g m-2 and a coefficient of variation of 58%. Mean aboveground standing crop was 59 24g m-2. Monthly values ranged from 28.8g m-2 to 120g m-2, with a 38% coefficient of variation. The range for total belowground standing crop was from 83.3g m-2 to 232.7g m-2, and a mean of 155.2 46g m-2. The values had a coefficient of variation of 30%. Mean total monthly belowground plant material yield for 1992 and 1993 was 137.6 41g m-2 and 169.9 46g m-2. The coefficients of variation were 59% and 28% respectively. The mean monthly belowground biomass yield was 51.6 33g m-2 with a coefficient of variation of 64%. Mean monthly yield for belowground dead material was 103.7 32g m-2, with a coefficient of variation of 31%. There was no significant difference (p>0.01) in the mean belowground dead material yield between 1992 and 1993. In 1992, annual NPP was 439.2g m-2, giving a net primary productivity of 1.22g m-2day-1. Monthly NPP ranged from 17.2g m-2 to 90.1g m-2. In 1993, annual NPP was 944.5g m-2, equivalent to a net primary productivity of 2.62g m-2day-1. Monthly NPP was between 27.4g m-2 and 548.6g m-2. Over the 19921993 period, NPP was 1 383.7g m-2, equivalent to a productivity of 1.92g m-2day-1. Trends in monthly NPP closely followed the trend in rainfall. On the whole, herbaceous vegetation production and productivity were episodic in nature and closely linked to rainfall. The high primary productivity puts arid and semi-arid rangelands under sharp focus as CO2 sinks, whose role in the amelioration of greenhouse effect could be more important than is currently appreciated.

N. MM. "Antiplasmodial Quinones from Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata." Planta medica. 2012; 78 :31-35. Abstract

The dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extracts of the roots of Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata showed low micromolar (IC(50) = 0.9-3 µg/mL) IN VITRO antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strains of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. Chromatographic separation of the extract of PENTAS LONGIFLORA led to the isolation of the pyranonaphthoquinones pentalongin (1) and psychorubrin (2) with IC(50) values below 1 µg/mL and the naphthalene derivative mollugin (3), which showed marginal activity. Similar treatment of Pentas lanceolata led to the isolation of eight anthraquinones ( 4-11, IC(50) = 5-31 µg/mL) of which one is new (5,6-dihydroxydamnacanthol, 11), while three--nordamnacanthal (7), lucidin-ω-methyl ether (9), and damnacanthol (10)--are reported here for the first time from the genus Pentas. The compounds were identified by NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques.

N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, with Dorothy McCormick, 2003, 'Value Chains in Small Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi: Challenges in Shifting from the Old Global Regime of Import Substitution to a More Liberalized Global Regime.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
N. IH. "Teaching Practice experiences: Invaluable insights from video-cases in Kenya." The Fountain: Journal of Educational Research. 2011;V(1):11-30.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Venant Rutunga, Kurt G. Steiner, Nancy K. Karanja, Charles K.K. Gachene and Gre.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1988 "'The Intra-Urban Location Of Manufacturing Industries In Thika", in Journal of East African Development and Research, Vol. 18 pp. 67-87.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1988.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki, Titus I. Kanui, Paul G. Kioy. Antinociceptive Potentiation of Pethidine (Demerol) by Clomipramine in the Late Phase of Formalin Test in Mice.". In: Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. EFENET; 2012. Abstract
Background: Pethidine, an opioid analgesic is used for pain management. Clomipramine a tricyclic antidepressant primarily used for mood management is also used to treat pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the potentiation of the analgesic effects of sub-threshold dose of pethidine by a tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine. Methods : The antinociceptive activities of clomipramine and pethidine alone and in combination were investigated in Swiss albino mice using the formalin test. Normal saline was employed as the control. Ten animals were used in each experiment. Results: Pethidine 5mg / kg failed to cause any significant effect while the 6.25, 7.5, 8.75 and 10.0mg /kg showed highly significant antinociceptive effect (p< 0.01) compared to the controls in the late phase of formalin test. Clomipramine 0.5 mg / kg did not show any significant effect while 0.75 mg / kg caused a significant effect (p< 0.05) while 1.00 and 1.25mg /kg caused a very highly significant antinociceptive effect (p< 0.001) in the late phase of formalin test compared to the vehicle treated animals. The combination of pethidine 5mg / kg and clomipramine 0.75mg / kg caused a highly significant antinociceptive effect (P<0.01) in the late phase of formalin test.  Conclusion: This study demonstrates a marked reduction in the time spent in pain behaviour produced by the combination of low dose pethidine and clomipramine in the late phase of formalin test. The findings demonstrate the potentiation of a narcotic analgesic by a tricyclic antidepressant.
N. KC, K. BH, V. S, V. V, K. IJ, W. OM. "Antioxidant activity of phenolics in indigenous foods.". In: International Conference on “African Nutritional Epidemiology” organized by Centre for Public Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute. Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
N. GA, Njoroge BNK, O. OJP. "Effects of Water Application Levels on Growth Characteristics and Soil Water Balance of Tomatoes in Greenhouse." International Journal of Engineering Innovation & Research. 2014;Volume 3(Issue3):ISSN: 2277-5668.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Okalebo, J.R., Karanja, N.K., Woomer, P.L., Gathua, K.W. 1994. What options do resource poor farmers have to conserve the fertility of their land? Trans.". In: 15th World Congress of Soil Science, Acapulco, Mexico 10-16 July 1994, Vol 9, 525-526.; 1994. Abstract
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N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Population policy Guidelines for the National Council on Population and Development (NCPD), GoK, April 1983 - (now Sessional Paper No. 4 of 1984) - was a Member of the Task Force.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. WACHEGEPATRICK. CRS 202: INTRODUCTION TO THE NEW TESTAMENT. NAIROBI: CENTRE FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING ; 2010.crs_202_final_new_testament.pdf
N. WACHEGEPATRICK. CRS 561 MODERN TRENDS IN CHRISTIANITY. NAIROBI: CENTRE FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING ; 2012.crs_561modern_trends.pdf
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "African Women Liberation: A Man's Perspective, Nairobi: Industrial Printing Works, 1992 (2001 pp).". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "2003. Pastoralism and global climate change: towards realistic mitigation. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Reviewed H. Glenn Hubert and Obrien, Principles of Economics.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Nutritional characteristics of selected grass and browse species from Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Khisa, P.W., Gachene, C.K.K., Karanja, N.K. and Mureithi, J.G, 2000. Soil and nutrient losses due to erosion in a maize-legume based cropping system in Central Kenya.". In: Extended abstract in proceedings of the 4th regional Meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry (RF) 10-14th July 2000, Lilongwe, Malawi (pp. 79- 81).; 2000. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui with Ligulu, Peter and McCormick, D., 2004 "Policy and Footwear in Kenya.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; 2004.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "M.B. Meso, P.L. Woomer, N.K. Karanja, C.W. Wood and K.L. Veverica, 1999. Application of fish pond effluent to French beans through drip irrigation at Sagana, Kenya.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, Dorothy, 'Finance, Markets, and Business Environment: A Review of Literature on Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITIES OF TODDALIA ASIATICA ROOT EXTRACT USING THE FORMALIN TEST ON MICE.". In: 14th World Congress on Pain -Milan 2012. International Association for the Study of Pain; 2012. Abstract
Aim of Investigation: Approximately 80% of the world population relies on traditional healers who use herbal remedies. Seventy percent of sub Saharan Africa is reported to be using herbal medicine for management of various medical conditions. Based on anecdotal evidence, herbal remedies used in most communities are claimed to be effective and there is need to evaluate their effectiveness for the benefits to the general population. Natural products still hold the promise for the future of drug discovery in the management pain. Analgesic substances have been purified from plants resulting in the identification of novel structures with known mechanism of actions. The roots and bark of Toddalia asiatica have been traditionally used in the treatment of pain. The aim of this study is to investigate the antinociceptive activities of T. asiatica root extract using the formalin test in mice. Methods: Roots of Toddalia asiatica were sourced, air-dried, powdered and extraction done using dichloromethane and methanol in the ratio of 1:1. The extracts were then concentrated and reconstituted in 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 95% normal saline to achieve working concentrations of 50,100 and 200 mg / kg body weight. The experimental and control animals were injected intraperitoneally 1 hour prior to the experiment. 8 mice were used in each group and each animal was used once. Sensorimotor test was performed on each animal prior to the formalin test. Results: None of the animals showed sensorimotor defect. The 50mg /kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive effect in either the early or the late phase of formalin test.The 100mg / kg dose showed highly significant antinociceptive effect (p < 0.001) in the late phase (15-30 mins) of formalin test while the 200mg / kg dose showed a significant antinociceptive effect (p < 0.01) in the early phase (0-5mins) of formalin test compared to the vehicle treated animals. The 200 mg / kg dose showed no significant effect in the late phase of formalin test. Conclusions: These results suggest that the root extract of Toddalia asiatica has significant antinociceptive effects in the formalin test using mice.
N. KC, N. GJ, M. MP. "Production of shelf stable and innovative solar dried meat snacks from chevon with potential for commercialization in pastoral regions of Kenya.". In: Nairobi Innovation week, Innovate and Prosper: Strengthening Academia, Industry and Government linkages for economic growth”. University of Nairobi Nairobi; 2015.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, Nancy K. and P.L. Woomer, 1998. Legume Response to Rhizobia Inoculation and farmer awareness of Inoculants in East and Southern Africa. (eds. J.A. Brink and B.A. Prior) pp. 76-91. UNESCO/BAC BETCEN: African Agricultural Research Council Pretoria,.". In: Proceedings of the sixth International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF) 12-17 September, 1994, Harare, Zimbabwe.; 1998. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K.,1995. Contribution of biological nitrogen fixation towards food production in Africa and environmental challenges.". In: Paper presented at the TSBF/ Rockefeller Foundation Conference on " Soils Management in Eastern and Southern Africa " held in Bellagio Centre, Milan, Italy on 29th Jan. - 5th Feb. 1995.; 1995. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Arshad, M.A., Mureria, N.K., Keya, S.O. 1982. Effect of termite activity on soil microflora. Pedobiologia 24, 161-167.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1982. Abstract
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N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. ""The Church: Its Role in God's Plan of Salvation", in A. Radoli (ed), AFER, Eldoret: Gaba Publiations, February/April 2000, vol. 42 ns. 1 and 2.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.
N. WC, Wamalwa CM, Ambetsa M, Elamenya L, Osano B, Okalebo FA, Bosire KO, Wandolo G, Karimi PN. "Effect of Pesticide Exposure on SerumCholinesterase Levels among Asthmatic Children in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya. Afr. J.Pharmacol. Ther.2015. 4(1):." Afr. J.Pharmacol.. 2015;4(1):7-15. Abstractwafula_c.pdf

Effect of Pesticide Exposure on Serum Cholinesterase Levels among Asthmatic Children in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya
Caroline N. Wafula a,b,*, Cecilia M. Wamalwa a,b, Margaret Ambetsa b,c, Linet Elamenya a,b, Boniface Osano d, Dalton Wamalwa d, Faith A. Okalebo c, Kefa O. Bosire c, George Wandolo e, and Peter N. Karimi a

a Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Kenya b Ministry of Health, Kenya

c Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Kenya d Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
e Department of Human Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
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* Corresponding author: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: +254-72-3245127; Email: wafulacaroline@yahoo.com

Background: Pesticide exposure is a risk factor for asthma exacerbations in flower farm regions in the world. Data on levels of serum cholinesterase among asthmatic children exposed to pesticides in Kenya is scanty.

Objectives: To compare and identify variables which affect the concentration of serum cholinesterases in children who are exposed and unexposed to pesticides.

Methodology: The design was a comparative cross-sectional study that involved exposed and unexposed children. The study was conducted between May and July, 2014 in Naivasha, Kenya. Patients were interviewed and serum samples were analysed for cholinesterase levels. Multi-linear regression was done to identify variables that affected cholinesterase activity.

Results: Children who were exposed to pesticides had a lower median ChE activity of 5828 [IQR 4863, 6443] compared to the unexposed arm whose median was 7133 [IQR 6063, 8179]. Five predictor variables were found to be significantly associated with depression of serum cholinesterase levels. The most important predictor variable for the levels of ChE in children, was not using protective clothing by the parent [adjusted β -1457.0 (95% CI - 2594, 1319.8)]. Others were not using household pesticides [adjusted β 96.3, (95% CI 22.6, 170.0)], female sex [adjusted β - 695.7 (95% CI -1296.2, - 95.3)], non school attendance [adjusted β -1676.8 (95% CI -3371.6, 18.1)] and not taking a break after spraying [adjusted β 1105.5 (95% CI (315.0, 1895.2)].

Conclusion: Children who were exposed to pesticides had low cholinesterase levels. Parents should therefore be encouraged to wear protective gear as this conferred protection of children from the effects of pesticide exposure.

Key words: asthma, exposure, children, pesticides, cholinesterase.

Received: November, 2014

Published: March, 2015

N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Land use, ecology, and socio-economic changes in a pastoral production system. Journal of Human Ecology, 16: 83-89.". In: Journal of Human Ecology, 17: 143 . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

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