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Josyline K, Philip N, Lucy I, Paul N, Johnstone I, Osero B, Libendi D, Christopher A. "Synergistic effects of lambacyhalothrin incorporated into 1,4-dichlorobenzene for the control of sand fly and mosquito vectors in Baringo and Kirinyaga Counties, Kenya." Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences. 2018;7(1):21-27.
Josyline K, Philip N, Lucy I, Paul N, Johnstone I, Reuben R, Osero B, Chritopher A. "Effects of Lambdacyhalothrin incorporated into 1,4-Dichlorobenzene on sand fly and mosquito vectors in endemic areas of Kenya. ." Journal of Zoological Research . 2018;2(1):1-6.
Joyce N, Muturi S, Ngugi A, Gichure A, Kimotho S. "Interventions for Children with Hearing Disabilities in the Kenya Juvenile Justice System.". In: Interventions for Children with Hearing Disabilities in the Kenya Juvenile Justice System. ted States Int’l University EAMARC conference; 2016.interventions_for_children_with_hearing_disabilities_in_the_juvenile_system.pdf
Joyce G. N. Kithure, Shem O. Wandiga IJDKK. "Dynamics of Chlorpyrifos in Water from Upper Tana River in Kenya.". 2014.
JP E, J K, LW I, F H. "Description of pre-adult stages of the coconut bug, Pseudotherapthus wayi ." Journal of Insect Science . In Press.
JP E, S E, J K, LW I, B T. "Inter and intraspecific olfactory behaviour of the coconut bug, Pseudtheraptus wayi: do males search of the food then invite females?". In: Book of abstracts, Semio 11 workshop. ICIPE, NAIROBI - KENYA; 2011.
JP E, S E, J K, LW I. "Biology of the coconut bug Pseudotheraptus wayi on French Beans. ." Journal of Insect Science . Submitted.
Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L, Abiy Y. "Phytochemical screening of Dierama cupuliflorum Klatt.(Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol. 2014;8(4):589-592.
Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L, Abiy Y. "Phytochemical screening of Dierama cupuliflorum Klatt.(Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol. 2014;8(4):589-592.
Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L, Abiy Y. "Antifungal activity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Gladiolus watsonoides Baker (Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol. 2014;8(9):1218-1222.
Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L, Abiy Y. "Antifungal activity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Gladiolus watsonoides Baker (Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol. 2014;8(9):1218-1222.
Judith Aguttu JKLN&. "Principals’ support of peer education and prevalence of Drugs and Substance abuse in public secondary schools in Busia County, Kenya." The International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2019;8(11):64-72.
Judith Mbau, Nyangito M, Gachene C. 2013. Land use and land cover changes analysis: Linking local communities to land use and land cover changes using participatory geographic information systems (PGIS).. Lambert Academic Publishers.; 2013. Abstract

Land use and land cover changes are important processes that influence the dynamics of human-wildlife conflicts. Effective management of human-wildlife conflicts requires the participation of local communities and other stakeholders. However, local communities need to identify and understand resource use change and their role in the process, so as to facilitate uptake of appropriate land resource management strategies aimed at counteracting human-wildlife conflicts. Approaches aimed at changing local community behavior towards natural resource use require appropriate technologies that bridge the technology and knowledge gaps between policy makers and local communities. PGIS was used to assess and educate local communities on land use and land cover changes as well as visualize the problems associated with resource changes. Local communities were found to be significantly knowledgeable about resource changes and their causes. PGIS compared well to conventional GIS analysis and therefore an appropriate technology for analysing and monitoring landuse and land cover changes.

Judth K, Vincent MO, Geoffrey KN. "Impact of longterm Inorganic Fertilization with Emphasis on Heavy metals, Soil pH and Total Organic Carbon on Maize Farm soils in Trans Nzoia Kenya. ." International Journal of Science and Technologe. 2014;2(11):183-188. Abstract

This research was carried out to analyze the effect of long term use of inorganic fertilizers on the Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, soil pH and TOC in maize farm soils in Kenya. Samples of soil were collected from 12 experimental sites from Kerita farm that has experienced more than 20 years of inorganic fertilizer application and 2 samples from the control site (Kiptuimet primary school), Trans Nzoia in Kenya while fertilizer samples were purchased from the nearby Kolongolo Market. Results obtained showed that the mean concentration for Cu, Pb, Cr and Zn in maize farm soils was 8.52±1.56mg/kg, 37.72±3.44 mg/kg, 42.11±3.25 mg/kg and 29.36±2.74 mg/kg, respectively while the mean concentration for Cu, Pb, Cr and Zn in the control soils was 5.12±0.71 mg/kg, 18.98±0.88 mg/kg, 19.15±1.56 mg/kg and 14.71±0.63 mg/kg respectively. The mean concentration for Cu in both the control site and maize farm soils was below the detectable limits of the instrument. Soil Ph in maize farm soils and control site was 5.034±0.25 and 6.35±0.21 respectively while soil TOC was 1.11±0.87% and 0.915±0.01% in maize farm soils and control site respectively. The results revealed that maize farm soils had higher levels of heavy metals than the control site suggesting that inorganic fertilizers had had an impact. However the concentration of these toxic elements after long term use of inorganic fertilizers did not exceed the maximum allowable levels set by the USEPA and WHO. Also the levels of these metals in the inorganic fertilizers used in the maize farms were within acceptable levels set by the USEPA and Kenyan standards. Soil pH levels showed a difference between the maize farms and the control site with control having higher pH values than the maize farm soils indicating long term application of inorganic fertilizers effect on soil pH. However both the two sites had generally a low pH of less than 7.0 which was attributed to the composition of the parent rock from which the soils were formed and inherent factors affecting soil pH
which cannot be changed. There was a difference in total organic carbon values between the maize farms and the control site with higher values of TOC in maize farm soils compared to the control site indicating that long-term chemical fertilizer application alone can increase soil total organic carbon.
Keywords: Heavy Metals, Soil pH, TOC, Fertilizers, Maize Farms, Kenya

Judy, Onyancha. "Makosa katika Vyombo Vya Habari’; Kiswahili na Utandawazi.". In: CHAKAMA. Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD), Nairobi; 2014.
Judy O. Changamoto Za Mikondo Mipya ya Utunzi wa Mashairi. Nairobi: Kenyatta University ; 2016.
Judy Kimaru1*, Henry Mutembei2 JKM2. "Effectiveness of Drought Risk Reduction Policies: Case Study of Hay Production in Kajiado County, Kenya." American journal of Climate Change. 2021;(10):512-532.
JULIUS MRMWAKAMUTISO. "Offshore wind power potential in the Kenyan coastal strip-To be submitted in the East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Survey Review, Vol. 34, No 263, London. Longhorn; 2007. Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
Julius KC, Abungu NO. "A GA/IPSO BASED APPROACH FOR SYSTEM LOSS REDUCTION AND VOLTAGE PROFILE IMPROVEMENT EMPLOYING ARITHMETIC CROSSOVER AND MUTATION." International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology. 2013;5(7):1501-1510. Abstractijest13-05-07-074.pdfClick here to read more...

Reduction of system losses and improvement of voltage profile is one of the key aspects in power system operation. Though many methods are used to achieve this aspect, Distributed Generation (DG) has found increased usage nowadays due to its many advantages. Majority of algorithms proposed in this area have emphasized on real power losses only in their formulations. In modern practical power systems reactive power injection plays a critical role in voltage stability control, thus the reactive power losses need to be incorporated in optimizing DG allocation for voltage profile improvement. This paper aims at solving this problem by proposing a hybrid of GA and IPSO to optimize DG location and size while considering both real and reactive power losses. The hybrid technique aims at inheriting the good traits from the two techniques while avoiding the undesirable ones. Arithmetic crossover and mutation has being employed in the proposed algorithm.

JULIUS MRMWAKAMUTISO. "Mean velocity and strain field in an axisymmetric flow. Bibliotheque nationale du Canada, 1996.". In: Survey Review, Vol. 34, No 263, London. Longhorn; 1996. Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
Julius A. Ogeng’o, Charles O. Masaki SSJMAMRMK. "Variant anatomy of renal arteries in a Kenyan population." Annal of Transplantation. 2010;15(1)(15(1)):1-6.
Julius A. Ogeng’o, Moses M. Obimbo. "Profile of Congenital Lower Limb Defects In A Rural Kenyan Hospital and Literature Review." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2013;2(1):105-107.
Julius J. Okello, Margaret J. Hutchinson AM'ombe JAFOMM. "Consumer Demand for Value-added Products of African Indigenous Vegetables in Coastal Kenya: The Case of Sun-dried and Frozen Cowpea Leaves." Journal of Agriculture, food systems, and community Development. . 2015:1-18.
Julius Juma O. "Does use of ICT-based market information services (MIS) improve welfare of smallholder farm households: Evidence from Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The need to provide agricultural information to farmers has led to emergence of numerous ICT-based MIS projects in developing country. These projects aim at promoting commercialization of smallholder agriculture and subsequently their welfare. This study examines the welfare effects of one such project in western Kenya. It uses household food security and access to medical health services as proxies of welfare. The study finds that farmers that use ICT-based market information are more food secure and have better access to medical health services than their counterpart. It highlights policy implications of these findings.

JUMA MROMOLLOPETER. "ICT Relevance to the remote lake region." P Juma; 2010. Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Juma BW, Kariuki S, Waiyaki PG, Mutugi MW, Bulimo WD. "Molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance genes in isolates obtained from patients with diarrhea in Machakos District Hospital, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5:118-127. Abstractjuma_b_et_al_2016.pdf

Background: Diarrhea caused by Enterobacteriaceae such as Shigella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) is endemic throughout the world, and is one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. There is a range of antibiotics that can be used for treatment among them quinolones. However, there is emerging increase in microbial resistance to quinolones use, with E. coli and Shigellae among the species of bacteria commonly associated with quinolone resistance. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of quinolone resistance genes in Shigellae and E. coli from patients presenting with diarrhea in Machakos District Hospital. Methods: Bacteria isolates were identified to species level by biochemical methods and serology and thereafter tested for 12 different antibiotics including quinolones, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides. Those resistant to quinolones with a zone diameter of ≤20 mm were tested for the presence of quinolone resistance genes using PCR. The gyrA resistance genes were further analyzed by sequencing to determine mutations within the quinolone resistance regions. Results: There were different E. coli pathotypes and Shigellae spp. They resisted more than four antibiotics: Ciprofloxacin (4%), (Chloramphenical (28%), Cotrimoxazole (78%), Co-amoxilav (70%) Erythromycin (98%) Cefotoxime (18%) and Tetracycline (56%). Mutations responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance in the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes of E. coli and Shigella spp were: gyrA (17/30, 36%) gyrB (7/30, 23.3%) topoisomerase (parC 3/30, 10%) parE (3/30, 10%). Discussion: There is an increase in fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigellae and E.coli which points to a major challenge in current treatment strategies. In addition, detection of high resistance found to commonly used antibiotics should serve as a warning call for close surveillance and understanding of the epidemiology of the resistance. Key words:

JUMA DRMUSEMBIROBINSON. "Highly Structured TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS to be used in Photovoltaic.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. Comptes Rendus Chimie 9 5-6 (2006) 73-734.; 2006. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Juma G, Chimtawi M, Ahuya PO, Njagi PGN, Rü BL, Magoma G, Silvain J-F, Calatayud P-A. Distribution of chemo- and mechanoreceptors on the antennae and maxillae of Busseola fusca larvae. PO Box 62000, Nairobi, Kenya: 4Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2008.abstracts_juma.pdf
JUMA DRMUSEMBIROBINSON. "Transport Mechanism Studies of ETA Solar Cell.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. Proceedings Conclave of Afro ; 2010. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Juma M, Sankaradoss A, Ndomb R, Mwaura P, Damodar T, Nazir J, Pandit A, Khurana R, Masika M, Chirchir R, Gachie J, Krishna S, Sowdhamin R, Anzala O, Iyer MS. "Antimicrobial resistance profiling and phylogenetic analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates from Kenya in resource limited setting." Frontiers in Microbiology. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background: Africa has one of the highest incidences of gonorrhea. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is gaining resistance to most of the available antibiotics, compromising treatment across the world. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is an efficient way of predicting AMR determinants and their spread in the population. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies like Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) have helped in the generation of longer reads of DNA in a shorter duration with lower cost. Increasing accuracy of base-calling algorithms, high throughput, error-correction strategies, and ease of using the mobile sequencer MinION in remote areas lead to its adoption for routine microbial genome sequencing. To investigate whether MinION-only sequencing is sufficient for WGS and downstream analysis in resource-limited settings, we sequenced the genomes of 14 suspected N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods: Using WGS, the isolates were confirmed to be cases of N. gonorrhoeae (n = 9), and there were three co-occurrences of N. gonorrhoeae with Moraxella osloensis and N. meningitidis (n = 2). N. meningitidis has been implicated in sexually transmitted infections in recent years. The near-complete N. gonorrhoeae genomes (n = 10) were analyzed further for mutations/factors causing AMR using an in-house database of mutations curated from the literature.

Results: We observe that ciprofloxacin resistance is associated with multiple mutations in both gyrA and parC. Mutations conferring tetracycline (rpsJ) and sulfonamide (folP) resistance and plasmids encoding beta-lactamase were seen in all the strains, and tet(M)-containing plasmids were identified in nine strains. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 10 isolates into clades containing previously sequenced genomes from Kenya and countries across the world. Based on homology modeling of AMR targets, we see that the mutations in GyrA and ParC disrupt the hydrogen bonding with quinolone drugs and mutations in FolP may affect interaction with the antibiotic.

Conclusion: Here, we demonstrate the utility of mobile DNA sequencing technology in producing a consensus genome for sequence typing and detection of genetic determinants of AMR. The workflow followed in the study, including AMR mutation dataset creation and the genome identification, assembly, and analysis, can be used for any clinical isolate. Further studies are required to determine the utility of real-time sequencing in outbreak investigations, diagnosis, and management of infections, especially in resource-limited settings.

Juma DW, Omondi AA, Ingasia L, Opot B, Cheruiyot A, Yeda R, Okudo C, Cheruiyot J, Muiruri P, Ngalah B, Chebon LJ, Eyase F, Johnson J, Bulimo WD, Akala HM, Andagalu B, Kamau E. "Trends in drug resistance codons in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase genes in Kenyan parasites from 2008 to 2012." Malar. J.. 2014;13:250. Abstractjuma_et_al2014.pdf

Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), an antifolate, was replaced by artemether-lumefantrine as the first-line malaria drug treatment in Kenya in 2004 due to the wide spread of resistance. However, SP still remains the recommended drug for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women and infants (IPTP/I) owing to its safety profile. This study assessed the prevalence of mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) genes associated with SP resistance in samples collected in Kenya between 2008 and 2012.

Juma BW, Kariuki S, Waiyaki PG, Mutugi MM, Bulimo WD. "The prevalence of TEM and SHV genes among Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2016;5(1):1-7.juma_et_al_2016.pdf
Juma FD, Nganga JN, Mathenge SG, Kato A, Tachibana Y, Ichimaru M, Moriyasu M, Nishiyama Y. "Acyclic triterpenoids from Ekebergia capensis.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

From the dried bark of Ekebergia capensis, two novel acyclic triterpenoids, 2,3,22,23-tetrahydroxy-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-6,10,14,18-tetracosatetraene and 2-hydroxymethyl-2,3,22,23-tetrahydroxy-6,10,15,19,23-pentamethyl-6,10,14,18-tetracosatetraene were isolated, along with known cyclic triterpenoids. The structures of these two new triterpenoids were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

Juma DW, Omondi AA, Ingasia L, Opot B, Cheruiyot A, Yeda R, Okudo C, Cheruiyot J, Muiruri P, Ngalah B, Chebon LJ, Eyase F, Johnson J, Bulimo WD, Akala HM, Andagalu B, Kamau E. "Trends in drug resistance codons in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase genes in Kenyan parasites from 2008 to 2012." Malar J. 2014;13:250. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Juma FD, Nganga JN, Mathenge SG, Kato A, Ichimaru M, Moriyasu M, Nishiyama Y. "Absolute configurations of two acyclic triterpenoids from Ekebergia capensis.". 1999. Abstract

The absolute configurations of two acyclic triterpenoids 1 and 2, previously isolated from the bark of Ekebergia capensis (Meliaceae) have been determined by the modified Mosher's method.

Juma BW, Kariuki S, Waiyaki PG, Mutugi MW, Bulimo WD. "Molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance genes in isolates obtained from patients with diarrhea in Machakos District Hospital, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5. Abstract
n/a
JUMA DRMUSEMBIROBINSON. "Highly Structured TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS for Photovoltaic Application.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 89 (2005) 13 -19.; 2005. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
JUMA DRMUSEMBIROBINSON, PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Intensity and Temperature Dependent Characterization of eta Solar Cell.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. Physica Status Solidi; 2008. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Juma WP, Akala HM, Eyase FL, Muiva LM, Heydenreich M, Okalebo FA, Gitu PM, Peter MG, Walsh DS, Imbuga M, Yenesew A. "Terpurinflavone: An antiplasmodial flavone from the stem of Tephrosia Purpurea." Phytochemistry letters. 2011;4(2):176-178. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

Description
The stem extract of Tephrosia purpurea showed antiplasmodial activity against the D6 (chloroquine-sensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 10.47 ± 2.22 μg/ml and 12.06 ± 2.54 μg/ml, respectively. A new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone, along with the known compounds lanceolatin A, (−)-semiglabrin and lanceolatin B have been isolated from this extract. The new compound, terpurinflavone, showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.12 ± 0.28 μM (D6) and 6.26 ± 2.66 μM (W2). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

Juma RM. "HE WAS NOW TRASH (a poem)." BOUNDLESS VOICES; 2004. Abstract
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Juma FD, Masataka M, Nganga JN. "Studies on African Medicinal Plants: Alkaloidal Constituents of Uvaria acuminata and Uvaria lucida.". 1997. Abstract

African medicinal plants Uvaria acuminata and Uvaria lucida were examined for their alkaloidal constituents. Three alkaloids, (-)-anolobine, (-)-anonaine, and (+)-reticuline were isolated from U. acuminata, and four alkaloids, (-)-anolobine, (+)-reticuline, (-)-asimilobine, and (-)-discretamine from U. lucida. Furthermore, HPLC profiles of the alkaloidal fractions of both plants were studied.

Juma G, Ahuya PO, Ong’amo G, LeRu BP, Magoma G, Silvain J-F, Calatayud P-A. "Influence of plant silicon in Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae – Poaceae interactions." BULLETIN OF ENTOMOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 2015:DOI: 101017/S000748531500005X.
Juma F, Ogada T. "Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide in Kenyan Africans.". 1983. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide was studied in 10 Kenyan Africans with Hodgkins lymphoma. The mean +/- s.d. elimination half-life (t1/2) was 7.5 +/- 1.38 h. The mean +/- s.d. volume of the central compartment (V1) was 0.35 +/- 0.12 l/kg and the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.64 +/- 0.06 l/kg. The microconstants k21, k12 and k10 were 1.81 +/- 0.84 h-1, 1.90 +/- 1.080 h-1 and 2.05 +/- 0.86 h-1 respectively (mean +/- s.d.).

Juma T, Mwango GN, Mulama B. "Transperineal ultrasound for anorectal malformation assessment at a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." East and Central Africa Journal of Surgery. 2019;24(3).
Juma GS, Mutai BK, Ngaina JN. "Socio-Economic Valuation of Information for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: A Case of Farmers’ Responses in Kakamega County ." BEST: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences. 2015;3(12):89-104.
Juma BW, Kariuki S, Waiyaki PG, Mutugi MM, Bulimo WD. "The prevalence of TEM and SHV genes among Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics Vol. 2016;5:1-7. Abstract
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JUMA DRMUSEMBIROBINSON. "Solar Cell with Extremely Thin Absorber (eta) Based on Novel eta Concept.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. , Africa Journal of Science and Technology; 2008. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Juma G, Thiongo M, Dutaur L, Rharrabe K, Marion-Poll F, Ru LB, Magoma G, Silvain J-F, Calatayud P-A. Two sugar isomers influence host plant acceptance by a cereal caterpillar pest. PO Box 62000 Nairobi, Kenya:: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, ; 2012.abstracts_juma.pdf
Juma FO, Massawe E, Wasonga VO. Helping Pastoralists to Help Themselves. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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JUMA MUSEMBIROBINSON, ADUDA BERNARD O. "Intensity and Temperature Dependent Characterization of eta Solar Cell.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Physica Status Solidi; 2008. Abstract

This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.

Juma FD, Koech DK, Kasili EG, Ogada T. "Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide in Kenyan African children with lymphoma.". 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of cyclophisphamide have been extensively discussed in adult man.A few studies have been done to compare the pharmacokinetics of this important anticancer agent in children and adults of a comparable population

Jumba MM, Mirza NB, Mwaura FB. "Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi antibodies in Kenya.". 1995. AbstractWebsite

The distribution of Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A. and S. paratyphi C. agglutinins among 364 sera from a randomly selected group of healthy individuals in Nairobi and Naivasha (Kenya) were analysed in relation to bacteriologically confirmed cases of typhoid fever at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Out of these, 30% of the healthy individuals had no detectable Widal titres. Overall agglutinin titres obtained for the healthy population showed that 96% of the individuals had low level reactivity with titres < 1:80 for both H and O antigens of S. typhi, while 4% had titres of 1:160 or above. Agglutinins for S. paratyphi A and C were rarely present in the sera tested. Age and sex were found to have no effect on antibody titre distribution in the two populations but differences in the water source may have affected the percentage of positive tests recorded. In this typhoid endemic region titres upto 1:80 are not uncommon but both H and O titres of 1:160 and above found in conjunction with the clinical picture may be taken to be suggestive of typhoid fever.

Jumba G, Gachara G, Bulimo W. Neuraminidase Inhibitor activities on Influenza B isolates obtained in Kenya, 2011-2012. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Introduction: Oseltamivir and zanamivir are neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) with important roles as drugs for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza. Whereas there have been reports of in vivo resistance of influenza B viruses to NAIs, currently there is lack of information regarding sensitivity or resistance to these drugs in influenza B viruses circulating in Kenya. Here, we report the isolation of influenza B viruses, phenotypic assessment to NAI activities and molecular characterization of NAI-relevant mutations in viruses that circulated in Kenya in the period 2011-2012. Materials and Methods: Influenza B viruses were isolated from patient nasopharyngeal specimens by inoculation onto MDCK monolayers. For phenotypic determination, enzyme inhibition assay using fluorescent MUNANA substrate was used. Known NA inhibitor-resistant and inhibitor-sensitive viruses were included in the assays as controls. IC50 values were determined using curve fitting implemented in Grafit version 7.0 software which is based on 50% of fitted upper asymptote. For molecular characterization of the mutations relevant in NAI resistance, RNA was extracted from the isolates followed by PCR amplification of NA gene segments using gene-specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons were performed using the Sanger dideoxy termination chemistry implemented using the BigDye technology prior to analyses using a suite of bioinformatics tools. Results and Discussion: Twenty four influenza B viruses were isolated and assed in this study. The mean IC50s of the isolates ranged from 17.1nM - 70.1nM for Oseltamivir and 0.0nM - 12.6nM for Zanamivir which were all within the 2011 WHO sensitive limits of 8-128nM for oseltamivir carboxylate and 0.5-12nM for Zanamivir. None of the isolates analyzed depicted oseltamivir or Zanamivir resistance at the eight amino acid positions E119, R152, D198, I222, S250, H274, R371, and G402 in the neuraminidase protein previously found to be associated with resistance or reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir and/or zanamivir. In conclusion, NAIs drugs were effective in treating influenza cause type B viruses during the 2011-2012 Kenyan seasons.

Jumba A,(Ed.) IBL. "Capitalizing Art Education: Mapping International Histories – A Commentary.". In: International Handbook of Research in Arts Education. Springer International Handbooks of Education, Vol. 16. Amsterdam: Springer Science ; 2007.
Jumba IO, Wandiga SO, MARUFU L, KITUYI E, HUBER B, ANDREAE MO, HELAS G. "Carbon Monoxide and nitric oxide from biofuel fires in Kenya." Energy Conversion and Management 42, 1517-1542.. 2001. Abstract

Emission ratios (ER) of CO and NO relative to CO2 are reported from real time emission measurements on biofuel fires in Kenya. The experiments were based on available fuels burning in local popular traditional and improved stoves. The mean dCO/dCO2 ratios were 71, 79 and 74 mmol molt-1for firewood, charcoal and agricultural residues, respectively, while the corresponding mean d/NO/d/CO2 ratios for these fuels, in the same order, were 1.8, 2 and 2.2 mmol molt-1, respectively. Whereas stove design characteristics largely influenced the dCO/dCO2 ratios, the fuel nitrogen content was the major factor determining the dCO/dCO2 ratios. The dCO/dCO2 ratio for fuel derived NO is not affected by fire temperature but linearly depend on the fuel nitrogen content. Other important fuel parameters that influenced the observed emission ratio patterns include fuel moisture content, size and volatile matter content in the case of charcoal. In comparison to savanna and forest fires, biofuel fires tend to favour formation of reduced or partially oxidised compounds. It is clear that a change in energy preference up the "energy ladder" leads to a reduction in the CO ER, an important result for emission mitigation policy design.
© 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Etd.
Keywords: Trace gases: Emission ratios; Biofuels; Stoves; Biomass burning

Jumba A. "Reflective action research in social ministry.". In: International Handbooks (Chapters/Commentaries) . Nairobi, Kenya: Paulines Publications; 2009.
Jumba IO, S.O. W, V. M, H. K. "Impacts of Pesticides on human health and the environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences. 2014;2(3):1-14.
Jumba IO, Wandiga SO. "Worker exposure and health risks from volatile organic compounds utilized in the paint manufacturing industry in Kenya.". In: Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene (U.S.A.)16 (11):1035-1042. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

This study provides a means for the evaluation of cleaner manufacturing and the provision of cost-effective worker health improvements in developing nations. Individual worker exposure to volatile organic compounds was measured in the paint manufacturing plants of Nairobi, Kenya. A variety of different paint production jobs were monitored, including laboratory researchers, mixers, tinters, fillers, cleaners, raw materials deliverers, and resins producers.
Exposure levels were calculated based on a time-weighted average over an entire 8-10 hour workday. The paint solvents used can cause both acute and chronic health problems for the workers exposed. For example, over half of the or-ganics monitored, i.e. benzene, styrene, and xylene, exhibit carcinogenic properties. The lifetime cancer risk from exposure to these paint solvents was estimated utilizing published cancer potencies, and the risks range from 1.90 x 10-4for raw materials deliverers to 2.60 x 10-2for cleaners.
The highest exposure tasks included cleaning the mixing vats and mixing the paint product, ranging from risks of 8.5 x 10-4 to 2.6 x 10-2, providing evidence that solvent exposure occurs due to point sources. Because of this, simple and inexpensive technologies should significantly reduce the excess exposure of workers in these manufacturing facilities. The cost of minor innovations in the plants themselves, such as fans, drum and mixing vat covers, and respirators, could amount to as much as five times less than the estimated cost of treating workers who develop cancer due to paint solvent exposure.
Keywords Benzene Exposure, Developing Countries, Kenya, Occupational Exposure, Paint Manufacturing, Risk As-assessment, Volatile Organic Compounds

Jumba IO, Wandiga SO, LALAH JO, YUGI PO, BARASA MW. "The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in marine samples along the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya.". In: Environmental Technology (U.K.) 23, 1235-1246. Association of Africa Universities; 2002. Abstract

The concentrations of organochlorine residues of lindane, aldrin, <*- endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT in samples of seawater, sediment, fish and seaweed from different locations along the coast of Kenya are discussed in relation to the geographical location of the sampling sites and potential sources of residue over a period of two years. All sediment samples were found to contain very low levels of organic carbon except those sampled from Sabaki River that had high (4.7%) organic carbon due to greater primary activity. Most of the pesticides residues (112 samples analysed in 1997 and 258 analysed in 1998/99) were detected in fish, water, sediments and seaweed. The concentration of some residues was higher during the wet season than the dry season in 1997, but no marked seasonal variation was observed in 1998/99. Lindane, aldrin, p,p'-DOT and p,p'-DDE were the most frequently observed residues in all samples while «-endosulfan, dieldrin, p,p'-DDD and endrin were either present in low concentrations or absent in most samples. Water samples had the lowest concentrations of residues (range 0.503 - 9.025 ng g'1). Sediments had the second highest levels of pesticides residues with a range of 0.584 - 59.00 ng g'1 while fish lipid content had the highest levels of residues in 1989/99 with p,p'-DDT concentration of 1011 ng g'1 and 418 ng g"1 p,p'-DDD 'mSiganus rivulatus.

Jumba IO, Mwanzia J, Kock RA, Wambua J, Siagi A, Kisia SM. "Status of some Trace elements in Waterbuck (Kobus ellypsiprymnus defassa) in relation to soil and forage composition and implications for animal health in Lake Nakuru Park.". In: Research and Planning Workshop on use of Research Findings in the conservation and management of biodiversity. KWS- Nakuru: KWS; 1994:.
Jumba A. Students’ Constructions of Citizenship in the United States: A Study of the 11th Grade students. Urbana-Champaign: . Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press. (314 pages); 2004.
Jumba A, Grace IGR, O’Keefe(Eds.) J. "The Challenge of curriculum in Kenya’s Primary and secondary education: The response Catholic of the Catholic Church.". In: International Handbook of Catholic Education: Challenges for School Systems in the 21st Century Volume II. Amsterdam: Springer Science. (PP.615-632); 2007.
Jumba IO, ODUOR FD, Wandiga SO. "Evaluation of the trace mineral Status of lactating during cattle in Trans Nzoia District, Western Kenya. In: A.M. Roussel, R. A. Anderson and E., E. Favier eds." TRACE ELEMENTS IN MAN AND ANIMALS. 2000;10:786. Abstract

A number of diseases and production problems have been observed in grazing ruminants in many countries around the I world Some of these problems and health effects have been attributed to dietary imbalances in mineral supply and appear \ to be geographically distributed. Grazing cattle require different levels of minerals in their diet depending on the stage of class of development; young and growing, lactating or pregnancy. Common findings indicate that the lactating and young} and growing animals are the most vulnerable to mineral problems, thus providing a sufficient ground for their choice in\ experimental studies. In this preliminary review of the project, the nutritional status of cattle grazing on a range of farms in \ Irons Nzoia District are assessedfrom the mineral content of blood from young and growing as well as lactating animals] sampled during the dry and wet seasons of the study period. Data -will be evaluated in terms of established criteria normality.

Jumba IO, Wandiga SO, KITUYI E, MARUFU L, HUBER B, ANDREAE MO, HELAS G. "Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 83-99. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

Abstract
A questionnaire survey was conducted in rural and urban Kenya to establish biofuel consumption rates and patterns. The survey targeted households, commercial catering enterprises and public institutions such as schools and colleges. Firewood was the main biofuel used, mostly by rural households, who consumed the commodity at average consumption rates in the range 0.8-2.7 kg cap"1 day~'. Charcoal was mostly consumed by the urban households at weighted average rates in the range 0.18-0.69kgcap~' day"1. The consumption rates and patterns for these fuels by restaurants and academic institutions, and those for crop residues are also reported. The rates largely depended on the fuel availability but differed significantly among the three consumer groups and between rural and urban households. Other factors which may have influenced consumption rates are discussed. Although good fuelwood sufficiency was reported in the country in 1997, there were increasing difficulties in accessing these resources by most households, a situation having both short- and long-term implications for biofuel consumption rates and patterns. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Biofuels; Per capita consumption; Kenya

Jumba. IO, Kisia 1 SM, Kock' K. "Animal Health Problems Attributed to Environmental Contamination in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya: A Case Study Strongly suggest Heavy Metal Poisoning in the Waterbuek Kohiis cllipsiprymnus dcfassa (Ruppel 1K35)." ARCHIVES OF Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2007;vol 52(DOL: 10.1007/s00244-005-0241-2):270-281. Abstract

Abstract. A study was conducted in which samples ol soil. forage, as well as serum, bone, kidney, and liver of waterbuck were collected from Lake Nakuru National Park. The objective was to determine the ecosystem health status in older to establish the causes of animal health problems previously re¬corded in some sections of the Paik. Trace element analysis in serum indicated occurrence ol copper (Cu) deficiency in the north and eastern sections of the Park where mean values were marginal (range: 0.36-0.81. mean: 0.62 mg/1) compared to concentrations recorded in the western part of the Park (range: 0.69 1.48. mean: 1.22 mg/l). Bone analysis on dry matter basis (DM) indicated higher (p < 0.01) levels of cadmium (Cd. 0.437 nig/kg), fhioride (F, 3178 mg/kg). and lead (Pb. 20.62 mg/kg) in animals from the east compared to those from the west (0.002. 1492, 4.87 mg/kg. respectively), suggesting heavy exposure. In addition, samples from the east had much lower than normal calcium (Ca)-to-phosphorus (P) ratios (mean: 1.9:1) compared to those recorded in the west (2.2:1). suggesting poor bone minerali/ation There was a higher concentration of Cd in the kidney (16.24 mg/kg. p < 0.05) and Pb in the liver (58.3 mg/kg. /; < 0.01) in animals from the east compared to those in the west (12.92 and 36.2 mg/kg, respectively), but the converse was true of Cu The liver Cu status was better in animals from the west with, concentrations (mean: 21.7 mg/kg) being about twice those recorded in the east (11.9 mg/kg DM). Forage analysis revealed prospects of Ca, P, and Cu deficiencies in the entire Park. However, in the northeastern section of the Park (measuring 50 ha) where waterbuck residence times are high, forage concentrations of Cd (0.31 mg/kg DM), molybdenum (Mo. 7.20 mg/kg DM). Pb (2.88 mg/kg DM), and /inc (7.n. 126 mg/kg DM) were an order of magnitude greater (p < 0.01) than the levels recorded in the rest of the Park (ranges: 0.133 0.165, 3.69 5.61. 0.485 0.621. 11.6 17.4 mg/kg DM, respectively). These disparities were attributed to a higher soil concentration of CM (2.77 mu/ku DM). Pb (85.1 msi/k DM) and 7,n (1414mg/kg DM i n this section compared lo the rest of the Park (ranges; 0 Id o 15. 5.02 6.26. 1,49 5.44 mg/kg DM. respec¬tively), and su»ngly suggest heavy metal contamination as the source ol annual health problems in the Park.

Jung B, Rimmele T, Goff CL, Chanques G, Corne P, Jonquet O, Muller L, Lefrant J-Y, Guervilly C, Papazian L, Allaouchiche B, Jaber S, firstName \$author.lastName \$author. "Severe metabolic or mixed acidemia on intensive care unit admission: incidence, prognosis and administration of buffer therapy. a prospective, multiple-center study." Critical Care. 2011;15:R238. AbstractWebsite

In this study, we sought describe the incidence and outcomes of severe metabolic or mixed acidemia in critically ill patients as well as the use of sodium bicarbonate therapy to treat these illnesses. PMID: 21995879

Jung'a" "JO, Mitema" "ES, Gutzeit" "HO. "Establishment and comprative analysis of different culture conditions of primary hepatocytes from nile tilapia (oreochmis niloticus) as a model to study stress induction in vitro." In Vitro Cell.Dev.Biol.-Animal. 2005;41:1-6. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.

Junginger A, Olago DO, Trauth MH. "The palaeo-lake Suguta and its importance for understanding lake level fluctuations in the East African Rift System.". 2010. AbstractThe palaeo-lake Suguta and its importance for understanding lake level fluctuations in the East African Rift System

We studied the most recent dry-wet-dry cycle in the presently arid Suguta Valley in the Northern Kenya Rift where a 300-m-deep lake has formed during the so-called African Humid Period (AHP, 14.8-5.5 ka BP). Hydromodeling suggests that a relatively moderate 25% increase in precipitation was responsible for this dramatic lake level rise, which demonstrates the character of the Suguta Valley as an amplifier lake system. To detect the response of this lake system to climate fluctuations and their possible driving mechanisms with a focus on abrupt vs. gradual changes, we reconstructed a palaeo-lake level record for the time between 14 and 5 ka BP from up to 40 m thick lake-sediment sequences at three locations in the ~2,500 km2 palaeo-lake Suguta area. The sediments have been investigated for sediment characteristics such as grain size distributions, detrital and authigenic mineral phases, geochemical properties and microfossil assemblages. The stratigraphy for the sequences is based on 38 AMS 14C ages of biogenic carbonate and charcoal samples. Parallel dating of charcoal and snail-shell samples show age differences between 1,570-2,240 years suggesting a remarkably high, but well-defined reservoir age for palaeo-Lake Suguta most likely due to aged groundwater or 14C depleted CO2 degassing from active volcanoes. The observed reservoir effect highlights the potential problems while correlating East African lake level records with chronologies based on 14C datings of aquatic materials. The new chronology of water level fluctuations in the amplifier-lake Suguta indicates a general dry-wet-dry cycle synchronous with other lake chronologies during the AHP and multiple short-term fluctuations with abrupt lake level drops between 100 to 300 m within 100 to 200 years at 12.8-11.6 (during Younger Dryas time), 11.1-10.9; 10.4-10.2; 9.5-9.1; 9.0-8.8; 8.5-8.1 (during the 8.2 ka event) cal ka BP that seem to be linked with changes in the coupling between atmosphere and ocean systems. In contrast, the termination of the overall lake episode during the AHP shows a relatively gradual (linear) response to the reduction of solar heating due to insolation changes. The results of the analysis provides new insights into the sensitivity of Rift Valley lakes to climate change on different time scales. Abrupt climate shifts most likely caused dramatic environmental pressure on the biosphere, including humans that were already able to adopt relatively quickly to environmnetal change by new technologies during this time.

Juno JA, Stalker AT, Waruk JLM, Julius Oyugi, Kimani M, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Fowke KR. "Elevated expression of LAG-3, but not PD-1, is associated with impaired iNKT cytokine production during chronic HIV-1 infection and treatment." Retrovirology. 2015;12:17. Abstract

LAG-3 is a potent negative regulator of the immune response but its impact in HIV infection in poorly understood. Unlike exhaustion markers such as PD-1, Tim-3, 2B4 and CD160, LAG-3 is poorly expressed on bulk and antigen-specific T cells during chronic HIV infection and its expression on innate lymphocyte subsets is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess LAG-3 expression and association with cellular dysfunction on T cells, NK cells and iNKT cells among a cohort of healthy and HIV-infected female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.

Juno J, Tuff J, Choi R;, Card C, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Koesters-Kiazyk S, Ball BT, Farquhar C, Plummer FA, John-Stewart G, Luo M, Fowke KR. "The role of G protein gene GNB3 C825T Polymorphism in HIV-1 acquisition, progression and immune activation.". 2012. Abstract

The GNB3 C825T polymorphism is associated with increased G protein-mediated signal transduction, SDF-1α-mediated lymphocyte chemotaxis, accelerated HIV-1 progression, and altered responses to antiretroviral therapy among Caucasian subjects. The GNB3 825T allele is highly prevalent in African populations, and as such any impact on HIV-1 acquisition or progression rates could have a dramatic impact. This study examines the association of the 825T polymorphism with HIV-1 acquisition, disease progression and immune activation in two African cohorts. GNB3 825 genotyping was performed for enrolees in both a commercial sex worker cohort and a perinatal HIV transmission (PHT) cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Ex vivo immune activation was quantified by flow cytometry, and plasma chemokine levels were assessed by cytokine bead array. Results GNB3 genotype was not associated with sexual or vertical HIV-1 acquisition within these cohorts. Within the Pumwani cohort, GNB3 genotype did not affect HIV-1 disease progression among seroconverters or among HIV-1-positive individuals after adjustment for baseline CD4 count. Maternal CD4 decline and viral load increase in the PHT cohort did not differ between genotypes. Multi-parametric flow cytometry assessment of T cell activation (CD69, HLA-DR, CD38) and Treg frequency (CD25+FOXP3+) found no differences between genotype groups. Plasma SDF-1α, MIP-1β and TRAIL levels quantified by cytokine bead array were also similar between groups. Conclusions In contrast to previous reports, we were unable to provide evidence to suggest that the GNB3 C825T polymorphism affects HIV-1 acquisition or disease progression within African populations. Ex vivo immune activation and plasma chemokine levels were similarly unaffected by GNB3 genotype in both HIV-1-negative and HIV-1-positive individuals. The paucity of studies investigating the impact of GNB3 polymorphism among African populations and the lack of mechanistic studies make it difficult to assess the true biological significance of this polymorphism in HIV-1 infection.

Juno JA, Lajoie J, Stalker AT, Julius Oyugi, Kimani M, Kimani J, Plummer FA, Fowke KR. "Enrichment of LAG-3, but not PD-1, on double negative T cells at the female genital tract." Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.. 2014;72(6):534-40. Abstract

The expression of inhibitory markers such as LAG-3 and PD-1 on T lymphocytes regulates immune function. Their expression at the genital mucosa is poorly understood, but regulation of immune activation at the female genital tract likely controls susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections.

Jussi I, Mwangi MM, Kamau P, Kamau A, Njoka J. Merry Go Round: A study of Informal Self-Help Groups in Kenya. Nairobi: Nokia Research Centre - Africa; 2009.
Jussi I, -Mwangi MM, Paul Kamau, Kamau A, Njoka JM. Merry Go Round: A Study of Informal Self-Help Groups in Kenya. Nairobi: Nokia Research Africa; 2009.
Justus O. Inyega DBM. "Pre-service graduate teachers' perceptions on instructional supervision in relation to preparation and planning for teaching and learning in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2019;4(1):26-31.
JW A, J N-M, EM M, CM M. " Welfare of dairy cattle in smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and it's environs. ." Livestock Prod. for Rural Development. 2012;24(9): .
JW A, AG T, TO A, CM M. "Atypical Actinobacillosis in a cow. A case report. Bull." Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. . 2011;50:471-473.
JW A, HM M, CM M, JW G. "A retrospective Study of Reproductive Conditions in Bitches in Nairobi." The Kenya Vet. 2011;34::29-31.
JW G, J O’o, P G. "Endometriosis Diagnosis correlation of Laparoscopic visualization and histopathology confirmation in low Resource setting." Open J Obs Gyne. 2021;11(7):845-852. Abstractojog_2021071515313873.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Background: Endometriosis is enigmatic clinical entity which is described as the location of the endometrial tissue external of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis constitutes a serious health issue due to its high affliction of 10% of reproductive women. With limited resources in Africa, it is essential to assess whether diagnosis of endometriosis by laparoscopic visualization can be used as a substitute for histology. Objective: To correlate the diagnosis of endometriosis by laparoscopic visualization and the histological confirmation of the biopsy taken. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study with a sample size of 443 was undertaken in the diagnosis of endometriosis among Africans in Nairobi, Kenya from March 2019 to March 2021. Women undergoing laparoscopy were screened for endometriosis by visualization and a biopsy was taken for histopathology. Diagnosis of endometriosis by visualization was correlated with histological confirmed endometriosis. Results: Women with a diagnosis of endometriosis through laparoscopic visualization were found to be 77 (17.4%) and 30 (6.8%) had positive histology for endometriosis. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a low positive predictive value of 39%. Conclusion: Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a low positive predictive value of 39% and this did not correlate with histopathologic diagnosis. It is essential to perform biopsy with histopathology for the confirmation of endometriosis.

JW A, AN K, JD M, CM M, DN K. "Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to Babesiosis in a dog." . Res. J. Anim. Sci.. 2011; 5:14-16. Abstract

Abstract: A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to babesiosis is reported in a 5 years old male Japanese sptiz. The patient was noticed to have developed sudden dyspnoea. The main presenting clinical signs included laboured breathing, broad-base stance but preferred recumbency, pallour and seizures. Blood smears from the ear tips revealed presence of multiple Babesia parasites in the erythrocytes. Hematology results showed slight leucocytosis, severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. Additionally, urinalysis revealed renal pathology and presence of leucocytes in urine. Despite aggressive measures to stabilize the patient, it died within an hour. Autopsy results also confirmed Babesiosis with generalized icterus.

JW A, TO A, JM K, AN K, CM M. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi. ." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.. 2012;60::149-152 .
JW G, J O’o, P G. "Pattern and Clinical Presentation of Endometriosis Among the Indigenous Africans." J Gynecol Obstet . 2021;9(9):92-99. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Endometriosis is enigmatic clinical entity which is described as the existence of the endometrial tissue external of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis constitutes a serious health issue due to its high affliction of 10% in reproductive age women and its clinical manifestation of infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Despite of years of research, the causative factor and understanding of ambidextrous endometriosis pathology remains elusive, perplex and disconnected. Worldwide, there is clear documentation of prevalence of endometriosis in the development countries, however, the prevalence of endometriosis in most of black Africa is unknown. The current perspective is that indigenous African are rarely affected by endometriosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence, pattern and clinical presentation of endometriosis in indigenous African women with the primary outcome measure being the prevalence of laparoscopic visually diagnosed, histologically confirmed endometriosis and clinical presentation. Methodology: This was a prospective analytical cross-selection study in 2 hospitals in Nairobi city, Kenya. The sample size was 443 women and the duration of the study was from March 2018 to March 2021. The inclusion criteria was women aged at least 18 years up to 49 years undergoing laparoscopic surgery and willing to take part in the study. The patient’s history, clinical and laparoscopic findings and histological diagnosis were recorded and analysed using Social SPSS version 22.0. Results: The mean age of the 443 patients recruited was 33 years. The prevalence of histological confirmed endometriosis in indigenous Africans was 6.8%. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a positive predictive value of 39%. Dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain scale 8-10 and dyspareunia were significant symptoms of endometriosis P<0.001. Nulliparous patients significantly had a risk of having endometriosis p<0.001. The patients with menarche at 13 years and below had a significant risk of having endometriosis p=0.001. Physical findings on clinical examination of adnexal tenderness and findings of nodules in the pouch of Douglas were significant in relation to endometriosis p<0.001. The most common site of the histological endometriosis implants were on the Pouch of Douglas (30%) and the most common form of endometriosis was superficial (43%). Conclusion: The prevalence of endometriosis in Indigenous Africa is 6.8%. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had low a positive predictive value of 39%. Nulliparity, menarche at the age of 13 and below, dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain scale 8-10 and dyspareunia were significantly associated with endometriosis. The most common site for endometriosis is the of Pouch of Douglas whilst the most common form of endometriosis was superficial.

JW A, AN K, JD M, CM M, DN K. "Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to Babesiosis in a dog." Res. J. Anim. Sci.. 2011;5:14-16.
JW Ayugi, JA Ogeng’o IMM. "Pattern of congenital neck masses in a Kenyan paediatric population." International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology . 2010;74(1):64-66.
Jyoti Bahra, Fawzia Butt* EDFM. "Patterns of salivary tumours at a university teaching hospital in Kenya." Open Journal of Stomatology. 2012;n/a(2):280-285.sgt_2012.pdf

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