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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Omoke, K.J. & Moronge, J.M. (2004)SGP 206: Geography of Resources; Course materials for teaching B.ED science. Faculty of Science, University of Nairobi.". In: HEKIMA Publications, Faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CGP 327: Geography of Recreation and Tourism; Course materials for teaching Distance Learners, University of Nairobi.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Omoke, K.J. (July 2004) Reviewed: Air Transport and the Growth of Tourism in Kenya.". In: HEKIMA Publications, Faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CGP/SGP 106: The East African Environment - Course Materials for Teaching Distance Learners.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. and Omoke,K.J. (Aug. 1999)Population Dynamics and Forest Cover Change in West Laikipia, Kenya.". In: In Journal of the Geographical Association of Tanzania, New Series, Vol. 1. No. 1. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1999. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Ayiemba H.O. and Omoke K.J. (2000): Population settlement and forest cover dynamics in West Laikipia, Kenya.". In: In Journal of the Geographical Association of Tanzania No. 28. University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Omoke, K.J. & Moronge, J.M. (2004)SGP 203: Practical Geography; Course materials for teaching B.ED Science. Faculty of Science, University of Nairobi.". In: HEKIMA Publications, Faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CTO 302: Tourism Policy, Planning and Management.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Omoke, K.J. & Moronge, J.M. (2004)SGP 206: Geography of Resources; Course materials for teaching B.ED science. Faculty of Science, University of Nairobi.". In: HEKIMA Publications, Faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CGP/SGP 426- Demography : Course Materials for Teaching Distance Learners, University of Nairobi.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CGP 327: Geography of Recreation and Tourism; Course materials for teaching Distance Learners, University of Nairobi.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Irandu E and Omoke K.J. (1999): Tourism and African Development: change and challenge of Tourism in Kenya in third world planning review vol.22 no.4.". In: Third World Planning Review. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 2000. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. and Omoke,K.J. (Aug. 1999)Population Dynamics and Forest Cover Change in West Laikipia, Kenya.". In: In Journal of the Geographical Association of Tanzania, New Series, Vol. 1. No. 1. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1999. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Ayiemba H.O. and Omoke K.J. (2000): Population settlement and forest cover dynamics in West Laikipia, Kenya.". In: In Journal of the Geographical Association of Tanzania No. 28. University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Omoke, K.J. (July 2004) Reviewed: Air Transport and the Growth of Tourism in Kenya.". In: HEKIMA Publications, Faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
n/a
JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Omoke, K.J. & Moronge, J.M. (2004)SGP 203: Practical Geography; Course materials for teaching B.ED Science. Faculty of Science, University of Nairobi.". In: HEKIMA Publications, Faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
n/a
JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CGP/SGP 106: The East African Environment - Course Materials for Teaching Distance Learners.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
n/a
JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CTO 302: Tourism Policy, Planning and Management.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
n/a
JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CGP/SGP 426- Demography : Course Materials for Teaching Distance Learners, University of Nairobi.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
n/a
JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Irandu E and Omoke K.J. (1999): Tourism and African Development: change and challenge of Tourism in Kenya in third world planning review vol.22 no.4.". In: Third World Planning Review. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 2000. Abstract
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Japheth NR, Rukwaro PR, Wachira-Towey IN. "Management of Steel Reinforcement Works Procedures Impact on the Health of Workers in Building Construction Sites Case study of Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Entrepreneurship & Project management. 2021;Volume 5(1).
Jared Owiti Yugi, Ochanda H, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "Zea mays pollen for the optimization of colony rearing of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes under laboratory conditions." Journal of Mosquito Research. 2015;5.
Jared Owiti Yugi, Otieno-Ayayo ZN, Ochanda H, Mukabana WR. "The silver cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea as the main diet source for rearing Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes." Journal of Mosquito Research. 2014;4(1).
Jastrow H, Vollrath L. "Teaching and learning gross anatomy using modern electronic media based on the visible human project." Clinical Anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2003;16:44-54. Abstract

This article reviews online (Internet) anatomy projects and multimedia productions (books and CD-ROMs) based on the Visible Human Project (VHP) of the United States National Library of Medicine. The focus of these projects and productions is on the teaching of 3D anatomy using the digitized sections of the visible human male and female. The article also provides information about the VHP, its goals and what it has achieved thus far.

Jastrow H, Vollrath L. "Anatomy online: presentation of a detailed {WWW} atlas of human gross anatomy–reference for medical education." Clinical Anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2002;15:402-408. Abstract

We present an online anatomy atlas based on the Visible Human Project (VHP) of the US National Library of Medicine. The objective is to provide original unlabeled as well as labeled sections of the human body of high quality and resolution on the Internet, for use in basic and continuing medical education. For a representative overview of the body, 370 axial sections were selected from the male and female data base of the VHP with special regard to regions of clinical interest. Each section is accompanied by its corresponding computer tomography (CT) image and, if available, magnetic resonance images (MRI) for quick and easy comparison of morphologic and radiologic structures. The sections can be studied unlabeled or labeled according to the current Terminologia Anatomica. A linked vocabulary with more than 850 terms explains the labeling. Animations of the sections as well as of CT and MR images allow for further visualization of the topographic relationships of anatomical structures. The responses to the project indicate that students and physicians regard the Internet Atlas of Human Gross Anatomy as a most useful aid for learning and reviewing anatomical details. The atlas is accessible on: http://www.uni-mainz.de/FB/Medizin/Anatomie/workshop/vishuman/Eready.html.

Jaton JC, Huser H, Blatt Y, Pecht I. "Circular dichroism and fluorescence studies of homogeneous antibodies to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide." Biochemistry. 1975;14(24):5308-11. Abstract

The near-ultraviolet circular dichroism (CD) of three homogeneous anti-type III pneumococcal antibodies in the absence and the presence of the specific hexasaccharide ligand was studied. In addition recombinations and hybridizations of H and L chains derived from two of these antibodies were carried out and the CD spectra of bound and free reconstituted IgG molecules were measured. The results indicate that the CD spectra of the native antibodies in the 260-310-nm range are very similar in shape and sign and exhibit a positive band at 285 nm. The homologous reconstituted antibody molecules exhibited CD spectra very similar in shape and sign to those of the native antibody molecules although recombinant molecules are no longer stabilized by interchain disulfide bonds. Upon addition of the hexasaccharide ligand, a significant decrease in amplitude of the CD spectra (18-21%) occurred in all three native antibodies and their Fab fragments as well as in the homologous recombinant molecules. No CD spectral changes could be detected upon interaction of the hapten ligand with the heterologous recombinants. All homogeneous antibodies studied exhibited fluorescence quenching upon oligosaccharide binding and a blue shift of the emission maximum. This property allowed the determination of the binding constant of one selected antibody to be made. Taken together, CD and fluorescence spectroscopic data suggest that oligosaccharide ligands induced detectable conformational changes in the Fab fragment of the antibody.

Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, Mbau JS. "Organization and Performance of Water Resource Users’ associations in the Southern Rangelands of Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2017;20 (3):401-4011.
Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, S MJ. "Plant species composition and diversity depending on piospheres and seasonality in the southern rangelands of Kenya." Ecological Processes, 6(1), 16.. 2017;6(1):16.
Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, Mbau JS. "Effect of piospheres on physio-chemical soil properties in the Southern Rangelands of Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017;6:14.
Jayne M. "Adult Literacy and the Place of Kiswahili.". In: proceedings on Language Curriculum Development. Kenyatta University; Forthcoming.
Jayne M. "Languages and Society: A Gender Perspective.". In: Proceedings of Understanding Gender Inequalities. Egerton University; Forthcoming.
Jayne M. "Multilinguality and Bilingualism in Education: The Kenyan Experience .". In: Kiswahili and Globalisation. University of Dar es Salaam; Forthcoming.
Jayne M. A Dictionary and a Story Book. Nairobi: Nairobi Journal of Literature.; Forthcoming.
JC W, Matu NK, Stephen L and Laloo R., TK M, LW G. "Occurrence of red-complex aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans among patients with periodontal disease at the university of Nairobi dental hospital.". In: 32rd KDA Conference and exhibition. Sarova Panafric hotel Nairobi; 2014.
JC R, CK O, AA A. "A Rare Case of Crossed Renal Ectopia without Fusion." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2014;19(3):112-115.AJOL
JE C, ME C, Nyaga P N, Gathumbi P K, Njagi L W. "Veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual scientific conference. Safari park hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.2012-veterinary_forensic_medicine.pdf
Jedidah Nankaya, Nathan Gichuki, Lukhoba C, Balslev H. "Medicinal Plants of the Maasai of Kenya: A Review." Plants. 2020;9(44).
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET. "Refractive errors in type 2 diabetic patients. East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):259-63. PMID: 18254467 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Mwale C, Karimurio J, Njuguna M.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):259-63. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2007. Abstract

{ Mansa General Hospital, P.O. Box 710156, Chembe Road, Mansa, Luapula, Zambia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among African type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and establish the relationship between baseline refractive status and degree of glycaemic control. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Diabetic medical and eye clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). SUBJECTS: Ninety six type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. RESULTS: Ninety six patients aged 28 to 76 years were examined. The male to female ratio was 1:1.5 and about half of the patients (52.1%) had good glycaemic control. The prevalence of myopia was 39.5% and that of hypermetropia was 19.0%. Twenty two percent of the study patients had mild diabetic retinopathy (DR). Of the eyes with DR, 20% (15/75) were myopic, 19.4% (7/36) were hypermetropic and 26.6% (21/79) were emmetropic. There was no statistically significant correlation between baseline refractive status with DR (p = 0.358), or HBA1C (glycosylated haemoglobin) (rho = 0.130

JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Masinde, M. S., Karimurio, J. Epidemiology of concomitant esotropia at Kenyatta National Hospital. E. African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 42 .". In: Community Eye Health. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992. Abstract
Kenya is one of the East African countries with a coastline bordering the Indian Ocean and astride the equator. The country has an area of 225,000 square miles and a population of about 30 million people. The prevalence of blindness is estimated as 0.7%, with cataract contributing 43%, trachoma 19% and glaucoma 9%. The Kenya Ophthalmic Programme (KOP) is a Ministry of Health (MOH) programme receiving administrative support from the Kenya Society for the Blind (KSB). It started as a small project in 1956 but has grown into a major National Programme rendering comprehensive eye care (CEC) through a network of about 70 Government and NGO static and outreach service delivery points scattered all over the country. About half a million patients are treated annually.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "2001: Topic .". In: Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To identify the main barriers to utilisation of eye care services among the slum population of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Kibera slums, Nairobi City, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Randomly selected 1,438 Kibera slum dwellers aged over two years. RESULTS: Majority of subjects (83.3%) do not utilise the nearby well-established eye clinics. Twenty one percent of those with poor vision do not seek treatment at all. The main barriers to seeking eye care services were lack of money, ignorance and the problem not causing much discomfort to warrant medical attention. There was significant, association between the level of education and health seeking behaviour (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Majority of Kibera slum dwellers have no access to eye care. RECOMMENDATION: There is need to establish a comprehensive primary eye care project to provide low cost but quality services affordable to Kibera slum dwellers.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2008 May; 14(1): 42-50.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Prevalence of trachoma in six districts of Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):63-8. Karimurio J,Gichangi M,Ilako DR,Adala HS,Kilima P.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):63-8. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET. "Refractive errors in type 2 diabetic patients. East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):259-63. PMID: 18254467 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Mwale C, Karimurio J, Njuguna M.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):259-63. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2007. Abstract
{ Mansa General Hospital, P.O. Box 710156, Chembe Road, Mansa, Luapula, Zambia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among African type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and establish the relationship between baseline refractive status and degree of glycaemic control. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Diabetic medical and eye clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). SUBJECTS: Ninety six type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. RESULTS: Ninety six patients aged 28 to 76 years were examined. The male to female ratio was 1:1.5 and about half of the patients (52.1%) had good glycaemic control. The prevalence of myopia was 39.5% and that of hypermetropia was 19.0%. Twenty two percent of the study patients had mild diabetic retinopathy (DR). Of the eyes with DR, 20% (15/75) were myopic, 19.4% (7/36) were hypermetropic and 26.6% (21/79) were emmetropic. There was no statistically significant correlation between baseline refractive status with DR (p = 0.358), or HBA1C (glycosylated haemoglobin) (rho = 0.130
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2008 May; 14(1): 42-50.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the

catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi.

Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007

Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City

Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined

(96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined

to be examined.

Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only

241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti

divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival

growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by

refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects

(0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the

subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was

0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates

that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The

main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual

impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma.

Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of

blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was

refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were

cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma.

Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should

focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to

address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems

encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and

hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially

in school going children.

JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI. "Mingaine M, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Githeko K. Intraocular pressure changes in eyes receiving intravitreal acetonide in Kikuyu Eye Unit. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Dec; 15(2): 46-52.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the magnitude and pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP) changes in eyes that received intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) in Kikuyu Eye Unit. Study Design: Retrospective interventional case series. Setting: Kikuyu Eye Unit. Subjects: Seventy-two eyes (of 61 patients) injected between January 2007 and August 2008. Methods: Data on intraocular pressure (IOP), diagnosis, additional procedures and treatment was collected using questionnaires and analysed using SPSS version 11.5.  Results: The mean pre-injection IOP was 16.0 (SD 5.2) mmHg, which increased to 23.8 (SD 11.5) mmHg after IVTA injection (p<0.001). IOP started increasing significantly within 2 weeks (p=0.006). The median post-injection time before IOP peak was 4.6 weeks, and IOP remained high for 24 weeks after injection. Intraocular pressure increase of 5 mmHg or more was found in 39 (54.2%) eyes, while that of 10 mmHg or more was found in 22 (30.1%). Thirty-three eyes (45.8%) had maximum post-injection IOP beyond 21 mmHg. Twenty-two eyes (30.6%) received treatment for IOP elevation. Eyes with pre-injection IOP of more than 21 mmHg were associated with significantly higher IOP increases (p<0.001) and all received pressure-lowering medication. No associations were noticed between age, sex, other procedures, diagnosis and pattern of IOP change. Conclusions: Intraocular increase was found to be a common complication of IVTA, and the increase occurred in the first six months.  
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2008 May; 14(1): 42-50.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Karimurio J. National Prevention of Blindness Programmes and VISION 2020; Africa programme: Kenya. J. Comm Eye Health 2000; 13: 53-54.". In: J. Comm Eye Health 2000; 13: 53-54. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Abstarct not available yet.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection seen at two hospitals in Kenya.J.East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):267-70 Chisi SK,Kollmann MK,Karimurio.". In: J.East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):267-70. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Trachoma control using the who adopted "safe with azithromycin". East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):127-35. PMID: 17600982 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Karimurio J, Ilako F, Gichangi M.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):127-35. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2007. Abstract
{ Community Eye Health Training, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To report on and share the experiences, accomplishments and lessons learnt by African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Sight Savers International (SSI), University of Nairobi (UON) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) during implementation of a three year Shompole trachoma control pilot study using azithromycin. The target of the project was to reduce the prevalence of active and potentially blinding trachoma by 50% by the year 2005. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Shompole location, Magadi division, Kajiado district of the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and twenty six randomly selected households from 166 manyattas (bomas/ homesteads) proportionately distributed in all the 13 villages of the four sub-locations of Shompole location were visited. Nine hundred and ninety eight children (1-9 years) and 898 adults (215 years) were examined for active trachoma (TF) and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children has dropped from 46.4% in 2002 to 16.0% in 2006 and that of potentially blinding trachoma (TT) from 4.5% to 1.7% in the same period. Women have more TT than men. Out of the 15 cases of TT reported in the survey, only two were recurrences. The prevalence of active trachoma (TF) is higher in boys than girls
Jefitha K, Hillary R, Mesurier RL, Mwanthi M, Keeffe J. "What is the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in a survey to. estimate the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis?". 2013. Abstract

Introduction A survey to determine the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (Tl] requires a large sample size and the recommended participant age is 2': 15 years. This study sought to establish the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in Tl surveys. Methods Data from six previous surveys of adults 2': 15 years old were reanalysed. Results Reanalysis indicated that 69.6-93.3% (average 87.0%) of untreated n occurred in those aged 40+ years and 52.2-86.7% (average 73.1%) in those aged 50 + years (age 2':50 years is used in rapid assessment of avoidable blindness). Age 2':40 years was adopted in a Tl survey conducted in Turkana district because it allowed a smaller sample size than age 2':15 years. Conclusions The estimated backlog of untreated Tl in people aged 2':40 years old in Turkana was 5932 and the overall n backlog was likely to be 6358-8523. These findings cannot be generalised because all surveys were carried out in the same country.

JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Prevalence of trachoma in six districts of Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):63-8. Karimurio J,Gichangi M,Ilako DR,Adala HS,Kilima P.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):63-8. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.

JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Karimurio J, Kollmann M. Biometry in cataract camps : Experiences from north Kenya.Ophthalmologe. 2009 Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print][Article in German].". In: PMID: 19838712. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2009. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Biometry has the potential to improve refractive outcomes of cataract surgery in developing countries. However, the procedure is difficult to carry out in remote areas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The feasibility of automated biometry using portable devices was assessed in an eye camp in a remote Kenyan community and reasons for failure were documented. PC-IOLs in the range of 17-27 dioptres (dpt) were implanted and a model was created to predict spherical refractive error if a standard 22 dpt lens had been used. RESULTS: In 104 out of 131 eyes (80%) biometry was possible. Failure to obtain K-readings in eyes with coexisting corneal pathology was the main limiting factor. The calculated mean IOL strength to achieve emmetropia was 21.56 dpt with a SD=1.96 (min: 14.78 dpt, max: 27.24 dpt). If 22dpt lenses had been implanted around 20% would have had an error of more than 2 dpt and 7% an error of more than 3 dpt. CONCLUSION: Biometry is a challenging procedure in remote areas where comorbidities are common. However, without biometry and implantation of different IOL powers poor refractive outcome can be expected in around 20% of patients.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Prevalence of trachoma in six districts of Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):63-8. Karimurio J,Gichangi M,Ilako DR,Adala HS,Kilima P.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):63-8. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Masinde, M. S., Karimurio, J. Epidemiology of concomitant esotropia at Kenyatta National Hospital. E. African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 42 .". In: E. African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 13 .; 1992. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Karimurio J, Kollmann M. Biometry in cataract camps : Experiences from north Kenya.Ophthalmologe. 2009 Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print][Article in German].". In: PMID: 19838712. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Biometry has the potential to improve refractive outcomes of cataract surgery in developing countries. However, the procedure is difficult to carry out in remote areas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The feasibility of automated biometry using portable devices was assessed in an eye camp in a remote Kenyan community and reasons for failure were documented. PC-IOLs in the range of 17-27 dioptres (dpt) were implanted and a model was created to predict spherical refractive error if a standard 22 dpt lens had been used. RESULTS: In 104 out of 131 eyes (80%) biometry was possible. Failure to obtain K-readings in eyes with coexisting corneal pathology was the main limiting factor. The calculated mean IOL strength to achieve emmetropia was 21.56 dpt with a SD=1.96 (min: 14.78 dpt, max: 27.24 dpt). If 22dpt lenses had been implanted around 20% would have had an error of more than 2 dpt and 7% an error of more than 3 dpt. CONCLUSION: Biometry is a challenging procedure in remote areas where comorbidities are common. However, without biometry and implantation of different IOL powers poor refractive outcome can be expected in around 20% of patients.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "African Programme: Kenya Community Eye Health. 2000; 13 (36) : 53.". In: Community Eye Health. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Kenya is one of the East African countries with a coastline bordering the Indian Ocean and astride the equator. The country has an area of 225,000 square miles and a population of about 30 million people. The prevalence of blindness is estimated as 0.7%, with cataract contributing 43%, trachoma 19% and glaucoma 9%. The Kenya Ophthalmic Programme (KOP) is a Ministry of Health (MOH) programme receiving administrative support from the Kenya Society for the Blind (KSB). It started as a small project in 1956 but has grown into a major National Programme rendering comprehensive eye care (CEC) through a network of about 70 Government and NGO static and outreach service delivery points scattered all over the country. About half a million patients are treated annually.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Barriers to utilisation of eye care services in Kibera slums of Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):506-8 Ndegwa LK, Karimurio J, Okelo RO, Adala HS.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):506-8. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005. Abstract
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To identify the main barriers to utilisation of eye care services among the slum population of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Kibera slums, Nairobi City, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Randomly selected 1,438 Kibera slum dwellers aged over two years. RESULTS: Majority of subjects (83.3%) do not utilise the nearby well-established eye clinics. Twenty one percent of those with poor vision do not seek treatment at all. The main barriers to seeking eye care services were lack of money, ignorance and the problem not causing much discomfort to warrant medical attention. There was significant, association between the level of education and health seeking behaviour (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Majority of Kibera slum dwellers have no access to eye care. RECOMMENDATION: There is need to establish a comprehensive primary eye care project to provide low cost but quality services affordable to Kibera slum dwellers.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2008 May; 14(1): 42-50.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the

catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi.

Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007

Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City

Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined

(96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined

to be examined.

Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only

241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti

divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival

growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by

refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects

(0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the

subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was

0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates

that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The

main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual

impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma.

Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of

blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was

refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were

cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma.

Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should

focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to

address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems

encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and

hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially

in school going children.

JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in a Nairobi urban population. East Afri. Med. J. 2006; 83: 69-72 Ndegwa L, Karimurio J, Okelo R, Adala H.". In: East Afri. Med. J. 2006; 83: 69-72. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2006. Abstract
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness among Kibera slum dwellers. DESIGN: Population based Survey. SETTING: Kibera Slums, Kibera Division, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One thousand four hundred and thirty eight randomly selected slum dwellers. RESULTS: The prevalence of blindness and visual impairment was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.21 to 1.0), and 6.2% (95% CI: 4.95 to 7.15) respectively. 37.5% of those found blind were due to cataract followed by refractive errors 25.0%. 58.1% of those with visual impairment had refractive errors while 35.5% had cataracts. Females had a higher prevalence of visual impairment compared to males but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.104). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of blindness in Kibera slums is slightly lower than the estimated national average (0.7%) while that of visual impairment is almost three times higher. The leading causes of blindness are cataract followed by refractive errors. For visual impairment, refractive error was the leading cause followed by cataract. Recommendation: Kibera slum dwellers are in need of comprehensive eye care services offering cataract surgery and low cost spectacles.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2008 May; 14(1): 42-50.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Njeru SN, Otieno SA, Karimurio J. Prevalence of significant refractive errors in high school students, Meru municipality, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Dec; 15(2): 40-45.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of significant refractive errors in high school students in Meru Municipality, Kenya. Design: Cross-sectional, School based study. Setting:   High school students in Meru Municipality, Meru central District, Kenya. Subjects: 164 high school students of age range 13-18 years from Form one and Form three classes. Results:  The prevalence of significant refractive errors was 8.5% with girls contributing 5.5% and boys 3.0%. The pattern of significant refractive errors showed that myopia was the leading cause decreased visual acuity at 78.6% followed by astigmatism at 14.3% and last was hypermetropia with 7.1%. The proportion significant refractive errors was higher (71.4%) in the older age group of 15-18 years than lower age group of 13-16 years (28.6%). Conclusions:  Significant refractive errors are a common cause visual impairment in secondary schools in Meru Municipality. Myopia was found to be the leading cause of decreased visual acuity (VA <6/12).  
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection seen at two hospitals in Kenya.J.East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):267-70 Chisi SK,Kollmann MK,Karimurio.". In: J.East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):267-70. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
Jefwa JJ. "“Is the Kenyan Child Still Weeping? A Quest for Education within the Backdrop of Colonia and Post Colonial Violations” ." International Perspectives of Race (and Racism): Historical and Contemporary Considerations in Education and Society. 2015:121-136.
JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Editor- The 3rd East Africa Sign Language Seminar proceedings report(1992).". In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) pp. 160-174. Kenya Society of deaf Children; 1992. Abstract
This textbook does not aim at helpig teachers to acquire Kenyan Sign Language(KSL). It is meant for teachers who already have a good mastery of KSL and whose primary objective is to learn how to teach it. It thus introduces teachers to teaching of KSL as a language focusing on theory and skillsof langauge teaching in general and teaching of sign Language in particular using KSl as base language.
JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Jefwa, G. J. (2009) Structural borrowing: The case of Kenyan sign Language (KSL) and Kiswahili Contact Signing. In Fredrick Kang.". In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) pp. 160-174. USIU press; 2009.
JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Co-authored - Kenya Sign Language Syllabus for Beginners.". In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) pp. 160-174. Kenya Society of deaf Children; 1992. Abstract
This textbook does not aim at helpig teachers to acquire Kenyan Sign Language(KSL). It is meant for teachers who already have a good mastery of KSL and whose primary objective is to learn how to teach it. It thus introduces teachers to teaching of KSL as a language focusing on theory and skillsof langauge teaching in general and teaching of sign Language in particular using KSl as base language.
JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Jefwa G. Mweri et al. Sign Language Interpreter Training in Kenya. In Jemina Napier (Ed). International Perspectives on Sign Language Interpreter Education. Washington, DC. Gallaudet University Press.". In: International Perspectives on Sign Language Interpreter Education. Gallaudet University Press; 2009. Abstract

The history of interpratation is as old as the deaf culture itself. wherever daef people have been, intepratation has always been there. deaf people, of course, do not live in isolation. they live amid thier brothers and sisiters and other relatives. According to the Kenya campaign on disability and HIV and AIDS advocacy, propoasl 2008, approximately 3.5 people in Kenya are currently living with disabilities. This translates to an approximately 800.000 deaf people out of the population of about 35million  people in Kenya. This population makes, or will make use of interpratation in settings such as courts of law, police stations, and so forth. interpreters act as a bridge between hearing and deaf people inn terms of communication. This chapter gives an overview of the situation of kenyan sign Language(KSL)  interpratation in Kenya by giving a historical perspective, the role of Kenya National Association of the Deaf (KNAD), Kenya Sign Language Research project (KSLRP) and the role of other institutions including the Kenya Sign Language Interpreters Association (KSLIA) in interprter training and concludes by giving recommendations in the way forward.

JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Unpublished MA dissertation NP movement in Kigiryama: A GB approach (1991).". In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) pp. 160-174. Kenya Society of deaf Children; 1991. Abstract
This textbook does not aim at helpig teachers to acquire Kenyan Sign Language(KSL). It is meant for teachers who already have a good mastery of KSL and whose primary objective is to learn how to teach it. It thus introduces teachers to teaching of KSL as a language focusing on theory and skillsof langauge teaching in general and teaching of sign Language in particular using KSl as base language.
JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Mweri, J.G. In Okombo et. al Introduction to Theory and Skills of Teaching Kenyan sign Language: A handbook for Teachers. Nairobi:.". In: Kenya Society of Deaf Children. Kenya Society of deaf Children; 2006. Abstract

This textbook does not aim at helpig teachers to acquire Kenyan Sign Language(KSL). It is meant for teachers who already have a good mastery of KSL and whose primary objective is to learn how to teach it. It thus introduces teachers to teaching of KSL as a language focusing on theory and skillsof langauge teaching in general and teaching of sign Language in particular using KSl as base language.

Jefwa J.M, Okoth S, Wachira P.M, Karanja N.K, Kahindi J.K, Njuguini S. K, Ichami S, Mung'atu J, Okoth P, Huising J. "Impact of land use types and farming practices on occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Taita-Taveta district in Kenya." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Enviroment. 2012;157:32-39.
Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Dugdale B, Obiero G, Muge E, Dale J, Tripathi L. "Transgenic Expression of dsRNA Targeting the Pentalonia nigronervosa acetylcholinesterase Gene in Banana and Plantain Reduces Aphid Populations." Plants. 2021;10:613. Abstract
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Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Obiero G, Muge E, Dale J, Tripathi L. "Developing Plantain for Resistance to Banana Aphids by RNA Interference." Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute Proceedings. 2020;36:54. Abstract
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Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Obiero G, Muge E, Tripathi L. "Phytochemical Analysis and Establishment of Embryogenic Cell Suspension and -mediated Transformation for Farmer Preferred Cultivars of West African Plantain ( spp.)." Plants (Basel). 2020;9(6). Abstract

Banana and plantain are among the foremost staple food crops providing food and livelihood to over 500 million people in tropical countries. Despite the importance, their production is hampered due to several biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant tissue culture techniques such as somatic embryogenesis and genetic transformation offer a valuable tool for genetic improvement. Identification and quantification of phytochemicals found in banana and plantain are essential in optimizing in vitro activities for crop improvement. Total antioxidants, phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins were quantified in various explants obtained from the field, as well as in vitro plants of banana and plantain cultivars. The result showed genotypic variation in the phytochemicals of selected cultivars. The embryogenic cell suspensions were developed for three farmer-preferred plantain cultivars, Agbagba, Obino l'Ewai, and Orishele, using different MS and B5-based culture media. Both culture media supported the development of friable embryogenic calli (FEC), while MS culture media supported the proliferation of fine cell suspension in liquid culture media. The percentage of FEC generated for Agbagba, Obino l'Ewai, and Orishele were 22 ± 24%, 13 ± 28%, and 9 ± 16%, respectively. Cell suspensions produced from FECs were successfully transformed by -mediated transformation with reporter gene constructs and regenerated into whole plants.

Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi L, Tripathi JN, Ntui VO, Obiero G, Muge E, Dale J. "RNAi technology for management of banana bunchy top disease." Food and Energy Security. 2020;9:e247. Abstract
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Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Dugdale B, Obiero G, E M, Dale J, L T. "Transgenic Expression of dsRNA Targeting the Pentalonia nigronervosa acetylcholinesterase Gene in Banana and Plantain Reduces Aphid Populations." Plants.. 2021;10 (4)(613):1-18.
Jeneby F, Badrus A, Taib H, Alluso A, Odiemo L, Otanga H. "Best practices in reaching ‘hidden’ populations and harm reduction service provision.". In: The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle. New York: Emerald Publishing Company; 2020.
and Jeniffer Birech, Joseph Kabiru JMDK. "Alcohol Abuse and its impact on family life. A case study of the Nandi community of Kenya." Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2013;3:137-144.
Jenkins R, Njenga F, Okonji M, Kigamwa P, Baraza M, Ayuyo J, Singleton N, McManus S, Kiima D. "Psychotic symptoms in Kenya--prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with common mental disorders."; 2012.
Jenkins MW, Maina-Gichaba C. "Patterns and Sources of Faecal Pollution in the Heavily Impaired River Njoro Watershed Kenya: Findings and Implicaions.". In: Proceedings of the Sumawa Mau Forest Complex Conference. Nairobi - Kenya: Sumawa; 2009. Abstract

Elevated faecal pollution of water bodies poses public health risks for humans as well as livestock, and degrades aquatic ecosystems. This paper presents levels, patterns and sources of faecal pollution detected in a yearlong investigation of the River Njoro watershed, a crucial source of surface and ground water for communities and ecosystems in and surrounding the watershed, including Nakuru Municipality and Lake Nakuru. Under the SUMAWA Project, an extensive survey was conducted of the stream network and numerous point and non-point sources of faecal pollution. Then faecal coliform levels were monitored monthly throughout the River Njoro main stream and Little Shuru tributaly. New gene-based detection methods were tested to distinguish cow from human sources of faecal contamination, and test for markers of Cryptosporidium spp., a watcr-borne pathogen known to cause severe diarrhoea in very young, old, and immuno-compromised humans and cattle.

High levels of faecal water pollution were measured throughout the watershed, averaging 8,000 colony forming units (cfu) of faecal coliform per l00 ml of river water over the year. Periods and incidents exceeding 100,000 cfu/100 ml occurred at l0 out of l5 monitored locations, at some places during the dry season, and nearly everywhere during high runoff months of August and/or July. A pattern of faecal pollution peaking in August at all sites, significantly higher levels detected when cattle were present watering at a site, and the widespread detection of cow genetic source faecal markers, point to livestock, in particular cattle, as the dominant and most widespread likely cause of gross faecal pollution and a possible source of Cryptosporidiunz spp. in the River Njoro Watershed. Detailed findings are presented and actions explored to control identified sources and reduce high pollution levels and their damaging impacts on local ecosystems, livelihoods, and public health.

Jenkins R, Njenga F, Okonji M, Kigamwa P, Baraza M, Ayuyo J, Singleton N, Kiima D, McManus S. "Psychotic symptoms in Kenya--prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with common mental disorders.". 2012. Abstract

There have been few epidemiological surveys to establish prevalence and associated risk factors of psychosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey in rural Kenya of the prevalence of psychotic symptoms and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and other risk factors. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza province, Kenya (50,000 population) were studied, aiming for a sample size of 1,000 people. The psychosis screening questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the preceding twelve months. The response rate was 87.6%. The prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms in this sample size. Psychotic symptoms were evenly distributed across this relatively poor rural population and were significantly associated with presence of common mental disorders, and to a lesser extent with poor physical health and housing type. We conclude that single psychotic symptoms are relatively common in rural Kenya and rates are elevated in those with CMD, poor physical health and poor housing.

Jenkins R, Shah A, Kigamwa P, Ayuyo J, Kiima D, Njenga F, Okonji M. "Traditional health practitioners and mental health in Kenya.". 2008.
Jenkins MW, Maina-Gichaba C. "Patterns and Sources of Faecal Pollution in the Heavily Impaired River Njoro Watershed Kenya: Findings and Implicaions.". 2009. AbstractPatterns and Sources of Faecal Pollution in the Heavily Impaired River Njoro Watershed Kenya: Findings and Implicaions.

Elevated faecal pollution of water bodies poses public health risks for humans as well as livestock, and degrades aquatic ecosystems. This paper presents levels, patterns and sources of faecal pollution detected in a yearlong investigation of the River Njoro watershed, a crucial source of surface and ground water for communities and ecosystems in and surrounding the watershed, including Nakuru Municipality and Lake Nakuru. Under the SUMAWA Project, an extensive survey was conducted of the stream network and numerous point and non-point sources of faecal pollution. Then faecal coliform levels were monitored monthly throughout the River Njoro main stream and Little Shuru tributaly. New gene-based detection methods were tested to distinguish cow from human sources of faecal contamination, and test for markers of Cryptosporidium spp., a water-borne pathogen known to cause severe diarrhoea in very young, old, and immuno-compromised humans and cattle. High levels of faecal water pollution were measured throughout the watershed, averaging 8,000 colony forming units (cfu) of faecal coliform per l00 ml of river water over the year. Periods and incidents exceeding 100,000 cfu/100 ml occurred at l0 out of l5 monitored locations, at some places during the dry season, and nearly everywhere during high runoff months of August and/or July. A pattern of faecal pollution peaking in August at all sites, significantly higher levels detected when cattle were present watering at a site, and the widespread detection of cow genetic source faecal markers, point to livestock, in particular cattle, as the dominant and most widespread likely cause of gross faecal pollution and a possible source of Cryptosporidiunz spp. in the River Njoro Watershed. Detailed findings are presented and actions explored to control identified sources and reduce high pollution levels and their damaging impacts on local ecosystems, livelihoods, and public health.

Jenkins R, Njenga F, Okonji M, Kigamwa P, Baraza M, Ayuyo J, Singleton N, McManus S, Kiima D. "Prevalence of common mental disorders in a rural district of Kenya, and socio-demographic risk factors.". 2012. Abstract

Association between common mental disorders (CMDs), equity, poverty and socio-economic functioning are relatively well explored in high income countries, but there have been fewer studies in low and middle income countries, despite the considerable burden posed by mental disorders, especially in Africa, and their potential impact on development. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey of a rural area in Kenya. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in private households in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza Province, Kenya (50,000 population), were studied. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs). Associations with socio-demographic and economic characteristics were explored. A CMD prevalence of 10.8% was found, with no gender difference. Higher rates of illness were found in those who were of older age and those in poor physical health. We conclude that CMDs are common in Kenya and rates are elevated among people who are older, and those in poor health.

Jenkinson DS, Meredith J, Kinyamario JI, Warren GP, Wong MTF. "Estimating net primary production from measurements made on soil organic-matter.". 1999.Website
Jennifer NM, Kinyamario JI, Chira RM, Musila W. "Assessment of soil seed bank from six different vegetation types in Kakamega forest, Western Kenya." Afr. J. Biotech. . 2011;10(65):14384-14391.
Jennings L, M M, Linnemayr S, Trujillo A, M. M’anyengo. "Economic Context and HIV Vulnerability in Adolescents and Young Adults Living in Urban Slums in Kenya: A Qualitative Analysis Based on Scarcity Theory." AIDS and Behavior. 2017;21(9):2784-2798.
Jennings Mayo-Wilson L, M M, Yi G, Mak’anyengo, MO, Davoust M, ML M, Stefan Baral, Fred M. Ssewamala, Glass NE. "Lessons learned from using respondent driven sampling (RDS) to assess sexual risk behaviors among Kenyan young adults living in urban slum settlements: A process evaluation." PLoS ONE . 2020;15(4).
Jens E;. "Konstruktiv forhandling .". 2010.
Jepkoech C, Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Kenanda EO, Guefack M-GF, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M. "Antibacterial secondary metabolites from Vernonia auriculifera Hiern (Asteraceae) against MDR phenotypes." Natural Products Research. 2021:https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1953024.jepkoech_et_al_2021_natural_products_research.pdf
Jeremiah M, Pamela M, Fawzia B. "Sex differences in the cranial and orbital indices for a black Kenyan population." International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences . 2013;5(2):81-84 . AbstractIJMMS

Craniometric parameters including cranial and orbital indices have been employed to determine the sex of a person in forensic medicine. These parameters are usually population specific. However, they have not been documented for a black Kenyan population. This study aimed at calculating the sex differences in the cranial and orbital indices. The cranial vault height, glabellomaximal length and orbital height and length were measured from 150 crania (80 male and 70 female) using a sliding vernier caliper. Cranial and orbital indices were calculated and the results were analyzed. The cranial index was 71.04 for the male and 72.37 for the female (P=0.095). The orbital index was 82.57 and 83.48 for the male and female, respectively (P=0.472). From these results, although the cranial and orbital indices are within range of previously reported values for an African population, they cannot be used independently in sexing of black Kenyan crania.

Jeremiah Kalai LNJA&. "Principals’ use of mentoring programmes on prevalence of Drugs and Substance abuse in public secondary schools in Busia County, Kenya." The International Journal of Innovative Research and Development . 2019;8(10):180-188.
Jeremy G, R.M. O. "Decentralized Management of Wastewater as a Renewable Resource: A Multi - Disciplinary Approach to Sanitation T echnology Development.". In: the Safe Global Water & Sanitation Summit. Mt. Meru Hotel, Arusha. ; 2013.
Jeroen Spitzen, Koelewijn T, Mukabana RW, Takken W. "Visualization of house-entry behaviour of malaria mosquitoes." Malaria journal. 2016;15(1):233.
Jerome K, James M, Vigheri N, Johnson K, Rockefeller E, Ivan R, Wilberforce T, Fina O. "Strategies for rehabilitation of banana fields infested with Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacrearum." Journal of Crop Protection. 2014;3(1):21-29.
Jerono P. Tugen Word order-A Minimalist Perspective. MACEDONIA: EGALITE; 2012.
Jerono P. "Usaliti.". In: Kurudi Nyumbani na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus ; 2007.
Jerono P. "Names and Naming System of Tugen ." International Journal of Linguistics & Communication . 2019;7(1):10-16.
Jerono P. "Changamoto za Wazalendo.". In: Siri ya Bwanyenye. Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers (E.A) Limited; 2016.
Jerono P. "Njia ya Mwongo.". In: Kurudi Nyumbani na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus; 2007.
Jerono P. "Passive and Antipassive in Tugen ." International Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2018;5(3):189-197.
Jerono P, Hillary S, Andrew C, O.N. J. A Unified Orthography for Kalenjin Languages of Kenya. South Africa: CASAS; 2012.
Jerono P. "Motherhood, Childhood & Human Rights by the Tugen of Kenya.". In: Human Rights, African Values & traditions-An interdisciplinary Approach. Nairobi: Focus; 2011.
Jerono P. "Tugen Noun Classification .". In: Nilo Saharan Issues and Perspectives . Cologne: Rudiger Kopper Verlag; 2018.
Jerono P. "Nadharia ya Eksibaa katika Kiswahili.". In: Nadharia katika Taaluma ya Kiswahili na Lugha za Kiafrika. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2008.
Jerop B, Segera DR. "An Efficient PCA-GA-HKSVM-Based Disease Diagnostic Assistant." Hindawi Biomed Research International. 2021;2021(2021):1-10.
Jerusa Omari, Wakasiaka S, Khisa W, Omoni G, Lavender T. "Grace Omoni Grace Omoni Women and men's awareness of obstetric fistula in facilities in Kisii and Nyamira Counties, Kenya." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2015;9(1):12-16. AbstractWebsite

Background:

Obstetric fistula has been defined as an ‘abnormal communication’ between the vagina and the bladder or rectum of a woman which results in continuous leakage of urine and/or faeces. The most common cause of obstetric fistula is obstetric trauma. Obstetric fistula is a highly stigmatising condition; often the women are neglected and or ostracised.
Aim:

To establish the knowledge and awareness of fistula among men and women living in an area where fistula prevalence is rising.
Methods:

In this cross-sectional study, women and their partners were recruited purposefully in two counties Kenya: Nyamira and Kisii and interviewed using structured interviews. Data were cleaned and entered into Excel. SPSS was used for descriptive data analysis. Chi2 test was conducted to compare responses according to gender and level of education.
Results:

Three hundred participants (253 women and 47 men) were interviewed over a 3-month period. Responses from women and men were similar. Few (32%) participants reported having seen a woman with fistula in their community. Just over half (53%) said that they knew what causes fistula, of which 89% said they knew that fistula could be treated. Only 27% said that the health care provider mentioned fistula during health education talks. Participants educated to a level above secondary school were more knowledgeable about fistula.
Conclusion:

Fistula information is lacking among community members. There is a need to scale up training and community awareness campaigns to help eradicate fistula from Kenya.
Keywords: Fistula, Obstetric, Survey, Kenya, Women, Men

Jeruto P, Mutai C, Lukhoba C, Ouma G. "Phytochemical constituents of some medicinal plants used by the Nandis of South Nandi district, Kenya." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences,. 2011;9(3):1201-1210. Abstract

Alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones, glycosides, phenolics, terpenoids and flavonoids distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Asparagus racemosus, Clutia abbysinica, Clerodendrum myricoides, Ehretia cymosia, Leucas calostachys, Toddalia asiatica, Rubia cordifolia, Spermacoce princeae,Carrisa edulis
and Ajuga remota. The leaves and roots of the plants were collected from their natural habitat
in Aldai division South Nandi district. All the plant samples were identified at University of Nairobi and confirmed in National Museums of Kenya. The Voucher specimens were deposited in the University Botanic Garden Maseno herbarium. The harvested roots were washed with water and the barks peeled off while still fresh and cut into small portions. The materials were then air –dried under a tree shade at room temperature for one week when possible, but in the sun whenthe humidity was too high. Phytochemical screening was carried out at Centre for Traditional Medicine and Drug Research (CTMDR) KEMRI Nairobi according to Harborne, (1984 & 1973. All plants were found to contain alkaloids, terpernoids , saponins and flavonoids except for the absence of saponins in root extracts of
R. cordifolia and C.myricoides and flavonoids in leave extracts of L. calostachys and A. remota.
The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in South Nandi District.

Jeruto P, Lukhoba CW, Ouma G, Otieno D, Mutai C. "Herbal treatments in Aldai Division in Nandi District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines." African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 5(1)103-105. 2008;5(5):103-105.Website
Jeruto P, Lukhoba C, Ouma G, Otieno D, Mutai C. "Propagation of some endangered indigenous trees from the South Nandi District of Kenya using cheap, non-mist technology. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 3 (3):1-6." ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science,3(3):1-6.. 2008;3((3)):1-6. AbstractWebsite

Vegetative propagation studies were carried out at Maseno University, Kenya in the year 2004 and 2005 using stem cuttings on three endangered indigenous tree species namely Asystasia schimperi, Carissa edulis and Toddalia asiatica to test the effect of IBA on rooting of the stem cuttings of these plant species. Juvenile stem cuttings of these plant species were dipped in different concentrations of auxin (indole Butyric Acid (IBA) of 0, 100 ppm, 200ppm, 400ppm and 500ppm. Completely, randomized design (C.R.D) was used and the treatments replicated three times in a non mist polypropagator. The treated cuttings were planted in polythene pots. The duration of the experiment was four months. Data taken were plant height, number of leaves and number of rooted cuttings every 2 weeks. Data was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means separated by L.S.D at 5% significance level. The results showed that hormone concentration, species and date of sampling affected the number of rooted plants, plant height and number of leaves Asystasia schimperi had the best rooting and subsequent plant growth followed by Carissa edulis and lastly Toddalia asiatica, .
It can be concluded that Asystasia schimperi and Toddalia asiatica can be propagated by stem cuttings easily hence farmers can cultivate them.

Keywords:
Non mist polypropagator, propagation, stem cuttings, auxin, concentration, species, endangered.

Jespers V, Crucitti T MVMMNGFD-MVHJRMK, van de Buve A WVBSGJ &. "Prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis in different sub-populations of women in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study." PloS One . 2014;9(10): e109670.
Jessani N, Boulay M, Ongore D, Bennett. S. "Do Academic Brokers Exist?" Emerging Voices . 2014;2014.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "“Challenges for Theological Publishing of Scholarly books in Africa”.". In: Handbook of Theological Education in Africa. Oxford: Regnum; 2013.
co-editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, co-editor Christoph Stückelberger. Responsible Leadership: Global and Contextual Ethical Perspctives. Geneva/Nairobi: Globethics.net/Acton; 2008.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "Prerequisites for Effective Dialogue Involving Religion and Culture.". In: Sharing Values: A Hermeneutics for Global Ethics. Geneva: Globethics.net; 2011.
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mika Våhåkangas. 5 2001 Christian Theology and Environmental Responsibility. Nairobi: Acton; 2001.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. ""Responsible Leadership in Education and Development" .". In: Responsible Leadership: Global and Contextual Ethical Perspectives. Geneva/Nairobi: Globethics.net/Acton; 2008.
Jesse N.K. Mugambi CE, Daniel M. Patte GE. Cambridge Dictionary of Christianity. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2010.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. African Christian Theology, Nairobi, Heinemann.. Nairobi: Heinemann; 1989. Abstract

African Christian Theology, Nairobi, Heinemann, 1989

author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "A Fresh Look at Evangelism in Africa.". In: The Study of Evangelism: Exploring a Missional Practice of the Church. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans; 2008.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. Christian Theology and Social Reconstruction. Nairobi: Acton; 2003.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. ""Africa".". In: Atlas of Global Christianity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 2010.
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Frank Kürschner Pelkmann. 7 2004 Church-State Relations: A Challenge for African Christianity, Nairobi: Acton (with Frank Kürschner-Pelkmann).. Nairobi: Acton; 2004.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. " “The Future of Theological Education in Africa and the Challenges it Faces”.". In: Handbook of Theological Education in Africa. Oxford: Regnum; 2013.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "Religion and Science in Social Reconstruction.". In: Sharing Values: A Hermeneutics for Global Ethics. Geneva: Globethics.net; 2011.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. God, Humanity and Nature in Relation to Justice and Peace. Geneva: WCC; 1987.
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mika Våhåkangas. 5 2001 Christian Theology and Environmental Responsibility. Nairobi: Acton; 2001.
co-author Jesse N.K. Mugambi, co-author Michael R. Guy. 2009 Jesse N.K. Mugambi and Michael R. Guy, Conxtextual Theology Across Cultures, Nairobi: Acton.. Nairobi: Acton; 2009.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "“African Church Leadership: Between Christ, Cultures and Conflicts,”in Responsible Leadership: Global and Contextual Ethical Perspectives ,.". In: Responsible Leadership: Global and Contextual Ethical Perspectives . Geneva/Nairobi: Globethhics.net/Acton; 2008.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "Foreword.". In: Concepts of God in Africa, Second Edition, by Prof. John S. Mbiti. Nairobi: Acton; 2012.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. " “Theologies of Reconstruction” .". In: African Theology on the Way. London: SPCK; 2010.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. Christianity and African Culture. Nairobi: Acton; 2002.
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mika Våhåkangas. 5 2001 Christian Theology and Environmental Responsibility. Nairobi: Acton; 2001.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "“Justice, Participation and Sustainability as Prerequisites for Peaceful Coexistence”.". In: Applied Ethics in Religion and Culture: Contextual and Global Challenges. Nairobi: Acton; 2012.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "“The Environmental Crisis from an African Perspective,”.". In: Peace on Earth and Peace with the Earth. Geneva: World Council of Churches; 2008.
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor David W. Lutz. Applied Ethics in Religion and Culture: Contextual and Global Chalenges. Nairobi: Acton; 2012.
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mary N. Getui. Religions in Eastern Africa Under Globalization . Nairobi: Acton; 2004.
Jessica DeMita, € Dennis Munene DGMSSSKJMMJK¥ £ € ¥. "KHAS (Kenya Heart and Sole Afya Njema) Project; an Academic-Clinical-Policy Partnership for Health.". In: Global Nursing caucus. Boston, USA; 2012.
JessicaOsanya, I.Adam R, Otieno DJ, Nyikal R, Jaleta M. "An analysis of the respective contributions of husband and wife in farming households in Kenya to decisions regarding the use of income: A multinomial logit approach." Women's Studies International Forum. 2020;83. AbstractWebsite

This paper analyzes the socio-economic characteristics of households that affect husbands and wives' contributions to decisions regarding the use of income from crop and livestock sales in Kenya. Using a sample of 276 households, we apply a multinomial logit model to assess factors affecting decision-making. Results show that husbands make most decisions concerning agriculture, while wives mainly decide on daily household expenditure. Higher education levels were found to increase women's involvement in decision-making on income use. Group membership had a positive effect on joint decision-making on income use. The study recommends improving women's access to education, which will improve their access to productive resources, hence their decision-making power. Providing incentives for members of agricultural groups can provide avenues for learning. Gender-transformative approaches that empower women and sensitize men to allow space for women to engage in decision-making, can have an impact in improving the decision-making capacity of women in households.

JI Adungo, Mutispo VM, Ngugi M, Khainga S, A Mouki, Kimeu M. "Analysis of Soft Tissue Injuries and Scarring Following Terrorist Bomb Explosion at the American Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2015.Website
JI Sagala, Gachuiri CK, Kuria SG, Wanyoike MM. "Nutritive value of selected preferred forage species by lactating camels in the peri-urban area of Marsabit town, Kenya." Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2020;37(3):218-226.
Jia Y, Peng B, Li L, Wang J, Wang X, Qi G, Rong R, Wang L, Qiu J, Xu M, others. "Estimation of mycophenolic acid area under the curve with limited-sampling strategy in Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium." Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2017;39:29. Abstract
n/a
Jianlin H, Ochieng JW, Lkhagva B, Hanotte O. "Genetic diversity and relationship of domestic bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) in China and Mongolia." Journal of Camel Practice & Research. 2004;11(2):97-99.2004_jianlin_et_al_jcpr.pdf
Jimmy ML, Nzuve F, Flourence O, Manyasa E, Muthomi J. ". Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and trait correlations in selected sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) varieties." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;11(5):47-56.
JIN U, GO O, CF O, M M, N N. "Prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome in diabetics with chronic pain at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Afr J Rheumatol . 2017; Vol. 5(1): 54-57. Abstractprevalence_of_fibromyalgia4.pdf

Abstract
Background: Fibromyalgia Syndrome
(FMS), an increasingly recognized
disorder with heightened response to
pressure, characterized by Chronic
Widespread Pain (CWP), for which no
other cause can be identified. Diabetes
Mellitus (DM) is the most common
metabolic endocrinopathy. It is estimated
that more than 50% of diabetic patients
will suffer from chronic disability.
Musculoskeletal complications of
diabetes may be as a consequence of DM
complications or direct associations e.g.
FMS.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence
of FMS in diabetics with chronic pain
and to determine the severity of FMS
related symptoms using the revised FMS
questionnaire (FIQR) tool.
Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study.
Setting: The Diabetic Out-patient Clinic
(DOPC), Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH).
Subjects: Two hundred and nineteen
patients with chronic musculoskeletal
pain.
Results: The prevalence of fibromyalgia
in this group of patients was 61 (27.9%)
(95% CI 21.9-34.2). Mean age for patients
with FMS was 59.9 years, significantly
older than patients without FMS (55.6%)
(P=0.034). There was a higher female
preponderance at 49 (80%). Majority of
our study population were on followup
for Type 2 DM (94.1%). The mean
tender-point count for patients with FMS
was estimated at 13.7 (SD 2.1). The mean
FIQR score was 51.9 (SD 18.4) (moderate
disease). Patients with FMS had a higher
HBA1c value compared to those without
(9.6% vs. 9.3%) (P=0.565). Other
factors such as marital status, nature of
employment, activities of daily living and
type of medications used were not found
to be statistically significant. (P˃0.05).
Conclusion: FMS is a prevalent disease in
the diabetic population. There is increased
need of awareness by the clinicians of
this disease entity and a multidisciplinary
approach required to manage patients
presenting with CWP in DM.
Introduction
FMS is a common disorder with cardinal
symptoms of diffuse chronic pain associated
with muscle stifness and tenderness of
specific points on examination. This
disease has strong biologic underpinnings
and the aetiopathogenesis is variable.
Trigger factors may be environmental
or psychosocial. This condition affects
mainly women, and its estimated
prevalence in various populations varies
between 0.2% and 4.4%. The American
College of Rheumatology Criteria (ACR)
1990 requires CWP for at least 3 months
and presence of ˃11/18 pre-specified
Tender Points (TP) on examination1
.   
  A newer diagnostic criteria published
in 2010-2011, no longer requires
performing a tender point count to make
the diagnoses and instead entails asking
about the constellation of non-pain
somatic symptoms that are typically
present in addition to the widespread
pain2
. DM affects connective tissue in
multiple ways and this may be as a result
of micro or macrovascular complications,
a consequence of metabolic derangements
inherent to DM, and notable associations,
FMS being a key presentation3
. Over
the past few years, the most important
predictor that predisposed to development
of musculoskeletal complications is
blood glucose control. The HUNT
study4
outlined the association between
DM and chronic musculoskeletal
complaints in 64,785 patients and noted
a high prevalence of FMS and a positive
correlation with HbA1c levels. Attar5
,
revealed that up to 17.9% of diabetics
suffer from chronic musculoskeletal
manifestations, fibromyalgia being one
of them. Yunus6
, in his review article, in
2011, noted that Central Sensitization
Syndromes (CSS) have an increased
prevalence in patients with diabetes
mellitus. Of particular interest, a study

Jitta JN, Wafula EM, Wasunna A. "The comatose child in Paediatric Observation Ward of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 1984;61(12):917-24.
Jitta, Jessica &RN. "Growth monitoring and promotion during early childhood development.". In: Primary health care: A manual for medical students and other health workers (2nd ed.). UNICEF. ; 1995.
Jitta JN, Wafula EM, Wasunna A. "The comatose child in Paediatric Observation Ward of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 1984;61(12):917-24.
JJ C, G O, W M. "Factors affecting Birth Preparedness among Pregnant Women attending Public Antenatal Clinics in Migori County, Kenya." Biomedical Journal of Scientific and Technical Research. 2018.
JJ C, G O, W M. "Effectiveness of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminder on Birth Preparedness in a Rural Community in Kenya." Obstetrics and Gynaecology International Journal. 2018.
JK M, JM M, AG T, DN K, DW G. "Clinical, hematological, biochemical and pathological manifestations of subacute toxicity due to Nicadra physaloides (L) Gaertn in calves." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2011;59:53-59.
JK MUSINGI. "Population, Health & Environment.". In: National Council for Population & Development. KIA-Nairobi; 2010.
JK M, DW G, JM M, PG K, CM M, fk N. "Ethnobotanical Study of anthelmintic and other medicinal plants traditionally used in Loitoktok district, Kenya. ." Ethiopian Vet. J. . 2011;15(1):1-13.
JK A, O WANDIGAS, A A’oD, O MV, EM O. "Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Levels in Air and Soil from Nairobi and Mount Kenya regions, Kenya." Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2017;10(7):5-11.
JK K, SO ML, AJ W, M L. "Kidney transplantation: recent medical experiences from the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. 1996;73(9):614-8. Abstract

Renal transplantation is not readily available in the majority of countries in Africa. It is expensive and difficult to sustain on the meagre funds allocated to health. We report our short experience with fifteen living donor recipients followed in our unit for at least 24 months, range 26 - 48 (mean 35 months) post-transplantation. The donors and recipients were mostly young adults with mean ages of 36.7 years and 32.6 years respectively. The majority of the donors and recipients were males. The donors in most cases were siblings. Within this time, one graft has been lost at one year and the patient restarted on haemodialysis. Three patients died, two within the first year, the third at 23 months after transplantation, all with functioning grafts. The one year graft and patient survival rates were 93% and 86.6% respectively. The second year graft survival rates remained at 93% and the patients survival rate 80%. The nature and frequency of complications seen in these patients is comparable to those in other centres. Of all medical complications, bacterial infections contributed 69.4% of all infections. Cardiovascular complications comprised 31.25% of the complications. Hypertension seen in 85.5% of the patients accounted for 65% of the cardiovascular complications. Acute rejections were common and occurred in seven patients. Transplantation is a viable mode of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in our environment. The practice should be supported to make it more readily available to the many young end stage renal failure (ESRF) patients.

JK K, Nyaga P N, JN N, JN M, Njagi L W. "An invitro study of some factors that may influence changes of virulence for Newcastle disease virus.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.2008-invitro_study_of_virulence_of_ndv.pdf
JK A, O WANDIGAS, A A’oD, O MV, EM O. "OrganochlorinePesticides Residue Levels in Airand Soilfrom Nairobiand Mount Kenyaregions, Kenya." Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2017;10(7):PP 05-11. Abstractiosrjournals.org

Thestudy investigates the organochlorine pesticides residue level in air and soilat sites in Nairobi and Mount Kenya regions, Kenya. Air and soil samples from four sites were collected and analysed for selected organochlorine pesticides (OCP) using gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector and confirmed using GC/MS. The targeted pesticides were α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH (lindane), α- endosulfan, β-endosulfan and Endosulfansulfate. The samples were collected seasonally between the monthsof July 2012 and April 2013. The residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in air samples during month of October ranged between0.027±0.004 to5.735±0.575 ng/M3, while during the Month of February the concentration ranged between 0.013±0.00 to 9.375±1.65 ng/M3 and the levels during the month of April ranged between 0.013±0.00 to 11.508±0.26ng/M3. Organochlorine pesticide detected in soil during month of October ranged between BDL to 131.206 ± 14.41ng/Kg, while during the Month of February the concentration ranged between 0.418± 0.01to 38.361 ±5.39 ng/Kg and the levels during the month of April ranged between 0.406± 0.00to 26.877± 8.89 ng/Kg. The residue levels of the analysedPOPs in air and soil were generally high at the Dandora and Industrial area sites. This indicates that industrial activities such as Tetra-Pac, general plastics, Phillips industries waste and stock piles are the main sources of the new POPs in Nairobi. The high concentration level poses a health risk to residents of Dandora and Industrial area workers.

Keywords: Dandora, Kabete, Industrial area, Mount Kenya, organochlorine pesticide residues, air, soil

JK W, PL N, AN O. "Risk factors for kerosene stove explosion burns seen at Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya." Burns. 2013;39(3):1-6. Abstract

BACKGROUND:
The kerosene stove is a common cooking appliance in lower and middle income households in Kenya and if it explodes, life threatening thermal burn injuries may be sustained by those using the appliance. Women tend to be victims more frequently since traditionally they are the ones who are involved in cooking.
OBJECTIVES:
The aim of this study was to determine risk factors predisposing to kerosene stove explosion burns seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study was a prospective longitudinal descriptive study carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Forty-eight patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study over a period of 6 months from November 2010 to April 2011 and the data was collected using a structured questionnaire. The analysis, using SPSS version 17.0 was done by associating occurrence of injury to: age, sex, socioeconomic status and level of education of patient. Charts and tables were used to present the results.
RESULTS:
The mean age of patients who sustained kerosene stove explosion burns was 23.6 years (SD ± 11.7) with the commonest age group being 20-39 years. More females were affected than males by a ratio of 7:3 and ninety two percent of those who sustained these burns were either from poor or lower middle socio-economic class. Stove explosions occurred mainly during cooking and when kerosene refill was being done. Most of the patients (63%) reported having bought kerosene from fuel vendors and almost all explosions were caused by the wick type of stove (98%).
CONCLUSION:
Young females from poor socioeconomic background were found to be at a higher risk for kerosene stove explosion burns. The wick stove is a common cause of burns especially when users unwittingly refill it with kerosene when already lit resulting in an explosion. Prevention can be done through evidence based public health education targeting the groups at risk and enactment of relevant laws.

JK MUSINGI. "Biofuels and human food security.". In: Developing Sustainable Utilization of Bio-energy opportunities in Eastern Africa Region:East Africa Farmers Federation (EAFF) Conference.; 2011.
JK M, E Z, T.M W. "Prevalence of intestinal parasites among children in southern Sudan." East African Medical Journal. 1998;75(5):288-90.
JK K, IO O, JA O’o. "Neurogenic control of cerebral blood vessels in the giraffe." African Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 1 No. 126 (abstract).. 1993;1(1):126. AbstractWebsite

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

JK MUSINGI. "Explore Geography Learners Book: Form 2, Teachers Guide.". In: Publishers . Longman Kenya; 2004. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

JK Omari, Mworia JK, Gichuki N, Mligo C. "Woody Species Composition in Upper Tana River Floodplain of Kenya: Potential Effects of Change in Flood Regimes." Journal of sustainability, environment and peace . 2019;1:91-97.

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