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J PROFGICHAGAFRANCIS. "Gichaga, F.J. and Mwea, S.K. .". In: Third International Conference on Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields, held in Trondheim, Norway, July 1990. UN-HABITAT; 1990. Abstract

A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Biodegradability of Poly (lactic acid), Preparation and Characterization of PLA/Gum Arabic Blends.". In: Journal of Polymers and the Environment Volume 16, Number 3, 205-212, DOI: 10.1007/s10924-008-0096-5. Springerlink; 2008.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""Towards A Power Balance Among Institutions of Governance.". In: Paper presented at the Conference of NGO Council, Pan Africa Hotel, Dec 9 - 10. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "BUTT FMA, CHINDIA ML, WAKOLI KA. Problems in Diagnosing Odontogenic Myxoma: Case Report. East African Medical Journal 2007; 84: 141-145.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2007. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Medfly microsatellite markers for species diagnosis and population genetic analysis in three tephritid fruit fly species.". In: Proceedings of the 6th International symposium on fruit flies of economic importance, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 6-10 May 2002. Springerlink; 2002. Abstract
The possibility to cross-species amplify microsatellites in fruit flies of the genus Ceratitis was tested with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by analysing 23 Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) microsatellite markers on the genomic DNA of three other economically important, congeneric species: C. rosa (Karsch), C. fasciventris (Bezzi) and C. cosyra (Walker). Twenty-two primer pairs produced amplification products in at least one of the three species tested. The majority of the products were similar, if not identical in size to those expected in C. capitata. The structures of the repeat motifs and their flanking sequences were examined for a total of 79 alleles from the three species. Sequence analysis revealed the same repeat type as the homologous C. capitata microsatellites in the majority of the loci, suggesting their utility for population analysis across the species range. A total of seven loci were differentially present/absent in C. capitata, C. rosa, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, suggesting that it may be possible to differentiate these four species using a simple sequence repeat-based PCR assay. It is proposed that medfly-based microsatellite markers could be utilized in the identification and tracing of the geographical origins of colonist pest populations of the four tested species and in the assessment of their risk and invasive potentials; thereby assisting regulatory authorities in implementing quarantine restrictions and other pest control measures.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Butt F.M.A., Vaghela V.P, Chindia M. L.: Oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS in a Kenyan Provincial Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2001 Aug;78(8):398-401.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Aug;78(8):398-401. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2001. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Kenya many patients exposed to the HIV infection present with orofacial lesions as the primary manifestations of the disease and only a few studies have been performed to document this observation. OBJECTIVE: To clinically evaluate and document the range and pattern of oral lesions in a group of hospitalised patients with HIV-infection. DESIGN: A prospective study. SETTING: Coast Province General Hospital in Mombasa, Kenya, which is the main referral institution serving a population of approximately two million people. METHODS: Examination of all the cases included in the study was performed according to the WHO criteria. Both male and female patients aged 16 years and above were selected. The criterion of recruitment was based on a suspicion of immunosuppression, the presence of oral manifestations and the willingness to participate in the study. Prior to the examination each patient had undergone counselling followed by two consecutive screening tests using the ELISA technique. Where indicated incisional biopsy was performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of the relevant lesions. In collaboration with the medical team, treatment was administered as per the needs of the patient in terms of anti-fungals, antivirals or topical cortisteroids. RESULTS: Of the 61 cases, 25(41%) were males and 36(59%) females with an age range of 19 to 65 years (mean = 34.7 years). While all the cases had periodontal disease, over 80% had candidiasis of the hyperplastic, erythematous and pseudomembraneous types. Lymphadenopathy and angular cheilitis were each diagnosed in 27.9% of the cases; while oral Kaposi's sarcoma was seen in 13% of the patients. Other conditions seen included persistent oral ulceration (11.5%), oral hairy leukopLakia and herpes zoster each constituting 4.9%; herpes simplex, mucosal hyperpigmentation, parotomegaly and facial palsy each comprised six per cent and oral warts seen in one case. In accordance with the pattern and prevalence of oral manifestations in our study, the results were largely consistent with those documented elsewhere. CONCLUSION: For the alleviation of the morbidity arising from the commonly occurring lesions, early detection is mandatory. Furthermore, documentation of the varied regional patterns of occurrence of these lesions may aid in the rational application of the emerging treatments.

J H, Z Q. "Preventing deaths due to haemorrhage. ." Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology Elsevier. 2016;36:68-32.Website
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Wakiaga J, Kisumbi B, Chindia ML.Discolouration of teeth: an overview of the diagnosis and management.East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):213-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):213-6. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
The dentist is faced with a daunting task in application of clinical skills to achieve maximum cosmetic results when it comes to the management of discoloured and/or hypoplastic dentition. In this paper, an overview is made of the diagnosis and the management of these broadly termed conditions and the cost-effectiveness of the various modalities discussed.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Anchored vs. relative best-worst scaling and latent class vs. hierarchical Bayesian analysis of best-worst choice data: Investigating the importance of food quality attributes in a developing country.". In: Food Quality and Preference. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Buoro, I.B.J., Atwell R.B. and Heath, T. (1983). The angles of branching and the diameters of pulmonary arteries in relation to the distribution of pulmonary lesions in Canine dirofilariasis. Research in Veterinary Science. 35:353-356.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1983. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Ng'ang'a PM, Ogaard B, Cruz R, Chindia ML, Aasrum E.Tensile strength of orthodontic brackets bonded directly to fluorotic and nonfluorotic teeth: an in vitro comparative study.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50.". In: Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract

Information related to bonding of orthodontic brackets to fluorotic teeth is scanty. The purpose of this study was to compare, in vitro, the tensile bond strength and the bond failure site of brackets bonded directly to fluorotic and nonfluorotic teeth. The etching patterns were also evaluated. The study involved 26 teeth classified as score 3 and 4, and 26 as score 0 with the Thylstrup and Fejerskov's (TF) fluorosis index. In addition to the clinical classification, difference in the concentration of fluoride in the teeth was verified by acid etching. Brackets were bonded with a composite resin after etching the enamel surface with 40% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds. Tensile bond strength was determined with an Instron testing machine. The bond failure site was assessed by the percentage of residue cement on the tooth surface after debonding and the etching pattern by SEM. The mean concentration of fluoride was 2888.5 ppm (SD 1081.7) in the fluorotic teeth and 1227.1 ppm (SD 526.3) in the nonfluorotic teeth. The mean bond strength was 7.8 N/mm2 (SD 1.47) for the fluorotic teeth and 8.6 N/mm2 (SD 2.19) for the nonfluorotic teeth. The difference between the means for bond strength was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). Bond failure site was primarily at the bracket-adhesive interface. The mean percentage of adhesive on the enamel surface after debonding was 70% (SD 25.90) for the fluorotic teeth and 75% (SD 24.66) for nonfluorotic teeth. The difference in the means was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Stimulating smallholder investment in sustainable land management: Overcoming market, policy and institutional challenges.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J O’o, J M, I O, T A. "Anatomical Variations of the Fifth Lumbar Artery in a sample Kenyan population." Ann Afr surg. 2022;19(2):100-107. AbstractWebsite

bstract
Background: Anatomical variations of lumbar arteries predispose them to iatrogenic injury during endovascular intervention or surgery. Due to limited morphological data on lumbar arteries in our setting, we aimed to determine their variant anatomy among Kenyans.

Methods: We performed the study on 90 cadaveric specimens and 120 computed tomography (CT) scans. Cadavers were dissected to expose the aorta and the lumbar arteries emerging from them. The number, origins, location relative to the vertebral bodies, and relations to aortic bifurcation were determined in cadavers and CT scans. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 21.0).

Results: On average, 3 (3/90 [3.3%]), 4 (63/90 [70%]) or 5 (24/90 [26.7%]) pairs of lumbar arteries were observed among the cadaveric specimens, whereas 4 (100/120 [83.3%]) or 5 (20/120 [16.7%]) pairs were observed in CTs. Differences in the number of pairs observed in the cadaveric versus CT study were not statistically significant (P = .542). There were no sex differences in the number of lumbar artery pairs observed in CT scans (P = .178). The first 3 lumbar artery pairs had a single-origin, whereas the fourth lumbar artery had a common-stem origin. The first, second, and third lumbar arteries mostly originated at the upper third of their respective vertebral bodies. The fourth lumbar artery predominantly originated at the lower third.

Conclusion: Our study's findings show unique variation in the lumbar arteries' relation to the vertebral bodies and the distances between artery pairs.

Level of evidence: IV (cross-sectional study).

Clinical relevance: Variations in the anatomy of the lumbar arteries should be taken into consideration, especially in surgical or interventional procedures to avoid inadvertent injury of the vessels.

J B, L O. Evaluation of Maendeleo ya Wanawake Organisation (MYWO) and Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) Female Genital Mutilation Project in four Districts in Kenya. Nairobi: Maendeleo ya Wanawake Organisation (MYWO) and Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH); 1998.
J PROFGICHAGAFRANCIS. "Mwea, S. K. and Gichaga, F.J.- Engineering properties of common.subgrade soils below pavement structures in Kenya.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT, Volume 7, March 2002. UN-HABITAT; 2002. Abstract

A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Enzymatic oil extraction and positional analysis of ω-3 fatty acids in Nile perch and salmon heads. Process Biochemistry.". In: Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2011. Wiley; 2010. Abstract
PUFA from oil extracted from Nile perch viscera were enriched by selective enzymatic esterification ofthe free fatty acids (FFA) or by hydrolysis of ethyl esters of the fatty acids from the oil (FA-EE).Quantitative analysis was performed using RP-HPLC coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector(RP-HPLC-ELSD). The lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus discriminated against docosahexaenoicacid (DHA) most, resulting in the highest DHA/DHA-EE enrichment while lipase from Pseudomonascepacia discriminated against eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) most, resulting in the highest EPA/EPA-EEenrichment. The lipases discriminated between DHA and EPA with a higher selectivity when present asethyl esters (EE) than when in FFA form. Thus when DHA/EPA were enriched to the same levelduring esterification and hydrolysis reactions, the DHA-EE/EPA-EE recoveries were higher than thoseof DHA/EPA-FFA. In reactions catalysed by lipase from T. lanuginosus, at 26 mol% DHA/DHA-EE,DHA recovery was 76% while that of DHA-EE was 84%. In reactions catalysed by lipase fromP. cepacia, at 11 mol% EPA/EPA-EE, EPA recovery was 79% while that of EPA-EE was 92%. Bothesterification of FFA and hydrolysis of FA-EE were more effective for enriching PUFA compared tohydrolysis of the natural oil and are thus attractive process alternatives for the production of productshighly enriched in DHA and/or EPA. When there is only one fatty acid residue in each substratemolecule, the full fatty acid selectivity of the lipase can be expressed, which is not the case withtriglycerides as substrates.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. "Ludeki Chweya, .". In: Proceedings of the Africa Regional Development Policy Forum, 10-11 June 1998, Nairobi, Kenya, 153-164. UNCRD Proceedings Series, No. 29 (Nagoya: United Nations Centre for Regional Development, 1998). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""Displacement, Minorities, and Human Security: The African Experience.". In: Regional Development Dialogue Vol. 4, No.2 Autumn pp. 133-134. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KAVIN DRWAKOLI. "Koech KJ, Chindia ML, Wakoli KA, Gathece LW. Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV infection and their relationship with CD4 count at a Nairobi centre. African journal of oral health sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9. Hekima III (1) 27-42; Submitted. Abstract
Savanna ecosystems and origins of modern human behavior Hekima III (1) 27-42: (Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi).
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Evidence for the involvement of a tsetse midgut lectin-trypsin complex in differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes. Insect Sci. Applic. 23(3). 197.". In: Bull Entomol Res. 2003 Feb;93(1):1-10. Springerlink; 2003. Abstract
The possibility to cross-species amplify microsatellites in fruit flies of the genus Ceratitis was tested with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by analysing 23 Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) microsatellite markers on the genomic DNA of three other economically important, congeneric species: C. rosa (Karsch), C. fasciventris (Bezzi) and C. cosyra (Walker). Twenty-two primer pairs produced amplification products in at least one of the three species tested. The majority of the products were similar, if not identical in size to those expected in C. capitata. The structures of the repeat motifs and their flanking sequences were examined for a total of 79 alleles from the three species. Sequence analysis revealed the same repeat type as the homologous C. capitata microsatellites in the majority of the loci, suggesting their utility for population analysis across the species range. A total of seven loci were differentially present/absent in C. capitata, C. rosa, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, suggesting that it may be possible to differentiate these four species using a simple sequence repeat-based PCR assay. It is proposed that medfly-based microsatellite markers could be utilized in the identification and tracing of the geographical origins of colonist pest populations of the four tested species and in the assessment of their risk and invasive potentials; thereby assisting regulatory authorities in implementing quarantine restrictions and other pest control measures.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW. "Chindia ML, Akama MK, Awange DO.Ameloblastic fibroma at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To document the occurrence of cases of ameloblastic fibroma. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: The Division of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine histopathology laboratory at the Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, January 1991 to December 2000. RESULTS: Seven complete records of histopathologically confirmed cases of ameloblastic fibroma were identified. There were four male and three female cases with an age range of 10 to 22 years (mean=14 years). Remarkably, six of the cases had lesions in the molar regions of the mandible with a single case with a maxillary molar area lesion. One of the cases had the neoplasm associated with an unerupted tooth. From the clinical notes all the patients were managed by meticulous enucleation and curettage of the lesions. After follow up periods ranging from several months to eight years no recurrences had been recorded. CONCLUSION: Evidently ameloblastic fibroma is an uncommon neoplasm as noted in the earlier literature. Although the lesions can be quite extensive at the time of diagnosis, the recurrence rate appears to be relatively low if the neoplasms are meticulously extirpated.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "NJIRU ABK, CHINDIA ML. Late presentation of patients with oral Squamous cell Carcinoma. African Journal Oral Health , 3:118-121, 2002.". In: African Journal Oral Health , 3:118-121, 2002. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Wakiaga J.M., Kisumbi B, and Chindia ML: Discolouration of teeth an overview of the diagnosis and management. East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):213-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):213-6. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
The dentist is faced with a daunting task in application of clinical skills to achieve maximum cosmetic results when it comes to the management of discoloured and/or hypoplastic dentition. In this paper, an overview is made of the diagnosis and the management of these broadly termed conditions and the cost-effectiveness of the various modalities discussed.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Choice of fresh vegetable retail outlets by developing-country urban consumers: The case of kale consumers in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: European Journal of Development Research. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell R.B. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1985). Experimental Caval Sydrome. Australian VeterinaryPractitioner 15:120.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L., Valderhaug J and Ng'ang'a P.M.: Oral Health habits and Periodontal Health among a group of University Students in Kenya. East African Medical Journal, 69: 337 - 340, 1992.". In: East African Medical Journal, 69: 337 - 340, 1992. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the oral health habits and periodontal health among a group of university students in Kenya. The study comprised 243 randomly selected first year students, mean age 23 years, at the University of Nairobi. Questionnaire response showed that 39% of the participants had visited a dentist before, mainly for extraction. Sixteen per cent said they visited a dentist at least once a year and 96% said they brushed daily. Clinical examination was done in a room with natural daylight using the WHO criteria. Plaque was visible on 35% of the surfaces. 11% of gingival sites examined bled on probing. Only one participant had pocket depth greater than or equal to 4 mm. Supra- and sub-gingival calculus was recorded at 18% of index tooth surfaces. The study will be considered as a baseline for later studies on oral health trends in similar populations.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Urban consumers.". In: International Journal of Business and Social Science. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J B, C N, P M. Women Professionals in the Agricultural Sector: Kenya Case Study. Arkansas: Winrock International; 1992.
J S, T N, J G, Z Q. "Menstruation Requirements as a Barrier to Contraceptive Access in Kenya E.A.M.J. 76 ( 3 ): 124, 1999." E.A.M.J. . 1999;76(3):124-126. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In many countries, non-menstruating women are routinely denied contraceptive services even when pregnancy can easily be ruled out.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether menstruation requirements in Kenya constitute a barrier to access for potential family planning clients.

DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective observational study.

SETTING: Nine family planning clinics in western Kenya.
SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at Ministry of Health family planning clinics.

INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking and retrospective record reviews to compare the menstrual status of women presenting for family planning services with that of women who received methods in family planning clinics.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dichotomous outcomes (menstruating versus non-menstruating women).
RESULTS:
During the eight-week period that tally sheets were used in the one hospital and eight health centres, 45% of the 760 women presenting for services as new clients were not menstruating (clinic range = 19%-70%). In contrast, information from clinic registers and client records in the same nine clinics showed that the (weighted) proportion of registered new clients who were menstruating was 85% (n = 102). We estimated that 78% of non-menstruating women (35% of all potential new clients) were sent away without services.

CONCLUSION: For most women turned away, it is likely that pregnancy could be ruled out easily with a history and an examination. Menstruation as a pre-condition for provision of contraception wastes valuable resources and denies women their right to contraception.

J D, A S, E I. "[{Variations} in the position and point of origin of the vermiform appendix]." Medicinski arhiv. 2001;56:5-8. AbstractWebsite

Author: Delić J, Journal: Medicinski arhiv[2001/12], Abstract: There were investigated variations of appendix vermiformis in the place of origin and position. The investigations were carried out on 50 human preparations of adults of both sexes, unintentional...

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Enzymatic Synthesis of Lipophilic Rutin and Vanillyl Esters From Fish By Products. Accepted.". In: J. Agric. Food Chem. 2011. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2011. Abstract
p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; } Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of lipophilic phenolic antioxidants was carried out with a concentrate of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), recovered from oil extracted from Salmon (Salmon salar) by-products. Vanillyl alcohol and rutin were selected for the esterification reaction and obtained esters yields were 60 and 30 %, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the esters were compared with those of commercial butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol using DPPH radical scavenging and thiobarbituric acid assays. In DPPH assay, rutin esters showed better activity than vanillyl esters and on the contrary in lipophilic medium, vanillyl esters were found to be superior to rutin esters. In bulk oil system, the antioxidant activities of rutin and vanillyl derivatives were lower than that of BHT and α-tocopherol but in emulsion, they showed better activity than α-tocopherol. By attaching PUFAs to natural phenolics, the PUFAs are protected against oxidation while PUFA improves the hydrophobicity of the phenolic which could enhance its function in lipid systems.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. "The State and Rural Development: Transcending the Centralization-Decentralization Debate, ".". In: Regional Development Dialogue Vol 25, No, Spring pp. 18-32. ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Hashim SO, Delgado O, Hatti-Kaul R, Mulaa FJ, Mattiasson B.Starch hydrolysing Bacillus halodurans isolates from a Kenyan soda lake.Biotechnol Lett. 2004 May;26(10):823-8.". In: Biotechnol Lett. 2004 May;26(10):823-8. Springerlink; 2004. Abstract
Fourteen obligate alkaliphilic and halotolerant bacterial isolates, exhibiting extracellular amylase activity at 55 degrees C and pH 10, were isolated from hot springs around Lake Bogoria, Kenya. From 16S rDNA sequence analysis, nine isolates shared 100% identity with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497T, while the rest shared 99% identity with alkaliphilic Bacillus species A-59. PCR of the intergenic spacer region between 16S and 23S rRNA genes (ISR-PCR) divided the isolates into two groups, while tDNA-PCR divided them into three groups. Bacillus halodurans DSM 497T had a different ISR pattern from the isolates, while it had a tDNA-PCR profile similar to the group that shared 99% identity with alkaliphilic Bacillus species A-59. All isolates hydrolysed soluble starch as well as amylose, amylopectin and pullulan. The amylase activity (1.2-1.8 U ml(-1)) in the culture broths had an optimum temperature of 55-65 degrees C, was stimulated by 1 mm Ca2+, and was either partially (16-30%) or completely inhibited by 1 mM EDTA. Activity staining of the cell-free culture supernatant from the isolates revealed five alkaline active amylase bands.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Moshy J, Chindia ML. Clinical characteristics of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences, 2003. 4: 170 - 172.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences, 2003. 4: 170 - 172. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "The effects of Cortisone on GABA metabolism on the rat hypothalamus and hippocampus. MSc Thesis Donestsk State University.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90. Springerlink; 1983. Abstract

In a bid to determine the HIV-1 subtype variants in transmission in Nairobi and its possible association with clinical status, we screened 207 confirmed HIV-1 positive patients visiting HIV/AIDS laboratory at the Virus Research Centre in Nairobi between January and March 1994. We used a selfmade ELISA obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides (ANRS, France) and derived from seven isolates: MN, HXB2, SC, Z6, Z2, ELI and CDC4. Test samples were obtained from 95 blood donors and medical examination attendees, 57 patients with chronic diarrhoea, 31 confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, 16 with pneumonia and 12 herpes zoster. Out of the total, 21.5% had antibodies against the MN strain, 19.1% had against the Z2 strain while reaction against the HXB2 strain was observed in 17.2%. SC, CDC4, Z6 and ELI had prevalences of 11.5%, 6.2%, 5.3% and 3.8% respectively. Fifteen per cent of the tested sera showed no reaction to any of the used peptides. Strong and significant associations were observed between the total number of strains a sample react to and the clinical state. We infer that both the North American consensus strains (MN and HXB2) and the African isolates (Z2 and Z6) are predominant in Nairobi. The correlation between antibody reactivity and clinical state is an interesting observation that necessitates an expanded study and, the use of strain specific peptides maybe a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes. PIP: During January-March 1994, in Nairobi, Kenya, the sera of pre-university students, suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases, and blood donors were screened for HIV-1 antibodies at the Virus Research Centre. All confirmed HIV-1 positive samples were categorized according to the patient's clinical status. A self-made ELISA was obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides and derived from seven isolates (MN and HXB2 [North American strains], SC, CDC4, Z2 and Z6 [African strains], and ELI). The sera of the 22 confirmed HIV-1 negative students were used as negative controls. There were 207 confirmed HIV-1 cases (95 blood donors and 112 suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases). 64 (31%) and 112 (54%) samples reacted to at least 3 strains and no more than 2 strains, respectively. The remaining 31 (15%) samples did not react to any of the 7 peptide strains. Samples with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 x 1 million reacted significantly to more peptide strains than those with CD4 counts below 200 x 1 million (88% vs. 7%). Reactivity to specific strains were 21.5% for MN, 19.1% for Z2, 17.2% for HXB2, 11.5% for SC, 6.2% for CDC 4, 5.5% for Z6, and 3.8% for ELI. Anti-HXB2 antibodies were more common in blood donors than suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases (22% vs. 13%). AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases were more likely to have no antibodies than blood donors (21% vs. 7%). A significant association existed between the number of peptide strains a patient could react to and the clinical state (p 0.01). Specifically, 77% of samples with no V3 antibodies to the seven strains had AIDS or advanced HIV infection while 55% of those which had cross reactivity with three or more strains were asymptomatic. Further research is needed to better understand this correlation. These findings suggest that use of strain specific peptides may be a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., Guthua S.W., Kimaro S.S., Moshy J: Gangrenous Stomatitis (cancrumoris) Clinical features, etiologic factors and complications. Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81.". In: Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1997. Abstract
Gangrenous stomatitis (cancrum oris) is a lesion involving the orofacial structures that is primarily seen in areas where the socioeconomic standards are low and there is poor hygiene. The general clinical features, associated etiologic factors, and ensuing complications in eight consecutive cases diagnosed between 1991 and 1995 are presented and discussed.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell, R.B. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1987). Canine Caval Syndrome, in canine Dirofilariasis. C.R.C., press. New York.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1987. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI D.L., CHINDIA M.L.: Orofacial lesions as indicators of HIV/AIDS among dental patients in Kenya. E. Afri. Med. J. 72(2): 135-138, 1994.". In: E. Afri. Med. J. 72(2): 135-138. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
J.G. Maina MPG, J. Ngugi OB, P. Orina.WSM, E. G. Karuri, T. Maitho OGO. "Influence of social-economic factors, gender and the Fish Farming Enterprise and Productivity Project on fish farming practices in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 2014;26.
J A N-M, P.M M. "Ways of improving the prognosis of ventral hernias in food animals.". 1990. Abstract

Any displacement of abdominal contents through "unnatural" openings in any part of the abdominal wall is termed a ventral hernia (Frank 1970; Keown 1976; Tirgari 1979; McIlwraith 1984). Ventral hernia is an acquired type of hernia whose main cause is trauma inflicted by violent, blunt force such as kicks, blows, horn thrusts and falling objects (Frank 1970; Keown, 1976; McIlwraith, 1984). Previous abdominal wall surgery, abscesses, or degenerative causes may lead to muscular weakness. The stress of pregnancy and parturition then causes the weakened part of the abdominal wall to give way (Oehme 1965; McIlwraith 1984). Muscular tear follows the pathway of least resistance and in most cases it is in the direction of the fibres of the external oblique muscle (Meek et aI1977; Tirgari 1979). Housing and type of management could be contributory predisposing factors that are not well defined.

J Ayugi, J Ogengo MOIB. "Pattern of acquired neck masses in a Kenyan paediatric population." International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2011;4(40 ):384-387.
J Carvell, E Ayieta, A Gavrin RCVRSSP, A Gavrin, Ruihua Cheng, Shah VR, Sokol P. "Magnetic properties of iron nanoparticle." Journal of Applied Physics. 2010;107(10):103913. Abstract

Magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles with different sizes synthesized by a physical
deposition technique have been investigated experimentally. We have used a high pressure
sputtering technique to deposit iron nanoparticles on a silicon substrate. The nanoparticles
are then analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy
(TEM), and superconducting quantum interference device techniques. TEM and AFM data
show that the particle size could be tuned by adjusting the deposition conditions. The …

J Coetzer, L Grobbelaar MEM. Making software humane: the effects of affective and anthropomorphism on the adoption of an m-health application. Association for Computing Machinery; 2017. Abstract

With the proliferation of mobile devices, provision of M-health care services has become feasible even in the remotest villages of Africa. Research however shows that many M-health initiatives have not been adopted and used effectively especially in rural communities. Some of the factors contributing to this range from a lack of knowledge with regard the use of technology, literacy challenges, possible fear of technology, to a lack of information regarding these interventions.
In this paper, we demonstrate that an initiative designed to recognize usability as its core function plays a critical role in the use and adoption of M-health interventions in rural communities. Two versions of an M-health intervention were developed and two interface design principles that may have an impact on users' emotions applied, namely affective design and anthropomorphism.
Using the Sethakeng rural community in the Northern Cape (South Africa) as the case study, we were able to determine the extent to which both anthropomorphism and affective design influence the adoption of an M-Health application. Further, the research revealed that because of its ability to include human-like qualities to non-living objects, anthropomorphism is a more effective method for designing M-Health applications targeting rural communities.

J Nasimolo, S G Kiama PKGMKAJ. "Erythrina abyssinica ameliorates meningoencephalitis and conserves proteins in Trypanosoma brucei brucei chronic mice model.". In: RISE AFNNET Workshop. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
J Okwako, Musembi R, F Nyongesa, Ogacho A. Effect of Annealing on Structural and Optical Properties of CZTS thin films Deposited by SILAR Technique.. TUNISIA: ANSOLE DAYS; 2017.
J Situma, F Atoh NJ. "Mapping out the Identity of African Arts and Aesthetics." Thought and Practice, 2015. 2015;7(1):77-102.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Evaluation of World Visions public health interventions in Bunyala, ADP (Report submitted to World Vision, Kenya).". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Munguti, K. Environmental Degradation and Disease in Kenya: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya, Wandiga, S.O and Abuodha N.L (ed), Kenya National Academy of Sciences.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1996. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Uniform derivative convergence of diagonal Pad.". In: Proceedings of 1st Eastern African Symposium in Applied Mathematics, and Mathematical Education, Nairobi. 1981. Section B, pp. 25-36. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1981. Abstract
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J. M, Mbindyo JM. An Impact Study of the Effects of Grassroot Development Planning and Training on Agriculture and Health. Nairobi: Consultancy Report for Institute of Cultural Affairs; 1984.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Impact Assessment Study on Technological Based Enterprise Projects in Kenya.". In: Institute for Development Studies IDS (U.O.N.). Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL, P PROFPATELJAYANTI, KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Radio Isotope Photon Excited Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Technique for the Analysis of Organic Matrices.". In: X-ray Spectrometry, Vol. 27, 205 . University of Nairobi.; 1998.
J. N. Oncogenic and Angiogenic Roles of HIV-1 Tat Protein. Siena, Italy: PhD Thesis, University of Siena; 2007.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Indigenous Knowledge in the Management of Malaria and Visceral Leishmaniasis among the Tugen of Kenya. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, Vol. 5 No.1, pp.10-12.". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1997. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Information Technology with a development perspective.". In: Proceedings of the 7th PWPA Conference on Employment and Education: Strategies & Opportunities for Development. 1990, Nairobi, Chapter 9 pp. 121-132. Ed., Gray, K.R., PWPA (K). MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
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J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "The role of Language As A Tool of Interpreting the Social and Cultural Meaning of Traditional Art Forms and Design Patterns. A Case of Aesthetic, Functional and Symbolic Meaning of Maasai Shields.". In: The African Academy of Sciences. Nairobi. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "EDXRF analysis of local and imported pica soil samples.". In: East African Journal of. University of Nairobi.; 2001.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "The Face of Rural Poverty: The Case of Makueni District in Bahemuka, J.M., Nganda, B. and Nzioka (ed). UNESCO/University of Nairobi Publication.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Ensuring Quality Information: Integrity, Security and Privacy.". In: Seminar on Computer Security. 1999. National Computer Board, Mauritius. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
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J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL, P PROFPATELJAYANTI, KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Radio Isotope Photon Excited Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Technique for the Analysis of Organic Matrices.". In: X-ray Spectrometry, Vol. 27, 205 . Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1998. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "The Role of a Designer in making Kenya a Planning Society, Africa Habitat Review.". In: A Journal of the Built Environment. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL, M. MRMAINADAVID. "Trace Elements in some selected dietary staples in Kenya.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . University of Nairobi.; 2005.
J. S, N. N, Z. Q, M. N. "Does assessment of signs and symptoms add to the predictive value of an algorithm to rule out pregnancy?" J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2006;32(1):27-9. Abstract

BACKGROUND:
A World Health Organization-endorsed algorithm, widely published in international guidance documents and distributed in the form of a 'pregnancy checklist', has become a popular tool for ruling out pregnancy among family planning clients in developing countries. The algorithm consists of six criteria excluding pregnancy, all conditional upon a seventh 'master criterion' relating to signs or symptoms of pregnancy. Few data exist on the specificity to pregnancy among family planning clients of long-accepted signs and symptoms of pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to assess whether reported signs and symptoms of pregnancy add to the predictive value of an algorithm to rule out pregnancy.

METHODS:
Data from a previous observational study were used to assess the performance of the algorithm with and without the 'signs and symptoms' criterion. The study group comprised 1852 new, non-menstruating family planning clients from seven clinics in Kenya.

RESULTS:
Signs and symptoms of pregnancy were rare (1.5%) as was pregnancy (1%). Signs and symptoms were more common (18.2%) among the 22 clients who tested positive for pregnancy than among the 1830 clients (1.3%) who tested negative, but did not add significantly to the predictive value of the algorithm. Most women with signs or symptoms were not pregnant and would have been unnecessarily denied a contraceptive method using the current criteria.

CONCLUSIONS:
The 'signs and symptoms' criterion did not substantially improve the ability of the algorithm to exclude pregnant clients, but several reasons (including use of the algorithm for intrauterine device clients) render it unlikely that the algorithm will be changed.

J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Diploma in Graphic Design, Textile Design, Painting and Sculpture.". In: Buruburu Institute of Fine Arts. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Their Own Words: Women Coping with Lymphatic Filariasis in Kwale District, Kenya.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1999. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Health Informatics: Implications of Evaluation Models for Developing Countries. Importance of Mathematical Modelling of Biological & Biomedical Processes. Eds. Livingston L.S., Mugisha J.Y.T. & Kasozi J.". In: African Society for Biomathematics. Series 1 pp. 79-94. Kampala :Makerere University Press 2004. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Global Knowledge and the Information Society: Illusion or Reality for Developing Countries?". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 8-19. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2004. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Diploma in Architecture Syllabi and Regulations.". In: Kenya Institute of Education. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Framework for the promotion and implementation of community malaria control in the context of Roll Back Malaria, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2000. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, N MRRUHIUSAMUEL. "Towards a framework for ICT Uptake in Developing Countries.". In: Ph.D Colloquium) Proceedings of the 1st Annual (International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 244-256. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study infections complicating ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery in children with non-tumour hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: A retrospective survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi between January 1982 and December 1991. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and forty five patients who underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty five patients underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. There were 107 infection episodes involving 85 patients. The ages of these patients ranged from three months to 12 years. Most of the patients had congenital hydrocephalus. The infection rate was high (24.6%) although comparable to infection rates reported for clean surgery in the hospital. Fever, septic wounds and features of shunt malfunction were the main presenting features. Bacteriological studies confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci as the two most commonly isolated micro-organisms. CONCLUSION: This study emphasises need to reduce infection rate in ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Definitive surgical treatment for hydrocephalus was in most cases delayed and this problem was also observed during revision of infected shunts. Late presentation was often due to ignorance and the fact that many patients went for traditional forms of treatment first before going to hospital.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "MPH Dissertation Title:Maternal Education as a Factor in Child Nutrition in Kibwezi Division, Machakos, Kenya.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1988. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. W. "Methods of Quality Control.". In: The camel (C. dromedarius) as a meat and milk animal: Handbook and product development. Zurich: Vdf Hochschulverlag ETHZ ; 2004.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "BIFA Contribution to Modern Art and Design Teaching in Nairobi and Investigation Research Report.". In: Institute of Develoment Studies (UON). Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Reproductive health needs for women with disabilities in Makueni District (Report submitted to the Belgium technical cooperation).". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "An Integrated Regional ICT Policy for the East Africa Community (EAC): Impact on a Possible Information Revolution.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2004. Abstract
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J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Health Care: Household Management of Malaria and Visceral Leishmaniasis in Baringo, Kenya. IDS Working Paper No. 498, May,1995.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1995. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Convergence of Pad.". In: J. Inst. Maths. Applics. 1980. 25, 17-27. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1980. Abstract
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J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Proposal for Pilot Impact Assessment of Department of International Development for International Development/British Aided Small Enterprises DFID/BASE. Support Technology Development In Kenya.". In: Institute of Development Studies (U.O.N.). Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "Geostatistical Modelling of a High Background Radiation Area Geothermal Field Matrix Trace Elements: The Goals and Challenges of Kerio Valley Geothermal Field P.O. Ogwari1, H. K. Angeyo1, A. O. Mustapha3 and J.M. Mangala2.". In: X-ray Spectrometry, Vol. 27, 205 . University of Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract

Estimating spatial variability of trace geothermal signatures is an important factor is evaluating the geothermal field potential.  It is expected that a particular geothermal feature (hot spring, fumarole, geyser, etc.) exhibits unique 'marker' trace element/ and             radiogenic signatures that may be used to prospect the field over large spatial dimension (for example mapping of passive sites) based on the results of a few measurements on the feature.  Geostatistical methods provide means to study the heterogeneous nature of the 'marker' spatial distribution especially in an area of poor accessibility.  The geothermal signatures in this study are trace elements in thermal water that uniquely characterize the Kerio Valley geothermal field, which lies in the mid Rift System of Kenya.  The region has been associated with elevated background radiation to the extent that certain areas in have been characterized as high background radiation areas (HBRA) thereby providing a   perfect setting to understand the relations between geothermal characterizing trace elements and naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) signatures.  X-Ray       Fluorescence (XRF) analysed Sr, K, Rb, Br, Ca and Cr showed a strong positive  correlation with water temperature and were considered for mapping their variability and  prediction of unsampled areas.  Variogram and Kriging analysis was performed using ArchMap 9.3.  The results show that the spatial distribution of the sampling points is insufficient to map the whole area of interest.  Various variogram models fit well for Sr, Rb and Cr.  However, a fitting model for K, Br, and Ca could not be found.  This is due to the unharmonized nature of the covariance between the sampled points.  The kriging maps, which are a product of the variograms, capture the sense  and importance of        sampling design (DoE) in geostatistical modelling.  This study therefore serves as a base for the design and systematic sampling approach for the sparse nature of the Kerio Valley goethermal signatures.  Springs of elevated thermal gradient have been identified as the sampling points.  Both water and soil (i.e. sediment) will be sample accordingly to 'markers' have shown a strong positive correlation with thermal gradient in water, and the soil has provided the same correlation pattern as the water.  Therefore in cases of dried springs, soil samples can confidently provide a good model.

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J. B, O. M, H. P, N.O. O, R. Š, E. V. "The role of dispersal and vicariance in the Pleistocene history of an East African mountain rodent,
 Praomys delectorum. ." Journal of Biogeography . 2014;41:196-208.
J. NG, M.M G, P.B G, T.W G, A N. "Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from asymptomatic school going children in Kibera slum, Kenya.". In: Theory and applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology . India: Book publisher international; 2019.book_chapter_-__theory_and_applications_of_microbiology_and_biotechnology_vol._2.pdf
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Malaria in Pregnancy: Changing service providers practices for better outcomes(Submitted to the American journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene).". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2004. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Health Last: The Paradox of Jua Kali Enterprises in Kenya Journal of Social Sciences, Series C, Vol. 4, No.1, pp. 44-60.". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1997. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "An appraisal of the postgraduate diploma in computer science of the University of Nairobi, Institute of Computer Science.". In: Proceedings of International Congress on Education and Informatics. 1989 Paris. pp. 545-650 UNESCO. 3. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
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J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Where do Textile Design Students Go After Training at Dept. of Design U.O.N. A look at the Textile Syllabus of the dept.". In: The African Academy of Sciences Nairobi. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "Uptake Characteristics Of Trace Elements: Lead, Zinc, Cadmium And Mercury By Selected Food Crops Grown Along Nairobi River.". In: Proceedings of 5th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop, Mombasa. University of Nairobi.; 2000.
J. G, M. M, J. M, L. M, J. M, P. O. "Ethnoveterinary Practices in Eastern Africa, ISBN-9966-907-15-7." Community-based Livestock Initiatives Program; 2004.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Kinyanjui, M and Munguti, K. Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi).". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Error Analysis of Dynamical Model in Epidemiology.". In: International J. Math & Math Sci., Vol.17, No.1 PP 119-124. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
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J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Analysis of the Design As A Fundamental Human and Social Need.". In: African Habitat Review. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "Assessment Of Ozone, Nitrogen Oxide, Air Particulate Matter(PM10) And Trace Elements Levels In The Ambient Air Of Nairobi City.". In: Workshop on Air Pollution Studies in Southern and East Africa, University of Botswana, Gaborone,. University of Nairobi.; 2004.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "African Art.". In: Emory, USA. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Community Perceptions and Treatment of Malaria in Baringo District:Implications for Disease Control. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 75 No. 12 pp.687-691.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "An Integrated Regional ICT Policy for the East Africa Community (EAC): Impact on a Possible Information Revolution.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
n/a
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Error Analysis of Dynamical Model in Epidemiology.". In: International J. Math & Math Sci., Vol.17, No.1 PP 119-124. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1994. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
J. M’eruaki, Njeru L, Kiunga G. "An Assessment of the Roleof Internal Savings and LendingCommunities (SILC) in Community Empowerment in Igembe North SubCounty, Kenya." Scholars Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (SJAHSS). 2017;5(8)(ISSN): 2347-5374.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Africa: The Art of a continent. Deutschland. A magazine on politics, culture, business an science.". In: Bonn, Germany. Elsevier; 1996. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Gender Concerns in Micro-Enterprise Development Policies in Kenya. Published in Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, International Center for Economic Growth (ICEG), Mullei E. and Bokea C. (ed), 1999.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1999. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Global Knowledge and the Information Society: Illusion or Reality for Developing Countries?". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 8-19. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study infections complicating ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery in children with non-tumour hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: A retrospective survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi between January 1982 and December 1991. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and forty five patients who underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty five patients underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. There were 107 infection episodes involving 85 patients. The ages of these patients ranged from three months to 12 years. Most of the patients had congenital hydrocephalus. The infection rate was high (24.6%) although comparable to infection rates reported for clean surgery in the hospital. Fever, septic wounds and features of shunt malfunction were the main presenting features. Bacteriological studies confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci as the two most commonly isolated micro-organisms. CONCLUSION: This study emphasises need to reduce infection rate in ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Definitive surgical treatment for hydrocephalus was in most cases delayed and this problem was also observed during revision of infected shunts. Late presentation was often due to ignorance and the fact that many patients went for traditional forms of treatment first before going to hospital.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "MAThesis Title: A Study of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Relating to Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala- azar) in Tseikuru Location, Kitui District, Kenya.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1986. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. W. "Equipment for small-scale milk plants.". In: The camel (C. dromedarius) as a meat and milk animal: Handbook and product development. Zurich: Vdf Hochschulverlag ETHZ ; 2004.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Diploma in Building Construction Kenya Institute of Education (K.I.E.) Nairobi.". In: Technical Education Programmes. Elsevier; 1998. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. MMMNFFM. "Employee reward, work environment and employee performance at the Kenya Police service,." DBA Africa Management Review . 2021;11(1).
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "DFID scoping mission report on malaria in Uganda.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Gender Issues in the Prevention and Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) and Malaria. in Wijeyaratne, P., Roberts, J.H., and Kitts, J. (Eds). Gender Health and Sustainable Development, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1994. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "An error analysis and convergence of a quadrature formula to invert Laplace transforms.". In: J. Inst. Maths. Applics. 1977. 20, 21-32. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1977. Abstract
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wagunde J., Rambo C, Ndiritu A, Onyango M. "Influence of Idealized behavior on the implementation of CDF construction projects in public secondary schools in Kisumu County, Kenya ." European Scientific Journal. 2015;11(22):1857-7881.
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, N MRRUHIUSAMUEL. "Towards a framework for ICT Uptake in Developing Countries.". In: Ph.D Colloquium) Proceedings of the 1st Annual (International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 244-256. 2003; 2005. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
J. O, C. OO, D OO. "Fait Accomplit: Legitimising the illegitimate electoral outcomes in Kenya. ." Journal of Public Policy Research and Administration Research. 2015;5(2224-5731):103-108.fait_accomplit.pdf
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Organisation Questionnaires for Impact Assessment of Technology Based (BDS) projects in Kenya.". In: Institute of Develoment Studies (UON). Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL, M. MRMAINADAVID. "Trace Elements in some selected dietary staples in Kenya.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Improving women\.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2004. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "State of the art computer science in East and Central Africa.". In: Proceedings: Workshop in Curriculum Development in Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Nairobi. pp. 143-147. ICTP. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1986. Abstract
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J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Gender Issues in the reporting and Management of Lymphatic Filariasis in Kwale District, Kenya. TDR, World Health Organization.". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1996. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. M, Narla RD, Musyimi SL, WAGACHA JOHNMAINA. "Occurrence of Fusarium species and associated T2-toxin in Kenyan wheat." Agriculture Science and Technology. 2011;3(1):24-34.occurrence_of fusarium_species_and_associated_toxins.
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "State of the art computer science in East and Central Africa.". In: Proceedings: Workshop in Curriculum Development in Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Nairobi. pp. 143-147. ICTP. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1986. Abstract
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J. DRMAINASYLVESTER, RUKWARO DRROBERT, RUKWARO DRROBERT. "Representation Techniques In Building Drawing.". In: Applied Research and Training Services (ARTS). Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "Trace element analyses of pollen bee tissue and honey by total reflection and radioisotope exciled x-ray fluorescence spectrometr.". In: Journal Of Trace Microprobe Techniques 18(2). 303 . University of Nairobi.; 2000.
J. M, J.N. K, D. K, G.O. A, J.H N. "Prolonging the shelf-life of seed potato tubers at farm level: Cold storage or Diffused light store." International Journal of Horticulture. 2015;5(12):1-4.prolonging_the_shelf.pdf
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Lets share with Others: Developing Radio and Illustration Materials with and for Rural Women. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1997. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, A. MRMOTURICHRISTOPHER. "Training of information analysts at the Institute of Computer Science, University of Nairobi.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract
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and J. MROJK; GK. "Some Examples of Non-Normal Operators in a Hilbert Space." Journal of Agriculture, Pure and Applied Science & Technology. 2009;vol.2(ISSN 2073-8749(Africa online Journal)):19-31.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Ethnic Art Forms and Design Patterns As Agents to Transformation and Adaption.". In: The Academy of African sciences Nairobi. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "Analysis of Local mineral and tap waters samples using Total Reflection(TXRF) for Heavy metal content.". In: 9th International Symposium on Radiation Physics, Protea Hotel President, Cape Town. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Jua Kali In Kasfir, SCL. (ed.) Jua Kali Iwowa City Third World Mode of Production or The New African Aesthetics,.". In: Trienvia Symposium in African Art. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "K. Social Conditions and Cultural Beliefs on Malaria. African Journal of Medical Practice, Vol. 5 No.6, pp. 286-288.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "IT development in a University Environment: A Case of the Institute of Computer Science, University of Nairobi.". In: Workshop to establish a Regional Centre in Computer Science. 2003 , Makerere University, Kampala. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
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J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL, P PROFPATELJAYANTI, KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Radio Isotope Photon Excited Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Technique for the Analysis of Organic Matrices.". In: X-ray Spectrometry, Vol. 27, 205 . GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1998. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
J. S, Z. Q, C S-K, B. G, T N. "Checklist for ruling out pregnancy among family-planning clients in primary care." Lancet. 1999;354(9178):566. Abstract

Abstract

Where pregnancy tests are unavailable, health providers, fearing possible harm to fetuses, often deny contraception to nonmenstruating clients. In Kenya, a trial of a simple checklist to exclude pregnancy showed a good negative predictive value, which could improve access to service and reduce unwanted pregnancies and their sequelae.

PIP:
This report presents Kenya's checklist (consisting of six simple questions) for ruling out pregnancy among family planning clients; the questions are intended to improve access to service and reduce unwanted pregnancies and their sequelae. The checklist includes questions on most recent birth, duration and frequency of breast-feeding, duration since last menstrual period, duration since last abortion or miscarriage, abstinence from sexual relations, and current contraceptive practices. The checklist was administered and followed by dipstick pregnancy tests at seven family planning clinics in order to test its validity. The checklist ruled out pregnancy for 88% of women. The checklist¿s high negative predictive value (99%) should be regarded as the relevant statistic. Widespread use of this checklist could lessen restriction to contraceptives in many countries.

J. DRMAINASYLVESTER, RUKWARO DRROBERT, RUKWARO DRROBERT. "Representation Techniques In Building Drawing.". In: Applied Research and Training Services (ARTS). VLIR; 2002.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "The Art of A Continent.". In: Royal Academy of Arts. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "K. Household management of Visceral Leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in Baringo District. Medical Insights Journal, Vol.1, No.2 pp. 12-18.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1999. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "A conceptual framework for sustainable e-government Lead researcher: IUCEA co-ordinated project funded by UNECA: VarsityNet 2003-2004.". In: Software research in e-government: A pilot project for East Africa. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "The Health Status in Kitui District. In Socio-Cultural Profiles of Districts. Institute of African Studies and Ministry of Planning and National Development.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1985. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. MN, M. KC, K MB, J.K. N’ang’a. "Simulation of Potential Impact of Air Pollution from the Proposed Coal Mining Sites in Mui Basin, Kitui County." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2(1):60-72. AbstractAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

The potential for air pollutants transport, dispersion patterns and impacts within and around the Mui basin, Kitui County is simulated. The spatial-temporal distribution of air pollutants from the proposed coal mines was investigated using Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectories (HYSPLIT) and dispersion analyses. The spatial distribution of wind patterns was investigated using wind rose to explain the observed air pollution
distribution. The analysis was carried out for the dry and wet seasons of the study area namely: December, January, February (DJF), March, April, May (MAM), June, July, August (JJA) and September, October, November (SON) seasons. From the analysis, the season during which the exposure levels would pose much health threat was established based on frequency of winds blowing in certain direction and speed. By spatial analysis of the
proximity of proposed mines and direction of dominant winds, areas most prone to pollution were delineated. The results showed that winds over the area were generally low and southerly. The residents to the northern and northwestern sectors would be at most at risk should the mining commence. Due to low wind speeds during January and the onset of JJA season, residents and workers at the mine would be affected adversely. The results may contribute to the design of effective control strategies to reduce impact of emitted pollutants.

Keywords:
Pollution, Wind rose, HYSPLIT, Trajectory, Dispersion, Exposure

J. KH. "CHALLENGES OF QUALITY ASSURANCE IN THE INTEGRATION OF ICT IN OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.". In: The 2nd African Council of Distance Education. Lagos, Nigeria; 2008.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Diploma in Sculpture.". In: Kenya Institute of Education (KIE). Elsevier; 1998. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Guidelines for Developing Information, Education and Communication Materials for behavior change in malaria control. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2001. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. M, P.N K. Influencing factors of Degree choices among females in Kenyan Universities . Germany: Lambert academic publications; 2011.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Ph.D Thesis. Title: Coping with Malaria and Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) in Baringo District, Kenya: Implications for Disease Control, University of California, Los Angeles.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1994. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Properties of constants for a quadrature formula to evaluate Bromwich.". In: Journal of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. 1976. 18, 49-56. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1976. Abstract
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J. BT, Miller SN, C.M. G, W. S. "Suitability of the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) Tool in Hydrologic Response and Land Cover Change in River Njoro Watershed, Kenya .". In: Suitability of Geospactial Watershed Assessment.; 2007. Abstract

Rapid land cover changes occurring in the Rift Valley of Kenya are altering the hydrologic response of critical watersheds. Four Landsat scenes from the past 18 years were used to develop a land cover classification scheme for the Njoro River watershed. These data were input to the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA), a geographic information system (GIS) tool. AGWA was used to parameterize and run the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a hydrologic model suitable for assessing land cover change impacts on hydrologic response. The automated parameterization routines in AGWA are designed for US soil and land cover data sets and require inputs for terrain, soil, land cover, climate and rainfall. Climate, soil and terrain data were built for the watershed using historical data and field work, and classified land cover data were created using supervised and unsupervised classification and verified in the field. Techniques and methods were created to transform Kenya data sets into suitable formats for AGWA. Preliminary findings indicate the suitability of this type of analysis for watershed assessment in Kenya; changes in landscape and land use are reflected in significant changes to simulated hydrologic results.

Key words: Land cover change, Watershed, GIS, Hydrologic response

J. O, O.C O, D. OO. "Beyond Remedial Measures: Re-thinking ‘Normalization’ of women’s election as part of political experience in Kenya." Journal of International Affairs and Global Strategy . 2015;33(2224-574X):33-41.beyond_remedial_measures.pdf
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Information .". In: Institute of Develoment Studies (UON). Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. A N-M, D. O K;, P.M M, S. M M. "Prognosis indicators and economic implications of advanced bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma after radical surgery.". 1990. Abstract

The productive life span of animals is shortened and the carcass devalued by ocular squamous cell carcinoma. This causes remarkable economic losses in the cattle industry, particularly because the disease is most common at the peak of production (Farris and Fraunfelder 1976; Cordy 1978). The carcinoma lesion initially involves the third eyelid, then spreads to the globe (Fox 1963), the eyelids (Spradbrow and Hoffmann 1980), and even the orbital bones (Brier, Kleinschuster, and Corbett 1979). In most cases, squamous cell carcinoma does not involve the orbit, but when it does, the prognosis is extremely guarded (Rebhun 1979). For such cases it is recommended that the animal be destroyed because effective enucleation would be unsuccessful. Occasionally, the lesion spreads to the draining lymph nodes, sinuses and the brain (Brier, Kleinschuster and Corbett 1979). Ocular squamous cell carcinoma is frequently subject to physical trauma and becomes infected and even infested with fly larvae (Spradbrow and Hoffmann 1980). When neglected, the carcinoma becomes ulcerated, infected and discharges foul smelling exudate. Apart from surgical excision, most other available methods of treatment are only effective for early carcinoma lesions (Spradbrow and Hoffman 1980). However, according to Rubin (1984), excisional surgery is most successful in superficial lesions whose margins are clearly distinct and within reach. For advanced extensive carcinoma lesions, a more radical surgery involving removal of most of the ocular and adjacent tissues is advocated (Spradbrow and Hoffmann 1980), and prognosis is even better when radical surgery involves block resection including removal of draining and adjacent lymph nodes such as the parotid (Brier, Kleinschuster, and Corbett 1979). Observation has revealed that most cases are not presented for treatment until the neoplasm is quite advanced and complicated (Fox 1963). In such cases the prognosis is poor even with the most radical surgery. Due to vast economic losses encountered, this paper is intended to point out some factors of advanced ocular carcinoma, as observed in seventeen cows, that may be used in making the prognosis before surgery is attempted. This of course would minimize economic losses from surgery and post-operative complication management of ocular squamous cell carcinoma. This article therefore correlates the clinical manifestation of the carcinoma lesions with the outcome of treatment.

J. A M. "The influence of Industry Competition on the Performance of Hotel firms in Kenya." Prime Journal of Social Science. 2015;4:1169-1179. Abstract
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J. A N-M, P.M M. "Anaesthesia in urinary tract disease.". 1990. Abstract

Surgical management of renal patients is a fascinating challenge requiring a detailed knowledge of anaesthetic techniques and a careful selection of the technique most compatible with each patient's condition. A knowledge of many facets of physiology, biochemistry and med icine that are influenced by urinary tract obstruction and renal dysfunction is paramount (Deutsch 1973). The function of the basic systems involved in homeostasis is generally impaired by anaesthesia. Therefore the degree of depression of renal haemodynarnics is inevitably of concem, especially so in anaesthesia of patients with urinary tract obstruction, or renal dysfunction (Bastron and Deutsch 1976; Deutsch 1973; Mazze and Cousins 1981). This paper deals with physiological, biochemical and medical factors that influence the action of anaesthetics in urinary tract disease, and thus affect the patient negatively. An insight is given on how to overcome some of these factors.

J. A M. "Assessment of Marketing Productivity on the Performance of Hotel firms in Kenya." Prime Journal of Social Science. 2016;5:1343-1351. Abstract
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J. A. M. Ottieno, Moses M. Manene, O. ATN. "THE UNRESTRICTED DORFMAN - STERRETT GROUP SCREENING DESIGN WITHOUT ERROR IN DECISION." ICASTOR Journal of Mathematical Sciences. 2010;4(1):69-82. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we shall use clearly identified random variables required to study the Dorfman-Sterrett procedure first introduced by Sterrett. Based on the identified random variables, we shall derive probability distributions, conditional probability distributions and the expected number of runs (tests) in the Dorfman-Sterrett designs. Using combinatorial theory, we shall derive results obtained by earlier authors in a much simplified version.

J. K. Kingori, Gakuu LN. "EPIDURAL INJECTION USE FOR LOW BACK PAIN ASSOCIATED WITH SCIATICA AT AN ORTHOPAEDIC CENTRE IN KENYA ." East Africa Orthopaedic Journal. 2009;6:61-62. Abstractepidural_injection_use_for_low_back_pain_associated_with_sciatica_at_an_orthopaedic_centre_in_kenya.pdf

Objective: To assess the effects of lumbar epidural steroid injections in patients with radiculopathy (sciatica), by assessing reduction of pain at short term (3 weeks) and intermediate term (12 weeks).
Design: This was a prospective study done between August 2005 and July 2011 at Kikuyu Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Centre in Kenya involving 121 patients.
Methods: Patient selection was consecutive as the need for the epidural injection arose or was found necessary. After the epidural injection, patients were followed up for 12 weeks.
Results: Of those followed up to the end, 58% reported significant pain reduction at 12 weeks. Four patients had a repeat injection and two patients ended up being operated on.
Conclusion: Epidural steroid injection reduces pain in the majority of well selected patients with low back pain associated with radiculopathy. This seems to be short lived though. There is need for this patients to be followed up longer.

J. K. Lelon1*, I. O. Jumba2, J. K. Keter2, Chemuku W, Oduor2 FDO. "Assessment of physical properties of gum arabic from Acacia Senegal varieties in Baringo District, Kenya." African Journal of Plant Science . 2010;Vol. 4(4),(ISSN 1996-0824 © 2010 Academic Journals):pp. 95-98. Abstract

A study was conducted to assess the physical properties of gum arabic obtained from two Acacia Senegal varieties (var.Senegal and Mar.kerensis). in Marigat division, Baringo district. Gum arabic samples from the experimental sites at Solit, Kapkun, Kimorok and Maoi were collected, dried and analysed to establish their physical characteristics. Moisture content in gum arabic obtained from variety kerensls in Kimorok and Maoi (17.5 ± 1.00 and 15.4 ± 0.50%) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun (15.0 ± 0.50 and 14.9 ± 1.80%), while internal energy (33.4 and 33.76%) were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those of variety Senegal found in Kapkun and Solit (33.0 and 32.96%), respectively. Ash content in gum arabic from variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun (2.94 and 3.16%) was higher (P < 0.05) than those of variety kerensis found in Kimorok and Maoi (2.88 and 2.72%). In Kapkun, volatile matter in gum arabic from variety Senegal (64.2%) was higher (P < 0.05) than the quantities of variety kerensis found in Kimorok, Solit and Maoi (63.8, 63.7 and 63.6%), respectively. Moisture content in gum arabic from variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun (15.0 ± 0.40 and 14.9 ± 1.80%) fell within international specifications (13 to 15%), while variety kerensis in Kimorok and Maoi (17.5 and 15.4%) fell outside the specifications. Moisture, ash and volatile matter contents in gum arabic from A. Senegal variety Senegal were 14.9, 3.16 and 64.24%, while A. Senegal variety kerensis had 15.2, 2.88 and 63.8%, respectively. Moisture content in gum arabic from A. Senegal variety Senegal fell within international specifications while A. Senegal variety kerensis fell outside the specifications. Ash, volatile matter and internal energy contents in gum arabic from A. Senegal variety kerensis and variety Senegal fell within the specifications. The gum arabic from A. Senegal variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun was of better quality than that of A. Senegal variety kerensis in Kimorok and Maoi.

J. K. Serem., M.M. Wanyoike. GMGMKBCKSK. "Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications.. 2011:155-159. Abstract

Rabbit production systems in Kenya were studied; challenges to production were identified and recommendations to boost rabbit productivity were suggested in this research. Four regions of Kenya with significant rabbit farming were selected: Rift valley (Nakuru county), Central (Kiambu and Nyeri counties), Eastern (Meru county) and Coastal (Taita Taveta county) regions. Data were obtained through a field survey, questionnaires and personal observations between August and September 2011. The study covered the key areas of rabbit production including: general farm details, number of rabbits, breeds and breeding practices, housing, feeds and feeding practices, Constraints to production and recommendations appertaining to the key production challenges. Results showed that rabbit production in Kenya were mainly small scale (84.8%) principally for income generation and home consumption (89.6%). The majority (75%) of the rabbit farms were owned by either the household heads or by the spouses. Farmers of higher education levels kept more rabbits compared to those of lower education. The main breeds kept were New Zealand white (29%), Crossbreeds (24%), Californian white (12%), Chinchilla (11.5%), Dutch (8%), Flemish Giant (5.5%) and French Lop (4%). The main breeding stocks were selected from own stocks or from the neighboring farms (90%). Exchange of males (bucks) for breeding was observed among some rabbit farmers, either for free or at an agreed fee. The four most important challenges to rabbit farming were rabbit diseases (71%), lack of market for rabbits (51%), inadequate husbandry (28%) and lack of quality breeding stock (15.5%), insufficient funds (11%) and lack of rabbit feeds (8.7%). To address these challenges, sensitization of the Kenyan population on the benefits of rabbit meat consumption should be promoted, farmers should be trained on proper husbandry practices, better breeding stocks must be introduced to the farmers to avoid inbreeding, research on rabbit feeding and disease management must be improved to provide information on proper husbandry practices so as to boost rabbit productivity.

J. M. Kagira, P. N. Kanyari, N. Maingi, S. M. Githigia, Ng’ang’a C, J.Gachohi. Relationship between the Prevalence of Ectoparasites and Associated Risk Factors in Free-Range Pigs in Kenya.. Hindawi Publishing Corporation; 2013.3_kagira_et_al_2013.pdf
J. M. Njagi, M. P. Ngugi, C. M. Kibiti, J. Ngeranwa, W. Njue, P. K. Gathumbi, Njagi. E. "Hypoglycemic effect of Helichrysum odoratissimum in alloxan induced diabetic mice." Phytopharmacology. 2015;4(1):30-33.njagi_joan_-hypoglycemic_effect_of_helichrysum_odoratissimum.pdf
J. N K, S.K. M. "Production of Concentrated "Mala" Cultures for Direct VAT Inoculation by Small Scale 'Mala' Manufacturers in East Africa.". 1999. Abstract

The production of Mala (a mesophilic cultured sour milk), by manufacturers processing less than 500-3000 litres per day In Kenya, Uganda and Tanzanla is faced with problems of unavailability good quality culture, and lack of skills and appropriate equipment for propagation of conventional liquid cultures aseptically. Studies to produce concentrated "Mala" cultures for direct VAT inoculation were therefore carried out, using buffered and unbuffered skim milk. whey and tryptone media. The cells obtained were then concentrated by the centrifugation, and subsequently resuspended in skim milk for studies of their "Mala" production functionalities. The functionality characteristics analysed Included activity, aroma production and effect on mala physio-chemical and sensory characteristics. Buffered whey produced the highest growth, leading to concentrated culture with highest viable cells. The concentratien precess through centrifugation had significant effeet on both the aromabacter proportions and diacetyl production but decreased the culture activity by about 10%. This declined in culture activity was however recovered by pre-incubation of the culture prior to direct VAT Inoculatton. The concentrated culture produced mala with insignificant difference organotetically from that produced by conventional liquid cultures in quantity 200 times as much. This means that 500 ml. concentrated culture can successfully ferment 100 litres of milk to mala, compared to equivalent amount of 2-3 litres of conventional liquid culture. KEY WORDS: Concentration; Mala cultures; Direct-Vat Inoculation.

J. Nderitu, M. Sila, Nyamasyo G, Kasina M. "Insect species associated with sweet potatoes (Ipomoeae batatas L.) (LAMK) in Eastern Kenya." Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod.. 2009;4(1):14-18.
J. Nguhiu-Mwangi, P.M.F. Mbithi' WMJKPG. "Prevalence Of Sole Haemorrhages And Its Correlation With Subclinical And Chronic Laminitis In Dairy Cows." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2007;55:232-242. Abstract

Prevalence and risk factors of laminitis were determined in 300 dairy cows from 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed dairy farms in Nairobi and the peri-urban districts.
Lameness was assessed using a universally recognized locomotion scoring system.
Claws were examined and 1-2mm thick layer of the horn of the sole was trimmed-off to further expose underlying lesions. Location of lesions on the under-side of the claws was recorded corresponding to 6 universally recognized zones. Prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21 % respectively. While sole haemorrhages were recorded in 82% of the 70.3% of the cows with laminitis (both subclinical and chronic), it was nevertheless present in all the 49.3% of the cows with
subclinical phase of laminitis. Haemorrhages were categorized into 5 universally recognized scores. Haemorrhages in zone 4 of the claw under-side were frequently associated with subclinical laminitis while those in zones 2, 3 and 6 were frequently associated with chronic laminitis. Slight to moderate (score 1 and 2) haemorrhages were significantly correlated (X2 = 18.01, P< 0.0001) with subclinical laminitis. Moderate to severe (score 2 and 3) haemorrhages were significantly correlated (X2 = 33.08, p

J. Nguhiu-Mwangi, P M F. Mbithi' WMJKPG. "Radiographic features oflaminitic claws of dairy cows around Nairobi." A Journal of the Kenya Veterinary Association. 2007. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the common radiographic features in laminitic claws
from dairy cows using abattoir samples. A total of 192 claws were collected from Wangige slaughter
slab and 126 claws from Kiserian abattoir. The claws were examined for gross lesions. Dorso-palmar/
dorso-plantar and lateral radiographic exposures of each clawwere taken and evaluated for radiographic
changes. Subclinical and chronic laminitis was respectively present in 35% and 21% of the claws
examined and 44% of the claws showed extreme deformities. Concurrent appearance oflesions was in
2~Al ofthe claws.Radiographic changes were observed in the pedal bones but not in the adjacent joints.
Dilated vascular channels (61%) and prominently visible non-dilated vascular channels (24%) in the
pedal bones were observed in subclinical and chronic laminitis. The most frequently observed radiographic
changes in pedal bones were: irregular (serrated) margins (14%), exostoses (8%), and narrowing (6%),
complete absence (3%) or partial absence (1%) of its apex.Other changes on the pedal bones were: rotation
(4%), "dropping (sinking)" (3%), fissure fractures (2%), periostitis (1%) and osteolysis (1%). Most of
these radiographic changes were seen in claws that had chronic laminitis with extreme deformities. It
is concluded that radiographic changes in laminitis occur during the chronic phase and are most severe
when concurrent extreme deformities of the claws are present.

J. Nguhiu-Mwangi, P.M.F. Mbithi, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. "PREVALENCE OF LAMINITIS AND THE PATTERNS OF CLAW LESIONS IN DAIRY COWS IN NAIROBI AND THE PERI-URBAN DISTRICTS.". 2009;(57):199-208. Abstract

Prospective study was carried out to determine the characteristics of claw lesions in
dairy cattle in Nairobi and the peri-urban districts between December 2005 and May
2006. The gaits of 300 dairy cows in 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed farms were evaluated and their claws examined for laminitis and other lesions. A retrospective study was also conducted on case records for dairy cattle foot lameness in the Large Animal Clinic of the University of Nairobi. Claws were also collected from abattoirs and examined for lesions. Data was analyzed with GENSTAT for Windows Discovery Edition 2. From the retrospective study, the prevalence of laminitic lesions was 0.79% while infective lesions particularly interdigital necrobacillosis and sole abscesses had prevalence of 35.7% and 11.1% respectively. In the prospective study, the prevalence of laminitis was 70.3%, sole bruising 45%, heel erosion 27.3%, white line separation 18% and double soles 17%. However, the total prevalence of infective claw lesions was 4.7%. Abattoir claws had lesions with similar trends as prospective survey. Current nutrition, housing and management practices that are adopted for increasing productivity and improving hygiene, may account for changes seen in claw lesion patterns of increased laminitis and decreased infective lesions in dairy cattle.

J. Nissfolk, K. Fredin, Simiyu J, Haeggmann L, Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G. "Interpretation of Small-modulation photocurrent transients in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells- A Film Thickness Study." Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry . 2010;646(1):91-99.
and J. Simiyu AMBOJM. Conduction band edge of (Ti, Sn)O2 solid mixtures tuning for photoelectrochemical solar cells. , April 2009, USA, S05-04 (DOI: 10.1557/PROC-1171-S05-04); 2009.
and J. Simiyu, J. M. Mwabora ABHS-ELBOGA. Titania Nanotubes prepared by synthesis method for Dye-sensitized Electrochemical Solar Cells. 19-23 November 2006, Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria; 2006.
J..W. Kimenju, A.M. Kagundu, J.H.Nderitu, F. Mambala, and MGK, Kariuki GM. "Incorporation of Green Manure Plants into Bean Cropping Systems Contribute to Root-Knot Nematode Suppression." Asian journal of plant science. 2008;7:404-408.
J.;Ganga-Limando CKMSMM; K. "Descriptive Characteristics of Psychoactive Substance Dependent Patients in Nairobi,Kenya." Kenya Nursing Journal. 2012;42 (1)(June, 2012):1-4.
J.A O. Educational Management: Theory and Practice. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 1998.University of Nairobi Press
J.A. OMEGA, L.M. MUSALIA, J.K. KURIA. "Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Paratuberculosis in Cattle and Sheep in Kericho County and Konoin Sub-County, Kenya." African Journal of Education, Science and Technology. 2019;5:76-86 .
J.A. OMEGA, J.K.N KURIA, L.M MUSALIA. "Prevalence of bovine and ovine paratuberculosis in Kericho County and Konoin Sub-County, Kenya." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2019;67:181-189.
and J.A.N TOR. "The Treatment of Kiswahili in Kenya’s Education System." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2016;5:174-194.

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