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Forthcoming
Habwe J. "Changamptp za kueleza Msamiati wa Samaki: Mtazamo wa Kiuhusiano." Journal of Kiswahili Moi University. Forthcoming.
Habwe J. "The Development of the Kiswahili: Prose and the Evolution of the Kiswahili." Journal of Literature UoN. Forthcoming.
Habwe J, Foundation KFJK. "The Ekegusii Determiner Phrase. Analysis in the Minimalist Programme. ." International Journal of Linguistics and Communication. Forthcoming.
Habwe J. Hidaya. Moran Publishers; Forthcoming.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "The Place of Action Research in the Writing of Fiction: Reflections on Kovu la Moyoni.". In: Action Research conference MMUST(PROCEED).; Forthcoming.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Politeness Among the Swahili of Mombasa:A Family Perpective." Burji Baraton University Journal. Forthcoming.
Habwe J. Shujaa Wa Taifa. Pheonix; Forthcoming.
Submitted
Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
Yumbya P, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W, Juma J, Machuka E, Mutuku MJ. "Journal of Agriculture and Food Research.". Submitted. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Amwoka E, Hutchinson M, Chemining’wa G, Kunyanga C, Mburu J, Owino W. "RUFORUM Working Document Series (ISSN 1607-9345), 2018, No. 17 (2): 153-162. Available from http://repository. ruforum. org.". Submitted. Abstract
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for History {C, Media} N. Zotero {Quick} {Start} {Guide}.; Submitted. Abstract
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In Press
Obiero JPO, Gumbe LO, Omuto CT, Hassan MA, Agullo JO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity." Open Journal of Modern Hydrology. In Press.
2021
Yang X, He Z, Zheng Y, Wang N, Mulinge M, Schmit J-C, Steinmetz A, Seguin-Devaux C. "Chemical Constituents of and Their Anti-HIV-1 Activity." Molecules. 2021;26(9). Abstract

Three new (-) and 25 known compounds were isolated from the crude extract of . The chemical structures of new compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Cassiabrevone () is the first heterodimer of guibourtinidol and planchol A. Compound was a new chalcane, while was a new naphthalene. Cassiabrevone (), guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin (), taxifolin (), oleanolic acid (), piceatannol (), and palmitic acid (), exhibited potent anti-HIV-1 activity with IC values of 11.89 µM, 15.39 µM, 49.04 µM, 7.95 µM, 3.58 µM, and 15.97 µM, respectively.

Burton MJ, Ramke J, Marques AP, Bourne RRA, Congdon N, Jones I, Ah Tong BAM, Arunga S, Bachani D, Bascaran C, Bastawrous A, Blanchet K, Braithwaite T, Buchan JC, Cairns J, Cama A, Chagunda M, Chuluunkhuu C, Cooper A, Crofts-Lawrence J, Dean WH, Denniston AK, Ehrlich JR, Emerson PM, Evans JR, Frick KD, Friedman DS, Furtado JM, Gichangi MM, Gichuhi S, Gilbert SS, Gurung R, Habtamu E, Holland P, Jonas JB, Keane PA, Keay L, Khanna RC, Khaw PT, Kuper H, Kyari F, Lansingh VC, Mactaggart I, Mafwiri MM, Mathenge W, McCormick I, Morjaria P, Mowatt L, Muirhead D, Murthy GVS, Mwangi N, Patel DB, Peto T, Qureshi BM, Salomão SR, Sarah V, Shilio BR, Solomon AW, Swenor BK, Taylor HR, Wang N, Webson A, West SK, Wong TY, Wormald R, Yasmin S, Yusufu M, Silva JC, Resnikoff S, Ravilla T, Gilbert CE, Foster A, Faal HB. "The Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health: vision beyond 2020." Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(4):e489-e551.Website
MM B, M B, J F, EA L, A A, K A, GA B, WD B, E B, C C, H D, P D'A, L DC, N F, A M. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa." EClinicalMedicine. 2021. Abstract
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Mugo, N, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CN, Klaus Dittert, Harun I. Gitari, E. S-G. " Response of potato crop to selected nutrients in central and eastern highlands of Kenya. ." Cogent Food & Agriculture. . 2021;7(1):1898762..
Armah FA, Henneh IT, Amponsah IK, Biney RP, F M, J A, W A, Ahmed MA, Adokoh CK, Adukpo G, O AD, Gathumbi PK. "Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Effects and Subchronic Toxicity of the Aerial Parts of Psychotria ankasensis J.B.Hall (Rubiaceae) in Murine Models." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;Volume 2021, Article ID 5543320, 18 pages.armah_et_al_2021.pdf
Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth OE, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of secondary metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and two aloe species." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-5. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In this study, the antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of secondary metabolites isolated from Tabernaemontana ventricosa Hochst. ex A. DC., Aloe tororoana Reynolds, and Aloe schweinfurthii var. labworana Reynolds were investigated. Overall, nineteen known compounds were isolated from the three plant species. The compounds were characterized based on their spectroscopic data. Voacristine and aloenin were the most active compounds against promastigotes of antimony-sensitive Leishmania donovani (IC50 11 ± 5.2 μM and 26 ± 6.5 µM, respectively) with low toxicity against RAW264.7, murine monocyte/macrophage-like cells. The in silico docking evaluation and in vitro NO generation assay also substantially support the antileishmanial effects of these compounds. In a cytotoxicity assay against cancer and normal cell lines, ursolic acid highly inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells, A549 …

Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth E, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and Two Aloe Species." Natural Product Research. 2021.
Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2021;149:104796. AbstractView Website

Description
Five known compounds (1–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Similar investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, lupinifolin (3) showed significant activity on BEAS-2B (IC50 4.9 μM) and HePG2 (IC50 10.8 μM …

kariuki J, DiasTibihika P, ManuelCurto, EsayasAlemayehu, GeroldWinkler, HaraldMeimberg. "Application of microsatellite genotyping by amplicon sequencing for delimitation of African tilapiine species relevant for aquaculture.". 2021.
Ngugi CN, Wachira PM, Mbaka JN, Okoth S, Haukeland S, Thuranira EG. "Characterization and Pathogenicity Test of Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema Species-Kalro ." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2021;13(3):93-101.
Heylen D, Day M, Schunack B, Fourie J, Labuschange M, Johnson S, Samuel Maina Githigia, Akande FA, Nzalawale JS. "A community approach of pathogens and their arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas) in dogs of African Sub-Sahara." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;2021(14:576):1-20.
Hassanali J, Pokhariyal G, Mwasina P. "Comparative analysis of selected linear measurements of human and baboon brains." European Journal of Anatomy. 2021;11(1):9-16. AbstractWebsite

The morphometric parameters of the brains of several mammals and primates show differences that are likely to be associated with cognitive and other functions necessary for survival as well as evolution. Seven human and eight baboon formalin-fixed brains were used to show comparative aspects. The whole brains were weighed, 3 from humans and 3 from baboons were separated into components -cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem- and their weights were recorded. The linear measurements of the cerebrum were occipito-frontal (O-F), fronto-temporal (F-T) temporo-occipital (T-O), height of temporal lobe (HTL), inter: frontal pole (F-F), occipital pole (O-O), parietal (P-P), temporal pole (T-T), and occipital lobe (OL-OL) from superior, lateral and inferior aspects. The proportions of brain weight relative to body weight and those of the brain components were mostly higher in the humans. The length, height and width of the human brains were higher than in the baboons. F-F was six times O-O in humans while other parameters were nearly double in humans as compared to baboons. The ratio of P-P to F-F was nearly 20 times in baboons as compared to 6 times in humans. The overall increase in human brain length, width and size of lobes could be related to increased body size, functional complexity, upright posture, and evolution. The lateral expansion in the size of the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes may be due to the complex circuitry associated with cognitive functions and life style. Several approaches have been proposed to determine factors related to increases in brain size, function and intelligence. Morphometry could be one tool to "explain" specific increases in brain areas

Harmsen H, Mbau JS, Muthama NJ, Wang’ondu VW. "Comparing law enforcement monitoring data and research data suggests an underestimation of bushmeat poaching through snaring in a Kenyan World Heritage Site." African journal of ecology. 2021;(https://doi.org/10.1111/aje.12879).
Buyinza D, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A, Koch A, Oriko R. "A coumestan and a coumaronochromone from Millettia lasiantha." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2021;97:104277. AbstractView Website

Description
The manuscript describes the phytochemical investigation of the roots, leaves and stem bark of Millettia lasiantha resulting in the isolation of twelve compounds including two new isomeric isoflavones lascoumestan and lascoumaronochromone. The structures of the new compounds were determined using different spectroscopic techniques.

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2021;35(4):579-586. AbstractView Website

Description
In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2021;35(4):579-586. AbstractNatural product research

Description
In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2021;35(16):2744-2747. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).

MO F, ME T, JI V, CA F, M R, AM K, R V, OB A‐B, R A, B G, SZ M, A A, H D, A V, RJ S, for the Group ECCA. "An ecological study on the association between universal health service coverage index, health expenditures, and early childhood caries." BMC Oral Health. 2021;2021; 21:126.(2021; 21:126.):2021; 21:126.
Mwinami T, Junga JO, Oduma JA, Chesire D, Musina J, Kioko E, Ayiemba W, Harper DM. "EFFECT OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON AVIAN SPECIES COMPOSITION, DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION WITHIN AN UPLAND TROPICAL FOREST ECOSYSTEM:.". 2021.
SS G, G A, P A, K B, R B, G C, KJ C, ACR C, T C, YO C, D D, ML F, MO F, A G, HH H, V J, A K, SC L, P L, VP M, T M, Y M, N P, A T-M, ECM L, CH C. "Global Oral Health Policies and Guidelines: Using Silver Diamine Fluoride for Caries Control. Front Oral Health." Front Oral Health. 2021;2021; 2:685557(2021; 2:685557):2021; 2:685557.
Mgalula ME, Wasonga OV, Hülsebusch C, and Hensel URO. "Greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sink potential in Eastern Africa rangeland ecosystems: A review." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice . 2021;11(19).
Peter M. F. Mbithi, Judith S. Mbau, Nzioka J. Muthama, Hellen Inyega JKM, Kala JM. "Higher education and skills development in Africa: An analytical paper on the role of higher learning Institutions on sustainable development." Journal of Sustainability, Environment & Peace. 2021;4(2):58-73.
Rahman M, Ahmed R, Moitra M, Damschroder L, Brownson R, Chorpita B, Idele P, Gohar F, Huang KY, Saxena S, Lai J, Peterson SS, Harper G, McKay M, Amugune B, Esho T, Ronen K, Othieno C, Kumar M. "Mental Distress and Human RightsViolations During COVID-19: A RapidReview of the Evidence InformingRights, Mental Health Needs, andPublic Policy Around VulnerablePopulations." Front. Psychiatry . 2021;11:603875.
Ochora DO, Kakudidi E, Namukobe J, Heydenreich M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Mwakio EW, Andagalu B, Roth A, Akala HM, Wong VKW, Yenesew A. "A new benzophenone, and the antiplasmodial activities of the constituents of Securidaca longipedunculata fresen (Polygalaceae)." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-9. AbstractView Website

Description
Extracts from Securidaca longipedunculata showed antiplasmodial activities against reference clones and clinical isolates using SYBR Green I method. A new benzophenone, 2,3,4,5-tetramethoxybenzophenone (1) was isolated and characterized along with seven known compounds: 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethoxybenzophenone (2); 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl (3), methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (4), benzyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (5), 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid (6), 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzophenone (7) and 2-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzophenone (8). Compounds 1 and 2 showed ex vivo antiplasmodial activities (IC50 28.8 μM and 18.6 μM, respectively); while 5 and 8 showed in vivo activities (IC50 19.7 μM and 14.5 μM, respectively) against D6 strain. In a cytotoxicity assay, all the extracts (with an exception of the MeOH extract of the leaves) and pure compounds were not toxic to the …

Odote C, Hassan R, Mbarak H. "Over promising while Under Delivering: Implementation of Kenya’s Community Land Act." AJLP &GS. 2021;Vol 4 (2):292-307.
Haubek D, Mullie T, Kemoli A, Lindholm M, Gjørup H, Nørregaard M-LM, Johansson A. "Prevalence of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Oral Hygiene Practice of Kenyan Adolescents in Maasai Mara." Pathogens. 2021;2021, 10,488.(2021, 10,488.):2021, 10,488.
Harmsen H, Wang’ondu VW, Mbau JS, Muthama NJ. "Randomized hotspot strategy is effective in countering bushmeat poaching by snaring." Biological Conservation. 2021;253.
Harmsen H, Wangondu V, Mbau JS, J M, J M. "Randomized hotspot strategy is effective in countering bushmeat poaching by snaring." Biological conservation. 2021;253(108909).
Mugo, N, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CS, Klaus Dittert, Harun I. Gitari, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Response of potato crop to selected nutrients in central and eastern highlands of Kenya." Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2021;7(1):1898762.
H.M K, Z. O, R. T, K. M. "The Societal Construction of Femininity as Depicted in the Metaphor of Chicken in Swahili Proverbs." Mwanga wa Lugha -Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrica. 2021;6/1(April 2021):19-26.
RUFINO MC, Gachene CKK, DIOGO RVC, HAWKINS J, ONYANGO AA, SANOGO OM, WANYAMA I, YESUF G, PELSTER DE. "SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CROP-LIVESTOCK FARMS IN AFRICA.". 2021.
H Shagwira H, MBUYA TO, Mwema FM, Michael H, Akinlabi ET. "Taguchi Optimization of Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate in CNC Milling of Polypropylene + 5wt.% Quarry Dust Composites." IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2021;1107(1):012040. Abstractdoi:10.1088/1757-899X/1107/1/012040

The Taguchi optimization technique was utilized to determine the optimal milling parameters that can be used in end face CNC milling operation of polypropylene+5wt.% quarry dust using high-speed steel (HSS) tool. Three milling input parameters i.e. the feed rate (f), the cutting speed of the spindle (N) and the depth of cut (dc) were optimized while considering the surface roughness (Ra) of the machined composite material and the material removal rate (MRR) during machining as the responses of the experimental design. From the results, the cutting speed (100 rpm) and the feed rate (120 mm/min) were the most important control parameters which greatly influence the surface roughness at 41.4% and 28.8% contribution respectively. In the case of the material removal rate, the depth of cut (0.8 mm) was the dominating factor at 98% contribution.

Akintayo RO, Akpabio AA, Kalla AA, Dey D, Migowa AN, Olaosebikan H, Bahiri R, Miedany YE, Hadef D, Oyoo O. "TheimpactofCOVID-19onrheumatologypractice acrossAfrica." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;9(1):1-6. Abstractthe_impact_of_covid-19_on_rheumatology_practice.pdf

Objectives. To identify the changes in rheumatology service delivery across the five regions of Africa from the
impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods. The COVID-19 African Rheumatology Study Group created an online survey consisting of 40 questions
relating to the current practices and experiences of rheumatologists across Africa. The CHERRIES checklist for
reporting results of internet e-surveys was adhered to.
Results. A total of 554 completed responses were received from 20 countries, which include six in Northern
Africa, six in West Africa, four in Southern Africa, three in East Africa and one in Central Africa. Consultant grade
rheumatologists constituted 436 (78.7%) of respondents with a mean of 14.56 10.3 years of experience. A total of
77 (13.9%) rheumatologists avoided starting a new biologic. Face-to-face clinics with the use of some personal
protective equipment continued to be held in only 293 (52.9%) rheumatologists’ practices. Teleconsultation modalities
found usage as follows: telephone in 335 (60.5%), WhatsApp in 241 (43.5%), emails in 90 (16.3%) and video
calls in 53 (9.6%). Physical examinations were mostly reduced in 295 (53.3%) or done with personal protective
equipment in 128 (23.1%) practices. Only 316 (57.0%) reported that the national rheumatology society in their
country had produced any recommendation around COVID-19 while only 73 (13.2%) confirmed the availability of a
national rheumatology COVID-19 registry in their country.
Conclusion. COVID-19 has shifted daily rheumatology practices across Africa to more virtual consultations and
regional disparities are more apparent in the availability of local protocols and registries.
Key words: COVID-19, Africa, rheumatology, DMARD, rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases, telem

Muita R, Dougill A, Mutemi J, Aura S, Graham R, Awolala D, Nkiaka E, Hirons L, Opijah F. "Understanding the Role of User Needs and Perceptions Related to Sub-Seasonal and Seasonal Forecasts on Farmers’ Decisions in Kenya: A Systematic Review." Frontiers in Climate. 2021;3(1).
Gashururu RS, Githigia SM, Habimana RS, Maingi N, Gecchi G, Paone M, Zhao W, Masiga DK, Gashumba J. "An update on the Distribution of Glossina (tsetse flies) at the Wild;life-Human-Livestock interface at Akagera National Park, Rwanda." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;2021(PARAV- D- 21 0016).
Njuguna J, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. "The Influence of Agro-Ecological Factors on Fruit Mineral Content and Occurrence of Jelly Seed Disorder in ‘Tommy Atkins’ and ‘Van Dyke’Mangoes in Kenya." Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8. 2021:135-145. Abstract
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Njuguna J, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. "The Influence of Dolomitic Lime and Muriate of Potash Application on Fruit Mineral Content and Jelly Seed Disorder Incidence of Mango (Mangifera indica L.)." Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8. 2021:125-134. Abstract
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Yumbya P, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W, Juma J, Machuka E, Mutuku MJ. "Transcriptome analysis to elucidate hexanal's mode of action in preserving the post-harvest shelf life and quality of banana fruits (Musa acuminata)." Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 2021;3:100114. Abstract
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2020
Dean WH, Gichuhi S, Buchan JC, Makupa W, Mukome A, Otiti-Sengeri J, Arunga S, Mukherjee S, Kim MJ, Harrison-Williams L, Macleod D, Cook C, Burton MJ. "Intense Simulation-Based Surgical Education for Manual Small-Incision Cataract Surgery: The Ophthalmic Learning and Improvement Initiative in Cataract Surgery Randomized Clinical Trial in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe." JAMA Ophthalmol. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Importance: Cataracts account for 40% of cases of blindness globally, with surgery the only treatment.

Objective: To determine whether adding simulation-based cataract surgical training to conventional training results in improved acquisition of surgical skills among trainees.

Design, setting, and participants: A multicenter, investigator-masked, parallel-group, randomized clinical educational-intervention trial was conducted at 5 university hospital training institutions in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe from October 1, 2017, to September 30, 2019, with a follow-up of 15 months. Fifty-two trainee ophthalmologists were assessed for eligibility (required no prior cataract surgery as primary surgeon); 50 were recruited and randomized. Those assessing outcomes of surgical competency were masked to group assignment. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis.

Interventions: The intervention group received a 5-day simulation-based cataract surgical training course, in addition to standard surgical training. The control group received standard training only, without a placebo intervention; however, those in the control group received the intervention training after the initial 12-month follow-up period.

Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome measure was overall surgical competency at 3 months, which was assessed with a validated competency assessment rubric. Secondary outcomes included surgical competence at 1 year and quantity and outcomes (including visual acuity and posterior capsule rupture) of cataract surgical procedures performed during a 1-year period.

Results: Among the 50 participants (26 women [52.0%]; mean [SD] age, 32.3 [4.6] years), 25 were randomized to the intervention group, and 25 were randomized to the control group, with 1 dropout. Forty-nine participants were included in the final intention-to-treat analysis. Baseline characteristics were balanced. The participants in the intervention group had higher scores at 3 months compared with the participants in the control group, after adjusting for baseline assessment rubric score. The participants in the intervention group were estimated to have scores 16.6 points (out of 40) higher (95% CI, 14.4-18.7; P < .001) at 3 months than the participants in the control group. The participants in the intervention group performed a mean of 21.5 cataract surgical procedures in the year after the training, while the participants in the control group performed a mean of 8.5 cataract surgical procedures (mean difference, 13.0; 95% CI, 3.9-22.2; P < .001). Posterior capsule rupture rates (an important complication) were 7.8% (42 of 537) for the intervention group and 26.6% (54 of 203) for the control group (difference, 18.8%; 95% CI, 12.3%-25.3%; P < .001).

Conclusions and relevance: This randomized clinical trial provides evidence that intense simulation-based cataract surgical education facilitates the rapid acquisition of surgical competence and maximizes patient safety.

Trial registration: Pan-African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201803002159198.

Kabaka JM, Wachira BM, Mang'era CM, Rono MK, Hassanali A, Okoth SO, Oduol VO, Macharia RW, Murilla GA, Mireji PO. "Expansions of chemosensory gene orthologs among selected tsetse fly species and their expressions in Glossina morsitans morsitans tsetse fly." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020;14(6):e0008341. Abstract

Tsetse fly exhibit species-specific olfactory uniqueness potentially underpinned by differences in their chemosensory protein repertoire. We assessed 1) expansions of chemosensory protein orthologs in Glossina morsitans morsitans, Glossina pallidipes, Glossina austeni, Glossina palpalis gambiensis, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina brevipalpis tsetse fly species using Café analysis (to identify species-specific expansions) and 2) differential expressions of the orthologs and associated proteins in male G. m. morsitans antennae and head tissues using RNA-Seq approaches (to establish associated functional molecular pathways). We established accelerated and significant (P<0.05, λ = 2.60452e-7) expansions of gene families in G. m. morsitans Odorant receptor (Or)71a, Or46a, Ir75a,d, Ionotropic receptor (Ir) 31a, Ir84a, Ir64a and Odorant binding protein (Obp) 83a-b), G. pallidipes Or67a,c, Or49a, Or92a, Or85b-c,f and Obp73a, G. f. fuscipes Ir21a, Gustatory receptor (Gr) 21a and Gr63a), G. p. gambiensis clumsy, Ir25a and Ir8a, and G. brevipalpis Ir68a and missing orthologs in each tsetse fly species. Most abundantly expressed transcripts in male G. m. morsitans included specific Or (Orco, Or56a, 65a-c, Or47b, Or67b, GMOY012254, GMOY009475, and GMOY006265), Gr (Gr21a, Gr63a, GMOY013297 and GMOY013298), Ir (Ir8a, Ir25a and Ir41a) and Obp (Obp19a, lush, Obp28a, Obp83a-b Obp44a, GMOY012275 and GMOY013254) orthologs. Most enriched biological processes in the head were associated with vision, muscle activity and neuropeptide regulations, amino acid/nucleotide metabolism and circulatory system processes. Antennal enrichments (>90% of chemosensory transcripts) included cilium-associated mechanoreceptors, chemo-sensation, neuronal controlled growth/differentiation and regeneration/responses to stress. The expanded and tsetse fly species specific orthologs includes those associated with known tsetse fly responsive ligands (4-methyl phenol, 4-propyl phenol, acetic acid, butanol and carbon dioxide) and potential tsetse fly species-specific responsive ligands (2-oxopentanoic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, hydroxycinnamic acid, 2-heptanone, caffeine, geosmin, DEET and (cVA) pheromone). Some of the orthologs can potentially modulate several tsetse fly species-specific behavioral (male-male courtship, hunger/host seeking, cool avoidance, hygrosensory and feeding) phenotypes. The putative tsetse fly specific chemosensory gene orthologs and their respective ligands provide candidate gene targets and kairomones for respective downstream functional genomic and field evaluations that can effectively expand toolbox of species-specific tsetse fly attractants, repellents and other tsetse fly behavioral modulators.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Mwesigye J, Ayebazibwe B, Onyango J, Bazira J, Newton R, Gichuhi S, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Cohort Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2020;27(2):121-131. AbstractWebsite

: To describe the epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis (MK) in Uganda.: We prospectively recruited patients presenting with MK at two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. We collected information on clinical history and presentation, microbiology and 3-month outcomes. Poor vision was defined as vision < 6/60).: 313 individuals were enrolled. Median age was 47 years (range 18-96) and 174 (56%) were male. Median presentation time was 17 days from onset (IQR 8-32). Trauma was reported by 29% and use of Traditional Eye Medicine by 60%. Majority presented with severe infections (median infiltrate size 5.2 mm); 47% were blind in the affected eye (vision < 3/60). Microbiology was available from 270 cases: 62% were fungal, 7% mixed (bacterial and fungal), 7% bacterial and 24% no organism detected. At 3 months, 30% of the participants were blind in the affected eye, while 9% had lost their eye from the infection. Delayed presentation (overall = .007) and prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine (aOR 1.58 [95% CI 1.04-2.42], = .033) were responsible for poor presentation. Predictors of poor vision at 3 months were: baseline vision (aOR 2.98 [95%CI 2.12-4.19], < .0001), infiltrate size (aOR 1.19 [95%CI 1.03-1.36], < .020) and perforation at presentation (aOR 9.93 [95% CI 3.70-26.6], < .0001).: The most important outcome predictor was the state of the eye at presentation, facilitated by prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine and delayed presentation. In order to improve outcomes, we need effective early interventions.

Howell KL, Hilário AHF, Haberland G, et al. "A Blueprint for an Inclusive, Global Deep-Sea Ocean Decade Field Program." Biochem Pharmacol. 2020;7:1-25.
Rege JEO, Ochieng J, Hanotte O. "1 Livestock Genetics and Breeding." The Impact of the International Livestock Research Institute. 2020:59.
Obiero K, Lawrence T, Ives J, Smith S, Njaya F, Kayanda R, Waidbacher H, Olago D, Miriti E, Hecky RE. "Advancing Africa’s great lakes research and academic potential: Answering the call for harmonized, long-term, collaborative networks and partnerships." Journal of Great Lakes Research. 2020. Abstractdio.org

Abstract
The African Great Lakes (AGL) have rich fisheries and are renowned “biodiversity hotspots”. Consequently the AGLand the ecosystem services they provide, underpin the welfare and livelihoods of over 50 million people across 10 countries. Despite the recognized importance of the AGL, these vital ecosystems and their livelihood support systems are threatened by numerous anthropogenic stressors at local, regional, and global scales. Past and continued efforts to address critical challenges on these lakes are often short-term, parochial, disparate, and uncoordinated resulting in a lack of comprehensive and comparable scientific data and inadequate resources to influence evidence-based policy. Over the past two decades, several international workshops, conferences and scientific publications have identified the need for collaboration, knowledge sharing, and harmonization of research and management as key elements to enhance conservation efforts in the AGL. In this commentary, we introduce the African Center for Aquatic Research and Education (ACARE), which aims to strengthen research and provide the scientific evidence needed to make informed decisions related to sustainable fisheries and aquatic resource management in the AGL. To do this, ACARE will administer a highly collaborative network of experts with three long-term goals: (1) strengthen global and regional research partnerships; (2) establish transboundary and inter-jurisdictional lake advisory groups; and (3) build capacity of freshwater scientists through experiential education and public engagement.

Keywords
African Great Lakes Collaborative networks Transboundary lake advisory groups, educationResearch partnerships

Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2020;149:104796. AbstractFitoterapia

Abstract
Five known compounds (1–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Similar investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, lupinifolin (3) showed significant activity on BEAS-2B (IC50 4.9 μM) and HePG2 (IC50 10.8 μM) human cell lines. All the other compounds showed low cytotoxicity (IC50 > 30 μM) against human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549), human liver cancer cells (HepG2), lung/bronchus cells (epithelial virus transformed) (BEAS-2B) and immortal human hepatocytes (LO2)

Graphical abstract
Unlabelled Image

Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2020;149:104796. AbstractFitoterapia

Description
A new flavanonol, 3-hydroxyerythrisenegalone (1), and four known compounds (2–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, erythrisenegalone (3) showed significant …

Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

N A, NM A, MO F, Y K, JI V, OB A-B, SZ M, S A, H H, S B, DA M, A R, I K, M M, M R, V P, S C, Y C, E J, JL C, K N, A S, G G, A P, P P, D M, J K, MM A, A A, MA D, M N, I H, MM A, AP V, A I, AM K, ME T. "Behavior change due to COVID-19 among dental academics - The theory of planned behavior: stresses, worries, training, and pandemic severity." PLoS ONE. 2020;15(9): e0239961(15(9): e0239961):15(9): e0239961.
Ng'asike O'aoP, Hagmann T, Wasonga OV. "Brokerage in the borderlands: the political economy of livestock intermediaries in northern Kenya." Journal of Eastern African Studies. 2020.
Hassanali J., Pokhariyal G, P. M. "Comparative analysis of selected linear measurements of human and baboon brains." European Journal of anatomy. 2020;11 ((1)):9-16 . AbstractWebsite

The morphometric parameters of the brains of several mammals and primates show differences that are likely to be associated with cognitive and other functions necessary for survival as well as evolution. Seven human and eight baboon formalin-fixed brains were used to show comparative aspects. The whole brains were weighed, 3 from humans and 3 from baboons were separated into components -cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem- and their weights were recorded. The linear measurements of the cerebrum were occipito-frontal (O-F), fronto-temporal (F-T) temporo-occipital (T-O), height of temporal lobe (HTL), inter: frontal pole (F-F), occipital pole (O-O), parietal (P-P), temporal pole (T-T), and occipital lobe (OL-OL) from superior, lateral and inferior aspects. The proportions of brain weight relative to body weight and those of the brain components were mostly higher in the humans. The length, height and width of the human brains were higher than in the baboons. F-F was six times O-O in humans while other parameters were nearly double in humans as compared to baboons. The ratio of P-P to F-F was nearly 20 times in baboons as compared to 6 times in humans. The overall increase in human brain length, width and size of lobes could be related to increased body size, functional complexity, upright posture, and evolution. The lateral expansion in the size of the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes may be due to the complex circuitry associated with cognitive functions and life style. Several approaches have been proposed to determine factors related to increases in brain size, function and intelligence. Morphometry could be one tool to "explain" specific increases in brain areas.

Gawriluk TR, Simkin J, Hacker CK, Kimani JM, Kiama SG, Ezenwa VO, Seifert AW. "Complex Tissue Regeneration in Mammals Is Associated With Reduced Inflammatory Cytokines and an Influx of T Cells." Front. Immunol.. 2020;11(1695):1-19.
Howell KL, Hilário A, Allcock LA, et al. "A decade to study deep-sea life." Nature Ecology & Evolution . 2020;5:265-267.
Sola L, Levin NW, Johnson DW, Pecoits-Filho R, Aljubori HM, Chen Y, Claus S, Collins A, Cullis B, Feehally J, Harden PN, Hassan MH, Ibhais F, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, Saleh A, Schneditz D, Tchokhonelidze I, Kazancioglu RT, Twahir A, Walker R, Were AJO, Yu X, Finkelstein FO. "Development of a framework for minimum and optimal safety and quality standards for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis." Kidney International Supplements. 2020.
Li D, Zhang Y, Guo Q, Sun X, Zhang H, Wang S, Birech Z, Hu J. "An efficient LSPR method to quantitatively detect dimethoate: Development, characterization and evaluation. ." Plos one. 2020;15(9):e0239632.
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Waruiru RM, Wanja DW, H.A N. "Fish Husbandry Practices and Water Quality in Central Kenya: Potential Risk Factors for Fish Mortality and Infectious Diseases." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International . 2020;2020.abstract.pdf
Elsayed HM, Wadee S, Zaki MS, Were AJO, Ashuntantang GE, Bamgboye EL, Davids MR, Hafez MH, Mahamat M, Naicker S, Niang A, Seck SM, Swanepoel CR, Tannor EK, Twahir A, Yao HK. "Guidelines for the prevention, detection and management of the renal complications of COVID-19 in Africa." African Journal of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):S117-S134.Website
E L, M K, S S, FH R, Kinuthia J, L S, W J, H A, A K, F E, John-Stewart, Fredricks DN, McClelland S. "Impact of preconception vaginal microbiota on women’s risk of spontaneous preterm birth: Protocol for a prospective case-cohort study." BMJ Open J. 2020;2020; 10:e035186(2020; 10:e035186):2020; 10:e035186.
Vachharajani TJ, Kim Y-S, Riella M, Harris D, Jha V, collaboration with members of the of Group IISNINW. "International Society of Nephrology’s initiative on interventional nephrology minimum training and program-building standards in resource-limited countries." International Society of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):1067-1070.Website
Atilaw Y, Muiva-Mutisya L, Bogaerts J, Duffy S, Valkonen A, Heydenreich M, Avery VM, Rissanen K, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A. "Prenylated Flavonoids from the Roots of Tephrosia rhodesica." Journal of natural products. 2020;83(8):2390-2398. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Description
Five new compounds—rhodimer (1), rhodiflavan A (2), rhodiflavan B (3), rhodiflavan C (4), and rhodacarpin (5)—along with 16 known secondary metabolites, were isolated from the CH2Cl2–CH3OH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia rhodesica. They were identified by NMR spectroscopic, mass spectrometric, X-ray crystallographic, and ECD spectroscopic analyses. The crude extract and the isolated compounds 2–5, 9, 15, and 21 showed activity (100% at 10 μg and IC50 = 5–15 μM) against the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

N A, N A, S M, S A, H H, S B, D M, A R, I K, O A-B, Y K, M R, V P, S C, K N, G G, A P, M F, A S, M M, A AA, D M, P P, J K, Y C, M D, J V, M A, J C, M N, I H, A V, A I, A K, E J, ME T. "Preparedness of dental academic institutions to manage the COVID-19 pandemic: a global survey." Int. J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;2021; 18:1445(2021; 18:1445):2021; 18:1445.
J.O'Connell P, Brown M, Chan TM, Granado RC-D, J.Davies S, Eiam-Ong S, H.Hassan M, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, E.Martin D, Muller E, Ossareh S, Tchokhonelidze I, Trask M, Twahir A, J.O.Were A, Yang C-W, Zemchenkov A, N.Harden P. "The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease." Science Direct. 2020.Website
M.Ichami S, J.Stoorvogel KDSJ, Hoffland E, N.Karuku G, J.Stoorvogel J. "Soil spatial variation to guide the development of fertilizer use recommendations for smallholder farms in western Kenya." Geoderma Regional. 2020;22.
Harris DCH, Davies SJ, Finkelstein FO, Jha V, Bello AK, Brown M, Caskey FJ, Donner J-A, Liew A, Muller E, Naicker S, O’Connell PJ, Filho RP, Vachharajani T, behalf of the Groups OSPW. "Strategic plan for integrated care of patients with kidney failure." International Society of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):1067-1070.Website
Warinda Enock, Dickson M. Nyariki, Stephen Wambua, Reuben M. Muasya, Hanjra. MA. "Sustainable development in East Africa: impact evaluation of regional agricultural development projects in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda." Natural Resources Forum. 2020;44:3-39.
Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractJournal Abstract

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Nchiozem-Ngnitedema V-A, Omosa LK, Derese S, Tane P, Heydenreich M, Spiteller M, Ean-JeongSeo, Efferth T. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letter. 2020;36:80-85.alex_et_al_2020.pdf
Ongadi Patrick Mudavadi, Mpolya Abraham Emmanuel, Lukuyu Adubwa Bernard, Haule Alphonse, David Peter Ngunga, Gachuiri Charles, Muyekho Francis Namasake, Wolde-meskel E. "Urea-molasses Pre-treatment to Enhance Nitrogen Gain, Digestibility, Intake and Milk Yield from Crop-Residues in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Eastern Africa." Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2020:28-43.
Vogel JP, Comrie‐Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed‐methods, multicountry evaluation." Wiley Online Library . 2020. AbstractWebsite

Introduction
The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a “next‐generation” partograph based on WHO’s latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG’s usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Methods
Mixed‐methods evaluation with doctors, midwives, and nurses in 12 health facilities across Argentina, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Purposively sampled and trained practitioners applied the LCG in low‐risk women during labor and rated experiences, satisfaction, and usability. Practitioners were invited to focus group discussions (FGDs) to share experiences and perceptions of the LCG, which were subjected to framework analysis.

Results
One hundred and thirty‐six practitioners applied the LCG in managing labor and birth of 1,226 low‐risk women. The majority of women had a spontaneous vaginal birth (91.6%); two cases of intrapartum stillbirths (1.63 per 1000 births) occurred. Practitioner satisfaction with the LCG was high, and median usability score was 67.5%. Practitioners described the LCG as supporting precise and meticulous monitoring during labor, encouraging critical thinking in labor management, and improving the provision of woman‐centered care.

Conclusions
The LCG is feasible and acceptable to use across different clinical settings and can promote woman‐centered care, though some design improvements would benefit usability. Implementing the LCG needs to be accompanied by training and supportive supervision, and strategies to promote an enabling environment (including updated policies on supportive care interventions, and ensuring essential equipment is available).

Muchira JM, Gona PN, Mogos MF, Stuart-Shor E, Leveille SG, Piano MR, Hayman LL. "Parental cardiovascular health predicts time to onset of cardiovascular disease in offspring." European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 2020. Abstract
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Muchira JM, Gona PN, Mogos MF, Stuart-Shor E, Leveille SG, Piano MR, Hayman LL. "Temporal trends and familial clustering of ideal cardiovascular health in parents and offspring over the life course: an investigation using the Framingham Heart Study." Journal of the American Heart Association. 2020;9:e016292. Abstract
n/a
2019
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Ayebazibwe B, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Risk Factors of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Case Control Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: Microbial keratitis (MK), is a frequent cause of sight loss worldwide, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of MK in Uganda.
Methods: Using a nested case control, we recruited healthy community controls for patients presenting with MK at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. Controls were individually matched for age, gender and village of the cases on a 1:1 ratio. We collected information on demographics, occupation, HIV and Diabetes Mellitus status. In STATA version 14.1, multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for risk factors of MK and a likelihood ratio test used to assess statistical significance of associations.
Results: Two hundred and fifteen case-control pairs were enrolled. The HIV positive patients among the cases was 9% versus 1% among the controls, = .0003. Diabetes 7% among the cases versus 1.4% among the controls, = .012. Eye trauma was 29% versus 0% among the cases and controls. In the multivariable model adjusted for age, sex and village, HIV (OR 83.5, 95%CI 2.01-3456, = .020), Diabetes (OR 9.38, 95% CI 1.48-59.3, = .017) and a farming occupation (OR 2.60, 95%CI 1.21-5.57, = .014) were associated with MK. Compared to a low socio-economic status, a middle status was less likely to be associated with MK (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.89, < .0001).
Conclusion: MK was associated with HIV, Diabetes, being poor and farming as the main occupation. More studies are needed to explore how these factors predispose to MK.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Delay Along the Care Seeking Journey of Patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-10. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:To describe the care seeking journey and causes of delay among patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda.
METHODS:A prospective cohort of patients presenting with microbial keratitis at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda (2016-2018). We collected information on demographics, home address, clinical history, and presentation pathway including, order of facilities where patients went to seek care, treatment advice, cost of care, and use of Traditional Eye Medicine. Presentation time was noted. We compared "direct" presenters versus "indirect" presenters and analysed predictors of delay.
RESULTS: About 313 patients were enrolled. All were self-referred. Only 19% of the patients presented directly to the eye hospital. Majority (52%) visited one facility before presenting, 19% visited two facilities, 9% visited three facilities, and 2% visited four facilities. The cost of care increased with increase in the number of facilities visited. People in a large household, further distance from the eye hospital and those who used Traditional Eye Medicine were less likely to come directly to the eye hospital. Visiting another facility prior to the eye hospital and use of Traditional Eye Medicine aOR 1.58 (95%CI 1.03-2.43), p = .038 were associated with delayed presentation to the eye hospital.
CONCLUSION: This study provided information on patient journeys to seek care. Delay was largely attributable to having visited another health facility: a referral mechanism for microbial keratitis was non-existent. There is need to explore how these health system gaps can be strengthened.

Ampt FH, Lim MSC, Agius PA, Chersich MF, Manguro G, Gichuki CM, Stoové M, Temmerman M, Jaoko W, Hellard M, Gichangi P, Luchters S. "Use of long-acting reversible contraception in a cluster-random sample of female sex workers in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2019. Abstract

To assess correlates of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use, and explore patterns of LARC use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya.

Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Publisher Correction: Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):4152. Abstract

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

Dimova I, Karthik S, Makanya A, Hlushchuk R, Semela D, Volarevic V, Djonov V. "SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling is involved in blood vessel growth and remodelling by intussusception." J. Cell. Mol. Med.. 2019;23(6):3916-3926. Abstract

The precise mechanisms of SDF-1 (CXCL12) in angiogenesis are not fully elucidated. Recently, we showed that Notch inhibition induces extensive intussusceptive angiogenesis by recruitment of mononuclear cells and it was associated with increased levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4. In the current study, we demonstrated SDF-1 expression in liver sinusoidal vessels of Notch1 knockout mice with regenerative hyperplasia by means of intussusception, but we did not detect any SDF-1 expression in wild-type mice with normal liver vessel structure. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling by AMD3100 perturbs intussusceptive vascular growth and abolishes mononuclear cell recruitment in the chicken area vasculosa. In contrast, treatment with recombinant SDF-1 protein increased microvascular density by 34% through augmentation of pillar number compared to controls. The number of extravasating mononuclear cells was four times higher after SDF-1 application and two times less after blocking this pathway. Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDC) were recruited to vessels in response to elevated expression of SDF-1 in endothelial cells. They participated in formation and stabilization of pillars. The current study is the first report to implicate SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling in intussusceptive angiogenesis and further highlights the stabilizing role of BMDC in the formation of pillars during vascular remodelling.

Cheng C-Y, Wang N, Wong TY, Congdon N, He M, Wang YX, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, of the of Study VLEGGBD. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2019. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment (VI) in East Asia in 2015 and to forecast the trend to 2020.
METHODS: Through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, we estimated prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate-to-severe vision impairment (MSVI; 3/60≤presenting visual acuity <6/18), mild vision impairment (mild VI: 6/18≤presenting visual acuity <6/12) and uncorrected presbyopia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. A total of 44 population-based studies were included.
RESULTS: In 2015, age-standardised prevalence of blindness, MSVI, mild VI and uncorrected presbyopia was 0.37% (80% uncertainty interval (UI) 0.12%-0.68%), 3.06% (80% UI 1.35%-5.16%) and 2.65% (80% UI 0.92%-4.91%), 32.91% (80% UI 18.72%-48.47%), respectively, in East Asia. Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (43.6%), followed by uncorrected refractive error (12.9%), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, corneal diseases, trachoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The leading cause for MSVI was uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, corneal disease, trachoma and DR. The burden of VI due to uncorrected refractive error, cataracts, glaucoma and DR has continued to rise over the decades reported.
CONCLUSIONS:Addressing the public healthcare barriers for cataract and uncorrected refractive error can help eliminate almost 57% of all blindness cases in this region. Therefore, public healthcare efforts should be focused on effective screening and effective patient education, with access to high-quality healthcare.

Hassan S, Skilton RA, Pelle R, Odongo D, Bishop RP, Ahmed J, Seitzer U, Bakheit M, HASSAN SM, El Hussein AM. "Assessment of the prevalence of Theileria lestoquardi in sheep from the Sudan using serological and molecular methods." Prev Vet Med. 2019;169:104697. Abstract

Malignant theileriosis of sheep and goats caused by Theileria lestoquardi is considered to be among the most important tick borne diseases in the Sudan. Information on the prevalence of the disease in different parts of the Sudan is limited. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the disease in five states of the Sudan using molecular and serological assays. A total of 393 blood and serum samples from clinically asymptomatic sheep were analysed using nested reverse line blot (nRLB) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), as well as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated a sero-prevalence of 33.8% while RLB and LAMP assays revealed molecular prevalences of 29.5 and 22.6% respectively. The prevalence of Theileria lestoquardi varied significantly according to the geographical origin of the infected animals, whereas age and gender did not have a significant effect. RLB data indicated that T. lestoquardi usually occurred as a co-infection with the non-pathogenic Theileria ovis. Using RLB as a gold standard, a sensitivity of 68.1% and a specificity of 96.4% were recorded for LAMP and a sensitivity of 75.9% and a specificity of 83.8% for ELISA. The Kappa coefficient between nRLB and LAMP indicated a significant level of agreement (0.692), but only moderate concordance (0.572) between nRLB and ELISA. The results of the present study confirm and extend earlier findings regarding the widespread of T. lestoquardi infections in sheep in the Sudan. The data provide evidence that should enable the veterinary authorities to deploy appropriate control measures.

Attardo GM, Abd-Alla AMM, Acosta-Serrano A, Allen JE, Bateta R, Benoit JB, Bourtzis K, Caers J, Caljon G, Christensen MB, Farrow DW, Friedrich M, Hua-Van A, Jennings EC, Larkin DM, Lawson D, Lehane MJ, Lenis VP, Lowy-Gallego E, Macharia RW, Malacrida AR, Marco HG, Masiga D, Maslen GL, Matetovici I, Meisel RP, Meki I, Michalkova V, Miller WJ, Minx P, Mireji PO, Ometto L, Parker AG, Rio R, Rose C, Rosendale AJ, Rota-Stabelli O, Savini G, Schoofs L, Scolari F, Swain MT, Takáč P, Tomlinson C, Tsiamis G, Van Den Abbeele J, Vigneron A, Wang J, Warren WC, Waterhouse RM, Weirauch MT, Weiss BL, Wilson RK, Zhao X, Aksoy S. "Comparative genomic analysis of six Glossina genomes, vectors of African trypanosomes." Genome Biol. 2019;20(1):187. Abstract

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse flies are distinguished from other Diptera by unique adaptations, including lactation and the birthing of live young (obligate viviparity), a vertebrate blood-specific diet by both sexes, and obligate bacterial symbiosis. This work describes the comparative analysis of six Glossina genomes representing three sub-genera: Morsitans (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. austeni), Palpalis (G. palpalis, G. fuscipes), and Fusca (G. brevipalpis) which represent different habitats, host preferences, and vectorial capacity.

Arunga S, Wiafe G, Habtamu E, Onyango J, Gichuhi S, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu V, Burton M. "The impact of microbial keratitis on quality of life in Uganda." BMJ Open Ophthalmol. 2019;4(1):e000351. AbstractWebsite

Background: Microbial keratitis (MK) is a frequent cause of sight loss in sub-Saharan Africa. However, no studies have formally measured its impact on quality of life (QoL) in this context.
Methods: As part of a nested case-control design for risk factors of MK, we recruited patients presenting with MK at two eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018 and unaffected individuals, individually matched for sex, age and location. QoL was measured using WHO Health-Related and Vision-Related QoL tools (at presentation and 3 months after start of treatment in cases). Mean QoL scores for both groups were compared. Factors associated with QoL among the cases were analysed in a linear regression model.
Results: 215 case-controls pairs were enrolled. The presentation QoL scores for the cases ranged from 20 to 65 points. The lowest QoL was visual symptom domain; mean 20.7 (95% CI 18.8 to 22.7) and the highest was psychosocial domain; mean 65.6 (95% CI 62.5 to 68.8). At 3 months, QoL scores for the patients ranged from 80 to 90 points while scores for the controls ranged from 90 to 100. The mean QoL scores of the cases were lower than controls across all domains. Determinants of QoL among the cases at 3 months included visual acuity at 3 months and history of eye loss.
Conclusion: MK severely reduces QoL in the acute phase. With treatment and healing, QoL subsequently improves. Despite this improvement, QoL of someone affected by MK (even with normal vision) remains lower than unaffected controls.

Hammadi R, Kúsz N, Mwangi PW, Kulmány Á, Zupkó I, Orvos P, Tálosi L, Hohmann J, Vasas A. "Isolation and Pharmacological Investigation of Compounds From Euphorbia matabelensis." Natural Product CommunicationsNatural Product Communications. 2019;14(7):1934578X19863509. AbstractWebsite

This work deals with the isolation and pharmacological investigations of compounds of Euphorbia matabelensis. After multiple separation process, including thin layer chromatography (TLC), vacuum liquid chromatography, preparative TLC, and high-performance liquid chromatography, 1 diterpene (ingenol) and 2 flavonoids (naringenin and eriodictyol) were obtained from the methanol extracts prepared from the stems and roots of the plant. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and MS measurements and comparison with literature data. All compounds were isolated for the first time from the plant. Eriodictyol was detected for the first time from a Euphorbia species. The compounds were tested for their antiproliferative (on HeLa, C33a, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and GIRK channel blocking activities. None of the compounds proved to be active in these test systems.

Mutuku MW, Brianna R Beechler, Ibrahim N Mwangi, Otiato FO, Horace Ochanda B. " A Search for Snail-Related Answers to Explain Differences in Response of Schistosoma mansoni to Praziquantel Treatment among Responding and Persistent Hotspot Villages along the Kenyan Shore of Lake Victoria." The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2019:tpmd190089.
HM M. "Academic Processes of postgraduate studies; from admission to graduation." Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture postgraduate induction workshop, Nakuru; 2019.
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Gathirwa JW, Oriko RO, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Antiplasmodial Biflavanones from the Stem Bark of Garcinia buchananii Engl." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):96-99.
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Gathirwa JW, Oriko RO, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Antiplasmodial Biflavanones from the Stem Bark of Garcinia buchananii Engl." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):96-99. AbstractJournal article

Description
Introduction: Plants of the genus Garcinia are traditionally used treat a range of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Garcinia species are reported to have been shown to have a range of biological activities including cytotoxicity antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, antimalarial and HIV-1 protease inhibitory activity among others. Methods: Solvent extraction was done using CH2Cl2: MeOH (1: 1). Isolation was done using column chromatography with silica gel as the stationery phase and ethyl acetate and n-hexane used as mobile phase in increasing polarity. Thin layer chromatography was used to monitor the isolation. Structure elucidation was done using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic techniques. Chloroquine resistant (W2) and chloroquine sensitive (D6) P. falciparum strains were used for antiplasmodial assay. Results: Further bioassay guided fractionation of a CH2Cl2: MeOH (1: 1) extract of Garcinia buchananii led to the isolation of two already reported biflavanones, isogarcinol (1) and guttiferone (2) with promising antiplasmodial activity against a chloroquine resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum strain with an IC50 of 2.8
±0.90 µg/mL for compound 1 and IC50 of 3.94±0.38 µg/mL for compound 2. Compounds 1 and 2 also exhibited moderate activity against the chloroquine sensitive (D6) Plasmodium falciparum strain with IC50 of 7.03±0.60 and 10.64±4.50 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The results provide proof to support the use of G. buchananii by the indigenous community for antimalarial therapy.
Scholar articles
Antiplasmodial Biflavanones from the Stem Bark of Garcinia buchananii Engl.
RA Omole, MJ Moshi, M Heydenreich, HM Malebo… - Pharmacognosy Communications, 2019
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Efferth T, Banerjee M, Abu-Darwish MS, Abdelfatah S, Böckers M, Bhakta-Guha D, Bolzani V, Daak S, Demirezer LÖmür, Dawood M, Efferth M, El-Seedi HR, Fischer N, Greten HJ, Hamdoun S, Hong C. "Biopiracy versus One-World Medicine–From colonial relicts to global collaborative concepts." Phytomedicine. 2019;53:319-331. Abstract

Background
Practices of biopiracy to use genetic resources and indigenous knowledge by Western companies without benefit-sharing of those, who generated the traditional knowledge, can be understood as form of neocolonialism.
Hypothesis
The One-World Medicine concept attempts to merge the best of traditional medicine from developing countries and conventional Western medicine for the sake of patients around the globe.
Study design
Based on literature searches in several databases, a concept paper has been written. Legislative initiatives of the United Nations culminated in the Nagoya protocol aim to protect traditional knowledge and regulate benefit-sharing with indigenous communities. The European community adopted the Nagoya protocol, and the corresponding regulations will be implemented into national legislation among the member states. Despite pleasing progress, infrastructural problems of …

Stephen AO, Joyce KGN, Hellen N, Alex WN, Jared N’auO. "CHARACTERISATION AND ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT FROM PAINT AND COATING INDUSTRIES IN NAIROBI, KENYA." International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology. 2019;4(5):41-46. AbstractInternational Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology

Description
A study was conducted to estimate current status of physico-chemical characteristics of effluents emanating from three paint factories within the main industrial area of Nairobi County. The effluents were analysed for temperature, pH, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total sulphur and heavy metal ions and compared to Kenyan effluent discharge standards. The results were as follows: pH 6.48-6.89, temperature 28.07-28.30 oC, COD 916.77-1881.20 mg/L, total phosphorus 145.00-149.32 mg/L, TSS 6382.33-7395.33 mg/L, oil and grease 3525.00-6374.33 mg/L, total sulphur 72.62-73.41 mg/L, total nitrogen 1586.67-4442.67 mg/L. Heavy metal concentrations were 3.03-4.18 mg/L, 2.07-3.04 mg/L and 5.38-17.21 mg/L respectively for cadmium, chromium and lead. Adsorbent was made from waste rubber tyres and tested for its suitability in removing three heavy metal ions namely cadmium, lead and chromium from the effluent samples by varying adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time.

Habimana V, Bett RC, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githae DK, Jung'a JO, IshagAJour HZA. "Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Detected from Dairy Cow Feces and Rumen Fluid bacterial pathogens." Africa Journal of Microbial Research. 2019.
M.W. W, Hansted L, Gikungu M, G K, AS B. "Characterization of Kenyan Honeys Based on Their Physicochemical Properties, Botanical and Geographical Origin." International Journal of Food Science . 2019;2019(2932509):10.
HM M. "Climate Change as Driver of Migration, morbidity and Conflicts in Africa." Red Cross Headquarters, Nairobi; 2019.
H. NGUETTIJ, K. IJ, W. OM, S. MITEMAE, F. MBACHAMW, J. WANG’OMBE. "Consumer’s Awareness of the presence of pathogenic bacteria and pesticide Residues on tomatoes sold in Nairobi." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2019;14(35):2146-2158.
Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from two Lonchocarpus species." Natural product research. 2019;33(18):2609-2617. AbstractNatural product research

Description
A new isoflavone, 4′-prenyloxyvigvexin A (1) and a new pterocarpan, (6aR,11aR)-3,8-dimethoxybitucarpin B (2) were isolated from the leaves of Lonchocarpus bussei and the stem bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx, respectively. The extract of L. bussei also gave four known isoflavones, maximaisoflavone H, 7,2′-dimethoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, 6,7,3′-trimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, durmillone; a chalcone, 4-hydroxylonchocarpin; a geranylated phenylpropanol, colenemol; and two known pterocarpans, (6aR,11aR)-maackiain and (6aR,11aR)-edunol. (6aR,11aR)-Edunol was also isolated from the stem bark of L. eriocalyx. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested by resazurin assay using drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines. Significant antiproliferative effects with IC50 values below 10 …

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2019:1-8. Abstract

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia.

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2019:1-8. Abstract

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152-853. Abstract

While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152853. AbstractPhytomedicine

Description
Background
While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of isoflavones: osajin (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-4ˈ-methoxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (2) and biflavonoids: chamaejasmin (3), 7,7″-di-O-methylchamaejasmin (4) and campylospermone A (5), a dimeric chromene [diphysin(6)] and an ester of ferullic acid with long alkyl chain [erythrinasinate (7)] isolated from the stem bark and roots of the Kenyan medicinal plant, Ormocarpum kirkii. The mode of action of compounds 2 and 4 was further investigated.
Methods
The cytotoxicity of compounds was determined based on the resazurin reduction assay. Caspases activation was evaluated using the caspase-Glo assay. Flow …

Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2019:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Abstract

The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).
Keywords: Millettia dura, Leguminosae, isoflavone, cytotoxicity.

Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2019:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).

Catherine K, Fidahusein DS, Wanjiru LC, Maina WJ, Carla K, Hahn D, Serge F, Paul G, Thomas S. "Effect of Vernodalol, a Sesquiterpene Lactone, on Economically Important Agricultural Fungi." International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology. 2019;4(3):685-694. Abstract

The status of food insecurity in the world is devastating and fungal based diseases are a major cause that result in approximately 40-60% crop yield loss. Although synthetic chemical fungicides have been the preferred immediate method for management of fungal diseases, they have undesirable effects on human and animal health; causes environmental hazards, and are expensive. This study investigated whether the natural products from Vernonia glabra (Asteraceae) could be used as alternative biofungicide against disease causing agricultural fungi. Fractions were separated from V. glabra methanolic flower crude extract, using bioassay-guided fractionation. The single pure fraction yielded was selected for bioassay tests, and was isolated and characterized using chromatographic and spectrometric methods. In vitro bioassay test was performed against spore germination of Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides, Zymoseptoria tritici, Ustilago maydis, and Pyricularia oryzae. A known sesquiterpene lactone, Vernodalol was identified using high resolution mass spectrometry. In vitro bioassay results revealed that spores of Z. tritici were the most susceptible to Vernodalol, (42% spore inhibition) at 33 μg/100 μL compared to Azoxystrobin, a standard fungicide, (100% inhibition) against the fungus at 0.005 μg/100 μL. Vernodalol sprayed on 7 days old wheat seedlings that were inoculated with spores of Zymosepteria tritici, Puccinia triticina, and Helminthosporium sativum, at 50 and 200 ppm did not exhibit any disease control under greenhouse conditions. Azoxystrobin exhibited 90-100% disease control. V. glabra extracts have sesquiterpene lactones which are antifungal, however Vernodalol needs further research on its structural modification to increase efficacy against fungal pathogens.
Keywords:- Plant Fungal Diseases; Alternative Biofungicides; Sesquiterpene Lactones; Food Security.

HM M. "Effective monitoring and Evaluation of progress in postgraduate training." Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture postgraduate induction workshop, Nakuru; 2019.
P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

Yohannis MA, Agnes N. Wausi, Hutchinson MJ, Waema TM. "Enhancing Access and Use of Climate Information through ICTs." Journal of Climate Change and Sustainability. 2019;3(1):1-12. AbstractWebsite

Although the role of ICTs in improving human life in Kenya is acknowledged widely, the focus of much
of ICT-related developments has been on human experiences at the level of disease and needs for
communication and mobility. Less obvious is how such technological interventions may be used to
address seemingly abstract yet grave concerns like climate change and its impact on the quality of human
life. This review paper, therefore, shall investigate the different situations where ICTs may be deployed
in relaying packaged and relevant localized climate information that can help rural farmers in Kitui
County, Kenya to make pertinent and timely decisions to improve their productivity and, ultimately, their
livelihoods. We hypothesize that rural communities' use ICT tools such as the mobile phones and the
community radios to access localized climate information (weather, seasonal forecasts, and agroadvisories)
and that livelihood assets and livelihood strategies positively change with the increasing
availability and use of the ICT-based climate information. The idea of the paper presented is to merge
theoretical and applied research outcomes to narrow the gap between the theory of ICTs usage and the
practice of it, while linking it to climate information and enhanced rural livelihood strategies. The review
of this paper shall be captured in social-scientific terms, and shall contribute to knowledge by helping
researchers and policymakers to determine climate information needs of rural ASAL communities,
knowledge on innovations related to ICTs, among others.

Ouma S, Hughes A, Murphy JT, Opondo M. "Envisioning African futures: Perspectives from economic geography." Geoforum. 2019. Abstractdoi.org

Abstract
The commentaries and reviews in the section that follow take up the recently popularized notion of 'African futures' in order to explore the geographies, modes, potentialities, politics, and practices of epistemic, socio-economic, political and socio-ecological transformations that may be complementary or antagonistic to the global capitalist project.

Keywords
FuturesDevelopmentEconomic geographyAfricaDecolonialitySouthern theory

Henry M, Victor T, David K. "Factors Affecting Adoption Of Embryo Transfer Technology In Dairy Cattle In Kenya." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 2019;5(8):456-463.mutembei-kios_2018.pdf
HM M, OL O, LC A. Guide to Clinical and Practical Laboratory Procedures in Theriogenology. Ibadan: Scholarship Books; 2019.
Kitonde C, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, WAGACHA JOHNMAINA, Klittich C, Hahn D, Fotso S, Graupner P, Slanec T, Xiong Q. "In vitro studies of 3-O-Methylquercetin against phytopathogenic fungi of major cereals." Journal of Agricultural Science and Practice. 2019;4(4):102-112. Abstract

Maize, wheat, and rice are major cereal crops in the world, which provide more caloric energy than any other type of cereal class. In recent years, the yield of these cereal grains has stagnated due to a myriad of constraints, including infestation by pests and pathogens. Plant pathogens, especially agricultural phytopathogenic fungi, may be resistant to the available chemical fungicides which may have detrimental effects and are expensive. This study investigated whether natural products isolated from Linzia glabra Steetz of family Asteraceae could be used as alternative antifungals for control of cereal diseases caused by agricultural fungi. A single pure fraction was separated and identified from L. glabra methanolic flower crude extract using high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry methods. The pure fraction isolated was tested for inhibition of spore germination in vitro against Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium verticillioides, Zymoseptoria tritici, Ustilago maydis, and Pyricularia oryzae. The fraction was identified as a flavonol, 3-O-Methylquercetin using high resolution mass spectrometry. Among the fungi tested, spores of Z. tritici were the most susceptible to 3-O-Methylquercetin (44% spore inhibition), followed by F. oxysporum (33% inhibition) at 27 μg/mL. Azoxystrobin, a standard commercialized fungicide, gave a complete inhibition of 100% against Z. tritici and 58% inhibition against F. oxysporum at 5 μg/mL. L. glabra contains flavonols with antifungal activity, but the modest and weak antifungal activity of 3-O-Methylquercetin compared to a standard such as azoxystrobin demonstrates the challenge to produce highly potent natural product fungicides. There is need for continued search for antifungals with new modes of action as solutions to challenges in agricultural production.

Keywords: Alternative antifungals, cereal crops, flavonoid concentration, flavonols, plant diseases, Linzia glabra Steetz.

Ndungu MN, Habwe JH. "Metaphorical Construction of Kiswahili Compound and Complex Clauses." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2019;4(1):105-128.
Munialo S, Hall O, Francisca ABM, Boke-Olén N, Onyango MC, Oluoch-Kosura W, Marstorp H, D. G. "Micro-Spatial Analysis of Maize Yield Gap Variability and Production Factors on Smallholder Farms." Agriculture. 2019;9:219.
Lydia MS, Bulimo WD, Verani JR, Victor O, Ouma A, Kiplangat S, Opanda S, Imbuga M, Juma B, Godfrey B, Hunsperger E. "Molecular Characterization of Human Enteroviruses Detected in Children Under Five Years Old in Kenya 2009 - 2015." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2019;32(2):15-33. Abstract195711-article_text-494299-1-10-20200512.pdf195711-article_text-494299-1-10-20200512.pdf

INTRODUCTION
Human enterovirus (HEVs) infection is common, with an extensive array of clinical
displays ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Presentation include nonspecific febrile
illness often accompanied by muscle pain, sore throat, abdominal discomfort, rash, headache,
encephalitis, aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis [2].
OBJECTIVES
The study objective was to investigate the natural selection and genetic variability of HEVs
and to identify HEV serotypes in circulation among children below 5 years old with diarrhea in
an informal settlement(Kibera) in Kenya.
METHODOLOGY
Specimens (n=628) from a prospective cohort study assessing the incidence and etiology of
diarrhea from 2009-2015 were analyzed. Enteric Taqman array cards (TAC) were used for initial
screening where two hundred and nine (78%) tested positive for HEVs.
Of these specimens, 72 (42%) had a cycle threshold (Ct) ≤30 and were tested by conventional
PCR targeting the 3’ regions of the viral protein 1 (VP1) gene. A total of 48 (67%) underwent
sequencing; 11 (23%) of which yielded nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analyses clustered
the Kenyan serotypes to HEVs groups C, B and A. Evaluation of the VP1 amino acid sequences
revealed numerous amino acid substitutions in relation to reference strains, which were confirmed
to be due to natural selection by negative or positive selection.
CONCLUSION
The Heterogeneous nature of stool samples is known to influence disparities in viral nucleic
acid yields. TAC detected 209 of which 171 (82%) were confirmed positive for HEVs by realtime
reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR), targeting the 5’ NTR regions.
Therefore, the results may not be a representative of all circulating HEVs in the study area. Since
this was a retrospective study of previously collected samples, it is possible that some HEVs strains
may have failed to amplify.

Ngugi CN, Haukeland S, Wachira PM, Mbaka JN, Okoth.S. "Morphometrics and morphological characterization of entomopathogenic nematode isolate TK1 from Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2019;4(2):80-90.
Ngugi CN, Haukeland S, Wachira PM, Mbaka JN, Okoth.S. "Morphometrics and morphological characterization of entomopathogenic nematode isolate TK1 from Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2019;4(2):80-90.
Ma L, Li Z, Birech Z, Li S, Yang Y, Zhang W, Hu J. "Multi-Channel Optoelectronic Measurement System for Soil Nutrients Analysis." Electronics. 2019;8(4):451.
Mette Vaarst, Gidi Smolders, Wahome R, Charles Odhong, Muhammad Kiggundu, Fred Kabi, Sylvia Nalubwama, Halberg N. "Options and challenges for organic milk production in East African smallholder farms under certified organic crop production." Livestock Science. 2019;220:230-240.
Ngotho-Esilaba, Onono J.O, Ombui J.N., J.F L, H.O W. "Perceptions of Challenges Facing Pastoral Small Ruminant Production in a Changing Climate in Kenya.". In: Springer, Cham.; 2019.
Yohannis M, Agnes Wausi, Waema T, Hutchinson M. "The Role of ICT Tools in the Access of Climate Information by Rural Communities." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(2):32-38. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
This paper, seeks to explore how rural communities especially women in Kitui county use
ICT tools to access localized climate information and how Digital Capital facilitates or
impedes the process. Our view is that the continued access to, and use of, ICT tools like
the mobile phone and radios offer diverse opportunities for rural communities to use
timely and relevant climate information to enhance their livelihood strategy. We
hypothesize that rural communities’ use ICT tools such as mobile phones and the
community radios to access localized climate information (weather, seasonal forecasts
and agro-advisories). A household survey of 419 respondents was adopted for data
collection and analysis, guided by the sustainable livelihood framework. The research
findings disclosed that the radios combined with the mobile phone are commonly
available, accessible and cost-effective ICT tools that have played a role in improving
rural women’s access to real-time, relevant climate and agro-advisory information
reducing information asymmetry in rural settings. The study is motivated by the
increasing challenges of climate variability and climate change that are global. Kitui
County has had its share of climate variability and climate change related problems such
as drought which create problems such as food insecurity.

G. W, N KC, MW O, H.G. R. "Status and process analysis of Koche, a traditional pastoral meat product in Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2019;9(6):1-7.
HM M. "Tips on timely completion of postgraduate studies." Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture postgraduate induction workshop, Nakuru; 2019.
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Gathirwa JW, Ochieng SA, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Two lignans derivatives and two fusicoccane diterpenoids from the whole plant of Hypoestes verticillaris (LF) Sol. Ex roem. & schult." Phytochemistry Letters. 2019;30:194-200. Abstract

Bioassay-guided screening of Hypoestes verticillaris whole plant CH2Cl2:MeOH (1:1) extract for anti-plasmodial activity yielded four new compounds: two lignans 2, 6-dimethoxysavinin (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-(7E)-7,8-dehydroheliobuphthalmin (2); and two fusicoccane diterpenoids: 11(12)-epoxyhypoestenone (3) and 3(11)-epoxyhypoestenone (4). The chemical structures were determined using various spectroscopic techniques: UV–vis, IR, CD, 1D, 2D and MS. Two fractions (RAO-43B and RAO-43D) and the isolated compounds were tested for activity against CQ susceptible (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum parasite strains, in vitro and the IC50 values determined. While the whole extract and some resultant fractions displayed moderate activity, the isolated compounds exhibited mild anti-plasmodial activity against the both strains ranging from IC50 value of 328 μM in 1 to 93 μM in 3 against W2 strain.

Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Ochieng’ SA, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Two novel lignans derivatives and two fusicoccane diterpenoids from whole plant of Hypoestes verticillaris (L.f.) Sol. ex Roem. & Schult." Phytochemistry Letters. 2019;30:194-200.omole_et_al_2019.pdf
Fajardo I, Lidtke AA, Bendoukha SA, Gonzalez-Llorente J, Rodríguez R, Morales R, Faizullin D, Matsuoka M, Urakami N, Kawauchi R, Miyazaki M, Yamagata N, Hatanaka K, Abdullah F, Rojas JJ, Keshk ME, Cosmas K, Ulambayar T, Saganti P, Holland D, Dachev T, Tuttle S, Dudziak R, Okuyama K-ichi. "Design, Implementation, and Operation of a Small Satellite Mission to Explore the Space Weather Effects in LEO." Aerospace. 2019;6. AbstractWebsite

Ten-Koh is a 23.5 kg, low-cost satellite developed to conduct space environment effects research in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Ten-Koh was developed primarily by students of the Kyushu Institute of Technology (Kyutech) and launched on 29 October 2018 on-board HII-A rocket F40, as a piggyback payload of JAXA’s Greenhouse gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT-2). The satellite carries a double Langmuir probe, CMOS-based particle detectors and a Liulin spectrometer as main payloads. This paper reviews the design of the mission, specifies the exact hardware used, and outlines the implementation and operation phases of the project. This work is intended as a reference that other aspiring satellite developers may use to increase their chances of success. Such a reference is expected to be particularly useful to other university teams, which will likely face the same challenges as the Ten-Koh team at Kyutech. Various on-orbit failures of the satellite are also discussed here in order to help avoid them in future small spacecraft. Applicability of small satellites to conduct space-weather research is also illustrated on the Ten-Koh example, which carried out simultaneous measurements with JAXA’s ARASE satellite.

Yumbya P, Hutchinson M, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Effect of Hexanal as a Post-harvest Treatment to Extend the Shelf-life of Banana Fruits (Musa acuminata var. Sweet Banana) in Kenya." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2019:1-16. Abstract
n/a
Wangara AA, Hunold KM, Leeper S, Ndiawo F, Mweu J, Harty S, Fuchs R, Martin IBK, Ekernas K, Dunlop SJ, others. "Implementation and performance of the south african triage scale at kenyatta national hospital in nairobi, kenya." International journal of emergency medicine. 2019;12:1-8. Abstract
n/a
Healey-Walsh J, Stuart-Shor E, Muchira J. "Through the Lens of Postcolonial Theory: Establishing Global North-South Partnerships." Nursing education perspectives. 2019;40:270-277. Abstract
n/a
2018
Ayah R, Gitau S, Rogge M, Mugasia D, Hoyle W, Ogot M. "Creating High Value, High Impact Products from Recycled Plastic: Case Study, Building Digital Microscopes for Malaria Diagnosis. .". In: 1st Annual Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Knowles DP, Kappmeyer LS, Haney D, Herndon DR, Fry LM, Munro JB, Sears K, Ueti MW, Wise LN, Silva M, Schneider DA, Grause J, White SN, Tretina K, Bishop RP, Odongo DO, Pelzel-McCluskey AM, Scoles GA, Mealey RH, Silva JC. "Discovery of a novel species, Theileria haneyi n. sp., infective to equids, highlights exceptional genomic diversity within the genus Theileria: implications for apicomplexan parasite surveillance." Int J Parasitol. 2018;48(9-10):679-690. Abstract

A novel apicomplexan parasite was serendipitously discovered in horses at the United States - Mexico border. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA showed the erythrocyte-infective parasite to be related to, but distinct from, Theileria spp. in Africa, the most similar taxa being Theileria spp. from waterbuck and mountain zebra. The degree of sequence variability observed at the 18S rDNA locus also suggests the likely existence of additional cryptic species. Among described species, the genome of this novel equid Theileria parasite is most similar to that of Theileria equi, also a pathogen of horses. The estimated divergence time between the new Theileria sp. and T. equi, based on genomic sequence data, is greater than 33 million years. Average protein sequence divergence between them, at 23%, is greater than that of Theileria parva and Theileria annulata proteins, which is 18%. The latter two represent highly virulent Theileria spp. of domestic cattle, as well as of African and Asian wild buffalo, respectively, which differ markedly in pathology, host cell tropism, tick vector and geographical distribution. The extent of genome-wide sequence divergence, as well as significant morphological differences, relative to T. equi justify the classification of Theileria sp. as a new taxon. Despite the overall genomic divergence, the nine member equi merozoite antigen (EMA) superfamily, previously found as a multigene family only in T. equi, is also present in the novel parasite. Practically, significant sequence divergence in antigenic loci resulted in this undescribed Theileria sp. not being detectable using currently available diagnostic tests. Discovery of this novel species infective to equids highlights exceptional diversity within the genus Theileria, a finding with serious implications for apicomplexan parasite surveillance.

Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):9840. Abstract

Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) is a complementary method to sprouting angiogenesis (SA). The hallmark of IA is formation of trans-capillary tissue pillars, their fusion and remodeling of the vascular plexus. In this study, we investigate the formation of the zebrafish caudal vein plexus (CVP) in Tg(fli1a:eGFP) and the synergistic interaction of IA and SA in crafting the archetypical angio-architecture of the CVP. Dynamic in vivo observations and quantitative analyses revealed that the primitive CVP during development was initiated through SA. Further vascular growth and remodeling occurred by IA. Intussusception contributed to the expansion of the CVP by formation of new pillars. Those pillars arose in front of the already existing ones; and in a subsequent step the serried pillars elongated and fused together. This resulted in segregation of larger vascular segments and remodelling of the disorganized vascular meshwork into hierarchical tree-like arrangement. Blood flow was the main driving force for IA, particularly shear stress geometry at the site of pillar formation and fusion. Computational simulations based on hemodynamics showed drop in shear stress levels at locations of new pillar formation, pillar elongation and fusion. Correlative 3D serial block face scanning electron microscopy confirmed the morphological substrate of the phenomena of the pillar formation observed in vivo. The data obtained demonstrates that after the sprouting phase and formation of the primitive capillary meshwork, the hemodynamic conditions enhance intussusceptive segregation of hierarchical vascular tree i.e. intussusceptive arborization resulting in complex vascular structures with specific angio-architecture.

Do DV, Gichuhi S, Vedula SS, Hawkins BS. "Surgery for postvitrectomy cataract." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;1:CD006366. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:
Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous that is used in the treatment of many disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye. The underlying problem that led to vitrectomy may limit the benefit from removal of the cataractous lens.

OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgery versus no surgery for postvitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes.

SEARCH METHODS:
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 May 2017), Embase.com (1947 to 17 May 2017), PubMed (1946 to 17 May 2017), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (LILACS) (January 1982 to 17 May 2017), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com); last searched May 2013, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 17 May 2017, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 17 May 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials.

SELECTION CRITERIA:
We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
Two review authors independently screened the search results according to the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.

MAIN RESULTS:
We found no RCTs or quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:
There is no evidence from RCTs or quasi-RCTs on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for postvitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for RCTs to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the underlying disease process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include changes (both gains and losses) of visual acuity, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture and retinal detachment. Both short-term (six-month) and long-term (one- or two-year) outcomes should be examined.
Update of Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013]

H. MWIZERWA, GO A, K. MS, MW O, P. GACHERU, M. MUIRU, B. OBURA, B VILJOEN. " Profiling of microbial content and growth in fermented maize-based products from western Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science . 2018;6(2):509-519.
Héritier KM, Ngugi K, Olubayo F, Kivuva BM. "Agronomic Performance of Kenyan Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties." Journal of Plant Science;. 2018;7(2):11-19.
Yaouba S, Koch A, Guantai EM, Derese S, Irungu B, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A. "Alkenyl cyclohexanone derivatives from Lannea rivae and Lannea schweinfurthii." Phytochemistry letters. 2018;23:141-148. AbstractJornal article

Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Lannea rivae (Chiov) Sacleux (Anacardiaceae) led to the isolation of a new alkenyl cyclohexenone derivative: (4R,6S)-4,6-dihydroxy-6-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one (1), and a new alkenyl cyclohexanol derivative: (2S*,4R*,5S*)-2,4,5-trihydroxy-2-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohexanone (2) along with four known compounds, namely epicatechin gallate, taraxerol, taraxerone and β-sitosterol; while the stem bark afforded two known compounds, daucosterol and lupeol. Similar investigation of the roots of Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. led to the isolation of four known compounds: 3-((E)-nonadec-16′-enyl)phenol, 1-((E)-heptadec-14′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol, catechin, and 1-((E)-pentadec-12′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by quantum chemical ECD calculations. In an antibacterial activity assay using the microbroth kinetic method, compound 1 showed moderate activity against Escherichia coli while compound 2 exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Compound 1 also showed moderate activity against E. coli using the disc diffusion method. The roots extract of L. rivae was notably cytotoxic against both the DU-145 prostate cancer cell line and the Vero mammalian cell line (CC50 = 5.24 and 5.20 μg/mL, respectively). Compound 1 was also strongly cytotoxic against the DU-145 cell line (CC50 = 0.55 μg/mL) but showed no observable cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 μg/mL) against the Vero cell line. The roots extract of L. rivae and L. schweinfurthii, epicatechin gallate as well as compound 1 exhibited inhibition of carageenan-induced inflammation.

Graphical abstract

Muiva-Mutisya LM, Atilaw Y, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Akala HM, Cheruiyot AC, Brown ML, Irungu B, Okalebo FA, Derese S, Mutai C, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial prenylated flavanonols from Tephrosia subtriflora." Natural product research. 2018;32(12):1407-1414. AbstractJournal article

Abstract
The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia subtriflora afforded a new flavanonol, named subtriflavanonol (1), along with the known flavanone spinoflavanone B, and the known flavanonols MS-II (2) and mundulinol. The structures were elucidated by the use of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the flavanonols was determined based on quantum chemical ECD calculations. In the antiplasmodial assay, compound 2 showed the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference clones (D6 and 3D7), artemisinin-sensitive isolate (F32-TEM) as well as field isolate (KSM 009) with IC50 values 1.4–4.6 μM without significant cytotoxicity against Vero and HEp2 cell lines (IC50 > 100 μM). The new compound (1) showed weak antiplasmodial activity, IC50 12.5–24.2 μM, but also showed selective anticancer activity against HEp2 cell line (CC50 16.9 μM).

Keywords: Tephrosia subtriflora, Leguminosae, prenylated flavanonol, subtriflavanonol, antiplasmodial, cytotoxicity

H. NGUETTIJ, K IMUNGIJ, W. OM, J WANG’OMBE, F. MBACHAMW, E. MITEMAS. "Assessment of the knowledge and use of pesticides by the tomato farmers in Mwea Region, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2018;13(8):379-388.
Anne W Muohi, Gerd‐Peter Zauke, Hans‐Jurgen Brumsack, Mavuti KM. "Bioaccumulation of trace elements in Arthrospira fusiformis algal blooms in Lakes Bogoria and Sonachi, Kenya: Evaluation and verification of toxicokinetic models." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2018;23(4):277-286.
Mukherjee N, Zabala A, Huge J, Nyumba TO, Esmail BA, Sutherland WJ. "Comparison of techniques for eliciting views and judgements in decision‐making." Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 2018;9(1):54-63. AbstractComparison of techniques for eliciting views and judgements in decision-makingdio.org

Decision‐making is a complex process that typically includes a series of stages: identifying the issue, considering possible options, making judgements and then making a decision by combining information and values. The current status quo relies heavily on the informational aspect of decision‐making with little or no emphasis on the value positions that affect decisions.

There is increasing realization of the importance of adopting rigorous methods for each stage such that the information, views and judgements of stakeholders and experts are used in a systematic and repeatable manner. Though there are several methodological textbooks which discuss a plethora of social science techniques, it is hard to judge the suitability of any given technique for a given decision problem.
In decision‐making, the three critical aspects are “what” decision is to be made, “who” makes the decisions and “how” the decisions are made. The methods covered in this paper focus on “how” decisions can be made. We compare six techniques: Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Interviews, Q methodology, Multi‐criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), Nominal Group Technique and the Delphi technique specifically in the context of biodiversity conservation. All of these techniques (with the exception of MCDA) help in understanding human values and the underlying perspectives which shape decisions.
Based on structured reviews of 423 papers covering all six methods, we compare the conceptual and logistical characteristics of the methods, and map their suitability for the different stages of the decision‐making process. While interviews and FGD are well‐known, techniques such the Nominal Group technique and Q methodology are relatively under‐used. In situations where conflict is high, we recommend using the Q methodology and Delphi technique to elicit judgments. Where conflict is low, and a consensus is needed urgently, the Nominal Group technique may be more suitable.
We present a nuanced synthesis of methods aimed at users. The comparison of the different techniques might be useful for project managers, academics or practitioners in the planning phases of their projects and help in making better informed methodological choices.

Henry M. "Connection between Environment and Peace." National Symposium of Peace and Environment, Nairobi.; 2018.
Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Efferth T, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxic benzylbenzofuran derivatives from Dorstenia kameruniana." Fitoterapia. 2018;128:26-30. Abstract

Chromatographic separation of the extract of the roots of Dorstenia kameruniana (family Moraceae) led to the isolation of three new benzylbenzofuran derivatives, 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-6-ol (1), 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol (2) and 2-(p-hydroxy)-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)benzyl)benzofuran-6-ol(3) (named dorsmerunin A, B and C, respectively), along with the known furanocoumarin, bergapten (4). The twigs of Dorstenia kameruniana also produced compounds 1–4 as well as the known chalcone licoagrochalcone A (5). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds displayed cytotoxicity against the sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, where compounds 4 and 5 had the highest activities (IC50 values of 7.17 μM and 5.16 μM, respectively) against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Compound 5

Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Efferth T, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxic benzylbenzofuran derivatives from Dorstenia kameruniana." Fitoterapia. 2018;128:26-30. AbstractFitoterapia

Description
Chromatographic separation of the extract of the roots of Dorstenia kameruniana (family Moraceae) led to the isolation of three new benzylbenzofuran derivatives, 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-6-ol (1), 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol (2) and 2-(p-hydroxy)-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)benzyl)benzofuran-6-ol(3) (named dorsmerunin A, B and C, respectively), along with the known furanocoumarin, bergapten (4). The twigs of Dorstenia kameruniana also produced compounds 1–4 as well as the known chalcone licoagrochalcone A (5). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds displayed cytotoxicity against the sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, where compounds 4 and 5 had the highest activities (IC50 values of 7.17 μM and 5.16 μM, respectively) against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Compound 5 …

Nyaboke HO, Moraa M, Omosa LK, Mbaveng AT, Vaderament-Alexe N-N, Masila V, Okemwa E, Heydenreich M, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Cytotoxicity of Lupeol from the Stem Bark of Zanthoxylum gilletii against Multi-factorial Drug Resistant Cancer Cell Lines ." Investigational Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology . 2018;1(1):10.
Kimani M, E A, P W, R P, M N, H K. The Data Services Layer: A Data analytics approach to evidence-based decision making for healthcare in Kenya. Nairobi: The Pan African Health Informatics Association; 2018.
Kuballa T, Hausler T, Okaru AO, Neufeld M, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Rehm J, Luy B, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis." Food Chem.. 2018;245:112-115. Abstract

Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol. Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol.

Templer N, Probst L, Onwonga R, Kamusingize D, Ogwali H, Hauser M, Owamani A, Mulumba LN. "Does certified organic agriculture increase agroecosystem health? Evidence from four farming systems in Uganda." 2018 Impact Factor 2.243 International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 2018;16(2):150-166 .
Hutchinson MJ, Ouko JR, Ambuko J, Owino WO, Subramanian J. "Effects of hexanal dip on the post-harvest shelf life and quality of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit." Tropical Agriculture . 2018;95(1):43-70.abstract.pdf
Yumbya PM, Hutchinson MJ, Ambuko J, Owino WO, Sullivan A, Paliyath G, Subramanian J. "Efficacy of hexanal application on the post-harvest shelf life and quality of banana fruits (Musa acuminata) in Kenya." Tropical Agriculture. 2018;95(1):14-35.abstract.pdf
Henry M. "Environmental Governance and its role in Kenya." International Scientific Conference for Asia and Pacific, Yokohama, Japan.; 2018.
Hadullo K, Oboko R, Omwenga E. "Factors affecting asynchronous e-learning quality in developing countries university settings." International Journal of Education and Development using ICT. 2018;14(1). AbstractFull website link

Despite the potential of Learning Management System (LMS) supported asynchronous e-
learning to improve asynchronous e-learning system quality by enhancing learning
effectiveness and academic achievement of HEIs, several challenges are faced in the
process of providing the e-learning mode of study particularly in developing countries. The
study will explore five factors that influence quality of asynchronous e-learning: instructional
design, learner support, contextual factors, student characteristics and instructor
characteristics. The quality factors can be used to evaluate quality so as to monitor and
improve the inputs, processes and outputs of asynchronous e-learning systems. The study
examines existing e-learning literature and then proposes five factors that determine the
quality of e-learning systems.

Wycliffe O, Richard O, Hillary N, Wangia S, Chimoita E. "Farmers knowledge, attitude, and perception of video-mediated learning vis-a-vis Farmers Field School on Striga weed management in Western Kenya." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT). 2018;14(2)(ISSN):195-210.
Hirpa FA, Dyer E, Hope R, Olago DO, Dadson SJ. "Finding sustainable water futures in data-sparse regions under climate change: Insights from the Turkwel River basin, Kenya." Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies. 2018;19:124-135. Abstract1-s2.0-s2214581818302155-main.pdfWebsite

Study region

the Turkwel river basin, Kenya experiences a high level of water scarcity due to its arid climate, high rainfall variability and rapidly growing water demand.
Study focus

Climate change, variability and rapid growth in water demand pose significant challenges to current and future water resources planning and allocation worldwide. In this paper a novel decision-scaling approach was applied to model the response of the Turkwel river basin’s water resources system to growing demand and climate stressors. A climate response surface was constructed by combining a water resource system model, climate data, and a range of water demand scenarios.
New hydrological insights

The results show that climate variability and increased water demand are each important drivers of water scarcity in the basin. Increases in water demand due to expanded irrigation strongly influences on the resilience of the basin’s water resource system to droughts caused by the global climate variability. The climate response surface offers a visual and flexible tool for decision-makers to understand the ways in which the system responds to climate variability and development scenarios. Policy decisions to accelerate water-dependent development and poverty reduction in arid and semi-arid lands that are characterised by rapid demographic, political and economic change in the short- to medium term have to promote low-regrets approaches that incorporate longer-term climate uncertainty.

Ritho C, Ng’ang’a SK, Herrero M, Fraval S, Journal TR. "Household-oriented benefits largely outweigh commercial benefits form cattl in Mabalane District, Mozambique." The Rangeland Journal. 2018;(40)6: 565-576.
Joag V, Obila O, Gajer P, Scott M, Dizzell S, Humphrys M, Shahabi K, Huibner S, Shannon B, Tharao W, MW MUREITHI, Julius Oyugi,, J.N Kiiru, et al. Impact of bacterial vaginosis treatment on ex vivo HIV susceptibility in the female genital tract.Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.; 2018.
Garba LC, Oyieke FA, Owino EA, Mwansat GS, Houmsou RS, Chintem DGW, BE W. "Larval habitats of anopheline vectors of malaria on the highlands of Mambilla Plateau Taraba State North East Nigeria." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2018;5(1):96-100.liatu_et_al_2018.pdf
Chepkoech C, Onwonga RN, Wahome RG, Høgh-Jensen H. "Legume and Organic Fertilizer Effects on Soil Nutrient Availability, Uptake and Kale Yields in Kabete Sub-county Kenya." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018:1-21.
Konneh SS, Saleem A, Awange JL, Goncalves RM, Kiema JBK, Hu KX. "Liberia's coastal erosion vulnerability and LULC change analysis: Post-civil war and Ebola epidemic." Applied Geography. 2018;101:56-67.

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