Publications

Found 960 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Asc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is D  [Clear All Filters]
A B C [D] E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
D
Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Otieno V, Inwani I, Richardson BA, Chohan B, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Treatment interruption after 2-year antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiated during acute/early HIV in infancy: a randomized trial." AIDS. 2016. Abstract

Treatment interruption (TI) has been safe and durable in some pediatric studies but none have compared TI to continued antiretroviral treatment (ART) following ART initiation in early HIV. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in TI versus continued ART among early-treated infants.

Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Otieno V, Inwani I, Richardson BA, Chohan B, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Treatment interruption after 2-year antiretroviral treatment initiated during acute/early HIV in infancy." AIDS. 2016;30(15):2303-13. Abstract

Treatment interruption has been well tolerated and durable in some pediatric studies but none have compared treatment interruption with continued antiretroviral treatment (ART) following ART initiation in early HIV. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in treatment interruption versus continued ART among early-treated infants.

Dalupan CMG, Haywood C, Wardell AD, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Kibugi R. Building enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique: A synthesis. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
n/a
Dalupan CMG, Haywood C, Wardell AD, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Kibugi R. Building enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique: A synthesis. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
n/a
Dalupan CMG, Haywood C, Wardell AD, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Kibugi R. Building enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique: A synthesis. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
n/a
Damaris M, O. OD, Jackson GE, Kariuki DK. "Speciation of Some Heavy Metals in Ngong River using the Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS)." BEST-IJHAMS. 2014;2(10):59-70.
Dambolachepa HB, Muthomi JW, Mutitu EW, Njoroge SM. "Effects of postharvest handling practices on quality of groundnuts and aflatoxin Contamination." Novel Research in Microbiology Journal. 2019;3(3):396-414.
Dambolena JS, Zunino MP, Lopez AG, Rubinstein HR, Zygadlo JA, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JM, Mwalukumbi JM, Kariuki ST. "Essential oils composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. From Kenya and their inhibitory effects on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides." Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2010;11:410-414.
Dambolenaa JS;, Zuninoa MP;, Lópezb AG;, Rubinsteinc HR;, Zygadloa JA;, Mwangi JW;, Thoithi GN;, Kibwage IO;, Mwalukumbi JM;, Kariuki ST. "Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies.". 2011. Abstract

This work investigated the constituents and the efficacy against Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin production of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from different locations in Kenya.The oil of leaves and flowering tops of O. basilicum from Sagana contained mainly linalool (95%). The flowering tops and leaves from Yatta contained mainly camphor (32.6 and 31.0%, respectively) and linalool (28.2 and 29.3, respectively). Eugenol was the main constituent in the oil of O. gratissimum leaves from both Sagana (95.5%) and Yatta (70.1%). The oil of the flowering tops had significantly less eugenol. The main component of the oil of flowering tops from Yatta was Z-β-ocimene (34.1%). Oil from both species had some antifungal activity. The oils of O. basilicum and O. gratissimum from different locations showed chemical variation, antifungal activity, free radical scavenging capacity and antimycotoxicogenic property. These properties are attributed to the phenolic compound eugenol.Industrial relevanceThis manuscript gives the chemical composition and some biological effects of essential oil of two Ocimum species in Kenya namely Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. The work reveals that there are chemovarieties of these plants in different locations in the country. Of significance is the presence of very high amounts of linalool in one chemovariety of O. basilicum while geranial and neral are major in another. The third variety contains almost equal amounts of camphor and linalool. The first two containing high quantities of linalool, geranial and neral could be cultivated after agronomic studies to provide essential oils useful in perfumery, soap or food industry while that containing camphor and linalool may find use in medicine.Proper seed selection and good agricultural practice for O. gratissimum containing high amount of eugenol could serve as good substitute for cloves which grows best only in a few islands in East Africa. Clove oil due to its high eugenol content has many biological activities including those demonstrated in the present work, and many applications in medicine and commercial world.There is need for more research on these plants especially on cultivation and commercial exploitation of the herbs.

Damian. "The Minimal Resolution Conjecture for an ideal of general points in a projective space." International Journal of Algebra. 2011;4(9-12):477-500. AbstractLink

The Minimal Resolution Conjecture (MRC) of Lorenzini predicts that the minimal free resolution of the homogeneous ideal I of S general points in a projective space of dimension n, contains no ghost terms, i.e. as predicted by Anna Lorenzini. I used the "la method d'Horace" to prove that a given evaluation map is of bijective and deduced maximal rank.

Damle SG. Text Book of Paediatric Dentistry. New Dehli: Arya (Med) Publishing House; 2012.
Damme VPA, Maertens D, Arrumm A, Hamerlynck O, Ollevier F. "The role of Callionymus Iyra and C. Reticulatus in the life cycle of Lernaeoceralusci in the Belgian coastal waters (Southern Bight of the North Sea)." Journal of Fish Biology . 1993;42:395-401.
Dancet EAF, Brännström M, Brasky K, Chai D, Chan AWS, Conn PM, Else J, Falconer H, Fazleabas AT, Farah IO, Goddeeris BM, Golos TG, Hau J, Hearn JP, Kariuki TM, Kyama CM, Lebovic DI, Mwenda JM, Ndung'u J, Nyachieo A, Parker J, Slayden OD, Stouffer RL, Strauss JF, Taylor HS, Vanderpoel S, Westergaard JG, Zelinski M, D'Hooghe TM. The role of scientists and clinicians in raising public support for animal research in reproductive biology and medicine.. Vol. 88.; 2013. Biol. Reprod. 88(2).
DANIEL DRNJAI, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Antral mucosal diaphragm: an obstructing lesion of the stomach. East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):161-4. Meme JS, Njai DM, Kyambi JM, Kung'u A.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):161-4. Links. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract
No abstract available.
Daniel A, Olungah CO. "Securing food through women's traditional knowledge in seed security: The case of Mulili Sub-Location, Makueni County of Eastern, Kenya." Pathways to African Feminism and Development, Journal of African Women's Studies Centre. 2015;2:40-52.
Daniel A,(eds) JOTK-N’ang’aA. "Foreign Direct Investment and Export Performance of Kenyan Manufacturing Firms.". In: Trade Discourse in Kenya: Some Topical Issues. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2012.
DANIEL DRNJAI, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Meme J. S., Otieno L.S., Njai D Fanconi Anemia, Chromosome breakages in a large African family. Hereditas 93, 225, 1980.". In: Hereditas 93, 225, 1980. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract
No abstract available.
Daniel, and Olungah A. "Women’s Indigenous Knowledge in Household Food Security.". In: The Case of Mulili Sub-location, Eastern Keny. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
DANIEL DRNJAI, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Meme J. S., Otieno L.S., Njai D Fanconi Anemia, Chromosome breakages in a large African family. Hereditas 93, 225, 1980.". In: Hereditas 93, 225, 1980. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1980. Abstract
No abstract available.
DANIEL DRNJAI, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Calciferol induced hypercalcemia in renal osteodystrophy. East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):712-5. Meme JS, Njai DN, Otieno LS, Kalya R.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):712-5. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract
No abstract available
DANIEL DRNJAI, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Meme J. S., Njai D., Kyambi, Kungu A. Antral mucosal Diaphragm. An obstructing lesion of the stomach. E. Afr. Med. J. 59: 161, 1982.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 59: 161, 1982. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Pulmonary oedema is a common sign of East Coast fever (ECF, Theileria parva infection) of cattle. A trial was conducted on farms in Uganda to compare a product containing both the antitheilerial compound parvaquone and the diuretic compound frusemide with one containing only parvaquone, in the treatment of ECF. The trial involved 40 clinical cases of ECF, some of them complicated by other infections, in cattle of all ages and on several farms. Confirmed cases were treated with either parvaquone+frusemide (P+F) or parvaquone alone (P). Survival after treatment with P+F was 77% compared with 71% with P. Five of the 10 fatalities were complicated cases. The cure rate for severe but uncomplicated ECF was 89% with P+F and 40% with P. Pulmonary signs were resolved within 24-48 h after treatment with P+F and clinical recovery was noticeably more rapid than with P. The antiparasitic effect of the two treatments was similar. P+F could be particularly useful when reporting, diagnosis or laboratory confirmation of ECF is delayed, because advanced cases are more likely to be encountered under these circumstances.
DANIEL DRNJAI, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Calciferol induced hypercalcemia in renal osteodystrophy. East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):712-5. Meme JS, Njai DN, Otieno LS, Kalya R.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):712-5. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1980. Abstract
No abstract available
Daniel K, Otieno SP. Hope . Kimondo E, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2014.
Daniel K.Gakunga RN. "Accountability in Education in Kenya: Challenges and Strategies." World Nexus. 2018;2(3).
Daniel Nthiwa, Silvia Alonso DO, Eucharia Kenya BB. "A participatory epidemiological study of major cattle diseases amongst Maasai pastoralists living in wildlife-livestock interfaces in Maasai Mara, Kenya." Tropical animal health and production. 2019:1-7.
Daniels J, Ruth Nduati, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Supporting early career health investigators in Kenya: A qualitative study of HIV/AIDS research capacity building." Pan Afr Med J. 2015;20:192. Abstract

Strategies to transfer international health research training programs to sub-Saharan African institutions focus on developing cadres of local investigators who will lead such programs. Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative study of one program to understand how collaborative training and research can support early career investigators in Kenya toward the program transfer goal.

Daniels J, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Right from primary school, I liked science: understanding health research capacity building in sub-Saharan Africa through Kenyan training experiences." Glob Health Promot. 2014;21(2):32-42. Abstract

Defining research career paths that enable Africans to address local and global health issues is essential for population health. This study was conducted to better understand how international health training programs contribute to human resource capacity building in health research. Research career motivations, decision-making and experiences were explored among a small group of Kenyan HIV/AIDS researchers who had completed an international training program. We found that intersecting social dynamics within specific geographic spaces influenced individual training decision-making and motivated research career decisions over time. The concept that 'geo-social motivation' is an important determinant of success for an African considering a research career developed from this study, and may be used to tailor future health research human resource capacity-building programs.

Daniels J, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Kenyan women medical doctors and their motivations to pursue international research training." Educ Health (Abingdon). 2013;26(2):89-97. Abstract

There is a need to understand the factors that influence African women medical doctors to pursue international health research training because they remain under-represented in research fields but increasingly represented in medicine.

Daniels J, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Kenyan women medical doctors and their motivations to pursue international research training." Educ Health (Abingdon). 2013;26(2):89-97. Abstract

There is a need to understand the factors that influence African women medical doctors to pursue international health research training because they remain under-represented in research fields but increasingly represented in medicine.

Dao CN, Peters PJ, Kiarie JN, Zulu I, Muiruri P, Ong'ech J, Mutsotso W, Potter D, Njobvu L, Stringer JSA, Borkowf CB, Bolu O, Weidle PJ. "Hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypoalbuminemia predict an increased risk of mortality during the first year of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected Zambian and Kenyan women." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2011;27(11):1149-55. Abstract

Early mortality rates after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) are high in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined whether serum chemistries at ART initiation predicted mortality among HIV-infected women. From May 2005 to January 2007, we enrolled women initiating ART in a prospective cohort study in Zambia and Kenya. We used Cox proportional hazards models to identify risk factors associated with mortality. Among 661 HIV-infected women, 53 (8%) died during the first year of ART, and tuberculosis was the most common cause of death (32%). Women were more likely to die if they were both hyponatremic (sodium <135 mmol/liter) and hypochloremic (chloride <95 mmol/liter) (37% vs. 6%) or hypoalbuminemic (albumin <34 g/liter, 13% vs. 4%) when initiating ART. A body mass index <18 kg/m(2) [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 5.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-10.6] and hyponatremia with hypochloremia (aHR 4.5, 95% CI 2.2-9.4) were associated with 1-year mortality after adjusting for country, CD4 cell count, WHO clinical stage, hemoglobin, and albumin. Among women with a CD4 cell count >50 cells/μl, hypoalbuminemia was also a significant predictor of mortality (aHR=3.7, 95% CI 1.4-9.8). Baseline hyponatremia with hypochloremia and hypoalbuminemia predicted mortality in the first year of initiating ART, and these abnormalities might reflect opportunistic infections (e.g., tuberculosis) or advanced HIV disease. Assessment of serum sodium, chloride, and albumin can identify HIV-infected patients at highest risk for mortality who may benefit from more intensive medical management during the first year of ART.

Dasarathy S, Acharya KS. "Ursodeoxycholic acid–new drug for liver diseases.". 1993.
Datta P, Embree J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss J. "Perinatal transmission in Nairobi, Kenya: 5 year follow-up.". 1991.
Datta P, Embree JE, Kreiss JK, Ndinya-Achola JO, Muriitha J, Holmes KK, Plummer FA. "Resumption of breast-feeding in later childhood: a risk factor for mother to child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission.". 1992.
Daugirdas JT, Kronfol NO, Tzamaloukas AH, Ing TS. "Hyperosmolar coma: cellular dehydration and the serum sodium concentration." Annals of Internal Medicine. 1989;110:855-857. Abstract
n/a
DAVENDRA DRSINGHKUNWAR. "Introduction to Manpower Management with K. D. Singh - Veena Exports (P) Ltd New Delhi.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1992. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Adult Education Policy and Practice in Kenya: A Critical Policy Analysis. (Asia-pacific Bureau of Adult Education/UNESCO.". In: A Resource Manual For Educators and Trainers (with others) (Umtapo Centre Peace Education Publications,Durban, South Africa, 2002). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Homocysteine as a Risk Factor for Deep Venous Thrombosis At Kenyatta N Hospital,Nairobi. Magada A, Joshi MD, Ogola EN, Lule GN.". In: Healthline. 2006;10:48-51. Institute of Health Research & Services; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE:To determine the aetiological role of Hyperhomocysteinemia in Deep Venous Thrombosis. STUDY DESIGN: Case Control Study STUDY SETTING: Tertiary National Referral Hospital; Kenyatta N Hospital. STUDY SUBJECTS: Cases: patients with a Compression Doppler Ultrasonography (CDU) index diagnosis of lower limb DVT; Controls: staff & out-patients with no clinical evidence or diagnostic suspicion of DVT. Main Outcome Measure: Odds ratio for Hyperhomocysteinemia Methods: Consecutive patients with a clinical suspicion of Index DVT underwent CDU by a single sonography, if positive were recruited with an equal number of matched controls.. Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were assayed, and level > 10umol/l was defined as Hyperhomocysteinemia (HH). Traditional DVT risk factors were evaluated and an Odds ratio for HH calculated. Results: Between September 2000 to March 2001 60 consecutive patients were screened and 57 recruited with 50 healthy hospital staff & 7 non DVT out patients as controls. Mean case age was 36.4 yrs  10.0 with of 18 to 63 yrs range. 94.7% were female and all native Africans. The most prevalent traditional risk factor was hormonal contraceptive use (33.4%); 14 patients (24.6%) had more than one risk factor. Mean case homocysteine levels was 13.2  4.9 mols/l and 11.1  3.49 mols/l. in controls. Odds Ratio for HH 1.58, (95% CI 0.068-3.65). Conclusions: DVT risk factors in our patient population is multifactorial and Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with a 58% relative risk for DVT.
DAVID DRNJOROGEPETER. "Booklet: Apostolato Ya Biblia "A" 1996 Nairobi.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Somalia Developed (with others) 10 books for the refugee literacy programme at various stages and levels (1986-9) and 7 Teachers.". In: Guides in Literacy and Numeracy for ADRA (2005-6). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease among Chronic Kidney Disease patients at Kenyatta N. Hospital.". In: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa. Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa. 2007; 2: 112.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
DAVID DRNJOROGEPETER. "Booklet: Biblical Apostolate "B" 1997, Nairobi.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Kenya: .". In: In the National Civic Education Program Training Manual (NCEP II), IntermediaNCG Publications, Nairobi (2006). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Incidence of chemotherapy-related tumour lysis syndrome at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Busakhala W, Joshi MD, Abinya NO, Amayo A, Abwao HO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):100-109. East African Medical Journal.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Cryptococcal hepatitis and meningitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):69-73.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):69-73. Institute of Health Research & Services; 1989. Abstract
A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "High-sensitivity C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic patients with and without the metabolic syndrome.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Apr;85(4):178-186. East African Med J; 2008. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients, and relate it to cardiovascular disease risk. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ninety seven type 2 diabetic outpatients and fifty age- and sex-matched non-diabetic hypertensive outpatients. RESULTS: The distribution of hsCRP in the diabetic population was skewed, with a mean of 4.33 mg/L and a median of 2.53 mg/L. The majority (42%) of diabetics had hsCRP levels in the high-risk category (hsCRP > 3 mg/L). The median hsCRP was non-significantly higher in the diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without (2.68 vs 2.30 mg/L
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Basics of Clincal Epidemiology: Part II. Joshi M.D.". In: HealthLine, 1997; 1:66-68. Institute of Health Research & Services; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine platelet abnormalities in patients with menigococcal meningitis. DESIGN: Case control study. SUBJECTS: Fifty seven cases of mennigococcal meningitis based on a cerebrospinal fluid gram stain for gram negative diplococcus or positive culture were recruited. Fifty-seven controls matched for age and sex were also recruited. The following platelet functions tests were performed; platelet counts, platelet adhesiveness, platelet aggregation and clot retraction. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients (41 males and 16 females) with meningococcal meningitis were studied. Their mean age was 25.5 +/- 8.32 years with a range of 15 to 45 years. Five patients had purpura, four peripheral gangrene, eight conjunctival haemorrhages and one was in shock. There was a statistical significant difference in the platelet aggregation and clot retraction between the patients and controls at p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0002 respectively. There was no significant difference in the platelet count and adhesiveness between the patients and the controls at a p-value of 0.203 and 0.22 respectively. No association was found between the platelet functions and the clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Patients with meningococcal meningitis have abnormalities in the platelet functions mainly in aggregation and adhesiveness.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Platelet functions in patients with meningococcal meningitis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Amayo EO, Kayima JK, Joshi MD.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Aug;79(8):405-7. East African Medical Journal.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine platelet abnormalities in patients with menigococcal meningitis. DESIGN: Case control study. SUBJECTS: Fifty seven cases of mennigococcal meningitis based on a cerebrospinal fluid gram stain for gram negative diplococcus or positive culture were recruited. Fifty-seven controls matched for age and sex were also recruited. The following platelet functions tests were performed; platelet counts, platelet adhesiveness, platelet aggregation and clot retraction. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients (41 males and 16 females) with meningococcal meningitis were studied. Their mean age was 25.5 +/- 8.32 years with a range of 15 to 45 years. Five patients had purpura, four peripheral gangrene, eight conjunctival haemorrhages and one was in shock. There was a statistical significant difference in the platelet aggregation and clot retraction between the patients and controls at p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0002 respectively. There was no significant difference in the platelet count and adhesiveness between the patients and the controls at a p-value of 0.203 and 0.22 respectively. No association was found between the platelet functions and the clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Patients with meningococcal meningitis have abnormalities in the platelet functions mainly in aggregation and adhesiveness.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Namibia Trained writers and participated in the development of nearly all the literacy books published in the Directorate of Adult Basic Education and for distance education materials developed by NAMCOL, the Namibian Open Learning College. (1990-1996).". In: A Critical Policy Analysis (1999),co-authored with J Kebathi and G Righa. (Asia-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education/UNESCO). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1996. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Prevalence of HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection among in-patients at Kenyatta N Hospital. Karuru J, Lule GN, Joshi MD, Anzala O.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005;82:170-172. Institute of Health Research & Services; 2005. Abstract
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection among medical in-patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital, in-patient department SUBJECTS: HIV/AIDS and HIV negative in-patients at KNH medical wards. RESULTS: Among 458 HIV/AIDS medical in-patients, the prevalence of HCV was 3.7% while in the 518 HIV negative patients, it was 4.4%. The prevalence of co-infection with HCV and HIV was 3.7%. The incidence of risk factors in persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: This study found the prevalence of HCV infection among medical in-patients to be similar in HIV positive and HIV negative group of patients. The co-infection rates were low, as were the risk factors for transmission of these infections. PMID: 16122083 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
DAVID DRNJOROGEPETER. "APOSTOLATO YA BIBLIA "A" –-NAROBI, 1996.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Somaliland Facilitators.". In: A Manual for Facilitators of Adult Education (2005).Developed (with others) 10 Teachers. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Kenya: levels of control attained at the Outpatient Diabetic Clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Joshi MD, Amayo EO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jul;83(7):405-6;. East African Medical Journal.; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
DAVID DRNJOROGEPETER. "BIBLICAL APOSTOLATE "B" ..NAIROBI, 1997.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Adult Education Facilitators Manual, Caritas Switzerland, Somaliland.". In: In the National Civic Education Program Training Manual (NCEP II), IntermediaNCG Publications, Nairobi (2006). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "High Sensitivity CRP Type 2 Diabetics at Kenyatta N Hospital.". In: Cardiovascular J of South Africa. 2007;2:123. East African Medical Journal.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Upper gastrointestinal tract in chronic renal failure as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1988 Aug;65(8):541-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Aug;65(8):541-6. Institute of Health Research & Services; 1988.
DAVID DRNJOROGEPETER. "Book: Exegesis in Practice: Selected Texts of the Old and New Testaments, Nairobi 2006.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "From Literacy To Life Long Learning: A Renewed Thinking For Educating The Kenyan People: A paper presented to the Conference on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Adult Literacy, The German Adult Education Association (DVV), December 2006,Addis Ababa, Et.". In: A paper presented to the Conference on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Adult Literacy, The German Adult Education Association (DVV), December 2006,Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, (to be Association (DVV), December 2006,Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, (to be Assoc. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Fertiltiy Rate of Epileptic Women in Kenyatta N Hospital. Kariuki JG, Joshi MD, Adam AM, Kwasa TOO, Machoki M.". In: East Afri Med J.2008;85:341-346. East African Medical Journal.; 2008.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Mitral Dilatation with the Multi-track System:an Alternative Approach. Bonhoeffer P, Piechaus JF, Sidi D, Yonga G, Jowi C, Joshi M.D, Mugo M, Kachaner J, Parenzan L.". In: Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn. 36:189-193, 1995. Institute of Health Research & Services; 1995. Abstract
Mitral dilatation with multi-track system: an alternative approach. We developed a simple and versatile and new technique (Multi-Track) for percutaneous mitral valvotomy using two separate balloon catheters positioned on a single guidewire. The first catheter, with only a distal guide wire lumen and proximal balloon, is introduced over the guide wire into the vein and then advanced into the mitral valve orifice. Subsequently, a normal balloon catheter running on the same guidewire is inserted and lined up with the first catheter so the two are positioned side by side. The balloons are then inflated simultaneously. The technique was applied in 12 patients between 10 and 40 years of age (mean 27.1) and weighing 24-80kg (mean 50.3). Valve area increased from 0.66 cm2 (range, 0.3-0,9 cm2) to 1.97cm2 ( range, 1.33-3.1cm2) and mean left atrial pressure dropped from 31mmHg ( range, 18-52mmHg) to 12mmHg ( range, 5-22mmHg). Mitral dilation with the Multi-Track system gives results comparable to those with previously described techniques and uses simpler and less costly catheters. PMID: 8829845 [PubMed-indexed for MEDLINE]
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Basics of Clinical Epidemiology: Part I Joshi M.D.". In: HealthLine,1997;1:15-19. Institute of Health Research & Services; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine platelet abnormalities in patients with menigococcal meningitis. DESIGN: Case control study. SUBJECTS: Fifty seven cases of mennigococcal meningitis based on a cerebrospinal fluid gram stain for gram negative diplococcus or positive culture were recruited. Fifty-seven controls matched for age and sex were also recruited. The following platelet functions tests were performed; platelet counts, platelet adhesiveness, platelet aggregation and clot retraction. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients (41 males and 16 females) with meningococcal meningitis were studied. Their mean age was 25.5 +/- 8.32 years with a range of 15 to 45 years. Five patients had purpura, four peripheral gangrene, eight conjunctival haemorrhages and one was in shock. There was a statistical significant difference in the platelet aggregation and clot retraction between the patients and controls at p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0002 respectively. There was no significant difference in the platelet count and adhesiveness between the patients and the controls at a p-value of 0.203 and 0.22 respectively. No association was found between the platelet functions and the clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Patients with meningococcal meningitis have abnormalities in the platelet functions mainly in aggregation and adhesiveness.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Adult Students as Distance Education Learners: An MA Study Unit, London University/IEC,.". In: A Critical Policy Analysis (1999),co-authored with J Kebathi and G Righa. (Asia-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education/UNESCO). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Prevalence of HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection among volunteer blood donors and VCT clients. Karuru J, Lule GN, Joshi MD, Anzala O.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005;82:166-169. Institute of Health Research & Services; 2005. Abstract
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV infection and HCV/HIV co-infection among voluntary blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre and clients at the Kenyatta National Hospital HIV-Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Centre. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital and the National Blood Transfusion Services Centre, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Volunteer blood donors and VCT attendants. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV/HIV co-infection among 6154 blood donors in the NBTSC was very low, at 0.02. The HIV prevalence among the 353 KNH HIV-VCT clients was 9.3%, none of the clients tested positive for HCV. The incidence of risk factors in the persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HCV infection among pre-screened volunteer blood donors was low. However the current practice of screening all donated blood for HCV remains indispensable to prevent its transmission to blood recipients.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Peace and Anti-Racism Education: A Case Study of Umtapo Center.". In: A Manual for Facilitators of Adult Education (2005).Developed (with others) 10 Teachers. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Letter to Editor;To observe the association between the staple Ethiopian diets and cancer of the oesophagus. Joshi MD.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):292. East African Medical Journal.; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
DAVID DRNJOROGEPETER. "ARTICLE: TRINITY IN AFRICAN RELIGIONS-IN GABA PUBLICATION.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Adult Education Facilitators Manual, (2005) Peace and Anti-Racism Education Adult Education Policy and Practice in Kenya Adult Students as Distance Education Learners:).". In: In the National Civic Education Program Training Manual (NCEP II), IntermediaNCG Publications, Nairobi (2006). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
David B, David N, Mary K, Francisca O-O, Abdulreshid A, John M, Benson G. "Alcohol and other Substance Related Disorders Chapter 35.". In: The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. Nairobi: AMREF; 2007.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Dyslipedemia in HIV Infected patients at CCC Kenyatta N Hospital. Manuthu EM, Joshi MD, Lule GN, Karari E.". In: Cardiovascular J of South Africa. 2007;2:112. East African Medical Journal.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
DAVID DRNJOROGEPETER. "BIBLICAL EXEGESIS IN PRACTICE.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Training of Adult Educators: Institutions, Programmes and Target Groups: A paper presented to the Conference on Training of Adult Educators in Eastern Africa (Nairobi,December 2005), published in Capacity Building and the Training of Adult Educators,Inter.". In: A paper presented to the Conference on Training of Adult Educators in Eastern Africa (Nairobi, December 2005), published in Capacity Building and the Training of Adult Educators, International Perspectives in Adult Education, DVV, No 52, Bonn 2006). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4+ t cell count in initiating antiretroviral therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.Gitura B, Joshi MD, Lule GN, Anzala O.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Oct;84(10):466-72. East African Medical Journal.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) as a surrogate marker for CD4 + T cell count in antiretroviral (ARV) treatment initiation in a Kenyan population of HIV seropositive patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, HIV treatment and follow-up outpatient facility; Comprehensive Care Centre, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and twenty five HIV Elisa positive, ARV naive patients visiting the Comprehensive Care Centre between January 2006 to March 2006. RESULTS: A significant linear correlation was found between TLC and CD4 cell count for the whole group with a Spearman rank correlation of 0.761 (p < 0.01); and was also independently observed in the four WHO clinical stages. The classification utility of TLC 1200 cells/mm3 cut-off was suboptimal; sensitivity 37% specificity of 99% and the NPV of 56%. The receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve generated an optimal TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 cut-off to be of greatest utility with a sensitivity of 81.1%, specificity of 90.3%, PPV of 90.8% and NPV of 80.2%. This implies that a TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 correctly classify eight out of ten HIV positive patients as having a CD4 < 200 cells/mm3 and only misclassify two such patients. Serial CD4 testing can then be performed on the minority of patients who despite a TLC > or = 1900 cells/mm3 are, on basis of clinical data, suspect of more advanced disease warranting ARV therapy. This would reduce the number of patients tested for and focus the application of CD4 testing and thus reduce attendant cost in care provision in CD4 resource poor settings. CONCLUSION: Our data showed a good positive correlation between TLC and CD4 cell count, however the WHO recommended TLC cuto-ff of 1200/mm3 was found to be of low sensitivity in classifying patients as having a CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm3. This would result in underestimation of advanced stage of disease and to withholding ARVs treatment to persons who need treatment. We recommend a TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 for our population to classify patients as either above or below the CD4 count cut-off of 200 cells/mm3 as an indicator of when to start antiretroviral therapy.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Cardiovascular features in adolescents and adults with sickle cell anaemia.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):270-6. Institute of Health Research & Services; 1993. Abstract
Fifty five sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital were studied with a view to elucidating their cardiovascular status. Their age range was 13 to 27 years (median 18.9 years). They comprised 27 males and 28 females and their mean haemoglobin concentration was 8.5 +/- 1.4 g/dl. Haemoglobin level of 8.0-9.9 g/dl seen in 30 patients was noted to confer the lowest incidence of exertional dyspnoea and palpitation. Similarly, patients with this haemoglobin level had the lowest mean heart rate. The mean blood pressure was 114.9 +/- 9.9 mmHg systolic and 64.6 +/- 10 mmHg diastolic. Blood pressures, ejection fraction (EF) and differential fibre shortening (%D) were found to be directly related to haemoglobin level, whereas cardio-thoracic index (CTI) and left ventricular dimensions were inversely related to haemoglobin level. Mean echocardiographic measurements were within normal limits and left ventricular functions were found to be normal in 80.9% of the patients indicating that the majority of SCA patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital have good cardiac function.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Prevalence of dyslipidemia and dysglycaemia in HIV infected patients.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):10-17. East African Journal 2009; 87:1-5.; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically reduced AIDS morbidity and mortality, however long-term metabolic consequences including dysglycaemia and dyslipidemia have raised concern regarding accelerated cardiovascular disease risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine the period prevalence of dyslipidemia and dysglycaemia in HIV-infected patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparative group study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary HIV dedicated out-patient facility. SUBJECTS: Consecutive HIV- positive adult patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dyslipidemia: presence of raised total or LDL cholesterol or low HDL cholesterol, or raised triglycerides. Dysglycaemia: presence of impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus. Results: Between January and April 2006, out of 342 screened patients, 295 were recruited and 58% were females. One hundred and thirty four (45%) were on HAART, 82% of whom were on stavudine, lamivudine and either nevirapine or efavirenz. Overall prevalence of dyslipidemiawas 63.1% and dysglycaemia was 20.7%. High total cholesterol occurred in 39.2% of HAART and 10.0% HAART naive patients (p<0.0001, OR 5.18, CI 3.11-10.86), whereas high LDL cholesterol occurred in 40.8% and in 11.2% respectively (p<0.0001, OR 5.43, CI 2.973-9.917). HDL levels were low in 14.6% and 51.3% among HAART and HAART naive patients, respectively, (p<0.0001, OR 0.16, CI 0.091-0.29) while high triglycerides occurred in 25.6% and 22.5% respectively (p=0.541 OR 1.184 CI 0.688-2.037). Among patients on HAART compared to HAART naive patients, diabetes was found in 1.5% against 1.2% (p=0.85), impaired fasting in 2.2% against 0.6% (p=0.30) and impaired glucose tolerance in 16.4% against 21.1% (p=0.22), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HIV- infected patients demonstrated a high prevalence of dyslipidemia. HAART use was associated with high levels of total, and LDL cholesterol and high triglyceride levels, an established athrogenic lipid profile. However, HAART was not associated with low HDL cholesterol and had no significant effect on dysglycaemia.
DAVID MUNYASI. ASSESMENT OF STONE CRUSHING CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT OF A STONE CRUSHER FOR SMALL SCALE ENTREPRENEURS.. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2012. Abstract

ABSTRACT.
In Civil Engineering and Construction Industry, crushed stones are known as aggregates and are the basic materials in modern construction work. The current methods for crushing stones to produce aggregates are characterized by the use of large, expensive and centralised crushing plants, which are beyond the reach of small scale entrepreneurs. In addition, such centralized plants are often located too far away from the point of use of aggregates leading to prohibitively high cost of the same.
On the other hand there is widespread practice of manual “hammer and anvil” stone crushing especially in rural areas. Though, the practice is hazardous, laborious and hardly profitable, the technology is common in Kenya. It is against this background that the proposed research work has been formulated in order to study the crushing characteristics of various stones and to subsequently come up with an optimum, dynamical ad structural design of a small stone crusher for small scale entrepreneurs. The study will contribute to the body of knowledge in the domain of innovative development of Engineering products; the case in point being a small- mechanised stone crusher that is cost effective, environmentally and user friendly. Further, the study will generate information on stone characteristics that are relevant in aggregate formation.

DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Basics of Clinical Epidemiology: Part III. Joshi M.D.". In: HealthLine, 1998; 2:40-42. Institute of Health Research & Services; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine platelet abnormalities in patients with menigococcal meningitis. DESIGN: Case control study. SUBJECTS: Fifty seven cases of mennigococcal meningitis based on a cerebrospinal fluid gram stain for gram negative diplococcus or positive culture were recruited. Fifty-seven controls matched for age and sex were also recruited. The following platelet functions tests were performed; platelet counts, platelet adhesiveness, platelet aggregation and clot retraction. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients (41 males and 16 females) with meningococcal meningitis were studied. Their mean age was 25.5 +/- 8.32 years with a range of 15 to 45 years. Five patients had purpura, four peripheral gangrene, eight conjunctival haemorrhages and one was in shock. There was a statistical significant difference in the platelet aggregation and clot retraction between the patients and controls at p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0002 respectively. There was no significant difference in the platelet count and adhesiveness between the patients and the controls at a p-value of 0.203 and 0.22 respectively. No association was found between the platelet functions and the clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Patients with meningococcal meningitis have abnormalities in the platelet functions mainly in aggregation and adhesiveness.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Kenya Co-author of materials on .". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1986. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Coronary Artery Disease and Symptoms of Depression in Kenyan Population. Njenga FG, Kamotho CG, Joshi M.D, Gikonyo DK, Wanyoike M.". In: East Afri Medl Jl; 2004; 81:611-619. East African Medical Journal.; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Depression and heart disease are replacing the traditional enemies of Africa such as infectious diseases and malnutrition as the increasing causes of disability and premature death. Little is known about the co-morbidity of heart disease and depression in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of depression in Black Africans with and without Coronary Artery Disease as documented on coronary angiography at the Nairobi Hospital. DESIGN: Prospective comparative study. SETTING: A private not for Profit 210 bed hospital, catering for fee paying middles class clintele. RESULTS: Of the eighteen patients with an abnormal angiogram, the highest score on the BDI was 9 while the average was 2.11. Of the seven with normal angiograms, the highest BDI was 5, and the average was 1.71. There was no statistical significance in these differences. CONCLUSION: While African scientists must continue to concentrate on the urgent medical priorities of today (AIDS, malaria, measles, etc), cognisance has to be made of the other emerging epidemic, of the co-morbidity of coronary artery disease and depression. That no significant difference in depression score between the two groups was found could be due to a number of reasons including the small sample size achieved in this first study of its kind in Kenya.
David K. Chikati, Lydiah N. Wachira JMM. "Development of special Education for the Visually Impaired Learners in Kenya – A Historical Perspective." European Journal of Special Education Research. 2019;4.
David K. Chikati, Lydiah N. Wachira JMN. "The Development of Education for Teachers of the Visually Impaired Learners in Kenya: A Historical perspective." Journal of Education and Practice . 2019;10(32).
David M. Maina, Lydia W. Njenga, John M. Onyari, Kyalo BN. "Trace Element Concentrations in Some Traditional Diets Consumed in Selected Parts of Eastern Province of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2012;3.
and David M. Maina1, Lydia W. Njenga2 JO2 BK1MN. "Trace Element Concentrations in Some Traditional Diets Consumed in Selected Parts of Eastern Province of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Protection, 2012. 2012;3:617-623. Abstract

Dietary quality is vital in maintaining sound nutritional status. The ecological conditions thus influence the type of diets and their nutritional quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the trace element/mineral content of some of the commonly consumed diets in Machakos, Kitui, Makueni and Mwingi districts. Decorticated maize, beans and finger millet flour samples were purchased from the local markets. For each category, a total of ten samples were collected from each district. The samples were put in plastic bags, sealed and transported to the laboratory in the Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology, University of Nairobi for preparation and analysis. The cooking of the samples was carried out according to local traditional methods. In the decorticated samples, mean copper concentrations were observed to be below 20 g g-1; mean zinc concentrations ranged from 34 to 63 g g-1 and mean manganese concentrations were in a similar range of 34 to 78 g g-1. The mean iron concentrations were significantly high with a range of 161 g g-1 to 287 g g-1. A similar trend was observed in the beans where the mean copper concentrations varied from 11 to 33 g g-1, mean zinc concentrations ranged from a low value of 24 g g-1 to a high value of 35 g g-1, mean manganese concentrations varied from 33 g g-1 to 98 g g-1 and the mean iron con-centrations ranged from 227 g g-1 to 647 g g-1. The cooked Muthokoi samples from Machakos district had relatively high mean trace element concentrations: manganese – 109 g g-1; iron – 280 g g-1; copper – 19 g g-1; and zinc – 41 g g-1. The only exception was mean iron concentrations which were extremely high in samples from Mwingi District where the concentrations varied from 73 g g-1 to 1597 g g-1. In finger millet flour, the mean manganese concentrations varied from 95 to 290g g-1, whereas the mean iron concentrations ranged from 127 g g-1 to 259 g g-1. In contrast, the mean copper and zinc concentrations were low in comparison to the manganese and iron concentrations. As a whole, the mean copper concentrations in the diets are significantly low compared to the other three trace elements. However, the total content is not necessarily a reflection of the amount assimilated in the body. Finger millet was found to be an excellent source of manganese and iron whereas beans were observed to be good sources of iron. All the food crops were observed to poor sources of copper.

Keywords: Trace Elements, diets, semi-arid, Kenya.

Davies S, Mbuthia M. "Design and Optimization of A Mobile Device PCB-PIFL Multiband Antenna for GSM Applications." International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2015;4(10):9522-9528.
Davis SM, Pals S, Yang C, Odoyo-June E, Chang J, Walters MS, Jaoko W, Bock N, Westerman L, Toledo C, Bailey RC. "Circumcision status at HIV infection is not associated with plasma viral load in men: analysis of specimens from a randomized controlled trial." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2018;18(1):350. Abstract

Male circumcision provides men with approximately 60% protection from acquiring HIV infection via heterosexual sex, and has become a key component of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. Possible mechanisms for this protection include removal of the inflammatory anaerobic sub-preputial environment and the high concentration of Langerhans cells on the inside of the foreskin, both believed to promote local vulnerability to HIV infection. In people who do acquire HIV, viral load is partially determined by infecting partner viral load, potentially mediated by size of infecting inoculum. By removing a portal for virion entry, prior male circumcision could decrease infecting inoculum and thus viral load in men who become HIV-infected, conferring the known associated benefits of slower progression to disease and decreased infectiousness.

Davis G, Ananga A, Krastanova S, Sutton S, Ochieng JW, Leong S, Tsolova V. "Elevated gene expression in chalcone synthase enzyme suggests an increased production of flavonoids in skin and synchronized red cell cultures of North American native grape berries." DNA Cell Biol.. 2012;31(6):939-45. Abstract

Anthocyanins are antioxidants and are among the natural products synthesized via the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Anthocyanins have been recommended for dietary intake in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or dementia. With an increasingly aging population in many parts of the world, strategies for the commercial production of in vitro synchronized red cell cultures as natural antioxidants will be a significant contribution to human medicine. Red pigmented fruits such as grapes (Vitis sp.) are a major source of bioavailable anthocyanins and other polyphenols. Since the level of antioxidants varies among cultivars, this study is the first one that phytochemically and genetically characterizes native grape cultivars of North America to determine the optimal cultivar and berry cells for the production of anthocyanins as antioxidants. Using real-time PCR and bioinformatics approaches, we tested for the transcript expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene, an enzyme involved in the flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, in different parts of physiologically mature grape berries and in vitro synchronized red cells. A low level of expression was recorded in berry flesh, compared with an elevated expression in berry skins and in vitro synchronized red cells, suggesting increased production of flavonoids in skin and cell cultures. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of functional genomics in natural products research as well as in systematic studies of North American native grapes, specifically in muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia).

Davis G, Ananga A, Krastanova S, Sutton S, Ochieng JW, Leong S, Tsolova V. "Elevated gene expression in chalcone synthase enzyme suggests an increased production of flavonoids in skin and synchronized red cell cultures of North American native grape berries." DNA Cell Biol.. 2012;31(6):939-45. Abstract2012_davis_et_al_dna_and_cell_biology.pdf

Anthocyanins are antioxidants and are among the natural products synthesized via the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Anthocyanins have been recommended for dietary intake in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or dementia. With an increasingly aging population in many parts of the world, strategies for the commercial production of in vitro synchronized red cell cultures as natural antioxidants will be a significant contribution to human medicine. Red pigmented fruits such as grapes (Vitis sp.) are a major source of bioavailable anthocyanins and other polyphenols. Since the level of antioxidants varies among cultivars, this study is the first one that phytochemically and genetically characterizes native grape cultivars of North America to determine the optimal cultivar and berry cells for the production of anthocyanins as antioxidants. Using real-time PCR and bioinformatics approaches, we tested for the transcript expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene, an enzyme involved in the flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, in different parts of physiologically mature grape berries and in vitro synchronized red cells. A low level of expression was recorded in berry flesh, compared with an elevated expression in berry skins and in vitro synchronized red cells, suggesting increased production of flavonoids in skin and cell cultures. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of functional genomics in natural products research as well as in systematic studies of North American native grapes, specifically in muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia).

Davis B. Ntwiga, Ogutu C, Kirumbi M. "Inclusion of Peer Group and Individual Low–Income Earners in M-Shwari micro–credit Lending: A Hidden Markov Model." International Journal of Electronic Finance. 2018;9(2):121-133.
DAVIS NTWIGA, Weke P, Manene M, Mwaniki J. "International Journal of Mathematical Archive-7 (2), 2016, 64-68 Available online through www. ijma. info ISSN 2229–5046." International Journal of Mathematical Archive. 2016;7(2):, 64-68. AbstractWebsite

We rely on trust in our day to day interactions and activities with each other. It is not easy to estimate it but we offer a simple and powerful method for estimating trust levels of agents in a social network using data from the agents’ reputation matrix. The reputation resultant method (RRM) is based on the mean values of the reputation rating matrix and the reputation resultant matrix. Reputation ratings are derived from the agents’ peer to peer ratings and the resultant reputation data is the relative reputation ratings by the agents. A comparison is made between the results of Singular value decomposition (SVD) and our new method, the RRM. The two methods offer results that are highly comparative with the RRM being simple, powerful and easy to understand and implement.

DAVIS-COLE, J.O.A., MORGAN, H. G., CHAUDHURY MFB, KAAYA GP. "Some aspects of sexual receptivity and refractory behavior in female Glossina morsitans Morsitans Westwood." Insect Science and its Applications . 1993;14:723-727.
Daw N. "Mechanisms of {Plasticity} in the {Visual} {Cortex}.". In: Visual {Development}. Springer US; 2006:. Abstract
n/a
Dawood Y. "Transcending Racial / Cultural Spaces: the Power of the Woman in Yusuf Dawood’s Works.” ISSN 147 258 43. ." African Identities . 2004;Volume 2 Number 2(ISSN 147 258 43. ):Pp. 203-213.
Day S. "Vision development in the monocular individual: implications for the mechanisms of normal binocular vision development and the treatment of infantile esotropia." Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 1995;93:523-581. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to study the vision development in monocular individuals so as to better understand normal binocular vision development and to refine the treatment of infants with infantile esotropia. METHODS: Thirty-six subjects with one clinically normal eye and one eye with no vision (no light perception or history of enucleation) are studied. In addition to measurement of standard parameters of development such as visual acuity, measurement of motion processing is made by both optokinetic and electrophysiologic techniques. A comparison is made of vision development among three populations: the monocular population, the normal population, and patients with a history of infantile esotropia. Such comparison is made to study the relative effects of interruption of binocularity and binocular competition. The monocular population represents individuals who have interruption of binocularity, whereas the infantile esotropia population has both interruption of binocularity and binocular competition. RESULTS: The OKN data suggest that the monucular population is more similar to the normal population than the esotropia population. The electrophysiologic data shows a statistically significant difference in the three populations. Motion processing is more fully developed in the monocular population than in the infantile esotropia population when compared to the normal population. CONCLUSIONS: 1. The development of motion processing appears to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal experience during the first year of life. 2. Monocular subjects have a less abnormal motion processing system when compared to patients with infantile esotropia even when monocularity is congenital. 3. The results indirectly support the premise that prealignment alternate occlusion is of benefit to the patient with infantile esotropia prior to realignment. 4. Development of the motion processing system does not necessarily parallel the development of other binocular functions.

Day S, Graham SM, Masese LN, Richardson BA, Kiarie JN, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Chohan V, Overbaugh J, Scott McClelland R. "A Prospective Cohort Study of the Effect of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate on Detection of Plasma and Cervical HIV-1 in Women Initiating and Continuing Antiretroviral Therapy." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2014;66(4):452-6. Abstract

: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use among HIV-1-infected women may increase transmission by increasing plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA shedding. We investigated associations between DMPA use and HIV-1 RNA in plasma and cervical secretions. One hundred two women initiated antiretroviral therapy, contributing 925 follow-up visits over a median of 34 months. Compared with visits with no hormonal contraception exposure, DMPA exposure did not increase detection of plasma (adjusted odds ratio: 0.81, 95% confidence interval: 0.47 to 1.39) or cervical HIV-1 RNA (adjusted odds ratio: 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.54 to 3.67). Our results suggest that DMPA is unlikely to increase infectivity in HIV-positive women who are adherent to effective antiretroviral therapy.

DC K, HW C, C BL, Maingi N, Nyaga P N, Njagi L W. "Effect of parasite control on Newcastle disease vaccination response in free-ranged family chicken in Eastern province, Kenya.". In: 47th Kenya Veterinary Association (KVA) annual Scientific conference. Mombasa; 2013.abstract_-_kemboi_et_al.pdf
DC K, HW C, C BL, Maingi N, Nyaga P N, Njagi L W. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya.". In: 3rd RUFORUM Conference. Uganda: RUFORUM; 2012:.ruforum_2012.pdf
De Benoist B, McLean E, Andersson M, Rogers L. "Iodine deficiency in 2007: global progress since 2003." Food Nutr Bull. 2008;29:195-202. AbstractWebsite
n/a
De Coster G, Van Dongen S, Malaki P, Muchane M, Alcántara-Exposito A, Matheve H, Lens L. "Fluctuating asymmetry and environmental stress: understanding the role of trait history." PLoS One. 2013;8. Abstract
n/a
De Falco G;, Leoncini L;, Rogena EA. "Infectious agents and lymphoma.". 2011. Abstract

In the past 25 years revelations on the genesis of human cancer have come at an increasing pace. Research on oncogenic infectious agents, especially viruses, has helped us to understand the process of malignant transformation of cells because the cellular events in viral-driven transformation mirror, often brilliantly, basic cellular processes that culminate in cancer, even those not associated with viruses. Infectious agents, especially viruses, account for several of the most common malignancies-up to 20% of all cancers. Some of these cancers are endemic, with a high incidence in certain geographic locations, but sporadic/lower incidence in other parts of the world. Lymphomas arise frequently in association with infectious agents such as Epstein-Barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus 8, Helicobacter pylori, and hepatitis C virus. In this review, we will focus on the association between infectious agents and lymphomas, with a look at the molecular mechanisms they use to disturb cell regulation and eventually result in cancer.

De Vos L, Pertet F, Vanlerberghe K, Nuguti S, Ntiba MJ. Present status of the fish fauna and fisheries of Lake Baringo, Kenya.; 1998.
De Vuyst H, Parisi MR, Karani A, Mandaliya K, Muchiri L, Vaccarella S, Temmerman M, Franceschi S, Lillo F. "Cancer Causes & Control > Vol. 21, No. 12, December 2010.". 2010.Website
De Vuyst H, Parisi MR, Karani A, Mandaliya K, Muchiri L, Vaccarella S, Temmerman M, Franceschi S, Lillo F. "The prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Mombasa, Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

A human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence survey was done in Mombasa, Kenya, to improve the knowledge of HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in sub-Saharan African countries overall, and in women of different ages. METHODS: HPV prevalence was assessed using PCR in women older than 15 years attending family planning and mother-child care services. RESULTS: Among 496 women, HPV prevalence was high (42.3%; 95% CI: 37.9-46.8; world age-standardized). Moreover, 46% of HPV-positive women harbored multiple-type infections. The most common types were HPV58 (10.5% of women), HPV16 (7.7%), HPV53 (6.7%), HPV18 (4.6%), and HPV6 (4.4%), and the prevalence of any high-risk HPV type was 28.8%. HPV prevalence was elevated among all age-groups (range 36.4-45.7%). Independent associations with HPV positivity were found for being in a polygamous marriage (OR = 1.7) and lifetime number of sexual partners (OR for ≥ 3 vs. 1 = 1.5), although they were of only borderline statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: These findings differ from other world regions, showing a high HPV burden in all age-groups with a high proportion of multiple-type infections. Our data strengthen the urgency of HPV vaccination in Kenya but also highlight the elevated number of women who would have positive results in an HPV-based screening program in the country.

De Vuyst H, Chung MH, Baussano I, Mugo NR, Tenet V, van Kemenade FJ, Rana FS, Sakr SR, Meijer CJ, Snijders PJ, Franceschi S. "Comparison of HPV DNA testing in cervical exfoliated cells and tissue biopsies among HIV-positive women in Kenya.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

HIV-positive women are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) (especially with multiple types), and develop cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer more frequently than HIV-negative women. We compared HPV DNA prevalence obtained using a GP5+/6+ PCR assay in cervical exfoliated cells to that in biopsies among 468 HIV-positive women from Nairobi, Kenya. HPV prevalence was higher in cells than biopsies and the difference was greatest in 94 women with a combination normal cytology/normal biopsy (prevalence ratio, PR = 3.7; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.4-5.7). PR diminished with the increase in lesion severity (PR in 58 women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)/CIN2-3 = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0-1.2). When HPV-positive, cells contained 2.0- to 4.6-fold more multiple infections than biopsies. Complete or partial agreement between cells and biopsies in the detection of individual HPV types was found in 91% of double HPV-positive pairs. The attribution of CIN2/3 to HPV16 and/or 18 would decrease from 37.6%, when the presence of these types in either cells or biopsies was counted, to 20.2% when it was based on the presence of HPV16 and/or 18 (and no other types) in biopsies. In conclusion, testing HPV on biopsies instead of cells results in decreased detection but not elimination of multiple infections in HIV-positive women. The proportion of CIN2/3 attributable to HPV16 and/or 18 among HIV-positive women, which already appeared to be lower than that in HIV-negative, would then further decrease. The meaning of HPV detection in cells and random biopsy from HIV-positive women with no cervical abnormalities remains unclear.

De Vuyst H, Gichangi P, Estambale B, Njuguna E, Franceschi S, Temmerman M. "Human papillomavirus types in women with invasive cervical carcinoma by HIV status in Kenya." Int. J. Cancer. 2008;122(1):244-6. Abstract

To evaluate the fraction of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) that could be prevented in HIV-infected women by vaccines currently available against human papillomavirus (HPV)16 and 18, we conducted a cross-sectional study in women with ICC in Nairobi, Kenya. Fifty-one HIV-positive women were frequency-matched by age to 153 HIV-negative women. Cervical cells were tested for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction-based assays (SPF10-INNO-LiPA). Comparisons were adjusted for multiplicity of HPV types. As expected, multiple-type infections were much more frequent in HIV-positive (37.2%) than in HIV-negative (13.7%) women, but the distribution of HPV types was similar. HPV16 was detected in 41.2% versus 43.8% and HPV16 and/or 18 in 64.7% versus 60.1% of HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women, respectively. The only differences of borderline statistical significance were an excess of HPV52 (19.6% versus 5.2%) and a lack of HPV45 (7.8% versus 17.0%) in HIV-positive women compared to HIV-negative women, respectively. We have been able to assess an unprecedented number of ICCs in HIV-positive women, but as we did not know the age of HIV acquisition, we cannot exclude that it had occurred too late in life to affect the type of HPV involved in cervical carcinogenesis. However, if our findings were confirmed, they would suggest that the efficacy of current vaccines against HPV16 and 18 to prevent ICC is similar in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, provided vaccination is administered before sexual debut, as recommended.

De Vuyst H, Parisi MR, Karani A, Mandaliya K, Muchiri L, Vaccarella S, Temmerman M, Franceschi S, Lillo F. "The prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Mombasa, Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

A human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence survey was done in Mombasa, Kenya, to improve the knowledge of HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in sub-Saharan African countries overall, and in women of different ages. METHODS: HPV prevalence was assessed using PCR in women older than 15 years attending family planning and mother-child care services. RESULTS: Among 496 women, HPV prevalence was high (42.3%; 95% CI: 37.9-46.8; world age-standardized). Moreover, 46% of HPV-positive women harbored multiple-type infections. The most common types were HPV58 (10.5% of women), HPV16 (7.7%), HPV53 (6.7%), HPV18 (4.6%), and HPV6 (4.4%), and the prevalence of any high-risk HPV type was 28.8%. HPV prevalence was elevated among all age-groups (range 36.4-45.7%). Independent associations with HPV positivity were found for being in a polygamous marriage (OR = 1.7) and lifetime number of sexual partners (OR for ≥ 3 vs. 1 = 1.5), although they were of only borderline statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: These findings differ from other world regions, showing a high HPV burden in all age-groups with a high proportion of multiple-type infections. Our data strengthen the urgency of HPV vaccination in Kenya but also highlight the elevated number of women who would have positive results in an HPV-based screening program in the country.

De Vuyst H, Claeys P NMSDSVMBTSLSP. "Comparison of pap smear, visual inspection with acetic acid, human papillomavirus DNA-PCR testing and cervicography." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. . 2005;89(2):120-6.
De Vuyst H, Steyaert S VRCLP, Muchiri L, Sitati S VQKVMTSWBE. "Distribution of human papillomavirus in a family planning population in nairobi, kenya." Sex Transm Dis. . 2003;30(2):Sex Transm Dis.
Dean WH, Buchan J, Gichuhi S, Philippin H, Arunga S, Mukome A, Admassu F, Lewis K, Makupa W, Otiti J, Kim MJ, Macleod D, Cook C, Burton MJ. "Simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma versus conventional training alone: the GLAucoma Simulated Surgery (GLASS) trial. A randomised controlled, educational intervention efficacy trial in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe." Br J Ophthalmol. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background/aim: Glaucoma accounts for 8% of global blindness and surgery remains an important treatment. We aimed to determine the impact of adding simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma.

Methods: We designed a randomised controlled, parallel-group trial. Those assessing outcomes were masked to group assignment. Fifty-one trainee ophthalmologists from six university training institutions in sub-Saharan Africa were enrolled by inclusion criteria of having performed no surgical trabeculectomies and were randomised. Those randomised to the control group received no placebo intervention, but received the training intervention after the initial 12-month follow-up period. The intervention was an intense simulation-based surgical training course over 1 week. The primary outcome measure was overall simulation surgical competency at 3 months.

Results: Twenty-five were assigned to the intervention group and 26 to the control group, with 2 dropouts from the intervention group. Forty-nine were included in the final intention-to-treat analysis. Surgical competence at baseline was comparable between the arms. This increased to 30.4 (76.1%) and 9.8 (24.4%) for the intervention and the control group, respectively, 3 months after the training intervention for the intervention group, a difference of 20.6 points (95% CI 18.3 to 22.9, p<0.001). At 1 year, the mean surgical competency score of the intervention arm participants was 28.6 (71.5%), compared with 11.6 (29.0%) for the control (difference 17.0, 95% CI 14.8 to 19.4, p<0.001).

Conclusion: These results support the pursuit of financial, advocacy and research investments to establish simulation surgery training units and courses including instruction, feedback, deliberate practice and reflection with outcome measurement to enable trainee glaucoma surgeons to engage in intense simulation training for glaucoma surgery.

Trial registration number: PACTR201803002159198.

Dean W, Gichuhi S, Buchan J, Matende I, Graham R, Kim M, Arunga S, Makupa W, Cook C, Visser L, Burton M. "Survey of ophthalmologists-in-training in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: A regional focus on ophthalmic surgical education." Wellcome Open Res. 2019;4:187. AbstractWebsite

There are 2.7 ophthalmologists per million population in sub-Saharan Africa, and a need to train more. We sought to analyse current surgical training practice and experience of ophthalmologists to inform planning of training in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. This was a cross-sectional survey. Potential participants included all current trainee and recent graduate ophthalmologists in the Eastern, Central and Southern African region. A link to a web-based questionnaire was sent to all heads of eye departments and training programme directors of ophthalmology training institutions in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, who forwarded to all their trainees and recent graduates. Main outcome measures were quantitative and qualitative survey responses. Responses were obtained from 124 (52%) trainees in the region. Overall level of satisfaction with ophthalmology training programmes was rated as 'somewhat satisfied' or 'very satisfied' by 72%. Most frequent intended career choice was general ophthalmology, with >75% planning to work in their home country post-graduation. A quarter stated a desire to mainly work in private practice. Only 28% of junior (first and second year) trainees felt surgically confident in manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS); this increased to 84% among senior trainees and recent graduates. The median number of cataract surgeries performed by junior trainees was zero. 57% of senior trainees were confident in performing an anterior vitrectomy. Only 29% of senior trainees and 64% of recent graduates were confident in trabeculectomy. The mean number of cataract procedures performed by senior trainees was 84 SICS (median 58) and 101 phacoemulsification (median 0). Satisfaction with post-graduate ophthalmology training in the region was fair. Most junior trainees experience limited cataract surgical training in the first two years. Focused efforts on certain aspects of surgical education should be made to ensure adequate opportunities are offered earlier on in ophthalmology training.

Dean WH, Gichuhi S, Buchan JC, Makupa W, Mukome A, Otiti-Sengeri J, Arunga S, Mukherjee S, Kim MJ, Harrison-Williams L, Macleod D, Cook C, Burton MJ. "Intense Simulation-Based Surgical Education for Manual Small-Incision Cataract Surgery: The Ophthalmic Learning and Improvement Initiative in Cataract Surgery Randomized Clinical Trial in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe." JAMA Ophthalmol. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Importance: Cataracts account for 40% of cases of blindness globally, with surgery the only treatment.

Objective: To determine whether adding simulation-based cataract surgical training to conventional training results in improved acquisition of surgical skills among trainees.

Design, setting, and participants: A multicenter, investigator-masked, parallel-group, randomized clinical educational-intervention trial was conducted at 5 university hospital training institutions in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe from October 1, 2017, to September 30, 2019, with a follow-up of 15 months. Fifty-two trainee ophthalmologists were assessed for eligibility (required no prior cataract surgery as primary surgeon); 50 were recruited and randomized. Those assessing outcomes of surgical competency were masked to group assignment. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis.

Interventions: The intervention group received a 5-day simulation-based cataract surgical training course, in addition to standard surgical training. The control group received standard training only, without a placebo intervention; however, those in the control group received the intervention training after the initial 12-month follow-up period.

Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome measure was overall surgical competency at 3 months, which was assessed with a validated competency assessment rubric. Secondary outcomes included surgical competence at 1 year and quantity and outcomes (including visual acuity and posterior capsule rupture) of cataract surgical procedures performed during a 1-year period.

Results: Among the 50 participants (26 women [52.0%]; mean [SD] age, 32.3 [4.6] years), 25 were randomized to the intervention group, and 25 were randomized to the control group, with 1 dropout. Forty-nine participants were included in the final intention-to-treat analysis. Baseline characteristics were balanced. The participants in the intervention group had higher scores at 3 months compared with the participants in the control group, after adjusting for baseline assessment rubric score. The participants in the intervention group were estimated to have scores 16.6 points (out of 40) higher (95% CI, 14.4-18.7; P < .001) at 3 months than the participants in the control group. The participants in the intervention group performed a mean of 21.5 cataract surgical procedures in the year after the training, while the participants in the control group performed a mean of 8.5 cataract surgical procedures (mean difference, 13.0; 95% CI, 3.9-22.2; P < .001). Posterior capsule rupture rates (an important complication) were 7.8% (42 of 537) for the intervention group and 26.6% (54 of 203) for the control group (difference, 18.8%; 95% CI, 12.3%-25.3%; P < .001).

Conclusions and relevance: This randomized clinical trial provides evidence that intense simulation-based cataract surgical education facilitates the rapid acquisition of surgical competence and maximizes patient safety.

Trial registration: Pan-African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201803002159198.

Debela, Hunde Feyssa; Njoka ZA; NJT; MM. Zizphus spina-christi (L.) desf. in semi-arid Ethiopia: Implications for food security.; 2013. Abstract

Quantitative ethnobotanical study of Ziziphus spina-christi was undertaken in six areas of east Shewa, Ethiopia. Both structured questionnaire and focus-group interviews were conducted with about 200 households. Arable land cultivation, and increased frequencies of drought are reducing areas under Z. spina-christi. The multi-purpose tree is highly nutritious, helps main soil fertility, and is an important source of income in the region. Research and policy support are needed to exploit the potential of this agroforestry tree species.

Deborah D;, Jared B;M, Kiarie J;, Katherine, Thomas; K, Wendy S;, Craig C;R, McIntyre J;, Lingappa JR;, Connie C. "Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis.". 2010. Abstract

Background High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations, but little empiric data are available on the rate of sexual HIV-1 transmission from persons receiving ART. Methods 3381 African heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples were followed prospectively for up to 24 months. At enrollment, HIV-1 infected partners had CD4 counts ≥250 cells/mm3 and did not meet country guidelines for ART initiation; during follow-up, CD4 counts were measured every 6 months and ART initiated following national guidelines. HIV-1 uninfected partners were tested for HIV-1 every 3 months. We compared genetically-linked HIV-1 transmission rates by ART initiation. Results 349 (10%) HIV-1 infected partners initiated ART, at a median CD4 count of 198 cells/mm3. Only one of 103 linked HIV-1 transmissions was observed from an HIV-1 infected partner who had initiated ART corresponding to HIV-1 transmission rates of 0.37 versus 2.24 per 100 person-years for those who had initiated versus not initiated ART, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.08, 95% confidence interval 0.002–0.57, p=0.004). After ART initiation, plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations decreased significantly (from median 4.88 to <2.38 log10 copies/mL, p<0.001) as did unprotected sex (6.2% of visits before to 3.7% of visits after ART initiation, p=0.03). Among those not on ART, the highest HIV-1 transmission rate (8.79 per 100 person-years) was from HIV-1 infected persons with CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3. In couples in which the HIV-1 infected partner had a CD4 ≥200 cells/mm3, 70% of transmissions occurred when plasma HIV-1 concentrations exceeded 50,000 copies/mL. Conclusions Among African heterosexual couples, ART initiation was followed by a 92% reduction in HIV-1 transmission risk, likely due to significantly reduced plasma HIV-1 levels, and was accompanied by increased self-reported condom use. The highest HIV-1 risk and greatest relative prevention benefit from ART was among couples in which the HIV-1 infected partner had CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3 or plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations >50,000 copies/mL.

Debrah I, Afrane YA, Amoah LE, Ochwedo KO, Mukabana WR, Zhong D, Zhou G, Lee M, Onyango SA, Magomere EO, Atieli HE, Githeko AK, Yan G. ", Larval ecology and bionomics of Anopheles funestus in highland and lowland sites in western Kenya." PLoS ONE . 2021;16(10):e0255321.
Dech H, Richter P, Sanderman S, Othieno CJ, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM, Mundt C. "Trans-cultural research on depression.". 1995. Abstract

Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention

Dech H, Ndetei DM, Richter P, Kathuku DM, Sanderman S, Othieno C, Mundt CH. "Symptomatology of Depression - Results from a Kenyan Population."; 1996.
Dech H, Richter P, Sanderman S, Othieno CJ, Kthuku DM. "Transcultural research on depression - study concept and preliminary results."; 1995.
Dechant W, Pamba HO, Awan AM. "A case of internal ophthalmomyiasis in Kenya (author's transl).". 1981. AbstractWebsite

An unusual case of ophthalmomyiasis is reported, in which two living fly larvae were observed inside the patient's eye. One larva was removed from the anterior chamber by paracentesis; the other was destroyed on the retina by photocoagulation. The mode of infestation, clinical picture and treatment are discussed in brief.

DeFronzo RA, Matzuda M, Barret E. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: a combined metabolic-nephrologic approach to therapy." Diabetes Rev.. 1994;2:209. Abstract
n/a
Degu A, Njogu P, Weru I, Karimi P. "Assessment of drug therapy problems among patients with cervical cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Gynecol. Oncol. Res. Pract. 2017;4(15):1-15.
Degu A, Mekonnen A, Njogu P. "Treatment outcome among prostate cancer patients in Africa: A systematic review." Prostate Cancer. Submitted.
Dehayem A, Orphal J, Ibrahim N, Kleiner I, Bouba O, Flaud J-M. "The fundamental bands of trans-and cis-DONO studied by high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy." Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy . 2005;238:29-35.
Dehayem A, Pirali O, Orphal J, Kleiner I, Flaud J-M. "The far-infrared rotational spectrum of nitrous acid (HONO) and its deuterated species (DONO) studied by high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy." Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy . 2006;234:182-189.
Dehayem-Massop A, Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA. "Chemometrics and Machine Learning Approaches for Direct and Rapid Quantitative and Exploratory Analysis of Trace Elements by LIBS.". In: LAM 10 International Workshop: Optics Photonics and Lasers in Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. 13-18 January 2014, Dakar, Senegal; 2014. Abstract
n/a
Deisser A-M, Wahome EPHRAIMW. "Designing preventive conseravation training for museums: a case of the National Museums of Kenya." Hekima (Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi.. 2009;IV(1):23-38.
Delgado-Baquerizo M, Maestre FT, Gallardo A, Eldridge DJ, Soliveres S, Bowker MA, Prado-Comesaña A, Gaitán J, Quero JL, Ochoa V, others. "Human impacts and aridity differentially alter soil N availability in drylands worldwide." Global ecology and biogeography. 2016;25:36-45. Abstract
n/a
Delić J, Savković A, Isaković E. "Variations in the position and point of origin of the vermiform appendix." Medicinski arhiv. 2002;56:5-8. Abstract

There were investigated variations of appendix vermiformis in the place of origin and position. The investigations were carried out on 50 human preparations of adults of both sexes, unintentional choice. The position and relation between intestinum caecum and appendix vermiformis were determined by forensic medical and pathoanatomical autopsy. Place of origin of appendix vermiformis, from wall of intestinum caecum is determined by anatomical dissection. Intestinum caecum has a variable shape and it occurs in two forms: conical, which dominates (56%) and square (44%). It has constant position in fossa iliaca dextra in 100% of 50 investigated cases. Appendix vermiformis is fully variable organ as for position and the place of origin from the wall of intestinum caecum. Dominantly (52%) it has rising position, and two subtypes are present: retrocecal (more expressed-38%) related to the retrocolic subtype (14%). Very frequent position of appendix vermiformis is a falling one (32%), in which pelvic position is more frequent (26%) related to descendent position (6%). Appendix vermifirmis is located subcaecaly in 8% of total number of investigated cases, found in three subtypes. It is found out that ostium appendicis vermiformis has a variable position in the wall of intestinum caecum. It is predominantly placed in the middle of the lower pole of the intestinum caecum (58%), in medial wall it is present in 32%, of all investigated, and in the lateral wall in the least number case 10%. The results of these investigations point out how important is to know variable anatomies of appendix vermiformis, for the clinical image of acute appendicitis is undoubtedly caused by the variable anatomical relations.

Delić J, Savković A, Isaković E. "[{Variations} in the position and point of origin of the vermiform appendix]." Medicinski arhiv. 2002;56:5-8. Abstract

There were investigated variations of appendix vermiformis in the place of origin and position. The investigations were carried out on 50 human preparations of adults of both sexes, unintentional choice. The position and relation between intestinum caecum and appendix vermiformis were determined by forensic medical and pathoanatomical autopsy. Place of origin of appendix vermiformis, from wall of intestinum caecum is determined by anatomical dissection. Intestinum caecum has a variable shape and it occurs in two forms: conical, which dominates (56%) and square (44%). It has constant position in fossa iliaca dextra in 100% of 50 investigated cases. Appendix vermiformis is fully variable organ as for position and the place of origin from the wall of intestinum caecum. Dominantly (52%) it has rising position, and two subtypes are present: retrocecal (more expressed-38%) related to the retrocolic subtype (14%). Very frequent position of appendix vermiformis is a falling one (32%), in which pelvic position is more frequent (26%) related to descendent position (6%). Appendix vermifirmis is located subcaecaly in 8% of total number of investigated cases, found in three subtypes. It is found out that ostium appendicis vermiformis has a variable position in the wall of intestinum caecum. It is predominantly placed in the middle of the lower pole of the intestinum caecum (58%), in medial wall it is present in 32%, of all investigated, and in the lateral wall in the least number case 10%. The results of these investigations point out how important is to know variable anatomies of appendix vermiformis, for the clinical image of acute appendicitis is undoubtedly caused by the variable anatomical relations.

Delsol, J. P., Maurel P, Ochanda N. "Un cas D’ Edute la foret tropical de Kakamega – Nandi. Uest Kenya." International Symposium on Remote sensing of Environment. 1986.
Delva, W; Michielsen MGWATVK; B; S;. "HIV prevention through sport: the case of the Mathare Youth Sport Association in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Sport has become a popular tool for HIV prevention, based on claims that it can foster life skills that are necessary to translate knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions into actual behaviour. Empirical evidence of the effectiveness of sport-based HIV prevention programmes is, however, sorely lacking. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey assessing sexual behaviour and the determinants thereof among 454 youth of the Mathare Youth Sport Association (MYSA) in Kenya and a control group of 318 non-MYSA members. Multiple (ordinal) logistic regression models were applied to measure the association between MYSA membership and attitudes, subjective norms and self-efficacy related to condom use as well as sexual experience, age at sexual debut, condom use, history of concurrent relationships and number of partners in the last year. MYSA members were more likely to use condoms during the first sex act (odds ratio (OR)=2.10; 95% CI: 1.10-3.99). Consistent condom use with the current/last partner was 23.2% (36/155) among MYSA members vs. 17.2% (17/99) among the control group. Even after adjusting for media exposure - a factor associated with both MYSA membership and higher frequency of condom use - MYSA members were still found to use condoms more frequently with their current/last partner (adjusted OR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.01-2.68). Nevertheless, levels of condom use remain disturbingly low. More rigorous evaluations of sport programmes for HIV prevention are needed. When possible, programmes should be preceded by baseline assessments, trends in risk behaviour of the intervention group should be compared with those of a control group, and protocols for data collection and analysis should include measuring of and adjusting for potentially confounding factors.

DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.M.A KITAA, C. MULEI, J.D. MANDE, J.K WABACHA (2005) Clinical, Laboratory Diagnosis and Treatment of Ehrlichial Infections in Dogs: A Review. Kenya Veterinarian 29: 71 .". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Degenerative joint disease is a common and important disease that affects humans as well as domestic animals especially dogs and horses. The etiological factors for the disease in humans and animals are similar. The disease is characterised by progressive deterioration of the joint, thinning of hyaline cartilage, joint effusion and periaticular osteophyte formation. Trauma, sepsis, prolonged immobilisation, immune-mediated disease, congenital malarticulation (e.g. hip dysplasia) or developmental diseases (e.g. Osteochondorosis.) may incite the development of degenerative joint disease. The insults stimulate the release of degenerative enzymes from chondrocytes and these destroy the particular cartilage matrix. Two distinct functional process in injured chondorcytes are responsible for the positive feed-back cascade the ultimately results in joint destruction. The catabolic process is induced by proinflammatory stimuli and causes secretion of proteases, suppression of matrix synthesis and inhibition of chndrocytes proliferation. The anablolic programme causes the increased procution of extra cellular matrix, protease inhibitors and cell replication. In the recent past a lot of basic and clinical research on degenerative joint disease has been conduced. Deeper understanding of the pathophysiolgy has resulted in the development of new treatment modalities ffor the disease. Practicing clinicians need to keep a beast with new knowledge and biomedical technology in order to manage their patients in the best way possible. This paper collates the current knowledge of the pathophysilogy and clinical management of degenerative join disease with special reference to the canine species
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.M. MBIUKI (1992). Mechanical properties of available plaster casting bandages in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian: 16:30-33.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1992. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.M. MBIUKI (1993). The breaking strength and resistance to abrasion of some casting bandages. Bulletin of Animal Health and Productivity in Africa. 41: 143 -146.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.M. MBIUKI (1994). Radiological evaluation of plaster casting bandages available in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Productivity in Africa. 42: 51 -53.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1994. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, I.B.J. BUORO, S.W. MBUGUA, P.M.F. MBITHI (2002) Experimental Models of Osteoarthritis in Animals- A Review. Kenya Veterinarian 23: 67-69.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2002. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, S.W. MBUGUA, I.B.J. BUORO, P.M.F. MBITHI, P.K. GATHUMBI (2005) Some Clinical Features of Osteoarthritis of the Hip Joint in Adult Dogs in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 29: 126 - 129.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Degenerative joint disease is a common and important disease that affects humans as well as domestic animals especially dogs and horses. The etiological factors for the disease in humans and animals are similar. The disease is characterised by progressive deterioration of the joint, thinning of hyaline cartilage, joint effusion and periaticular osteophyte formation. Trauma, sepsis, prolonged immobilisation, immune-mediated disease, congenital malarticulation (e.g. hip dysplasia) or developmental diseases (e.g. Osteochondorosis.) may incite the development of degenerative joint disease. The insults stimulate the release of degenerative enzymes from chondrocytes and these destroy the particular cartilage matrix. Two distinct functional process in injured chondorcytes are responsible for the positive feed-back cascade the ultimately results in joint destruction. The catabolic process is induced by proinflammatory stimuli and causes secretion of proteases, suppression of matrix synthesis and inhibition of chndrocytes proliferation. The anablolic programme causes the increased procution of extra cellular matrix, protease inhibitors and cell replication. In the recent past a lot of basic and clinical research on degenerative joint disease has been conduced. Deeper understanding of the pathophysiolgy has resulted in the development of new treatment modalities ffor the disease. Practicing clinicians need to keep a beast with new knowledge and biomedical technology in order to manage their patients in the best way possible. This paper collates the current knowledge of the pathophysilogy and clinical management of degenerative join disease with special reference to the canine species
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, S.W. MBUGUA, P.M.F. MBITHI, I.B.J. BUORO, P.K. GATHUMBI (2005) Pathophysiology and Clinical Management of Degenerative Joint Disease. A Review. Kenya Veterinarian 28: 33 - 36.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Degenerative joint disease is a common and important disease that affects humans as well as domestic animals especially dogs and horses. The etiological factors for the disease in humans and animals are similar. The disease is characterised by progressive deterioration of the joint, thinning of hyaline cartilage, joint effusion and periaticular osteophyte formation. Trauma, sepsis, prolonged immobilisation, immune-mediated disease, congenital malarticulation (e.g. hip dysplasia) or developmental diseases (e.g. Osteochondorosis.) may incite the development of degenerative joint disease. The insults stimulate the release of degenerative enzymes from chondrocytes and these destroy the particular cartilage matrix. Two distinct functional process in injured chondorcytes are responsible for the positive feed-back cascade the ultimately results in joint destruction. The catabolic process is induced by proinflammatory stimuli and causes secretion of proteases, suppression of matrix synthesis and inhibition of chndrocytes proliferation. The anablolic programme causes the increased procution of extra cellular matrix, protease inhibitors and cell replication. In the recent past a lot of basic and clinical research on degenerative joint disease has been conduced. Deeper understanding of the pathophysiolgy has resulted in the development of new treatment modalities ffor the disease. Practicing clinicians need to keep a beast with new knowledge and biomedical technology in order to manage their patients in the best way possible. This paper collates the current knowledge of the pathophysilogy and clinical management of degenerative join disease with special reference to the canine species
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.M. MBIUKI (1993). Resistance to abrasion of plaster casting bandages available in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Productivity in Africa. 41: 151 -153.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.M. MBIUKI (1994) Clinical evaluation of some plaster casting bandages available in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Productivity in Africa. 42: 103-107.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1994. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, I.B.J. BUORO, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.W. MBUGUA, (2002) Polysulphated Glycosaminoglycans in the treatment of Osteoarthritis- A review. Kenya Veterinarian 23: 70-73.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2002. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.W.MBUGUA, I.B.J. BUORO, P.K. GATHUMBI (2003) Volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris in osteoarthritic hip joints of adult dogs. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 74: (1): 11-13.". ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2003. Abstract

Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,

DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, J.M.A. KITAA (2005) Microbial Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Isolates from dogs with Otitis Externa in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian 29:40 .". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Degenerative joint disease is a common and important disease that affects humans as well as domestic animals especially dogs and horses. The etiological factors for the disease in humans and animals are similar. The disease is characterised by progressive deterioration of the joint, thinning of hyaline cartilage, joint effusion and periaticular osteophyte formation. Trauma, sepsis, prolonged immobilisation, immune-mediated disease, congenital malarticulation (e.g. hip dysplasia) or developmental diseases (e.g. Osteochondorosis.) may incite the development of degenerative joint disease. The insults stimulate the release of degenerative enzymes from chondrocytes and these destroy the particular cartilage matrix. Two distinct functional process in injured chondorcytes are responsible for the positive feed-back cascade the ultimately results in joint destruction. The catabolic process is induced by proinflammatory stimuli and causes secretion of proteases, suppression of matrix synthesis and inhibition of chndrocytes proliferation. The anablolic programme causes the increased procution of extra cellular matrix, protease inhibitors and cell replication. In the recent past a lot of basic and clinical research on degenerative joint disease has been conduced. Deeper understanding of the pathophysiolgy has resulted in the development of new treatment modalities ffor the disease. Practicing clinicians need to keep a beast with new knowledge and biomedical technology in order to manage their patients in the best way possible. This paper collates the current knowledge of the pathophysilogy and clinical management of degenerative join disease with special reference to the canine species
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "I.B.J. BUORO, J.D.MANDE, S.B. NYAMWANGE (1993) Isolation of Norcardia Asteroides from a dog with Hemorrhagic Cystitis. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 31, 99-102.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, J.A.N. NGUHIU, S.M. MBIUKI (1993) Cestrum poisoning in a young horse - A case report. Bulletin of Animal Health and Productivity in Africa. 41: 139-141.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI (2001) An overview of the role of the veterinary schools in emergency and disaster management. Kenya Veterinarian. 21: 66-68.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2001. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.K. GATHUMBI Correlation between radiographic and pathological features of hip osteoarthritis in adult dogs.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2003. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
Demissie T;, Muroki NM;, Kogi-Makau W. "Food aversions and cravings during pregnancy: Prevalence and significance for maternal nutrition in Ethiopia."; 1998. Abstract

A cross-sectional study of the nutritional significance of food aversions and cravings during pregnancy was conducted on 295 women in southern Ethiopia between February and May 1995. A questionnaire was used to collect data on dietary practices. Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT), and weight measurements were used to assess nutritional status. Slightly fewer than three-quarters (71%) of the women craved one or more foods, whereas about two-thirds (65%) avoided at least one food. Cereal foods, despite being staple foods in the area, were avoided by more women (41%) than any other foods. Livestock products, which were scarce at the time of the study, were craved by more women (55%) than any other foods. Comparisons using various anthropometric indicators revealed that women who avoided foods had significantly higher MUAC and TSFT than those who did not (p < .05), whereas there was no difference in nutritional status between women who craved foods and those who did not. However, those craving women who managed to get the desired foods had significantly higher weight gain (p < .05), but not significantly higher MUAC or TSFT, than those who did not. Aversion and craving were positively associated (c2 = 10.66, p < .001; odds ratio, 2.36). Thus, women who avoided foods were 2.4 times more likely to crave foods than those who did not avoid foods. This implies that aversion and craving are complementary processes geared towards ensuring optimal nutrition during pregnancy. Aversion results in the avoidance of monotonous diets, whereas craving calls for varied and nutritious foods. More research, however, is needed before such a conclusion is warranted.

Demmler K. M, Klasen S, Nzuma, M.J., Qaim, M. "Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):1-18.
Deng H;, Nzuma J. "Assessing the Effects of NAFTA ON Canada/US Agricultural Trade."; 2005. Abstract

While there seems to be an agreement that Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUSTA)/North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have benefited member countries, some analysts have argued that the agreements had little effect on the bilateral Canada/US agricultural trade as many other factors have contributed to the increased trade flows. Results from this study reveal that the aggregate bilateral agricultural trade flows have generally experienced a steady growth since the implementation of NAFTA with trade flows seemingly favoring Canada more than the US since 1992. At the industry level, the impacts of NAFTA on Canada/US agricultural trade were varied with the sub-sectors analyzed responding differently to the bilateral trade liberalization

Denga FO;, Ongwenyi GS;, Kitheka JU;, Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Thomas DB. Erosion and sedimentation problems in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

This paper examine past and present trends in the development of Kenyan water resources, and the status of Kenya's arid and semi-arid lands. It considers the parameters linked with soil erosion and sedimentation processes and suggests means of combating the problem.

Dennis AU, Gichuki NN. "Effects of legume-based rotational cropping on rhizobia assemblage in an irrigated rangeland in southern Kenya ." Evironment and Sustainable Development. 2012;4(13):147-158.
Deopujari R, Dixit A. "The {Study} of {Age} {Related} {Changes} in {Coronary} {Arteries} and its {Relevance} to the {Atherosclerosis}." Journal of Anatomical Society of India. 2010;59:192-196. AbstractWebsite

The study of coronary artery disease has always been a topic of special interest to the physicians. Several studies have been focused on coronary arteries but limited have been addressed to the histological changes in coronary arteries with increase in age leading to the development of atherosclerosis. The histomorphometric study was carried on coronaries of autopsied heart specimens from 50 males and 30 females between the age group of 10–60 years. The thickness of tunica intima, tunica media and tunica adventia and diameter of coronary arteries were measured using ocular micrometer. Verhoeffs stained sections were used to study changes in internal elastic lamina. With increase in age there was increase in thickness of tunica intima up to 4th decade through the growth of sub endothelial tissue from the undifferentiated smooth muscle cells of the media. The thickness of tunica media was observed to increase up to 4th decade due to medial fibrosis. After 4th decade thickness of both tunica intima and tunica media registered a gradual fall. The increase in tunica intima was found to be the basic pathological change which ultimately progress to atherosclerosis. Intimal thickness was found to be more in males as compared to females. Internal elastic lamina showed splitting, fraying, fragmentation and reduplication in various age groups.

Dequan S. "“Basic Sources of speaking and writing problems for the speakers of non-English vernacular”.". In: 1999 International Symposium on Language Teaching. University of Northern Iowa USA; 2000.
Dequan S. "“A Research on the Promotion of Chinese Language into the World --- Taking Confucius Institute at University of Nairobi as an Example”.". In: 11th International Conference on Chinese Language Teaching. Xian, China; 2012.
Dequan S. “Modern Chinese Dictionary of International Trade”. Tianjin: China Railway Press ; 1995.
Dequan S. “An Analysis on Exams of English Intensive and Extensive Reading”, . Tianjin: Tianjin University Press ; 1999.
Dequan S. “Get Top Results on Your IELTS and Get into the College of Your Choice”. Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press ; 2003.
Dequan S. “Grammar of College English” . Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press; 1998.
Dequan S. “A Guide to Top Results on English Grammar” . Tianjin: Tianjin University Press; 1998.
Dequan S. “Listening Courses of English Broadcasts”. Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press; 1997.
Dequan S. “A Guide to Top Results on English Reading” . Tianjin: Tianjin University Press; 1998.

UoN Websites Search