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Publications


2016

Ndiritu, C, Kidombo H, Ndiritu A.  2016.  Top Management Commitment for successful Small and Medium Enterprises: A hoax or a reality. European Scientific Journal.

2015

wagunde J., Rambo C, Ndiritu A, Onyango M.  2015.  Influence of Idealized behavior on the implementation of CDF construction projects in public secondary schools in Kisumu County, Kenya . European Scientific Journal. 11(22):1857-7881.
Ndiritu, A, Chandi R, RUGENDO CAROLINE.  2015.  Balancing work and study: A necessity for successful Distance Learning, 19th July, 2015. 2nd AFRICE International Conference . Abstract

ABSTRACT
As the country re- evaluates the achievement of Millennium goals, it becomes important for Kenya to take its toll. One of the intentions was to increase gross enrolment rate in higher education. The projection was to increase the number of students joining the universities to 450,000 by end of 2015 from 130,000 in 2008. This number was to be increased through expansion of courses done through distance education. The targeted population was of those already in employment. This group has to be able to balance the demands of their workplace and their social demands for the back to school agenda to be achieved. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. However It has been noted that among the students who sit for university exams, many do not score 40% which is a minimum score for students to progress to the next level. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases scoring below 40%, which is a very high failure rate. This failure rate prohibits students from graduating. it is worth finding out the cause of this failure rate. This study was carried out to find out if distance learners had a problem managing their time given the demands of the same among competing ends. An effort was also made to find out if this problem had an effect on their academic performance. From a total number of 4500 of students from the University of Nairobi in different levels of their B.Ed degrees, a sample of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique .Data was collected using a mixed mode method and analyzed using Pearson correlations. The findings indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic performance (r=0.569)
Key words : work study balance, distance education, time management, Academic performance

Ndiritu, A, Mwangi N, Mburu D.  2015.  use of computers in education: for kids or adults learning?, 18th June, 2015 2nd AFRICE International Conference . Abstract

Abstract
Development has greatly been associated with the level of technology. Countries that have succeeded in harnessing the potential of ICT have been said to have taken a positive step towards a greatly expanded economic growth, improved human welfare and stronger forms of democratic governance. There are however a lot of imbalances between countries that have access to ICT hence the notion of digital divide. In developing countries, this divide can be found in the preliminaries of being able to reap the advantages of ICT. In Kenya, there are not just discrepancies in the availability of resources but also in the ability to use the few available resources. This digital divide is even wider in that investment of ICT seems to be more biased towards the formal sector than other sectors of education. Although there is a lot of effort made like digitization of educational materials for the formal sector, it is important to find out how this is realized in adult literacy classes. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of computers by the ECD student teachers and adult education learners. The study further explored the integration of ICT in teaching and learning in the two categories of learners. Two researcher developed questionnaires were used to gather the required information: one for the ECD teachers who were in their training sessions and the other for adult learners in session in all parts of country. The paper stresses the indisputable need for use of computers to promote education whether in formal or non-formal sector. The sample consisted of 395 pre-school teacher trainees and 200 adult learners. The findings indicated that only (39.17%) ECD teacher trainers and (90%) of adult learners had not acquired any computer skills. All the learners in ECD training and 88% of the respondents felt that computer skills would greatly improve their learning and help them to engage better with their environment which is full of ICT related gadgets. Based on these findings, it was recommended that there is need for the government to invest more in computers which should be made available in all centres in Kenya.

Keywords: Computer literacy, computer, information and communication technology, digital divide, teaching and learning

Ndiritu, AW, Gikonyo NW, Kimani GN.  2015.  Preaching and drinking wine: A necessity for transformational leaders in effective schools. Journal of Education and Practice. (2201-6333)

2014

Ndiritu, AW, Gikonyo NW.  2014.   Elearning for institutional managers: Best option for effective ICT integration in teaching and learning., 28th May. eLearning Africa. , Kampala, Uganda
Ndiritu, AW, Gikonyo NW, Kimani GN.  2014.  Inspiring a shared vision: getting all the teachers in the bandwagon. Abstract

Effective organizations have often been associated with the kind of leadership practice exercised in such organizations. When schools are not performing well, the blame is usually put on the principal who is the leader of the school. This study explored the relationship between secondary school Principals’ transformational leadership practice of inspiring a shared vision and students’ academic performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). The study was carried out in Nairobi County, Kenya. Stratified sampling process was used to ensure that both public and private schools in Nairobi were captured in the study. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”). Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between transformational leadership characteristics and academic performance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test if a relationship existed between selected demographic characteristics and the interaction of leadership characteristics of principals’ and students’ academic performance. To test relationships between principals’ ratings and teachers’ ratings, ratings of male principals and female principals, t-test was used. Results indicated a positive correlation of “Inspiring a shared vision”. It was recommended that secondary school principals should exhibit transformational leadership of inspiring a shared vision in order to succeed in today’s changing world of educational leadership.
Key words: Transformational leadership, inspiring a shared vision, secondary school principals, teachers, academic performance

Ndiritu, AW, Gikonyo NW, MBOROKI GUANTAI.  2014.  University managers participation in distance education: what is the role of distance education support facilities? Abstract

Universities continue to develop new methods of teaching in order to reach many people who cannot access education through the conventional methods; and to attain equity and increase access in higher education for development. Education is a key pillar in development. As Kenya works towards the attainment of Vision 2030 a lot has to be done in education to increase equity and access to allow many people to participate in the development. A lot of resources have been committed to development and implementation of DE materials and facilities but adoption of DE continues to be minimal at the Kenyan Public universities. This paper explores the role DE support facilities plays in the participation of university managers in DE activities in Kenya’s Public Universities. To study this role, the following indicators were analysed: computer availability to the managers and staff; access to personal computer; internet availability; number of internet connection points; and availability of ICT help desk. The study sort to establish the extent to which availability of personal computers availability of internet, number of internet connection points, availability of computers for teaching influence managers’ participation in DE; and to assess the availability of ICT help desks. The research employed cross-sectional descriptive survey design; and multi-stage stratified sampling design. The findings indicated that availing necessary support facilities is crucial if adoption of DE is to be increased in the public universities in Kenya.
KEY WORDS: Participation, distance education, university managers.

2013

Anne, N, David M, Naomi G, Grace N.  2013.  Training ECD in-service Teachers in ICT skills:First foot forward, 18th April. Utilization of open and distance learning in addressing educational challenges in kenya towards fulfilment of the vision 2030. , University of Nairobi, kenya Abstract

Kenya government developed vision 2030 with the aim of transforming Kenya into a middle-income industrialized country. This vision is likely to be an illusion unless Kenya invests in education and training. Countries that have succeeded in harnessing the potential of ICT have been said to have taken a positive step towards a greatly expanded economic growth, improved human welfare and stronger forms of democratic governance. ICT has been correlated with enhanced human development and a major driving force of national growth. Kenya government has invested a lot of funds in the development of ICT infrastructure. This investment is likely not to bear fruits unless the training of teachers is put on the forefront. There should therefore be an emphasis of training teachers in ICT because they are the central forces in tapping the learning potentials created by ICT. Teachers for all levels from pre-primary to university must be trained in ICT if the vision is to be realized. Support for the pre-school education from the government is a recent phenomenon especially in curriculum development. This is because this level of education has been taught by untrained teachers for a long time therefore resulting to poor quality of education. The first effort noted towards this end was the experimental preschool education project that was carried out by the Ministry of education Science and Technology and the Bernard Van Leer Foundation between 1972 and 1982. A later development was on the National Early Childhood Development Policy Framework of 2006 which provided coordination of the different stakeholders in ECD at all levels. As the government continues to support this level of education, it is important to find out the part that it is playing in ensuring that this education is relevant to the changing needs of the students. This will only be possible if the government ensures that teachers have effective techniques, tool and assistance that can help them develop ICT activities that are able to improve student learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the ICT skills possessed by the ECD teachers. Further, the study explored the integration of ICT in teaching and learning of preschool children in selected Kenyan preschools. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to gather the required information from the ECD teachers who were in their training sessions. The sample consisted of 395 pre-school teachers. The findings indicated that only (39.17%) of the teachers had any knowledge in ICT. Most of the teachers (86.99) reported that there they had not attended any government sponsored ICT workshop during their teaching professions. All the teachers felt that their teaching would be highly enhanced by ICT integration in teaching and learning. They also expressed their interest in availing themselves for ICT training should an opportunity arise. Based on these findings, it was recommended that there is need for the government to invest more in the training of pre-school teachers in ICT integration.
Key words: information and communication technology (ICT), pre-school children, Pre-school teachers, Teacher training

Ndiritu, A, RUGENDO CAROLINE, Chandi J, Keiyoro P, Mbwesa J.  2013.  The effect of Reading skills on academic performance of Distance learners: A case of the University of Nairobi Distance Learners. Abstract

Vision 2030 reveals the magnitude of wastage in the transition from secondary to University Education. It notes that secondary school enrolment has risen from 112,229 in the 2006/2007 academic year to 118,239 in 2007/2008 academic year; the passage to university is at 3 percent. To raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of university students from the present 3 per cent to the projected 15 per cent, the government must continue increasing the number of students joining higher education from 130,000 (2008) to 450,000 (2015). This can be done by expanding the capacities of existing universities through establishment of new courses in Distance Education. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. It has been observed that many students fail to score a total of 40% in a given course and they re-sit the failed units. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases, which is a very high failure rate. High failure rate and the ever increasing time taken to graduate is a chronic problem in Distance learning. One of the reasons why there could be poor performance is lack of quality time in reading. It is therefore worth knowing how efficiency in distance learning can be enhanced. To find out the effect of reading skills on academic performance a study was carried out. A total number of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. This sample was taken from 4,500 University of Nairobi students who were registered for B.Ed degree in different levels of study in the school of continuing and distance Education. A mixed mode method approach was used in data collection. Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between reading skills and academic performance. The analysis indicated a strong relationship between reading skills and academic [r= 0.569]. The value of r2 =0.324, indicated that reading skills accounts for about 32.4% of the variation in average performance.
Key words reading skills:, Distance Learning

Ndiritu, A, GIKONYO NAOMI, Gakuu C, MBOROKI GUANTAI.  2013.  UNIVERSITY MANAGERS PARTICIPATION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION: WHAT ROLE DOES THEIR LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE IN DISTANCE EDUCATION PLAY? Abstract

University managers have tried to attain improved access and equity in higher education for development. In recent years, there has been a major shift towards Distance Education as universities strive to attain this goal and to strengthen the social pillar of Kenya Vision 2030 development agenda. Use of ICT in teaching and learning in conventional mode of education was thought to be the means to increase access and equity in higher education but this has not been sufficient. More innovations are being explored as the universities struggle with the challenge of access and equity in higher education. Distance education has slowly been adopted in public universities in Kenya. This provides access to higher education by persons who are geographically distant from the institutions of higher learning and those whose responsibilities cannot allow them to attend classes among other challenges. The study sought to establish the extent to which managers’ level of knowledge in Distance Education has influenced their participation in Distance Education activities at the public universities in Kenya. The sample consisted of 196 managers drawn from seven public universities in Kenya. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used in analysis. The results indicated a significant positive correlation between level of knowledge in Distance Education and managers’ participation in Distance Education activities. Based on these findings, it is important to ensure that the managers are trained in Distance Education and its practice, and how to apply it in order to improve access and equity in higher education in order to support the national and international development agenda.
KEY WORDS: Participation, distance education, level of knowledge, university managers, study support, access and equity.

Ndiritu, A, Chandi J, Kidombo H, Keiyoro P, Mbwesa J.  2013.  THE EFFECT OF TIME MANAGEMENT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF DISTANCE LEARNERS: A CASE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI DISTANCE LEARNERS. Abstract

Vision 2030 reveals the magnitude of wastage in the transition from secondary to University Education. It notes that secondary school enrolment has risen from 112,229 in the 2006/2007 academic year to 118,239 in 2007/2008 academic year; the passage to university is at 3 percent. To raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of university students from the present 3 per cent to the projected 15 per cent, the government must continue increasing the number of students joining higher education from 130,000 (2008) to 450,000 (2015). This can be done by expanding the capacities of existing universities through establishment of new courses in Distance Education. The University of Nairobi’s School of Continuing and Distance Education runs a course in distance education. It has been observed that many students fail to score a total of 40% in a given course and they re-sit the failed units. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases, which is a very high failure rate. High failure rate and the ever increasing time taken to graduate is a chronic problem in Distance learning. One of the reasons why there could be poor performance is lack of quality time in reading. It is therefore worth knowing how efficiency in distance learning can be enhanced. To find out the effect of time management of academic performance a study was carried out. A total number of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. This sample was taken from 4,500 University of Nairobi students who were registered for B.Ed degree in different levels of study in the school of continuing and distance Education. A mixed mode method approach was used in data collection. Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between time management and academic performance. The analysis indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic [r= 0.569]. The value of r2 =0.324, indicated that time management accounts for about 32.4% of the variation in average performance.
Key words: Time management, Distance Learning

Ndiritu, AW, Kimani G, NYAGAH GRACE, Gikonyo NW, Kidombo H.  2013.  TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP SKILLS: A NECESSARY RECIPE FOR SCHOOLS PRINCIPALS IN THE 21ST CENTURY, 31 July, 2013. Distance Education and Teacher Education in Africa. , UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, kenya Science Campus Abstract

Leadership is an area that many would not want to take for granted because of established correlations between success or failure of any organization and its leadership. Scholars have tried to establish the kind of leadership behaviour that would enhance efficiency in organizations. One kind of leadership behaviour that has been a topic of debate among scholars for the past decade is transformational leadership. This study endeavoured to establish the effect of transformational leadership on academic performance in selected secondary schools in Kenya. The participants were administered Kouzes and Posner’s leadership Practices Inventory which identified the principal leadership practices in each of the five dimensions of “challenging the process”, “inspiring a shared vision”, “enabling others to act”, “modeling the way” and “encouraging the heart”. The sample consisted of 387 participants from 49 secondary schools in Kenya. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”). Co relational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between transformational leadership practices and academic performance. Pearson correlation indicated statistical significance between total LPI scores and students’ academic performance. A further analysis of the leadership domains showed there was a positive correlation between three transformational characteristics (Inspiring a Shared Vision, Challenging the process and Encouraging the Heart) and Students’ academic performance. There was however a weak but not statistically significant correlation between transformational leadership in two characteristics (Modeling the way and Enabling Others to Act) and students’ academic performance. The principals whose schools obtained the minimum university entry mark (Above C+) scored higher in LPI scores than the principals whose schools obtained less than the university entry marks (Below C+). It was recommended that all learners undertaking their teacher training should be trained on transformational leadership since they are the ones that take over leadership roles in their career as teachers. All practicing school principals should learn and practice transformational leadership for effective learning and teaching in their schools.

Ndiritu, A, Kimani G, NYAGAH GRACE, GIKONYO NAOMI.  2013.  Transformational leadership practices of school principals: Does school ownership matter?, June, 2013 Second Annual International Interdisciplinary Conference. , Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA), Abstract

Kenya through its vision 2030 aims to become a middle-income industrialized country. In this vision, education and training has been isolated as a supreme vehicle that will take the country to the desired level of development. Although the government of Kenya has invested a lot of funds in education, it is sad that many schools do not provide teaching and learning in the most efficient way. A lot of blame has been attributed to the leadership styles used by the secondary school principals. This has created disharmony between the principals and other stakeholders. Scholars have tried to establish the kind of leadership behaviour that would enhance efficiency in organizations. School leaders have tried many leadership approaches with the aim of improving school efficiency. In the last two decades, Instructional and Transformational leadership theories have been frequently mentioned and researched in educational leadership. In the 1980s and early 1990s, Instructional leadership paradigm was thought to have served the schools well. Although this theory was said to have been the most popular in educational leadership, modern demands for educational reforms have made school leaders to look for an alternative. Just as societal and school demographics have changed in recent decades, so has the type of leadership needed to successfully lead the rapidly changing schools. A recent theory that has been embraced by many school leaders is transformational leadership. This study sought to establish the extent to which public school principals have embraced “modeling the way” characteristic of transformational leadership in comparison to the private school principals in Kenya. The study further investigated the relationship between this transformational leadership characteristic to students academic performance in both categories of schools. The sample consisted of 387 participants from 49 secondary schools in Kenya. Co relational research design was employed in data analysis. The findings indicated that principals in private schools scored higher (53.63) than the principals who were in public schools (51.79). The analyses indicated a negative correlation between “Modeling the way” transformational characteristic of principals in public schools and in private schools. Pearson correlation analysis also showed a significant correlation between Modeling the way" characteristic and students’ academic performance. Based on these findings, it is important to ensure that the principals feel totally in control of their institutions.

Key words: Transformational leadership, Principals, modeling the way, school ownership

Ndiritu, AW, Mburu D, Kimani G.  2013.  ICT integration in Early Childhood Development teacher training Curriculum: Need to start from the beginning, 23 January, 2013. 3rd KIE Education symposium. , KENYA INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION Abstract

Vision 2030 was developed by Kenya government as a roadmap for development. This aims to transform Kenya into a middle-income industrialized country and is anchored on three pillars: economic, social and political. This development is likely to be an illusion unless Kenya is able to achieve its educational goals. Education and training has been isolated in the vision 2030 as the only mechanism that will translate Kenya into a middle-income economy. The vision of education service provision is to have a globally competitive quality education, training and research for Kenya’s sustainable development. Countries that have succeeded in harnessing the potential of ICT have been said to have taken a positive step towards a greatly expanded economic growth, improved human welfare and stronger forms of democratic governance. It is in this regard that the Kenyan government has invested a lot of funds in ICT infrastructure including digitization of educational materials through Kenya Institute of Education. This is geared towards the improvement in the quality of education. The investment is likely not to bear fruits unless the training of teachers is put on the forefront. There should therefore be an emphasis of training teachers in ICT because they are the central forces in tapping the learning potentials created by ICT. Teachers for all levels from pre-primary to university must be trained in ICT if the vision is to be realized. The quality and orientation of education at each level and the link with the demand for skills are critical for mastering technology. Although research has suggested that part of the difficulty in adopting innovation or reform relates to teachers themselves, it is important to find out the part that the government is playing in teacher preparation in ICT in teaching and learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the ICT skills possessed by the ECD teachers. Further, the study explored the integration of ICT in teaching and learning of preschool children selected in Kenyan preschools. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to gather the required information from the ECD teachers who were in their training sessions. The sample consisted of 395 pre-school teachers. The findings indicated that majority (60.83%) of the teachers had no knowledge in ICT. The findings also indicated that only 13.01% of the ECD teachers had attended any seminar related to ICT compared to the majority (86.99) who had never attended. All the teachers felt that their teaching would be highly enhanced by ICT integration in teaching and learning. Based on these findings, it was recommended that there is need for the government to invest more in the training of pre-school teachers in ICT integration.
Key words: Information Communication and Technology, Early Childhood education, Teacher Training, Integration

Ndiritu, A, Kimani G, NYAGAH GRACE.  2013.  TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN SCHOOLS: DOES PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE MATTER? Abstract

It is undisputed that success or failure of any organization depends on its leadership. School efficiency that is measured by factors such as students’ academic performance and discipline is not an exception. A lot of blame has been attributed to the leadership styles used by the secondary school principals. This has created disharmony between the principals and other stakeholders. Scholars have tried to establish the kind of leadership behaviour that would enhance efficiency in organizations. One kind of leadership behaviour that has been a topic of debate among scholars for the past decade is transformational leadership. Whether or not this kind of leadership is present in principals who have been in the profession for long or less years would be of interest to many scholars. This study endeavoured to establish the differences between transformational leadership practices by school principals based on their professional experience in selected secondary schools in Kenya. The participants were administered Kouzes and Posner’s leadership Practices Inventory which identified the principal leadership practices in each of the five dimensions of “challenging the process”, “inspiring a shared vision”, “enabling others to act”, “modeling the way” and “encouraging the heart”. The sample consisted of 387 participants from 49 secondary schools in Kenya. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”). The findings indicated that principals who had professional experience of less than one year scored higher in three transformational leadership practices (modeling the way, enabling others to act, and encouraging the heart) than their counterparts who had over 9 years of professional experience. Pearson correlation showed a positive statistical significant correlation professional experience of principals and their LPI scores. It was recommended that there is need for retraining of practicing principals in transformational leadership so that they can match the changing trends in the modern society.

Key words: transformational leadership, challenging the process, inspiring a shared vision, enabling others to act, modeling the way, encouraging the heart, professional experience

2012

Ndiritu, DAW, Kidombo DH, Gakuu PC.  2012.  ‘Institutional Management and Integration of ICT InTeaching and Learning in Selected Kenyan Schools’,. Journal of Open, Continuing and Distance Education.. Volume 2 (Issue 1):151-174.. Abstract

A number of studies have identified the school principal as a critical and pivotal person for establishing and maintaining learning environments driven by technology. This paper examines the function of school principals as institutional managers and the role they play in the adoption and integration of Information and Communication Technologies in the process of teaching and learning. It was conceptualized that presence of ICT integration plans, maintenance and renewal plans, extent of community access to ICTs and proficiency in ICTs of school managers have an influence on extent of ICT integration in teaching and learning . Ten principals of selected schools and one teachers’ training college from Nairobi and its environs were interviewed. To obtain a detailed and clear picture of the use of ICT, the mixed methods approach was used. Semi directed interviews, focus group discussions audiotapes of discussions, videotaped classroom observations and photographs of school environments, review of school documents on ICT and teacher and student productions were used to collect data. Out of the ten schools studied, five schools had ICT integration and maintenance and renewal plans, while only two schools shared their computers with the community and eight head teachers reported that they had the ability to use ICT skills. From the findings, it appears the development of ICT skills and knowledge among school principals is slow and may explain the low levels of ICT integration in the selected schools. It seems the success or failure of integration of ICT in teaching and learning rests largely on institutional managers and school managers need to take professional responsibility and accountability to ensure that they are well trained in ICT and that their institutions have management strategies to enable them achieve appropriate ICT integration in teaching and learning.

Ndiritu, AW.  2012.  EFFECTS OF PRINCIPALS’ TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA. (Prof. Gerald Kimani, Dr. GRACE NYAGAH, Dr. Nelson Karagu, Eds.)., NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI Abstract

This study explored the relationship between transformational leadership characteristics of secondary school principals’ and students’ academic performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). Although transformational leadership had been linked with academic performance in developed countries, the study attempted to investigate which specific characteristics could be attributed to improved academic performance in Kenya. The study was carried out in Nairobi County, Kenya. Stratified sampling process was used to ensure that both public and private schools in Nairobi were captured in the study. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”) (Kouzes & Posner, 1993). Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between transformational leadership characteristics and academic performance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test if a relationship existed between selected demographic characteristics and the interaction of leadership characteristics of principals’ and students’ academic performance. To test relationships between principals’ ratings and teachers’ ratings, ratings of male principals and female principals, t-test was used. Results indicated a positive correlation of “Inspiring a shared vision”, “Encouraging the heart” and “Challenging the process” characteristics and academic performance. There was however, a weak but not statistically significant correlation between “Modeling the way” and “Enabling others to act” characteristics and academic performance. It was recommended that secondary school principals should exhibit transformational leadership characteristics in order to succeed in today’s changing world of educational leadership. Suggestions made for further studies included a replication of the study in more counties.

2011

Ndiritu, AW, Kimani DG, NYAGAH DGRACE.  2011.  AN ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS AND ITS EFFECT ON SCHOOL EFFICIENCY., 7th September. 7th Annual International Conference. Abstract

Education is a fundamental human right enshrined in all major United Nations and other international charters, and need to be provided in the most efficient manner. Education has been found to play a major role in social, political, economic and cultural perspectives of a country (Mbeche and Ndiritu, 2005). It is therefore important to find out how education can be achieved in the most efficient manner. Like any other organization, the success and failure of the school is associated with the quality of its leadership (Schultz (2003). Scholars have tried to establish the kind of leadership behaviour that would enhance efficiency in organizations (Kouzes and Posner, 2002). The current study links transformational leadership with school efficiency. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between transformational leadership styles of secondary school principals and school efficiency as measured by academic performance and discipline in Nairobi Province. Kouze’s and Posner’s Leadership Practice Inventory(LPI) was used to measure the transformational leadership styles of school principals while information on school discipline and academic performance was gathered from the questions attached to the LPI. Data was analysed by the use of Pearson correlation coefficient and ANOVA. The findings indicated that transformational leadership is correlated with the two variables. The findings of also provide implications for the leadership of secondary school principals as they practice transformational leadership in their schools. This has a direct implications for institutions that prepare secondary school principals to come up with programs that will enhance secondary school principals skills to create learning organizations Secondary school principals must exhibit strong leadership skills in all five of the practice areas measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory in order to succeed in today’s high stress and ever-changing world of educational leadership..

2009

Ndiritu, AW, Kimani PG.  2009.  TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AS A PREDICTOR OF EFFECTIVENESS, SATISFACTION AND DROPOUT RATE IN ADULT EDUCATION LEARNERS IN EASTERN PROVINCE, KENYA, 22 November. INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON RESEARCH IN ADULT EDUCATION. , Makerere university, Uganda Abstract

Kenya’s Vision 2030 requires a functionally literate adult population which can effectively contribute to economic production and participate in the democratic processes of the country. It is unfortunate that the 7.8 million (38.5%) of Kenya’s adult population is still illiterate (Kenya literacy survey 2007). With this current situation, adult learner retention should hold the attention of all adult educators in every type of program. The rate of relapsing into illiteracy is also high. An estimated 33.6% of those surveyed who indicated to have completed primary level education were found to be illiterate at the time of the survey. According to the Kenya National Adult Literacy Survey (2007) only 29.6% of the 61.5% literate adults had attained the desired mastery level of literacy and would therefore be considered able to participate effectively in the realization of this Vision. This study examined the fit of the transformational/transactional leadership paradigm to voluntary adult educators in Eastern Province, Kenya. The study also sort to establish whether the leadership style had any effect on the rate of drop out among adult learners in the same province. The sample consisted of 104 voluntary adult educators of the certificate in adult education and community development class of the University of Nairobi (Meru class) The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5X was administered to the sample during the face to face session that took place at a Mulanthakari multi-purpose hall to determine the effect of perceived District Adult Educator leadership on the outcome variables of effectiveness, satisfaction and adult learners drop out rate in the district. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyze the transformational leadership variables: idealized influence (attributed), idealized influence (behavioral), inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration. The results of the study were consistent with previously published studies and demonstrates the applicability of the transformational leadership paradigm to adult education in eastern province.

2008

Nderitu, AW.  2008.  Time management for church management.
Ndiritu, AW.  2008.  ADULT AND LIFE LONG LEARNING PRACTICE IN KENYA, 17 NOVEMBER. challenges of Adult and Life Long Learning (ALLL) in the 21st Century. Abstract

INTRODUCTION
Kenya as an East African country is bordered by Sudan, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda. It has an area of 581,677 sq km. The capital city is Nairobi. The country is divided into eight provinces namely Coast, Central, Eastern, Nairobi, Nyanza, North Eastern, Rift Valley and Western.

CURRENT SITUATION OR PRACTICE OF ALLL
According to the Kenya National Adult Literacy Survey (2006), 38.5 per cent or 7.8 million of the Kenyan Adult population is illiterate. The results of the National Adult literacy survey 2007 indicate that urban adult population that is literate is higher at 79.9 per cent compared to the rural adult population at 58.7 per cent.

SUCCESSES AND PROBLEMS
Several innovations have taken place in the field of adult literacy. These include, the implementation of the post literacy programs as a continuation of basic literacy. For example, many post literacy programs have been established in the several districts and such as Machakos, Homa Bay and Malindi.

There has been an improvement on the learner generated materials LGMS- Primers that are written by the community itself. This makes the reading materials relevant and interesting to the learners. There has been establishment of community libraries and mobile literacy classes in pastoral communities. In 2003, when the government of Kenya declared free primary education, there the oldest pupil in the Guiness book of record Mzee Kimani Nganga Maruge joined the formal education system at the age of 83.

2006

2004

F.G, M, Anne N.  2004.  Educational Policy and Planning. , NAIROBI: KTTC-VVOB

1999

Dr. Joshua Okumbe, Dr. Gerald Kimani (Eds.).  1999.  A study of factors which influence performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in selected public secondary schools in Nairobi and Central Provinces.. , NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI Abstract

The Purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination in selected secondary schools in Nairobi and Central Provinces. The research was intended to find out whether good academic performance could be attributed to specific factors that are present in the schools performing relatively better. The major factor considered in this study KCSE performance. The literature review was divided into four subheadings: effect of school-related factors on academic performance, effect of non-school factors on academic performance, effect of student-related factors on performance and effect of motivational factors on performance. From the literature review, a conceptual framework was designed. The conceptual framework showed variables (inputs) and their expected directional effect on each other on the outputs (performance). The study used expost facto research design. The sample consisted of 32 headteachers, 575 teachers and 773 students. The data was analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics and the chi-square statistical test which was accompanied by a contingency coefficient. The study revealed that there was a significant relationship between the condition of school facilities, as perceived by headteachers, and students’ academic performance in KCSE. The study also revealed that students’ KCPE entry marks, headteachers’ frequency of holding staff meetings, students’ socioeconomic background, teachers academic qualification, teachers’ workload, involvement of teachers in administrative decision-making, method used to solve teachers’ problems, headteachers’ frequency of holding meetings with parents, frequency of headteachers’ meetings with form four students, teachers’ attendance of in-service training and promptness of school fees payment were significant in determining KCSE performance. The factors that were not found to be statistically significant in determining KCSE performance were teaching of extra hours and reinforcement by parents on their children. Based on these findings it was recommended that there is need for headteachers to hold frequent staff meetings in which problems and progress of the school could be discussed. It was also recommended that there is need to encourage bursary schemes to cater for students who come from low socioeconomic background. Finally it was recommended that there is need for headteachers to involve parents in school activities and need to convert day schools into boarding schools.

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