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N PROFGUANTAIA. "Kamau F,N. I.O.Kibwage, Muriuki G, Guantai A.N., Hoog martens J, Roets E, Govaerts, C; Chepkwony. H. and Busson R.Estrogenic and Anti-inflamatory activity of a steroidal. Idoxyl, The East and Central Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 5 (3) 44-48 Dec.". In: The East and Central Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 5 (3) 44-48 Dec 2002. F. N. KAMAU., 1.0. KIBWAGE, A. N. GUANTAI, G. MURIUKI R. MUNENGE; 2002. Abstract

The anti-inflammatory and antidiarrhoeal activities of 3(1-Hydroxy-16. 17-seco-16- nor-5-androsten-15-(2-indoxyliden)-17-oic acid (I) are reported. After intraperitoneal administration, compound (I) gave an ED50 of 9.5 mg/kg using the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema anti-inflammatory assay method. Indomethacin had an ED50 of 5.8 mg/kg in this assay. Compound (I) and indomethacin caused comparable and dose-dependent varying degrees of delay in diarrhoea and also significantly reduced net colonic water flux into the colon of rats induced by castor oil. Key words: Steroidal Indoxyl, Anti-Inflammatory, Antidiarrhoeal.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Kamau F.N., Kibwage I.O, Guantai A.N. Muriuki G., Munenge, R.Anti-inflammatory and Anti-diarrhoea activities of a steroidal indoxyl: E. C. African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 6 (2) pp 26.". In: African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 6 (2) pp 26 . O Wesongah*l, GA Murilla, AN Guantai, RE Mdachi I, WM Karanja and TE Maitho; 2003. Abstract

hloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic widely used in human and veterinary medicine due to its low cost and ready availability. However its use has been associated with serious adverse effects, (bone marrow suppression, hemolytic anaemia and aplastic anaemia) that may or may not be dose related. Consequently chloramphenicol is currently banned for use in food producing animals and restricted to non-food producing animals and management of life threatening infections in humans in absence of alternative therapy. Exposure to chloramphenicol can occur after regular consumption of animal foods from treated animals. Therefore the pharmacokinetic of chloramphenicol should be determined using a highly sensitive and specific assay method that can detect residue levels at the lowest concentration possible. Previous methods were limited due to low sensitivity (10 ng/m1-50Ong/mi). Therefore the aim of this study was to determine pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol and potential residue levels in food producing animals using a published highly sensitive detection method; Chloramphenicol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with a detection limit of 0.1 ng/ml. Methods: Eight male red Maasai sheep aged 9 to 12 months and weighing between 21kg to 25 kg, were weaned and allowed to acclimatize for three weeks. Pre-treatment blood samples (10m1) was collected from each animal and then 25mg/kg chloramphenicol sodium succinate administered by deep intramuscular injection. Post treatment blood samples were collected at 5, 10, 15 and 30minutes, I, 2, 4, 6 8, 12, 24 and 32 hour intervals then twice a day (week 1), once daily (week 2) thrice daily (week 3) twice daily (week 4). Phannacokinetic parameters were measured using chloramphenicol ELISA method. Data was analyzed by fitting four, parameter logistics regression curve of calibration standards and sample chloramphenicol concentration calculated from optical densities using ELISA data Eiaquik program (MC. Eisler, 1995). Samples were analyzed in duplicate. Results from these assays were compared with those from published data with respect to elimination half life, species variation, and minimum retention time. Results: Chlorarnphenicol elimination half life (36.4+3.66 h) obtained in the present study was significantly (P<0.05) longer than that of 5.75+1.25 h reported in similar species using colorimetric method. The method was able to detect the drug 7 days post administration. The area under the curve of 124,487.8 ng.h/m1 observed in sheep in the present study was significant higher than that of 31.220+3.25 rig.himl reported in literature in goats using similar treatment route and dose but different assay method. Conclusion: Chloramphenicol pharmacokinetic parameters are significantly influenced by animal species and analytical assay methods used in their determination and care must be taken when reporting the residue levels in food producing animals.

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