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2018
Kuete V, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of 11 naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2018;17. Abstract

Background
Cancer constitutes a major hurdle worldwide and its treatment mainly relies on chemotherapy.

Objectives
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of 11 naturally occurring compounds including six phenolics amongst them were 4 chalcones and 2 flavanones as well as 5 terpenoids (3 clerodane and 2 trachylobane diterpenoids) against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts.

Materials and methods
The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspase activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by spectrophotometry.

Results
Chalcones: 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (1); 4′,6′-dihydroxy-2′,5′-dimethoxychalcone (2); 2′,4′,6′-trihydroxy-5′-methoxychalcone (3); 2′,6′-diacetate-4′-methoxychalcone (4), trachylobane diterpenoids: 2,6,19-trachylobanetriol; (ent-2α,6α)-form (10) and 2,18,19-trachylobanetriol; (ent-2α)-form (11) as well as doxorubicin displayed IC50 values below 110 μM in the six tested cancer cell lines. The IC50 values of the most active compounds were between 6.30 μM and 46.23 μM for compound 1 respectively towards breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and small lung cancer A549 cells and between 0.07 μM and 1.01 μM for doxorubicin respectively against SPC212 cells and A549 cells. Compounds 1 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by increasing ROS production and MMP loss.

Conclusion
Chalcones 1–3 are potential cytotoxic phytochemicals that deserve more investigations to develop novel anticancer drugs against human carcinoma.

Keywords
CarcinomaCytotoxicityDiterpenoidsMode of actionPhenolics

Nyaboke HO, Moraa M, Omosa LK, Mbaveng AT, Vaderament-Alexe N-N, Masila V, Okemwa E, Heydenreich M, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Cytotoxicity of Lupeol from the Stem Bark of Zanthoxylum gilletii against Multi-factorial Drug Resistant Cancer Cell Lines ." Investigational Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology . 2018;1(1):10.
Mutekhele, B; Rambo ONCM; O;. "Data Dissemination and Use and Performance of Educational Building Infrastructural Projects: A Case of Bungoma County, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) . 2018;7(10).
Kimani M, E A, P W, R P, M N, H K. The Data Services Layer: A Data analytics approach to evidence-based decision making for healthcare in Kenya. Nairobi: The Pan African Health Informatics Association; 2018.
Muigua K. "Dealing with Conflicts in Project Management." Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Kenya), Alternative Dispute Resolution.. 2018;6(2):1-36.dealing_with_conflicts_in_project_management.pdf
M’Ikiugu MH. "Demographic Factors that Affect Adoption of Biogas Technology in Kiambu County, Kenya." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH AND KNOWLEDGE. 2018;3(1):48-57.mbali_et_al._2018-_mutemebi-_muthee.pdf
Maina EG, Gachanja AN, Gachanja AN, Price H. "Demonstrating PM2.5 and road-side dust pollution by heavy metals along Thika superhighway in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2018;(190):251.
Kuballa T, Hausler T, Okaru AO, Neufeld M, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Rehm J, Luy B, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis." Food Chem.. 2018;245:112-115. Abstract

Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol. Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol.

Machio PM. "Determinants of Neonatal and Under-five Mortality in Kenya: Do Antenatal and Skilled Delivery Care Services Matter?" Journal of African Development, African Finance and Economic Association. 2018;20(1):59-67.
Aluda AT, Amugune BK, Abuga KO, Kamau FN. "Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Menthol in Cold-Cough Syrups." PJK. 2018;23(3):90-93. Abstract

Background
Common cold is the most common infection of the upper respiratory tract and cold-cough syrups are often prescribed. Although menthol is one of the common constituents of these syrups, quality checks on cold-cough syrups normally target the major active pharmaceutical ingredients without regard to menthol content.

Objective
To develop and validate a gas chromatography method for determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups.

Methods
A simple, rapid, robust, accurate and reliable Gas Chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, chlorpheniramine, guaifenesin, bromhexine and salbutamol.

Results
Optimized chromatographic conditions were: A ZB-WAXplus 60m ×0.25mm; 0.25μm fused silica capillary column. Oven temperature program of 110 0C (2 min), ramp 10 0C/min to 190 0C (2 min). Injector port temperature maintained at 240 0C. Injection volume of 1.0 μl split in the ratio of 50:1. Carrier gas as nitrogen at 1.0mL/min which also serves as make up gas (30 mL/min) in the flame ionization detector (260 0C). Other detector gases were hydrogen (30 mL/ min) and industrial air (300 mL/ min) and the diluent for samples and standards was grade chloroform.
From recovery studies, 97.56 to 102.97 % recovery was reported. Repeatability studies had a coefficient of variation of 0.55 while intermediate precision was 0.32. The method was linear over a range of 0.042 to 0.169 mg/mL with a coefficient of determination (R2) 0.9986.
Of the 21 samples analyzed, only 10 samples (47.6 %) complied with assay specifications of 90.0 to 110.0 % label claim for finished products according to the United States Pharmacopeia 2016.

Conclusion and recommendation
A gas chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups in Kenya. This method can be used together with a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method to assay cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, bromhexine, chlorpheniramine maleate, guaifenesin and salbutamol.
This method can be useful in routine analysis such as pre-registration studies as well as post market surveillance to curb substandard and counterfeit cold-cough syrups.

Chikondi Memory Liomba, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga AA. "Development of Multimix Composite Flour as Complementary Food for Infants in Malawi. ." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2018;(2):11.
Wachege PN, Cherono F. "Discourse on Ecumenical Implications of Pneumatological Vital Force Towards University Students' Welfare." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2018;23(7):62-73.prof_wachege__cherono_article.pdf
J K, P N, Ndegwa P, L I, J I, B BO, C. A. "Discovery of Phlebotomus Species of Sand Flies in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kirinyaga County, Kenya: A Possible Leishmaniases focus. ." Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology . 2018;4(3):1103-1107.
MM M, Opanga S, Oluka M, Godman B. "'Dispensing of antimicrobials in Kenya: a cross sectional pilot study and its implications' ." Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice. 2018:1-8.
Waswa G. A, I. M, Abong'o D. A, Mbugua J. K., D. A, Aluoch A. O. "Dissipation and Sorption of Urea on Eburru Soils in Kenya." Journal of Physical Chemistry and Biophysics. 2018;8(3):271.
Ong’amo GO, Pallangyo B, Ali A, Njaku M, LeRu BP. "Diversity and abundance of lepidopteran stem borers and their respective native hosts in different vegetation mosaics in Tanzania." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):50-62.
Templer N, Probst L, Onwonga R, Kamusingize D, Ogwali H, Hauser M, Owamani A, Mulumba LN. "Does certified organic agriculture increase agroecosystem health? Evidence from four farming systems in Uganda." 2018 Impact Factor 2.243 International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 2018;16(2):150-166 .
Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO. "DOES KISSING UP TO THE BOSS PAY?" International Journal of Innovation Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(3):1-10. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the influence of ingratiation on employees’ career mobility. The study used a descriptive survey and a population study of 169 employees with a response rate of 122(72.2%). This is considered sufficient as recommended by experts (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2009). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was analysed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis thatingratiation influences career mobility (R2=.944, F=2011.237, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.971 which also confirms that there is a strong relationship between ingratiation and career mobility. The study recommends that objective means of performance appraisals be established and followed by superiors to ensure fair and credible ways of career mobility to its employees. The paper suggests if the same study can be replicated in other organizations using a longitudinal research design.

Olago D, Marchant R, Richer S, Capitani C, Courtney-Mustaphi C, Prendergast M. "Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000years ago to present." Earth-Science Reviews. 2018;178:322-378. AbstractFull Text

East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region.

Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

Mewa E. A, Okoth M. W KRCNMN. "Drying Modelling, Moisture Diffusivity and Sensory quality of Thin Layer dried Beef." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2018;6(2):552-565.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, Geiger V. "The dynamics of culture on environmental sustainability: A case of Central Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies. 2018;12(3)(ISSN 2329-1559):1-15.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, V. G. "The Dynamics of Culture on Environmental Sustainability: A Case of Central Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;12(3):1-15.
FA F, J K, CF O, A W, S N. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2018;1(1).
Kelder EM, Marijnissen JCM, Karuga WS. "EDHA for energy production, storage and conversion devices." Journal of Aerosol Science. 2018;125(2018):119-147.
Mandala, N E, Aduda J, Iraya C. "The Effect of Board Structure and CEO Tenure on the Performance of Financial Institutions in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(1):59-77.jfia_vol_7_1_4.pdfjfia_vol_7_1_4.pdf
Mewa, Eunice. A. OMKCRWNMN. "Effect of drying air temperature and slice thickness on the physical and microbiological quality of dried beef." LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2018;92:484-489.
Kasaya MA, Munjuri MG. "Effect of Employee Involvement on Job Performance in the Medical Research Industry in Kenya." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(5):826-847.job_involvement_and_job_performance.pdf
Ndombi EM, Abudho B, Kittur N, Carter JM, Korir H, Riner DK, Ochanda H, Lee Y‐M, S EW. "Effect of four rounds of annual school‐wide mass praziquantel treatment for schistosoma mansoni control on schistosome‐specific immune responses." Parasite Immunology. 2018:e12530.
STELLAH NEKESA WANYONYI, EVANS MUNGAI MWANGI NATHANGICHUKI. "Effect of habitat disturbance on distribution and abundance of Papyrus endemic birds in Sio Port Swamp, Western Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2018;8(2):51-62.
A Obiero, J Kalai OU. "Effect of Home Related Factors on Students Discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Social Science. 2018;5(10):2415-1246 .
Mutiso PM, Kinama JM, O C. "Effect of in situ moisture conservation techniques on yield and water use efficiency of pearl millet in Makueni, Kenya ." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) . 2018;12(6):186-196.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Wanderi SW, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize and Promiscuous Soybean on Growth and Yield. ." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018;12(2):1-21.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize-Soybean on Grain Quality Traits in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(2):341-351.
Okumu OO, Muthomi J, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu J. "Effect of lablab green manure on population of soil microorganisms and establishment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)." American Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;5(3):44-54.
Onjala J, Awiti J, Gideon M. "Effect of Public Spending on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Economics. 2018;6(2).
Buyela SN, Muthomi JW, Mwang’ombe AW, Njau P, Olubayo F. "Effect of Seed Treatment on Wheat Seed Viability and Vigour." American Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;5(1):1-9.
Mdenye BB, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM'mogi, Kivuva BM, Muthomi JW. "Effect of storage methods of cassava planting materials on establishment and early growth vigour." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) . 2018;12(1):1-10.
6. Muriithi EM. "Effect of teacher characteristics on learner academic achievement in physics in Kenyan secondary schools." International Journal of Education and Research. 2018;6(3):169-178.
Okumu O, Muthomi J, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu J. "Effect of time after incorporation of lablab green manure on root rot pathogens and establishment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;6(4):113-121.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda ." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi, G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana, D., Mureithi, S.M., and Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Bill Okemwa, Nathan Gichuki, Munir Virani, James Kanya, Jenesio Kinyamario AS. "Effectiveness of LED lights on bomas in protecting livestock from predation in southern Kenya." Conservation Evidence. 2018.
JJ C, G O, W M. "Effectiveness of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminder on Birth Preparedness in a Rural Community in Kenya." Obstetrics and Gynaecology International Journal. 2018.
Ogolla KO, Okumu PO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru. RM. "Effects of Anticoccidial Drugs on Gross and Histopathological Lesions Caused by Experimental Rabbit Coccidiosis." SOJ Veterinary Sciences. 2018;4(3): 1-10.symbiosis.pdf
Josyline K, Philip N, Lucy I, Paul N, Johnstone I, Reuben R, Osero B, Chritopher A. "Effects of Lambdacyhalothrin incorporated into 1,4-Dichlorobenzene on sand fly and mosquito vectors in endemic areas of Kenya. ." Journal of Zoological Research . 2018;2(1):1-6.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, Geiger V. "The effects of sociocultural determinants on cultural dimensions: A case of East Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;13(4)(ISSN 2324-7584):19-37.
O. ER, W MR, Otieno DJ. "The Effects of Sociocutural Determinants on Cultural Dimensions: A Case of East Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;13(4):19-37.
Kingi, P. M. "Effects of Teachers’ Participation in School Community Partnership and Motivation." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS. 2018;7(4):48-55.
Ogolla KO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru RM, Okumu PO, Kitala PM, Chebet J. "Efficacy of Sulphachloropyrazine, Amprolium Hydrochloride, Trimethoprim-Sulphamethoxazole, and Diclazuril against Experimental and Natural Rabbit Coccidiosis." Journal of veterinary medicine. 2018;1:11.
Miruka AC, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Onyatta JO. "Efficiency of a Wastewater Treatment Plant in the City of Nairobi." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;38(1):152-162.
Kinyungu TN, Muthomi JW, Subramanian S, Miano DW, Olubayo FM, Wagura J. "Efficiency of aphid and thrips vectors in transmission of viruses causing maize lethal necrosis disease." World Journal of Agricultural Research . 2018;6(4):144-152.
Nguu J, Nyongesa F, Robinson Musembi, Aduda B. "Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of TiO2/Nb2O5 Composite Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.". 2018. AbstractJournal article website

In this study, Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) technique was used to fabricate TiO2/Nb2O5 composite
thin films on FTO coated glass for application as photoelectrodes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC). A
TiO2/Nb2O5 ratio of 1:1 was used in a 2-propanol suspension solution with a solid loading of 0.25g/L. Optical
investigations showed that the film with thickness of 5.5 µm deposited at 35.0 V for 90.0 s had the highest
transmittance of 55.0 % at a wavelength (λ) of 1,300 nm. The optical band gap energy (Eg) was 3.884 eV and was
found to be dependent on the annealing time. The solar cell fabricated from this film had an open circuit voltage
(VOC) of 0.66 V, fill factor (FF) of 57.0%, short current density (JSC) of 5.25 mA/cm2 and photo conversion
efficiency (PCE) of 2.0%. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis indicate that the DSSC device
with thinner photoelectrodes have more efficient electron transport in the photoanode compared to thicker
photoelectrodes to achieve higher conversion efficiencies.
Keywords: electrophoretic deposition, dye-sensitized solar cell, TiO2/Nb2O5 composite thin films

Nguu J, Nyongesa F, J. Musembi, Aduda B. "Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of TiO2/Nb2O5 Composite Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells." Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2018;6(1):1-8.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Nyaga WG. "Electrophoretic Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films for Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water." Tanzania Journal of Science. 2018;44(4):65-76. AbstractFull Text Link

In this study, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was used to deposit titanium dioxide (TiO 2) thin films on conducting glass substrates for application in photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water. Phenol was used as a model pollutant. The EPD suspension related parameters and deposition conditions were first optimized for good quality film deposits. The suspension stability and deposition conditions that result in good adherence of TiO 2 particles to the substrate with homogeneous film coatings are ethanol, a TiO 2 solid loading of 4 wt%, a 0.2 wt% iodine concentration in the solvent and a deposition voltage of 20 V in a time of 3.5 minutes. The photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 thin films decreased exponentially with the ultraviolet light (UV) illumination time and it was also dependent on film thickness, and sintering temperature of the TiO 2 thin films. Highest rate of photocatalytic activity was observed at an optimal film thickness of 95±2 µm sintered at 300 C. The implications of these results are discussed for design of inexpensive wastewater purification systems for light industries as well for semi urban small communities

and Joseph Kabiru PMEMN. "Emerging conditions of labour in the cut flower industry in Kenya." International Jounal of Education and Research. 2018;6(2411-5681):1-12.
Sihanya B. "Emerging electoral jurisprudence in Kenya and Nigeria." International Conference on Emerging Electoral Jurisprudence in Africa in Nigeria. 2018.
Mandala, N K, E, Aduda J, Iraya C. "An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between Board Structure and Performance of Financial Institutions in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(1):37-57.
Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO. "EMPLOYEE JOB TENURE; AN ACCOLADE OR AN ABASH?" International Journal of Innovation Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(3):11-21. Abstract

The objective of the study is to determine the effect of job tenure on employees’ career mobility. The study used a descriptive survey and a population study of 169 employees with a response rate of 122(72.2%). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data and the hypothesis formulated was analyzed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis that job tenure influences employee career mobility (R2=.141, F=19.77, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.376 which also confirms that there is a positive but weak relationship between length of service and career mobility. The study recommends that employees who have served and organization for long should be considered for promotion this brings about employees loyalty and commitment to the organization. The paper suggests that other variables can be added in terms of moderating and mediating variables to strengthen the model.

and Onyango C.M., Kunyanga Catherine N. WKMIRGDN. "Employer Perceptions and Attitudes towards Agricultural University Training in Kenya." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2018;6:175-185.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Enhancing soil organic carbon, particulate organic carbon and microbial biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
iJames M. Gathungu BS& M. "Entrepreneur Financial Literacy, Financial Access, Transaction Costs and Performance of Microenterprises in Nairobi City County in Kenya." Global Journal of Management and Business Research: An Administration and Management. 2018;18(6).
Maweu JM. "Equality, Difference and the Complementarity of African and Western Philosophy.". In: Thinking Polyloguous: Considerations Concerning An Intercultural-Philosophical Minimal Rule. Vienna: Polylog; 2018.
Farquhar C, Nduati RW, JN. W. "Ethical Obligations in Short-Term Global Health Clinical Experiences: The Devil Is in the Details." Ann Intern Med.. 2018; 1;(168(9):):672-673.
Asingo PO. "Ethnicity and Political Inclusivity in Kenya: Retrospective Analysis and Prospective Solutions.". In: Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya: The National Study. Nairobi: Kenya Human Rights Commission; 2018.Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya
K. MM, S.M. G, C.M. O, P.W. M. "Evaluation of Agronomic Performance of Green Gram Accessions Grown under Reduced Light Intensity in the Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya ." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science . 2018;23(2):1-11.
Musungayi EM, Ngugi K, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Were VW, Olubayo FM, Nzuve FM. "Evaluation of resistance of cassava half-sib progenies to cassava mosaic disease and their agronomic performances in Western Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(12):78-91.
Derese S. "Evaluation of β-Sitosterol Loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA Nanoparticles for Effective Treatment of Breast Cancer: Preparation, Physicochemical Characterization, and Antitumor Activity." Pharmaceutics. 2018;10(4):232. Abstract

β-Sitosterol (β-Sit) is a dietary phytosterol with demonstrated anticancer activity against a panel of cancers, but its poor solubility in water limits its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. In this study, poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) and block copolymers of poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (lactic acid)(PEG-PLA) were used to encapsulate β-Sit into nanoparticles with the aim of enhancing its in vitro anticancer activity. β-Sitosterol-loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles (β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA) were prepared by using a simple emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, particle size distribution, surface charge, and encapsulation efficiency. Their cellular uptake and antiproliferative activity was evaluated against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells using flow cytometry and MTT assays, respectively. β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles were spherical in shape with average particle sizes of 215.0±29.7 and 240.6±23.3 nm, a zeta potential of− 13.8±1.61 and− 23.5±0.27 mV, respectively, and with narrow size distribution. The encapsulation efficiency of β-Sit was 62.89±4.66 and 51.83±19.72% in PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles, respectively. In vitro release in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and PBS/with 0.2% Tween 20 showed an initial burst release, followed by a sustained release for 408 h. β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were generally stable in a protein-rich medium, whereas β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles showed a tendency to aggregate. Flow cytometry analysis (FACS) indicated that β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were efficiently taken up by the cells in contrast to β …

Kaoga J, Ouma G, Olago D, Ouma G. "The Evidence of Changing Rainfall Patterns in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2018;7(6):223-228. Abstract137075-327682-1-pb.pdfWebsite

The Maasai pastoralists have in the past decade experienced disruptions as precipitation season shifts. These shifts have adversely affected their economies and livelihoods. Moreover, they have been losing up to 30 % of their herd annually to drought related disasters, yet the locals’ capacity on climate pattern shifts is inadequate. To address this gap, a study focused on Kajiado County due to its harboring large of livestock. The study aimed at determining the historical precipitation characteristics. To achieve this, the study utilized Climate Hazards group Infra-Red Precipitation with Stations data set (CHIRPS) for the period 1983-2014 for each of the five sub-counties within Kajiado County. The key findings, encompassed: declining trend in the average annual precipitation; shifting from the usual bi-modal rainfall seasons with March to May (MAM) experiencing worst failure compared to October to December (OND) and the shortening of the famine cycles.

Shihembetsa DLU. "Examining Contemporary Housing for the Urban Poor: The case of Pumwani Housing. ." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies (IJCRS).. 2018;Volume-2,(Issue-9, September):201 (1-23). ISSN 0249-4655.
Bulinda, D. M. MJW. "Extent to which system migration influence the implementation of core banking systems project: A case of NIC Bank Kenya LTD." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10):156-166.
Hadullo K, Oboko R, Omwenga E. "Factors affecting asynchronous e-learning quality in developing countries university settings." International Journal of Education and Development using ICT. 2018;14(1). AbstractFull website link

Despite the potential of Learning Management System (LMS) supported asynchronous e-
learning to improve asynchronous e-learning system quality by enhancing learning
effectiveness and academic achievement of HEIs, several challenges are faced in the
process of providing the e-learning mode of study particularly in developing countries. The
study will explore five factors that influence quality of asynchronous e-learning: instructional
design, learner support, contextual factors, student characteristics and instructor
characteristics. The quality factors can be used to evaluate quality so as to monitor and
improve the inputs, processes and outputs of asynchronous e-learning systems. The study
examines existing e-learning literature and then proposes five factors that determine the
quality of e-learning systems.

Oboko R, Omwenga E. "Factors affecting asynchronous e-learning quality in developing countries. A qualitative pre-study of JKUAT University Kennedy Hadullo Technical University of Mombasa, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2018;14(1): 152-163. Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to identify the influencing factors of asynchronous
elearning system quality particular in developing countries via a review of current literature
and a qualitative pre-study conducted at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and
Technology (JKUAT). Despite the perceived benefits of these systems to overcome
challenges facing education sector in the region, studies show that the majority of them have
not been successful. After a thorough review of existing literature on developing countries
and a qualitative pre-study conducted at JKUAT University, the study identified the factors
that influence quality of e-learning systems as: Course Design, Content support, social
support, and Student Characteristics, Instructor Characteristics, Technician Characteristics,
Course Assessment and Institutional factors.

JJ C, G O, W M. "Factors affecting Birth Preparedness among Pregnant Women attending Public Antenatal Clinics in Migori County, Kenya." Biomedical Journal of Scientific and Technical Research. 2018.
MUGAMBI FREDKIRIMI, Wanjohi JM. "FACTORS AFFECTING IMPLEMENTATION OF REVENUE COLLECTION SYSTEMS IN COUNTY GOVERNMENTS IN KENYA, A CASE OF MERU COUNTY." International Journal For Research In Business, Management And Accounting (ISSN: 2455-6114). 2018;4(8):09-30. Abstract

Description
Revenue collection is a key source of income to all governments. The purpose of this study was to establish factors affecting revenue collection systems at the county governments of Kenya with specific reference to Meru County. The study sought to determine the effect of financial management system on revenue collection systems. The design for the study was cross-sectional mixed method. The target population was 150 respondents comprising employees at county revenue department of Meru County. The sample size was 62 respondents. The instruments for data collection were questionnaires. Data was analyzed Using SPSS version 25 and STATA version 12. From pilot test Cronbach’s alpha tested reliability. While Regression analysis, ANOVA, Correlation, descriptive statistics, presented the data results and findings. It was expected that; the outcome of the study could be used to develop strategies to be used in facilitating efficiency in revenue collection. The study found that ability to make payments using mobile money Platforms and tax payer’s ability to pay rates, fees through different bank accounts were very good. The study found out that revenue collection systems used have achieved expected revenue targets and revenue collection system available have improved taxpayers’ compliance in a greater extent. The study found out that the respondents strongly agreed that they are encouraged to take up responsibility for their personal development, learning and career growth. In addition, the study found out that respondents agreed that they have been trained on revenue collection systems available in the last one year and that …

Kirea P, Irene GM, Joyce JC. "Factors contributing to sexual assault in children 1–13 years admitted at Nairobi women's hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Nursing Care. 2018;6(2):5-9.
Ongeso A, Chite M, Kabo J. "Factors influencing high prevalence of Fresh still births in Mbagathi County Hospital, Nairobi-Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research. 2018;6 No 4(2320-5407). Abstract

Background: The annual global burden of stillbirths is approximately 2.6 million, 98% of which occur in Sub Saharan Africa, (WHO, 2015). In 2016, approximately 24 still births per month occurred in Mbagathi County Hospital (MCH) representing a 33.3% increase from 2015. A third of these were Fresh Still Births (FSBs) - (Mbagathi reproductive health report 2015/2016).
Objectives: To establish factors influencing increase in FSB among women delivering at MCH.
Methodology: The study was conducted at MCH postnatal ward. A descriptive cross sectional study design was employed. Forty three respondents with FSBs were consecutively sampled. Clearance to conduct the study was sought from Ethics Review Committee, MCH and respondents. Researcher administered questionnaires were used for data collection over two months. Descriptive data involved calculation of measures of central tendency. Findings were presented in tables, graphs and narrative.
Results: Majority of the respondents were less than 20 years old, had low education level and were unemployed. Majority had preterm deliveries; prolonged premature rupture of membranes had medical conditions and attended ANC less than four times. Majority of the FSBs had complications and were delivered preterm. The facility had inadequate staffing, lacked prompt triaging equipment, and rarely used partograph to monitor labor.
Conclusion: Maternal, fetal and hospital related factors influenced high prevalence of FSB.
Recommendations: Improving uptake of focused antenatal care among women. Girl child empowerment in line with Sustainable Development Goal 5. Improve staffing ratios, develop protocol regarding triaging and labor monitoring. Availing hospital equipment for proper maternity care.

Key words: Fresh still births, developing countries, risk factors, perinatal mortality.

Ongeso A, Okoth B. "Factors influencing male involvement on Antenatal Care among clients attending Antenatal clinic: A case of Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research. 2018;6:5(2320-5407):72-82. Abstract

Factors influencing male involvement on Antenatal Care among clients attending Antenatal clinic: A case of Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

Background: Male participation is a crucial component in the optimization of antenatal care services. Level of male participation has been found to be low. This study aimed to identify determinants of male partners’ involvement in antenatal care services.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was used. The study population included expectant women and available male partners at the antenatal clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. A sample of 79 respondents was recruited into the study. Consecutive sampling was used to select the study participants. Data was collected using a semi structured questionnaire, analyzed using SPSS computer package version 20 and thereafter presented using descriptive methods.
Findings: Majority of participants (90%) were aged above 25 years, were more educated and had non-formal sources of employment. They knew at least 50% of the services offered and had a positive attitude towards ANC. Majority of participants (54%) stated that ANC is traditionally for women. Majority (77%) stated that the members of staff at ANC clinic are friendly and approachable.
Conclusions: Cultural beliefs and practices still hinder men’s participation as communities continue to uphold patriarchal tendencies that disregard women. Men’s attitude also determined their participation.

Flarian MM, Frederick AO, Julius MT, John WK. "Farmer-based dynamics in tissue culture banana technology adoption: a socio-economic perspective among small holder farmers in Uganda." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;13(50):2836-2854.
Wycliffe O, Richard O, Hillary N, Wangia S, Chimoita E. "Farmers knowledge, attitude, and perception of video-mediated learning vis-a-vis Farmers Field School on Striga weed management in Western Kenya." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT). 2018;14(2)(ISSN):195-210.
Ongachi W, Onwonga R, Nyanganga H, Chimoita E. "Farmers’ knowledge, attitude, and perception of video mediated learning vis-à-vis Farmer Field School on Striga weed management in Western." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2018;14(2):195-210.
LT E, J O, GO O. "Fever of unknown origin: A rheumatologic perspective." Afr J Rheumatol . 2018;6(1):26-28.fever_of_unknown_origin.pdf
Essaji LT, Odhiambo J, Oyoo GO. "Fever of unknown origin: A rheumatologic perspective." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2018;6(1):26-28.
Mulwa M, Samuel Ngigi. Financial Inclusion through Mobile Money. The M-ASCA Model in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Hirpa FA, Dyer E, Hope R, Olago DO, Dadson SJ. "Finding sustainable water futures in data-sparse regions under climate change: Insights from the Turkwel River basin, Kenya." Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies. 2018;19:124-135. Abstract1-s2.0-s2214581818302155-main.pdfWebsite

Study region

the Turkwel river basin, Kenya experiences a high level of water scarcity due to its arid climate, high rainfall variability and rapidly growing water demand.
Study focus

Climate change, variability and rapid growth in water demand pose significant challenges to current and future water resources planning and allocation worldwide. In this paper a novel decision-scaling approach was applied to model the response of the Turkwel river basin’s water resources system to growing demand and climate stressors. A climate response surface was constructed by combining a water resource system model, climate data, and a range of water demand scenarios.
New hydrological insights

The results show that climate variability and increased water demand are each important drivers of water scarcity in the basin. Increases in water demand due to expanded irrigation strongly influences on the resilience of the basin’s water resource system to droughts caused by the global climate variability. The climate response surface offers a visual and flexible tool for decision-makers to understand the ways in which the system responds to climate variability and development scenarios. Policy decisions to accelerate water-dependent development and poverty reduction in arid and semi-arid lands that are characterised by rapid demographic, political and economic change in the short- to medium term have to promote low-regrets approaches that incorporate longer-term climate uncertainty.

Kanyinga K. Fiscal Stability Conference. Lagos, Nigeria; 2018.
Okoth S, Marthe De Boevre, Arnau Vidal, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sofie Landschoot, Martina Kyallo, Joyce Njuguna, Jagger Harvey, Saeger SD. "Genetic and toxigenic variability within Aspergillus flavus population isolated from maize in two diverse environments in Kenya." Frontiers in microbiology. 2018;9(Frontiers in microbiology):57.
Ogeng’o JA, Mwachaka PM, Odhiambo DE, Elbusaidy SSHR, Olabu B, Martin Inyimili. "Geometric Features of Vertebrobasilar Arterial System in Adult Black Kenyans." Int. J. Morphol. 2018;36(2):544-550. Abstract

SUMMARY: Geometric features of vertebrobasilar system influence occurrence of posterior circulation atherosclerosis,
aneurysms, stroke and neuroradiological procedures. These features show ethnic variation, but data from black Africans in Sub Saharan
Africa are scarce. This study aimed to describe geometric features of vertebrobasilar system in a black Kenyan population. It was a
descriptive cadaveric study at Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. One hundred and seventy three formalin-fixed
adult brains of individuals (99 male; 74 female; Age range 20 - 79) who had died of non cerebrovascular causes were studied. Level and
angle of confluence of vertebral artery; diameter, length and bifurcation angles of basilar artery were measured. Data were analysed by
SPSS version 21 for windows. The student t – test was used to determine the sex differences at 95 % confidence interval. Data are
presented in macrographs, tables and bar charts. Confluence of vertebral arteries occurred at the sulcus bulbopontinus in 79.8 %; rostral
to it in 11.5 % and caudal to it in 8.7 % of cases. Mean angle of vertebral artery confluence was 46.7º and 68.9º in males and females
respectively (p£0.042). Mean length of the basilar artery was 26.8 mm; 26.3 mm in males and 27.1 mm in females (p=0.465). Mean
diameter was 3.52 mm; 3.32 mm in males and 3.72 mm in females (p=0.002). The mean angle of basilar artery bifurcation was 120.3º ±
15.2; 99.3º ± 32.9 in males and 140.3º ± 16.1 in females (p=0.024). It was wider than 90º in 82.9 % of males and 95.9 % females
(p=0.032). In 85 (49.1 %) it was wider than 120º. The vertebrobasilar system in the Kenyan population has geometric features that
constitute risk factors for atherosclerosis. These features display sex dimorphism which may explain differences in prevalence of
atherosclerosis and aneurysms. Neurosurgeons and neurologists should be aware of these differences. Individuals with risk prone geometric
features should be followed up for atherosclerosis.

Kivisi Mbali, Mutembei Henry MJ. "Governance Aspects on Adoption of Biogas Technology in." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(3):81-86.mutembei-mbali-governance-2018.pdf
Gateri M.W., R. Nyankanga, Ambuko J, Muriuki AW. "Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. ." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science . 2018;23(32)( DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/42135):1-13.Growth, Yield and Quality of Onion (Allium cepa L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Time of Topdressing. .pdf
Okoth UA. "Head teacher characteristics that influence curriculum implementation . ." European Scientific Journal (ESJ). . 2018;14(19):75-89.
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, Mumenya SW, MUIA ML, Rajagopa P. Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound. IIT MADRAS, CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA; 2018.
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, Mumenya SW, MUIA ML, Rajagopa P. Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound. IIT MADRAS, CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA; 2018.
Kahiga RM. "Health, well-being and welfare in childhood in Kenya." Bloomsbury Education and Childhood Studies.. 2018.
Ogeng’o JA, Pulei AN, Olabu BO, Fidel O Gwala. "HIBISCUS EXTRACT MITIGATES SALT INDUCED CAROTID ADVENTITIAL CHANGES IN RATS." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2018;8(1):1342-1350. Abstract

The tunica adventitia is an active vascular compartment that actively participates in modulation of
vascular structure, function and pathophysiology. Adventitial thickness has recently been accepted as a
surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The effects of salt and chemicals that ameliorate those effects are
important in understanding vascular structure, function and pathology. There are few studies on
hibiscus and high salt induced vascular pathology. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of
hibiscus on salt induced vascular changes on rat carotid artery. The experimental animals were divided
into 3 groups of 8 animals each – (i) controls; (ii) high salt diet alone and (iii) high salt + hibiscus
extract for a period of eight weeks. At ages 2, 5 and 8weeks 2 – 3 animals were sacrificed for study.
They were anaesthetized with ether and perfused with formal saline. Specimens were then obtained
from the middle of common carotid artery, fixed in 5% formaldehyde solution, processed routinely for
paraffin embedding and 5-micron thick sections stained with Hematoxylin / Eosin and also with Mason’s
Trichome/ Aniline blue. Adventitial thickness and volumetric densities of collagen were measured using
morphometric techniques. High salt consumption induced statistically significant increase in adventitial
thickness from 297.45μm at week 2 to 659.4μm in week 8. In hibiscus fed rats, this increase
progressively reduced to 482.55μm in week 8. Volumetric density of collagen was 57% in high salt fed
rats but reduced to 45.66% in hibiscus fed rats (p<0.001). The increase in tunica adventitial thickness
and collagen density which is induced by high salt can be mitigated by hibiscus extract. This implies
that hibiscus has potential to restore salt induced vascular injury. Further studies are recommended to
refine the extract.

Mbuthia, GW; Olungah CO;, Ondicho, TG; Nyamogoba HN. "High level of delays in Tuberclosis diagnosis and the associated factors in a pastoralist community in West Pokot County, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(2):1203-1213.
Casmir EN, Ondicho TG, Ongolly FK. "HIV and AIDS in Kenya: Forty Years Later." Journal of African Interdisciplinary Studies (JAIS). 2018;2(5):91-100.hiv__aids_in_kenya_fourty_years_later.pdf
Ongeso A. "Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion in late pregnancy: Effects on pregnancy and childbirth in Kenya." International Journal of Social Science and Technology. 2018;3-3(ISSN: 2415-6566):10-16. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion in late pregnancy: Effects on pregnancy and childbirth in Kenya

Background: In Kenya, there is limited empirical data on effects of seroconversion in pregnancy and child birth due to low uptake of HIV retesting despite there being a policy directive to do so.
Objectives: To determine the effect of seroconversion in late pregnancy regarding pregnancy and childbirth among women seeking delivery services in Kakamega County Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital.
Methodology: A ten month quasi experimental longitudinal study design was employed whereby 1,156 respondents consecutively sampled.
Results: HIV seroconverters had a higher chance of developing premature rupture of membranes, hemorrhage and puerperal sepsis than HIV negative women. The incidence of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV among exposed newborns was 0.09%. There was a statistically significant relationship between PEP administration, infant morbidity and mortality.
Conclusion: HIV seroconversion was associated with complications during delivery. Recommendations: There’s need to intensify retesting in late pregnancy as well as skilled birth attendance among the women seroconverting in late pregnancy.

Ongeso A. "Human immunodeficiency Virus seroconversion: Rate and Retesting uptake. A case of Kakamega and Nairobi Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research. 2018;6:4(2320-5407):599-608. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency Virus seroconversion: Rate and Retesting uptake. A case of Kakamega and Nairobi Counties, Kenya
Background: There is limited empirical data on the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seroconversion in late pregnancy due to the fact that majority of the women start seeking antenatal care late in pregnancy therefore rarely retest. This leaves a gap in the Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission (eMTCT) strategy thus contributing to high maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates in Kenya.
Objectives: To establish the rate of HIV retesting uptake in late pregnancy and HIV seroconversion rate among women attending Antenatal Clinics in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kakamega County Hospital.
Methodology: A longitudinal study design was employed; 1,117 women confirmed as HIV negative in early pregnancy were followed up for three months and retested to ascertain their serostatus. Sample size was obtained through Census and consecutive sampling to recruit individual respondents. Clearance to conduct the study was sought from Ethics Review Committee, Pumwani and Kakamega County Hospitals and the respondents. Researcher administered questionnaires and HIV testing was done for data collection. Descriptive data involved calculation of measures of central tendency. Findings were presented in tables, graphs and narrative.
Results: HIV retesting uptake was 1,073 (96%) and the rate of HIV serocopositivity among initially HIV negative pregnant women that retested was 8 (0.75%).
Conclusion: HIV retesting uptake is very impressive and the rate of HIV seroconversion is very low. Kenya has made good progress towards eMTCT of HIV.

Bulinda DM. Human Resource Planning and organizational performance in Education. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
Kalambuka Angeyo H, KokonyaSichangi E, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A, Mangala M. "Hybridized robust chemometrics approach for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in tissue utilizing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Radiation Physics and Chemistry . 2018;153:198-207. Abstract

Direct rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) analysis of trace biometals in soft body tissues is important because it has an immense potential for biomedical applications. Unfortunately this is challenging because soft body tissues are characterized by dark matrix problems, weak analyte fluorescence, scattering, poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the analyte and spectral overlaps due to the properties of the detector and detection process. We report on hybridized utility of robust chemometrics approach for spectral preprocessing towards improving the quality of spectra towards quantitative analysis of trace biometals in soft body tissue. The study was based on (5–20 µm thick) paraffin wax model ‘standards’ spiked with biometals Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Na and Mg. Wavelet transform (WT) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used conjointly for de-noising and mathematical enhancement of resolution. There was improved SNR of spectra by a factor of 3 compared to use of WT alone. The preprocessed spectra were used as input to artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least squares (PLS) models for developing multivariate calibration strategies for quantitative analysis. Both models predicted the concentrations of the biometals better than when raw spectra were utilized (R2 ~ 0.892–0.954 before, and ~ 0.990–0.998 after preprocessing for ANNs; and R2 ~ 0.876–0.931 before, and ~ 0.977–0.992 after preprocessing for PLS). There was also improvement in prediction of Na and Mg in model tissue when both fluorescence and scatter were utilized conjointly (EDXRFS) i.e. R2 = 0.970 for fluorescence alone and R2 = 0.998 for both fluorescence and scatter for Na; and R2 = 0.934 for fluorescence alone and R2 = 0.993 for both fluorescence and scatter for Mg for ANN model. The accuracy of the calibration model was tested using Oyster tissue (NIST 1566b). The results of all analyzed elements were in agreement with certified values to ≤ 6%. This shows proof-of-concept for use of hybridized robust chemometrics approaches for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in soft tissue utilizing EDXRFS spectrometry; an approach that has potential for biomedical applications of EDXRF.

KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A, Mangala M. "Hybridized robust chemometrics approach for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in tissue utilizing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 2018;153:198-207.
Siderius C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Olago D, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." Earth's Future. 2018;6(1):2-22. Abstract

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

Olago D, Siderius C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." Earth's Future. 2018;6(1):2-22. AbstractFull Text

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

Awori MN. I AM-healing health and happiness. USA: Kindle direct publish; 2018.
Joag V, Obila O, Gajer P, Scott M, Dizzell S, Humphrys M, Shahabi K, Huibner S, Shannon B, Tharao W, MW MUREITHI, Julius Oyugi,, J.N Kiiru, et al. Impact of bacterial vaginosis treatment on ex vivo HIV susceptibility in the female genital tract.Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.; 2018.
Otieno G, Mutemi J, Opijah F, Ogallo L, Omondi H. "The Impact of Cumulus Parameterization on Rainfall Simulations over East Africa." Atmospheric and Climate Sciences. 2018;8(3):355. AbstractScientific Research Publishing Inc.

The study explored the ability of four cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs) from Weather and Research Forecasting model (WRF) to simulate mean rainfall patterns, number of rainy days (NRD) and vertically integrated moisture flux (VIMF) during the composite of wet years for the core rainfall seasons of March-April-May (MAM; 1989, 1998 and 2012) and Octo-ber-November-December (OND; 1997, 2006 and 2015) seasons. The CPSs used were Kain-Fritsch (KF), Kain-Fritsch with a moisture-advection based trigger function (KFT), Grell Dévényi (GRELL) and Betts Miller Janjic (BML). The simulations by the GRELL and KF schemes were clearly separated by the dry and wet rainfall gradient in the simulations. For example, the GRELL scheme rainfall simulations were drier over the eastern parts of the region bet-ter. The KF and KFT schemes generated wetter rainfall conditions mainly con-fined to the western parts of the region. The BML scheme simulations were not consistent with the observations. The western and eastern parts of the region were characterized by more and fewer NRD, in both the KF and GRELL schemes. The root mean square error (RMSE) and spatial correlation by KF scheme was 2 mm/day and 0.6. The GRELL scheme however simulated low correlation of 0.45 and RMSE of about 3.0 mm/day over most of the sub-domains. The moisture convergence biases were found to be larger conti-nentally and parts of the nearby Indian Ocean. The persisting rainfall biases constituting of too wet and dry conditions were associated with the KF and GRELL cumulus schemes. The findings from the current study are very funda-mental for the improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) tools and cumulus modification processes over the region. The accurate and higher skill rainfall forecasts would provide early warning information for disaster risk re-duction and the related risks on the livelihoods.

Wanjala. G, Mwashigadi L.J.. "Impact of Socio-Psychological Work Environment on Teachers’ Job Commitment in Public Primary Schools in Mwatate Sub-County, Kenya." In International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences . 2018;5(5):19-28.this__abstractijhsse.pdf
AC Guzha, Rufino MC, Okoth S, S Jacobs, Nóbrega RLB. "Impacts of land use and land cover change on surface runoff, discharge and low flows: Evidence from East Africa." Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies. 2018;15:49-67.
Matiang’i M, Kibwage I, Ngatia P, Omoni G, Kiarie J, Bosire K, Inyama H, Muiruri F. "Improving access to Higher education for front-line health professionals in Kenya through Blended eLearning ." African Journal of Midwifery and Women’s health. 2018;12(2).
Kinyanyi D, Obiero G, Amwayi P, Mwaniki S. "In silico structural and functional prediction of African swine fever virus protein-B263R reveals features of a TATA-binding protein." PeerJ Inc.. 2018;6(3):e4396. Abstract

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of ASF, a fatal hemorrhagic fever that affects domestic pigs. There is currently no vaccine against ASFV, making it a significant threat to the pork industry. The ASFV genome sequence has been published; however, about half of ASFV open reading frames have not been characterized in terms of their structure and function despite being essential for our understanding of ASFV pathogenicity. The present study reports the three-dimensional structure and function of uncharacterized protein, pB263R (NP_042780. 1), an open reading frame found in all ASFV strains. Sequence-based profiling and hidden Markov model search methods were used to identify remote pB263R homologs. Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement (I-TASSER) was used to model the three-dimensional structure of pB263R. The posterior probability of fold family assignment was calculated using TM-fold, and biological function was assigned using TM-site, RaptorXBinding, Gene Ontology, and TM-align. Our results suggests that pB263R has the features of a TATA-binding protein and is thus likely to be involved in viral gene transcription.

Omole RA, Malebo HM, Nondo RSO, Katani S, Mbugi H, Midiwo J, Moshi MJ. "In vivo Anti-plasmodial Activity of Crude Extracts of Three Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally for Malaria Treatment in Kenya." European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2018;24(4):1-7. Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of three plants Rhamnus prinoides, Rubus keniensis and Garcinia buchananii which are used for malaria treatment by indigenous communities in Kenya. This work was done at the Department of Biological and Preclinical studies, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health & Allied Sciences in October 2016 to August 2017. Male and female albino mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA) in the Peter’s four day suppression test. Five groups of mice; Group 1 (solvent: 5 mL/kg body weight of 1% carboxymethyl cellulose), Group 5 (10 mg/kg body weight chloroquine), Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of plant extracts. The results showed that 5% aqueous methanol extracts of R. prinoides, G. buchananii and R. keniensis exhibited higher anti-plasmodial activity than the 1:1 dichloromethane: methanol extracts in the preliminary testing. The doses showing 50% parasite suppression (EC50) were 139.2, 169.4 and 245.1 mg/kg body weight for R. prinoides, G. buchananii and R. keniensis, respectively. In vivo anti-plasmodial activity of the three plants has supported the traditional use of extracts of Rhamnus prinoides, Rubus keniensis and Garcinia buchananii for treatment of malaria. Isolation of compounds from these plants is in progress.

Udomkun P, Wossen T, Nabahungu NL, Mutegi C, Vanlauwe B, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay. "Incidence and farmers’ knowledge of aflatoxin contamination and control in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo." Food Science & Nutrition. 2018.
AJ O’o, Z Q, M O. "Infection in pregnancy; understanding impact on placental microenvironment and preterm birth: a review." JOGECA . 2018;29(1). Abstract

Background: Pregnancy increases susceptibility to and severity of infections caused by certain microbes and
parasites. The presence of these infectious agents at the maternofetal interface may lead to adverse pregnancy
outcomes including preterm birth either via direct action of the microbes or indirectly via alteration of the placental
microenvironment.
Objective: To summarize the literature regarding the role of various infectious agents in alteration of placental
microenvironment and predisposition to preterm birth.
Method: A review search using Google scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Trip database was conducted at the
University of California San Francisco. A total of 880 abstracts were reviewed and a total of 95 studies were included.
Studies were included if they reported any information on infection during pregnancy, effect on placenta or fetal
membranes or risk of preterm birth.
Results: The current evidence indicates that various infectious agents affect pregnancy and alter placental
microenvironment at the maternofetal interface. Severity of these infections increases with gestation. Additionally,
these infections are associated with the risk of adverse obstetric outcomes including preterm birth.
Conclusion: Prevention, early detection and treatment of these infections including those that are asymptomatic is
important in maintaining integrity of the placenta and in reducing the burden of preterm births.

Mutiso SK, Mulwa, J.K. "Influence of the Grade Achieved in Agriculture at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Examination on Performance in Farming in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development (IJIRD). 2018;Vol 7(Issue 7):412-442.
AWUOR OGACHOALEX, JOHN ONYATTA, Marina M, Domtau DL, OKOTH OBILAJORIM. "INFLUENCE OF ANNEALING TEMPERATURE ON SOME OPTICAL AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF Cu2ZnSnS4 DEPOSITED BY CZT CO-ELECTRODEPOSITION COUPLED WITH CHEMICAL BATH TECHNIQUE ." World Scientific. 2018;Volume 25(Issue 03).
Mbui JN, Wanjohi JM. "Influence of community participation on project performance of Ruiri water projects, Meru County, Kenya." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2018;3(2):331-344. Abstract

Description
Nearly 16% of the global population has no access to adequate, clean and safe water. Kenya, like numerous other Sub-Saharan African countries, is water scarce. Community water projects exists to supplement or complement government efforts to avail water to rural citizens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of community participation in the performance of community water projects in Ruiri Area, Meru County, Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to establish the influence of community participation in financial management, project governance, operations and maintenance and monitoring and evaluation on performance of Ruiri-Thau Water Project. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The target population was 413 respondents comprising 400 heads of household that were benefitting from Ruiri-Thau Water Project, 11 project committee members and two project donors (Catholic Diocese of Meru and Meru County Government). Proportionate stratified sampling was used to derive a sample of 211 respondents–196 household leaders, 11 project committee members and two donors. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire (for household heads and project committee members) and an interview schedule (for project donors). Data analysis and presentation was conducted using descriptive statistics with the help of IBM Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS), Version 20. The study established that community participation in financial planning had a moderate positive influence on project performance; community participation in project governance had a moderate positive influence on …

and Mbuva, P.M.; Rambo OCM; T. "Influence of Control Environment on Performance of SME Projects in Machakos County, Kenya. ." International of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(9).
Mulwa PK, Muriithi EM. "INFLUENCE OF FACEBOOK AS A PEDAGOGICAL INTERACTION TOOL ON LEARNING OUTCOME AMONG LEARNERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA." International Journal of Education and Research . 2018;6(4):19-30. Abstractinfluence_of_facebook_as_a_pedagogical_interaction_tool_on_learning_outcome_among_learners_in_secondary_schools_in_kenya.pdfInternational Journal of Education and Research

There is high infiltration of Online Social Networking Platforms in learning institutions in Kenya
yet there is dearth of information on how these platforms affect learning outcome. This paper was a
systematic desk literature review. The purpose was to establish how leveraging on pedagogical
interactions through Facebook affect learning outcome. The reviewers focused on the development
of Facebook, its use in education and how its pedagogical interactions affect learning outcome.
Articles published in high impact journals including “grey literature” were desk reviewed. The
review showed that Facebook has been used by learners mostly for social interactions and not for
pedagogical interactions and its use can boast learning outcome. The researcher recommends that
learners, teachers and policy makers should accept Facebook as a pedagogical interaction tool.
Keywords: Pedagogical interaction, Facebook, Learning outcome.

Mulwa PK, Muriithi EM. "INFLUENCE OF FACEBOOK AS A PEDAGOGICAL INTERACTION TOOL ON LEARNING OUTCOME AMONG LEARNERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA." International Journal of Education and Research. 2018;6(4):19-30. Abstractmulwa-muriithi_facebook.pdfInternational Journal of Education and Research

There is high infiltration of Online Social Networking Platforms in learning institutions in Kenya yet there is dearth of information on how these platforms affect learning outcome. This paper was a systematic desk literature review. The purpose was to establish how leveraging on pedagogical interactions through Facebook affect learning outcome. The reviewers focused on the development of Facebook, its use in education and how its pedagogical interactions affect learning outcome.Articles published in high impact journals including “grey literature” were desk reviewed. The review showed that Facebook has been used by learners mostly for social interactions and not for pedagogical interactions and its use can boast learning outcome. The researcher recommends that learners, teachers and policy makers should accept Facebook as a pedagogical interaction tool.

Otieno, M. D. NOAJV & W. "The influence of family on talent dentification for players in rugby clubs in Kenya. ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(9):99-109.
Kamau NP, M. DMM. "Influence of Managerial Skills on Growth of Projects in Kenya: A Case of Uwezo Funded Youth Projects in Thika Town." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications,. 2018;8(9):575-585.kamau_publication.pdf
Otieno, M. D. NOAJV & W. "Influence of peers on talent identification for players in rugby clubs in Kenya. ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10):52-62.
Ekabu, P.K. KNJM & G. "Influence of promotional prospects on turnover intention of public secondary school teachers in Meru County, Kenya ." European Scientific Journal European Scientific Journal. 2018;14(25):17-36.
Irungu JGRM & K. "Influence of Quality Service Delivery on Performance of Pharmaceutical Retail Businesses in Nairobi City County, Kenya." Kenya. International Journal of Social Science and Business . 2018;3(1).
Muriithi EM, Mulwa PK. "Influence of Teacher Characteristics in Use of Project Method in Teaching Physics in Kenyan Secondary Schools." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2018;7(3):129-134. Abstractinfluence_of_teacher_characteristics_in_use_of_project_method_in_teaching_physics_in_kenyan_secondary_schools.pdfInternational Journal of Innovative Research &amp;amp; Development

Physics is one of the science subjects offered in Kenyan secondary schools. Several methods are employed by the teachers in teaching physics. Project method has been cited as a key method because it is leaner-centered and very effective in enabling learners to acquire scientific knowledge and skills. The choice and use of project method is determined by several factors like nature of content to be learned, availability of teaching resources, time available for teaching, learner and teacher characteristics among others. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between teacher’s characteristics and the level of usage of project method in the teaching of physics. Stratified random sampling was used to select 84 teachers from the former eight provinces of the Republic of Kenya. Data relating to teacher characteristics and their level usage of project method was collected using a questionnaire. SPSS computer package was used to analyze the data. Level of usage of project method was determined by analyzing the mean score from the responses given by the teachers on the frequency of using the method. Hypotheses were tested at 95% level of confidence. Relationship between teacher characteristics and level of usage of project method was analyzed using Chi square. The key findings of the study were that teachers with pedagogical skills have high level of use of project method in teaching physics than those without, whereas age and gender did not influence level of use of the method. In view of the findings, the researcher recommends that physics be taught by qualified teachers with pedagogical skills and frequent in-servicing of physics teachers to be undertaken irrespective of their age and gender.

Muriithi EM, Mulwa PK. "Influence of teacher characteristics in use of project method in teaching physics in Kenyan secondary schools." International Journal of Innovative Research and development (IJIRD. 2018;7(3):129-134.
Riungu, W.K. BDM. "Influence of teaching and learning resources on enrolment of early childhood education in Imenti North Sub-county ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10):144-155.
Mbusa HK, Ngugi K, Olubayo FM, Kivuva BM, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "The Inheritance of Yield Components and Beta Carotene Content in Sweet Potato." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(2):71-81.
Gachara HN, Munjuri MG. "INNOVATION CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED BY SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(6):717-738.innovation_challenges.pdf
Wanjala. G, Mwashigadi L.J., MATULA P.D. "Institutional Factors Influencing Teachers’ Job Commitment in Public Primary Schools in Mwatate Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research . 2018;6(4):1-18 .abstarct1.pdf

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