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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. """Accounting Standards and the Kenya Institute o Certified Public Accountants." by J.D.Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This paper reviews briefly the status and development of Accounting Standards in several major countries of the world as background for standard .". In: The Accountant, Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya, (pages 16-19. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
O DROUTAGEORGE. ". .". In: Mid American Alliance for African Studies conference (MAAAS). Kansas State University, USA,; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "1. Naruse Kazuko, Tashiro Junko, Sankyo Yumi, Ichikawa Wakako, Karani Anna Stakeholders.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of National Nurses Association of Kenya on 5th - 7th October, 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College in Nyeri, Kenya. Blackwell Publishing Co.; Submitted. Abstract

After the World Health Assembly approved WHA 45.5 in 1992 addressing the nursing shortage by refocusing nurses and midwifes to meet community health needs, community demands for educated nurses and the needs of higher nursing education in developing countries increased.  Therefore in Kenyan a major university school of nursing initiated a collaborative study with a well established Japanese nursing college to determine the service-providers

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. ": PERCEPTION OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING (BScN) ON THEIR ROLE ON NURSING IN A HOSPITAL SETTING Prof. Anna K. Karani University of Nairobi, Stephen Kainga,(MScN) University of Nairobi Prof. Simon Kangethe Moi University. Diana Mwarania BScN (graduate.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal: Dec. KNJ Vol. 41(2) 23-33. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the clinical Competence of Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital in March 2011. The objective was to assess the perceptions of graduate nurses about the nursing profession and the implications on the development of BScN undergraduates from the University of Nairobi and other Universities with a view to improving their perception about the profession  through continuing education and curriculum review. It was a cross sectional study with a sample size of 50 nurses, total population selected on purpose. A supervised questionnaire and focus group discussion tools were used for data collection.  The findings indicated that majority of the Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates

K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Academia .". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vo. 19 No. 2 pp 30-34. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accountancy - The Making of Professional Accountants." Part II, by J.D. Newtron ad N.D. Nzomo. This article continues the analysis and discussions started in Part 1 above.It presents data on citizenship, age, education and projects into the future of the.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 24-25). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accountancy - The Making of Professional Accountants." Part II, by J.D. Newtron ad N.D. Nzomo. This article continues the analysis and discussions started in Part 1 above.It presents data on citizenship, age, education and projects into the future of the.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 24-25).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting for Harambee" This article presents the rationale for auditing harambee funds, discusses practical procedures for doing so and then calls for legislation to regulate authorization, safe custody, management and reporting as aspects of national .". In: Journal of the Accounting Students Association, Faculty of Commerce, University of Nairobi, pages 3 & 4. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting for Harambee" This article presents the rationale for auditing harambee funds, discusses practical procedures for doing so and then calls for legislation to regulate authorization, safe custody, management and reporting as aspects of national .". In: Journal of the Accounting Students Association, Faculty of Commerce, University of Nairobi, pages 3 & 4.; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting for Stock-Devidends" . This article discusses the theoretical inconsistencies in the Accounting treatment of stock dividends and the commensurate capitalization of Retained Earnings.". In: National Association of Black Accountants, USA Spectrum, Vol. 7, , New York, (pages 8-10). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting Versus Accountability." This article highlights the need for financial accountability in our economy. It cites the collapsing financial institutions and the costly mismanagement exposed by the likes of "the multi-billion Bura Irrigation Scheme.". In: Journal for the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 4-6). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting Versus Accountability." This article highlights the need for financial accountability in our economy. It cites the collapsing financial institutions and the costly mismanagement exposed by the likes of "the multi-billion Bura Irrigation Scheme.". In: Journal for the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 4-6).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Accumulation of DDT residues in aquarium fish, sediment, plant and water," Accepted, J. Environment International.". In: Submitted to Journal of Electrochimica Acta. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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Mwangi W.E., Mogoa E.M N-MJ, C.M. M. "Addition of xylazine in epidural ketamine anaesthesia causes cardiopulmonary depression but minimizes hematological changes in dogs." International journal of veterinary sciences. Submitted;5. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Adult Education and political culture, S.K. Akivaga.". In: East Afr. Medi. Journal. Elsevier; Submitted. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Algebra 1 and 11 (O.D.L Lecture Notes).". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""All Expenditures must be properly authorized." Continuing on the theme of planning and management control, this article delineates and discusses some of the most effective financial control mechanisms. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 9-10). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""All Expenditures must be properly authorized." Continuing on the theme of planning and management control, this article delineates and discusses some of the most effective financial control mechanisms. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 9-10).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

Aduda BOC, Egbe PDDDAM, Musembi RJ, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Kaduki KA, Simiyu J, Agacho A, Nyongesa F. "ANSOLE Mini-Symposium in Kenya (AMSK 2013).". Submitted. Abstract
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B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Antibodies in the serum of golden hamsters experimentally infected with the intestinal trematode Echinostoma caproni. J Helminthol. 1991 Dec;65(4):239-47. Erratum in: J Helminthol 1992 Mar;66(1):78.". In: J Helminthol. 1991 Dec;65(4):239-47. Erratum in: J Helminthol 1992 Mar;66(1):78. Taylor & Francis; Submitted. Abstract
The serum antibody response in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with the intestinal trematode Echinostoma caproni was examined with ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blot, and IFAT techniques. All methods showed that the hamsters responded slowly but developed a clear positive humoral response to the infection. In most hamsters, an antibody response to infection could not be detected earlier than 11-13 weeks after infection with 6 or 25 metacercariae, and responses were weak when compared to previous results from mice infected with the same parasite. IFAT with positive hamster sera on live juvenile E. caproni showed only fluorescence at the posterior tip, which is a different pattern from that seen using from infected mice, indicating a different response to antigens on the juvenile parasites by these two hosts. The results are discussed in relation to the limited selfcure and development of resistance which is observed in golden hamsters infected with E. caproni.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "The antihypertensive Effect of an extract from the Bark of Podocarpus Sp",.". In: Submitted, East Africa Medical Journal. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Jadini Beach Hotel, Mombasa. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "An Application of The Transportation Model: The case of Inter-factory Transfer of Bulk Whole Milk at The Kenya co-operative Creameries (KCC) Limited (MBA Research project paper of the University of Nairobi).". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "Astrophysics In The Quest for Renewable Source of Energy, Proceedings of The Third TWAS .". In: The Third TWAS . Heinrich Boll Foundation.; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Characterization of C_00 Contractions and their invariant subspaces, corrected manuscript re-submitted to Opuscula Mathematica, paper under review.". In: God Conference at Mara (Kenya). Proc. pp. 165-171 (New Era book). Opuscula Mathematica,; Submitted. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; Submitted. Abstract
Recent publications have demonstrated that the protease caspase-1 is responsible for the processing of pro-interleukin 18 (IL-18) into the active form. Studies on cell lines and murine macrophages have shown that the bacterial invasion factor SipB activates caspase-1, triggering cell death. Thus, we investigated the role of SipB in the activation and release of IL-18 in human alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens. Under steady-state conditions, AM are a more important source of IL-18 than are dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes. Cytokine production by AM and DC was compared after both types of cells had been infected with a virulent strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and an isogenic sipB mutant, which were used as an infection model. Infection with virulent Salmonella led to marked cell death with features of apoptosis while both intracellular activation and release of IL-18 were demonstrated. In contrast, the sipB mutant did not induce such cell death or the release of active IL-18. The specific caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK blocked the early IL-18 release in AM infected with the virulent strain. However, the type of Salmonella infection did not differentially regulate IL-18 gene expression. We concluded that the bacterial virulence factor SipB plays an essential posttranslational role in the intracellular activation of IL-18 and the release of the cytokine in human AM.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted.
Rylander F, Peng B, Wheeler J. "Bike Share Usage Prediction in London.". Submitted. Abstract
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Muchane M, Githiru M. "The birds of Gongoni Forest Reserve South Coast, Kenya." SCOPUS. Submitted:1. Abstract
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S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN, S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Bovill, E., Kungu, A., Bencivenga, A., Jeshirani, M.K., Mbindyo, B.S., Heda, P.M. Epidemiological study of osteogenic sarcoma variations in incidence between Ethnic groups and Geographical Regions 1966-1979.International Orthopaedics Sicot.". In: International Orthopaedics Sicot. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Bridging the Education-Community Divide: Analysis of Urban Planning Education and approaches in Kenya.". In: 5th Session of the World Urban Forum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
MURIGU D(MRS) JENNIFER. "BURYING AS AN INTERMENT METHOD AND ITS IMPACT ON LAND IN KENYAN URBAN AREAS.". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; Submitted.
BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Carboxamide protection of Glutamine and isoasparagine and synthesis of amino acids derivatives as intermediates in peptide synthesis'.". In: PhD Thesis. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; Submitted. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Challenges in Accessing HIV-related Healthcare in Resource Limited Communities: Lessons from HIV-infected Women in Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, 38(1) 24-31. Dr. Peninnah M. Kako,Univ.W1; Prof. Anna K. Karani,UoN & Prof. Patricia E. Stevens, Univ.W1; Submitted. Abstract

 Background: Increasing access to HIV-related health care is very important in access resource limited countries. In Kenya HIV prevalence increased in 2008 to 7.8 from 6.7 in 2003. Women are mostly affected with infection rates 2-3 times more than men. Challenges women face attempting to access HIV care is urgent.Purpose: Study sought to identify health needs of HIV infected women in Kenya grapple with.Method: Forty Urban (Nairobi) and rural (Eastern Province) infected women participated in the study. A cross sectional qualitative narrative study eilicited life stories of health needs. Unstructured in-depth interviews,tape recorded, transcribed and translated to English. Data analysis used N-vivo qualitative analysis soft ware. Multistage narrative analysis was used to explore emergent themes.Findings: Women of mean age 37 years and 3 years since diagnosis described prolonged illnesses sufferred by spouses, themselves and children burdened by inadequate HIV care.Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment Interventions are necessary for wellbeing and long life.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Challenges of camel production in Samburu District, Kenya.". In: Journal. Journal of Camelid Science 3 (2010) 01-05; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Challenges of camel production in Samburu District, Kenya.". In: Journal. Journal of Camelid Science 3 (2010) 01-05; Submitted.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Cities and Climate Change: Examination of City Planning Opportunities.". In: Sensitization Speech in Preparation for 2011 World Habitat Day in Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Clinical competence of Nursing Graduates in Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery and Womens.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. 1. Margaret Njambi Chege, Ephantus W. Kabiru, Anna Karani and Anseline Derese; Submitted. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Co-authored a chapter entitled 'Haematologic manifestations of HIV.' The chapter is contained in the handbook 'Clinical care in times of AIDS.' These are guidelines intended for health workers in rural district hospitals and health centres. The handbook, .". In: Book. Douglas McLean Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Kisumbi BK. COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES SCHOOL OF DENTAL SCIENCES. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; Submitted. Abstract
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EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Colonization and adaptation of predacious mites. Ph.D. Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, 134 pp.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; Submitted. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Community- And Road-Kill Rabies Surveillance In Kibwezi, Kenya.". In: Conference. Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association (JCVA); Submitted. Abstract
JG Kamau1, WO Ogara1, JJ McDermott2, PM Kitala*   1 Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 29053 00625, Nairobi, Kenya 2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), PO Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya * Corresponding Author   Summary   We investigate the possibility of cross-infection by rabies between domestic animals and wild mammalian carnivores at a wild-domestic animal interface. The area was known to have a domestic-dog rabies but the involvement of wildlife was unknown. Four sublocations within a transect of approximately 20 km along the Nairobi-Mombasa highway were selected as the study area. A total of 202 households within the area were randomly selected and visited to collect information on wildlife abundance and habits, and for wild-life-domestic dog interactions. Forty of the 202 households were randomly selected for wildlife trapping. An eight-month long community-and road-kill-based rabies surveillance was implemented in the 4 sublocations. The white-tailed mongoose (Ischeumia albicauda), the genet cat (Genetta genetta), the common mongoose (Herpestes spp), the civet cat (Viverra civetta) and the bush squirrel (Paraxerus spp), were identified as the most prevalent species of wildlife in the area. Seventy-one percent (143/202) of the households reported having heard or witnessed their dogs fighting with unspecified wild animal species. White-tailed mongooses (11) and genet cats (11) were the species of wild carnivores trapped within the precincts of the households. The domestic dog accounted for 91% (20/22) of the rabies positive animal brain specimens collected in the community-based rabies surveillance. Only 6.2% (5/81) of the specimens from road-kills were positive for rabies including a domestic cat, a goat, a common mongoose (Herpestes spp), a genet cat, and an unidentified wildlife species.   This study has revealed that small wild carnivores are frequent in Kibwezi and interact with dogs. Dogs are currently the main species for transmission of rabies but there is some rabies in wildlife. The potential for wildlife to act as a reservoir for rabies as in other areas where dog rabies has been controlled needs further investigation.   Keywords: Rabies; Surveillance; Community-based; road-kills; Kenya  
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Community- And Road-Kill Rabies Surveillance In Kibwezi, Kenya.". In: Conference. Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association (JCVA); Submitted. Abstract
JG Kamau1, WO Ogara1, JJ McDermott2, PM Kitala*   1 Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 29053 00625, Nairobi, Kenya 2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), PO Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya * Corresponding Author   Summary   We investigate the possibility of cross-infection by rabies between domestic animals and wild mammalian carnivores at a wild-domestic animal interface. The area was known to have a domestic-dog rabies but the involvement of wildlife was unknown. Four sublocations within a transect of approximately 20 km along the Nairobi-Mombasa highway were selected as the study area. A total of 202 households within the area were randomly selected and visited to collect information on wildlife abundance and habits, and for wild-life-domestic dog interactions. Forty of the 202 households were randomly selected for wildlife trapping. An eight-month long community-and road-kill-based rabies surveillance was implemented in the 4 sublocations. The white-tailed mongoose (Ischeumia albicauda), the genet cat (Genetta genetta), the common mongoose (Herpestes spp), the civet cat (Viverra civetta) and the bush squirrel (Paraxerus spp), were identified as the most prevalent species of wildlife in the area. Seventy-one percent (143/202) of the households reported having heard or witnessed their dogs fighting with unspecified wild animal species. White-tailed mongooses (11) and genet cats (11) were the species of wild carnivores trapped within the precincts of the households. The domestic dog accounted for 91% (20/22) of the rabies positive animal brain specimens collected in the community-based rabies surveillance. Only 6.2% (5/81) of the specimens from road-kills were positive for rabies including a domestic cat, a goat, a common mongoose (Herpestes spp), a genet cat, and an unidentified wildlife species.   This study has revealed that small wild carnivores are frequent in Kibwezi and interact with dogs. Dogs are currently the main species for transmission of rabies but there is some rabies in wildlife. The potential for wildlife to act as a reservoir for rabies as in other areas where dog rabies has been controlled needs further investigation.   Keywords: Rabies; Surveillance; Community-based; road-kills; Kenya  
BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "A comparative study of the preparations of p-nitrophenyl and Nhydroxysuccinamide tert-butyloxycarbonyl amino acids esters, and synthesis of carbonxamide protected isoasparagine and Glutamine derivatives.". In: M.Sc Thesis. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; Submitted. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
O. DRABUNGUCORNELIO. "A computer program for self‑analyzing students evaluation data by the individual faculty.". In: Now available at RSCC library]. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; Submitted. Abstract
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WANJIRA DRNJUGUNAPAMELA. "Computerized tomography scan of the brain in a community study of neurological impairment in Kenya. Njuguna PW, Mungala-Odera V, Chong WK, Meehan RA, Newton CR. J Child Neurol. 2007 Jan;22(1):26-32.". In: J Child Neurol. 2007 Jan;22(1):26-32. East African Medical Journal; Submitted. Abstract
Neurological impairment is common in resource-poor countries, but its causes are not clear. Computerized tomography (CT) of the brain has been used to determine the cause of brain insults that may manifest as neurological impairments. The authors conducted a community survey in Kilifi of 10 218 children aged 6 to 9 years to detect neurological impairment. From this survey, 34 children were identified, of whom 16 had motor deficits, 11 complex partial seizures, 4 microcephaly or macrocephaly, and 3 severe developmental delay. These children were assessed with elicitation of history, physical examination, and CT scan of the brain. Sixteen (47%) of the scans showed abnormalities: cerebral atrophy (n = 9), schizencephaly (n = 3), periventricular leukomalacia (n = 2), porencephalic cyst (n = 1), and agenesis of the corpus callosum (n = 1). The minimum prevalence of abnormalities on the CT scan of the brain is 1.56 of 1000, and the prevalence of schizencephaly is 0.29 of 1000. Motor impairments were more likely to show abnormality than the other indications. CT abnormalities are common in children with neurological impairment in Kenya, but the appearances did not identify a major cause.
Owiti O, okello(eds) J. "Consumer Protection in Kenya Theory, Law and Practice." Implementation in Kenya of the United Nations Guidelines for Consumer protection; Submitted. Abstract
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S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Contribution to books on Primary Traumatology Parts i and ii. Published by Kenya/German project for District Hospital, surgery.". In: Published by Kenya/German project for District Hospital, surgery. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Coordination chemistry ( Module II book for open distance learning).". In: (Director, Centre for Open &Distance Learning, University of Nairobi). UoN; Submitted. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Current-Fixed Assets versus Monetary-Non-monetary Classification." This article discusses the "Balance Sheet" as one of the statements that facilitate the discharge of accountability by management. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management,(pages 23-24). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
Mwangi E, Gatari M. "Curriculum Development of a Nuclear Engineering Course for Human Resources Enhancement in the Kenya Nuclear Energy Program." kns.org. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

In order to increase generation capacity from reliable sources, Kenya has proposed to install a low-end nuclear power plant to supplement the envisaged short fall. At the moment, most of the power is generated from hydro and geothermal sources. Although an expansion of …

OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "DDT Persistence in a Tropical Climate.". In: Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. Series (A), (1984) 5, 31-44. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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O. DRABUNGUCORNELIO. "A Delphi Study to Determine Factors which Contribute to Success in Administration of AA High Schools in Texas".". In: Doctoral dissertation]. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; Submitted. Abstract
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ABDULHALIM DRHUSSEIN. "DESCRIPTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ORAL HEALTH STATUS OF CHILDREN WITH CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN NAIROBI ( A MASTERS THESIS).". In: A MASTERS THESIS. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
No abstracts available
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu community group ranches in Kenya.". In: Journal. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology; Submitted. Abstract

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William O. Ogara1, Nduhiu J. Gitahi1, Samuel A. Andanje2 , Nicholas Oguge3, Dorcas W. Nduati1 and Alfred O. Mainga1

1Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya

2Kenya Wildlife services, Nairobi, Kenya

3Earthwatch Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

This study determined the prey base for four main carnivores found in Samburu Community group ranches and grazing area, Lion (Panthera leo), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, and Hyaena hyaena). A total of 96 scat samples including, 8 from Lion, 16 Leopards', 2 Wild dogs', and 70 Hyaenas' were collected, identified and microscopically analyzed for prey hair characterisation. At least 50 different hairs from every scat sample were mounted on slides and microscopically characterized using details from reference hairs. Hairs from 18 depredated species both domestic and wild ungulates were recovered from the scat samples. Predated species were identified, as either domestic (Cow, Sheep, Goat, Donkey, and Camel) or wild ungulate prey (Grant's gazelle, plain zebra, Grevy's Zebra, Impala, Waterbuck, Dikdik, Eland, lesser Kudu, greater Kudu, Baboon, rock Hyraxes, Elephant and Oryx). The carnivores showed a relatively high kill of wild ungulate prey compared to domestic prey. Camel was the most preferred cow and donkey respectively. Grevy's zebra contributed highest to the lion's diet while the Plain zebra was most preferred by the leopard. Both the hyaena and Wild dog had a preference for the waterbuck. The Hyaena had the highest domestic depredation, while all the other big cats depredated more on wild ungulates.

Key words: Scat, group ranch, domestic, wild ungulate, prey, depredation.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu community group ranches in Kenya.". In: Journal. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology; Submitted. Abstract

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William O. Ogara1, Nduhiu J. Gitahi1, Samuel A. Andanje2 , Nicholas Oguge3, Dorcas W. Nduati1 and Alfred O. Mainga1

1Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya

2Kenya Wildlife services, Nairobi, Kenya

3Earthwatch Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

This study determined the prey base for four main carnivores found in Samburu Community group ranches and grazing area, Lion (Panthera leo), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, and Hyaena hyaena). A total of 96 scat samples including, 8 from Lion, 16 Leopards', 2 Wild dogs', and 70 Hyaenas' were collected, identified and microscopically analyzed for prey hair characterisation. At least 50 different hairs from every scat sample were mounted on slides and microscopically characterized using details from reference hairs. Hairs from 18 depredated species both domestic and wild ungulates were recovered from the scat samples. Predated species were identified, as either domestic (Cow, Sheep, Goat, Donkey, and Camel) or wild ungulate prey (Grant's gazelle, plain zebra, Grevy's Zebra, Impala, Waterbuck, Dikdik, Eland, lesser Kudu, greater Kudu, Baboon, rock Hyraxes, Elephant and Oryx). The carnivores showed a relatively high kill of wild ungulate prey compared to domestic prey. Camel was the most preferred cow and donkey respectively. Grevy's zebra contributed highest to the lion's diet while the Plain zebra was most preferred by the leopard. Both the hyaena and Wild dog had a preference for the waterbuck. The Hyaena had the highest domestic depredation, while all the other big cats depredated more on wild ungulates.

Key words: Scat, group ranch, domestic, wild ungulate, prey, depredation.

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Determination of Trace Elements in Medicinal Plants and Herbal Medicines. J. Phytochemistry, Submitted.". In: Electroanal. Chem., 17, 1984, 265. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. ""Dipole Moments of Halogenogermanes from Non-Resonant Absorption of Vapours.". In: Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 11, 70 719 (1974. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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ONDEKO DRNYONJERAPHAEL. "DR. NYONJE RAPHAEL ONDEKO, EVALUATION OF THE KENYA EDUCATION STAFF INSTITUTE.". In: THE ICEMSSP PROGRAMME. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; Submitted.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "e-learning module II contents for 'Coordination Chemistry'.". In: A 3rd year BED Science course material. UoN; Submitted. Abstract
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Muasya MK, Opinya GN, Masiga MA. "Ectodental Dysplasia.". Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Effects of Chemical Events on Environment in Africa.". In: Pontifical Academy of Science's Study Week on "Chemical Events in the Atmosphere and Their Impact", November 1983, P.649-673. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Electric Dipole Moments of Monohalogen Derivatives of German.". In: Letters. 7, 71 (1971). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Electrocatalytic decomposition of organohalides in microemulsion,".". In: Submitted to Journal of Electrochimica Acta. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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NYAMBANE MN, GATARI MJ, Githiri JG,... "Energy and Exergy Analysis Concepts: Modelling of Olkaria II Geothermal Power Plant in Kenya." promitheasnet.kepa.uoa.gr. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Condensers of geothermal power plants need to operate at low pressures to ensure optimal use of energy resources. To optimize the steam condensation process cooling water temperature is varied to determine the value that gives a higher condenser efficiency …

DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Enviromental Risk Assesment of Genetically Modified Organisms.Vol. 2. Methodologies for Assesing Bt.Cotton in Brazil .. CAB International, Wallingford , UK .". In: Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew , England. El-Banhawy, E. M.; Submitted. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Maina DM, Gatari MM, Bartilol SK, Nguli MK. "ESSENTIAL TRACE METALS IN SELECTED MAIZE FLOUR BRANDS CONSUMED IN NAIROBI, KENYA: APPLICATION OF TXRF." imeko.org. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Human beings obtain their essential trace metals form their diets. The objective of this study was to determine the Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentration levels in maize flour and based on the results estimate the daily intake of these essential metals through consumption of Ugali; …

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